Posted: November 25th, 2022

Website Critique AnalysisNWO

Carefully read the instructions and answer it by following the instructions NO MISTAKE, please 

Website Critique Analysis Directions

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This is a short assignment designed to help make you aware of the difference between credible nutrition information and misinformation.

There is a highlight at the end of Chapter 1 of your text that discusses credible website criteria. The highlight is titled ‘Nutrition Information and Misinformation’.

Reading this highlight will help you answer the questions for the project.

The paper should be written in numbered format as listed

***Go to the Website

www.nutrition.gov

1. Name the organization is associated with the website.

2. Give a short description of the nutrition information provided in the website. 1-2 Sentences.

3. According to the highlight in chapter 1, is this information accurate and credible? Explain why/why not in 1-2 sentences.

***Go to the Website

www.Self.com

4. Name the organization is associated with the website.

5. Give a short description of the nutrition information provided in the website. 1-2 Sentences.

6. According to the highlight in chapter 1, is this information accurate and credible? Explain why/why not in 1-2 sentences.

Submission:

Submit a 12 font type written sheet containing the above listed information.

The paper should be written in numbered format, such as:

1. Your answer

2. Your answer

3. Your answer

Etc.

Etc.

Spacing may be single, double, or a combination of both, use your best judgment for readability.

This project should be NO MORE than one page of information. This assignment must be uploaded to the instructor by clicking on “Website Critique Analysis” icon at the top of the folder, and following the prompts. The assignment is due within the posted week, in accordance with the course calendar.

Grading:

The project is worth 25 points

Questions 1and 4 (2 pts each)……………………………………..4pts

Questions 2,3,5,6 (4pts each)…………………………………….16pts

Paper meets submission criteria, 12pt font, number format,

one page, overall neatness…………………….……………………3pts

No typographical/grammatical errors……………………………..2pts

Hewlings/Medeiros
Nutrition: Real People, Real Choices 1e
© 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 All Rights Reserved.
1.*
Chapter 1
The Food on Your Plate
Hewlings/Medeiros
PowerPoint presentation created by
Susan J. Hewlings, PhD, RD
© 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 All Rights Reserved.

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Hewlings/Medeiros
Nutrition: Real People, Real Choices 1e
© 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 All Rights Reserved.
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What is nutrition science?
A young science
Integration of several sciences

© 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 All Rights Reserved.

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This slide portrays what Nutrition Science is and therefore why we study it. The Venn diagram illustrates the integrated nature of nutrition science and its inherent usefulness. Emphasizing that nutrition utilizes established modern sciences lends the young science relevance beyond just cooking and recipes. Thus, practicing nutrition is a cultural act, an agricultural act, and an emotional act.

Hewlings/Medeiros
Nutrition: Real People, Real Choices 1e
© 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 All Rights Reserved.
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Why study nutrition?
Evolved from discoveries of disease treatment
Not just to treat deficiencies anymore
Prevent and treat disease
Age of lifestyle diseases
Part of overall wellness

© 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 All Rights Reserved.

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This slide concentrates on the evolution of nutrition. The instructor should discuss the development of nutrition science from a study of deficiencies to one of disease prevention. The instructor may also introduce nutrition’s role in health and wellness here.

Hewlings/Medeiros
Nutrition: Real People, Real Choices 1e
© 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 All Rights Reserved.
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How do we define nutrition?
Nutrients
Essential
Non-essential

© 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 All Rights Reserved.

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This slide can be used to begin a dialogue/discussion on how to define nutrition.

Hewlings/Medeiros
Nutrition: Real People, Real Choices 1e
© 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 All Rights Reserved.
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Nutrient Classes
Substances that provide energy
Carbohydrates provide energy
Lipids or fats provide energy, store energy
Proteins promote growth and maintenance
Alcohol provides energy, little nutrient value

Nutrients that support metabolism
Vitamins biochemical reactions
Minerals biochemical reactions, structural
Phytochemicals antioxidants, numerous other functions
Water temperature regulation, lubrication

© 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 All Rights Reserved.

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This classification of nutrients divides them by purpose: those that provide energy and those that do not. Here the instructor has the opportunity to dispel the common misconception that vitamins provide energy. Likewise, highlighting the debate around alcohol’s status as a nutrient provides an interesting example.

Hewlings/Medeiros
Nutrition: Real People, Real Choices 1e
© 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 All Rights Reserved.
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Energy Nutrients
Carbohydrates – 4 kcal/g
Protein – 4 kcal/g
Fats – 9 kcal/g
Alcohol – 7 kcal/g

© 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 All Rights Reserved.

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This slide provides the calorie content of the energy-yielding nutrients. It may be helpful to define a calorie here and discuss the difference between kilocalories and calories. It is important to point out that these units of measurement are rounded numbers and why this is relevant. Briefly discuss food labels as an illustrative example. While discussing food labels, point out that fat contains more than twice the calories per gram than do carbohydrates or proteins. Also, the instructor may want to touch upon the concept of volume eating here.

Hewlings/Medeiros
Nutrition: Real People, Real Choices 1e
© 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 All Rights Reserved.
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Calculating Energy Distribution
If a meal has 700 calories and is 50% carbohydrates, 30% fat, and 20% protein, how many grams of each macronutrient does it contain?
© 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 All Rights Reserved.

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This slide helps to demonstrate the relevance of calculating the number of calories in each gram of nutrients. Some students find this calculation difficult. It often helps to bring in some labels and have the students perform a few calculations. Calculating the problem in reverse also helps. In other words, begin with the total grams of each nutrient: 12 g of fat, 10 g of protein, and 40 g of carbohydrates. How many calories do you have?

Hewlings/Medeiros
Nutrition: Real People, Real Choices 1e
© 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 All Rights Reserved.
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The Micronutrients
Vitamins
Fat soluble
Water soluble
Minerals
Macro
Micro

© 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 All Rights Reserved.

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Micronutrients are classified as either vitamins or minerals. Briefly summarize how micronutrients support metabolism, growth, structure, etc.

Hewlings/Medeiros
Nutrition: Real People, Real Choices 1e
© 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 All Rights Reserved.
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Fat-Soluble Vitamins
Vitamin A
Vitamin D
Vitamin E
Vitamin K

© 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 All Rights Reserved.

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Fat-soluble vitamins are insoluble in water. Explain why these vitamins require fat for absorption. Furthermore, clarify that because fat-soluble vitamins are deposited in the body they have a higher chance of becoming toxic than do water-soluble vitamins.

Hewlings/Medeiros
Nutrition: Real People, Real Choices 1e
© 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 All Rights Reserved.
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Water-Soluble Vitamins
Thiamin or vitamin B1
Riboflavin or vitamin B2
Niacin or vitamin B3
Pyridoxal or vitamin B6
Vitamin B12
Folic acid
Pantothenic acid
Biotin
Vitamin C

© 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 All Rights Reserved.

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Water-soluble vitamins stand less of a chance of becoming toxic than fat-soluble vitamins, but in large enough amounts those odds increase. Therefore, water-soluble vitamins need to be replenished almost daily, as deficiencies can develop rapidly.

Hewlings/Medeiros
Nutrition: Real People, Real Choices 1e
© 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 All Rights Reserved.
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Minerals
Macrominerals: Those required by the body in 100 mg to gram amounts daily
Microminerals: Those required in less than 100 mg amounts down to microgram amounts

© 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 All Rights Reserved.

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Minerals fall into two categories: macrominerals and microminerals.

Hewlings/Medeiros
Nutrition: Real People, Real Choices 1e
© 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 All Rights Reserved.
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Macrominerals
Electrolytes
Sodium
Potassium
Chloride
Calcium
Phosphorus
Magnesium
Sulfur

© 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 All Rights Reserved.

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Hewlings/Medeiros
Nutrition: Real People, Real Choices 1e
© 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 All Rights Reserved.
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Micro or Trace Minerals
Iron
Zinc
Copper
Iodine
Selenium
Manganese

• Molybdenum
Chromium
Vanadium
Boron
Nickel
*Many of these minerals act as regulators of metabolism.
© 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 All Rights Reserved.

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Hewlings/Medeiros
Nutrition: Real People, Real Choices 1e
© 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 All Rights Reserved.
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Water and Alcohol
Water
70-80 percent of body
Alcohol
Provides 7 kcal/g
Not a nutrient

© 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 All Rights Reserved.

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Discuss the importance of water in maintaining health and the fact that even small levels of dehydration have a negative impact. Alcohol is listed here because it provides calories, but its relationship to nutrients stops there. It actually “costs” nutrients to metabolize alcohol and requires water.

Hewlings/Medeiros
Nutrition: Real People, Real Choices 1e
© 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 All Rights Reserved.
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Phytochemicals
Compounds that have powerful health benefits
Combat heart disease, cancer, diabetes, and other serious degenerative diseases
More than 100 plant chemicals have been identified that possibly have a function in promoting health.

© 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 All Rights Reserved.

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Although not officially nutrients, phytochemicals are chemical compounds in foods that play an important part in health. These chemicals help prevent many diseases like heart disease and cancer.

Hewlings/Medeiros
Nutrition: Real People, Real Choices 1e
© 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 All Rights Reserved.
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Why We Choose Certain Foods
Factors Affecting Food Selection

Environment
Culture
Likes and dislikes
Family
Finances
Convenience
Media
Age
Health issues

© 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 All Rights Reserved.

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Ask students what they ate for their last meal and to write it down. Then ask them to explain why they ate what they did. A discussion of why people make certain food choices should follow.
Many students will mention finances, which allows the instructor to segue into a discussion about how reasons for food choices change throughout the lifecycle and across socioeconomic status. This dialogue will demonstrate to students why people struggle to make changes in their diet. They will find that these choices are about more than what is healthy. Also, discuss the relationship between religion and diet. Ask students if they ever choose what they eat based on their religious or spiritual beliefs, or if they know someone who does.

The obesity epidemic
An expensive consequence
Hewlings/Medeiros
Nutrition: Real People, Real Choices 1e
© 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 All Rights Reserved.
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How do the food choices we make influence our health?
© 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 All Rights Reserved.

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Launch a discussion on how the food choices we make influence our health. There is no better example than the correlation between the growing obesity rate and increasing portion sizes. The idea that you save money by purchasing the larger “value” size is a myth, especially when one considers the costs of being overweight both personally and culturally. Some estimate that the obesity epidemic costs our nation $117 billion annually, which is no value.

Hewlings/Medeiros
Nutrition: Real People, Real Choices 1e
© 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 All Rights Reserved.
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The American Diet

16% kcal from protein, 50% carbs, 33% fats
2/3 of protein from animal sources
50% carbs from simple sugars
60% fat from saturated fat
We meet most of our nutrient needs BUT need to choose more foods rich in iron, calcium, vitamin A, vitamin B, zinc, fiber, and vitamin C.
Less: Total energy, saturated fat, alcohol, sodium

© 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 All Rights Reserved.

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The recognition of the link between diet and disease has led to numerous large-scale studies that assess the dietary intake of populations. These studies are used to compare what Americans eat now to what we did in the past (the data collection began in the 1960s), and then compares the results with those from other cultures.
Twenty-five years ago Americans obtained 12 percent of their calories from protein, 40 percent from fat, and 48 percent from carbohydrates. They ate twice the saturated and polyunsaturated fat, more simple sugars, and had a low fiber intake. Since then, recommendations have been put forth to change poor nutrition in America. As a society Americans have met many of their goals. They eat less saturated fat and more fiber. Yet Americans are more obese than ever.
What happened? What do you think? (Pose the question to students for critical thinking.) Consider portion sizes (i.e., more calories combined with less activity). Consider the ubiquitous aspect of fast food, saturation advertising of food, and growth in the number of hours spent watching television and on the computer.

Hewlings/Medeiros
Nutrition: Real People, Real Choices 1e
© 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 All Rights Reserved.
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How do we know this?
From large surveys
Continuing Survey of Food Intake of Individuals (CSFII) USDA
National Health and Nutrition Exam Survey (NHANES) USDHHS
Examination of health status of Americans as related to nutrient intake

© 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 All Rights Reserved.

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This is a continuation of the previous slide. It offers an explanation on where nutritionists obtain the information used to create their analysis.

Hewlings/Medeiros
Nutrition: Real People, Real Choices 1e
© 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 All Rights Reserved.
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Where do you get your
nutrition information?
OR
© 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 All Rights Reserved.

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Ask students where they get their nutrition information. Ask how many rely on popular magazines. Discuss the difference between peer-reviewed journals and magazines. Ask them why they think there are so many nutrition myths out there. Ask why they consider magazines to be less reliable than journals. Discuss what a primary research article is.

Hewlings/Medeiros
Nutrition: Real People, Real Choices 1e
© 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 All Rights Reserved.
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Nutrition: A Young Science
Epidemiology
Study of how disease rates vary among different populations
Serves to suggest hypotheses about the role of diet in various health problems
Then uses controlled experiments for particular components
Animal Studies
Human S tudies
Double blind
Peer review
Follow up

© 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 All Rights Reserved.

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An overview of the progression of nutrition science studies. It explains that many concepts, such as a diet high in saturated fat increases risk of heart disease, are first observed in large epidemiology studies. Discuss the different types of nutrition-related research. Connect this discussion with the beginning of the lecture where the crossover was first mentioned.

Hewlings/Medeiros
Nutrition: Real People, Real Choices 1e
© 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 All Rights Reserved.
1.*
Reliable Nutrition Information
PhD Nutrition or RD
Peer-reviewed journals
Well-controlled studies
No magic claims
Stick with websites of well-known health organizations

BEWARE OF:
Testimonials
Strange procedures (hair analysis; blood type)
Quick fixes

© 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 All Rights Reserved.

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This slide provides some tips on how to determine if students are reading reliable information. Discuss the difference between an RD and a “nutritionist.” It may be helpful to mention laws related to providing nutrition advice in your state.

Nutrition education
Government’s role
Healthy People 2010
Hewlings/Medeiros
Nutrition: Real People, Real Choices 1e
© 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 All Rights Reserved.
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What to do about it?
© 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 All Rights Reserved.

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What to do about it? Ask students for their input here. Many have very strong opinions about the obesity epidemic and this is a place to engage them. After that, discuss what the United States and some local governments are attempting to do about it.

Hewlings/Medeiros
Nutrition: Real People, Real Choices 1e
© 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 All Rights Reserved.
2.*
Chapter 2
Think Before You Eat:
Developing a Nutrition Plan for Health
Hewlings/Medeiros
PowerPoint presentation created by
Susan J. Hewlings, PhD, RD
© 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 All Rights Reserved.

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Hewlings/Medeiros
Nutrition: Real People, Real Choices 1e
© 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 All Rights Reserved.
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Tips for a Healthy Diet
THINK BEFORE YOU EAT!
NO SUCH THING AS GOOD OR BAD FOODS!
NO NEED TO OMIT FOODS!
ALL FOODS CAN FIT!

© 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 All Rights Reserved.

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This chapter is about how to make healthy choices. It is about developing an eating plan for good health. The very first step in doing that is to think before you eat. This book provides students with information to make informed decisions. Other key points include not labeling foods as good or bad; all foods can fit. As soon as people label foods as good or bad, they inevitably label themselves. Ask the class how many of them have ever said “I was so bad today, I ate a Big Mac” (or whatever). There should be no guilt, only “reasonable pleasure” when it comes to food.

Hewlings/Medeiros
Nutrition: Real People, Real Choices 1e
© 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 All Rights Reserved.
2.*
What Is a Healthy Diet?
To “consume a variety of foods
balanced by a moderate
intake of each food”
© 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 All Rights Reserved.

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Before we can make healthy food choices, we have to know what a healthy diet is. A good beginning is to make a summary statement such as the one above.

Hewlings/Medeiros
Nutrition: Real People, Real Choices 1e
© 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 All Rights Reserved.
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Variety – Choose different foods
Balance – Select foods from the major food groups
Moderation – Plan your intake; control portion size
Variety, Balance and Moderation
© 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 All Rights Reserved.

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This slide further defines the concepts of variety, balance, and moderation.

Hewlings/Medeiros
Nutrition: Real People, Real Choices 1e
© 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 All Rights Reserved.
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All Foods Are Not
Created Equal

Nutrient density
Empty calories
Energy density

© 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 All Rights Reserved.

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Another rule to remember when considering the concepts of balance, variety, and moderation is that not all foods are created equally. Some foods are more nutrient dense than others. Some are more energy dense. Energy-dense foods are those that contain many calories in a small amount of food. Consider the 200 calories in two tablespoons of peanut butter. Then picture what 200 calories of popcorn would look like. After comparing the two, we see that peanut butter is more energy dense than the popcorn.

Hewlings/Medeiros
Nutrition: Real People, Real Choices 1e
© 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 All Rights Reserved.
2.*
Nutrient Dense
Empty Calories
© 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 All Rights Reserved.

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This slide demonstrates the difference between nutrient-dense calories and empty calories. One might think that 200 calories of Skittles and 200 calories of vegetables are equal in value because they have the same amount of calories. So why not eat the Skittles? The vegetables are preferable to the Skittles because the vegetables are nutrient dense. You get lots of nutrients for your 200 calories. The Skittles, on the other hand, have 200 empty calories with almost no nutritional value.

Hewlings/Medeiros
Nutrition: Real People, Real Choices 1e
© 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 All Rights Reserved.
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Tools and Guidelines for Planning Healthy Diets

The Dietary Guidelines
DRI
EER
AMDR
MyPlate

© 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 All Rights Reserved.

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Now that you have a basic understanding of what a healthy diet means, how do you go about developing a plan of action? The U.S. government supplies several general dietary guidelines that will help you get started. These guidelines incorporate the concepts of balance, moderation, and variety. The guidelines are listed here and the following slides explain each of them.

Hewlings/Medeiros
Nutrition: Real People, Real Choices 1e
© 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 All Rights Reserved.
2.*
What Are the Dietary Guidelines?

Science-based advice for ages 2+
Promote health, prevent chronic disease
Federal nutrition policy/programs
HHS/USDA – Legislated every 5 years
Can be adapted for special populations
The DASH Eating Plan for hypertension

© 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 All Rights Reserved.

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• The Dietary Guidelines are science-based advice for Americans two years of age and older.
• The sixth edition of Dietary Guidelines for Americans was released in 2010
• The Guidelines must be issued at least every 5 years by law (Public Law 101-445, Title III, 7 U.S. Code 301).
• The Guidelines are a government vehicle that allows for a single public voice.
• The Guidelines are essentially dietary guidance issued by the federal government. They were reviewed and approved by the Secretaries of Agriculture and Health and Human Services.

Healthy People 2020
Identifies the most significant preventable threats to health and establishes goals to reduce these threats.
What do you think these threats are?
Hewlings/Medeiros
Nutrition: Real People, Real Choices 1e
© 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 All Rights Reserved.
2.*
© 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 All Rights Reserved.

This is a great place to get students discussing health threats in the US and how nutrition fits into the overall efforts to prevent chronic diseases. Use this link http://www.healthypeople.gov/hp2020/Objectives/TopicAreas.aspx to show students the actual objectives. Ask them if they think there any missing? How do they think they should be addressed?
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Hewlings/Medeiros
Nutrition: Real People, Real Choices 1e
© 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 All Rights Reserved.
2.*
Recommendations
for Specific Nutrients:
Dietary Reference Intake (DRI)

New nutrient recommendations
Focus to prevent chronic diseases
DRI set for all vitamins and minerals
May consider phytochemicals

© 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 All Rights Reserved.

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There are more detailed guidelines available than the DGs. The DRIs, for example, provide specific recommendations for nutrient needs. A recommendation that states you need 400 mcg of folate per day is a good example of a DRI. The DRIs have evolved from the original RDAs. They were established in recognition of developments in nutrition and nutrition science. The DRIs were specifically issued in response to the increasing prevalence of lifestyle diseases and the awareness that good nutrition means more than just preventing deficiencies. DRIs now include an upper level of intake in response to the awareness that many people consume toxic levels of vitamins and minerals. They are an umbrella term that includes four different sets of recommendations. Phytochemicals, which are currently absent from present DRIs, may appear in future editions because of their connection to disease prevention.

Hewlings/Medeiros
Nutrition: Real People, Real Choices 1e
© 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 All Rights Reserved.
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Standards Under the DRI

Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs)
Adequate Intake (AI)
Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (ULs)
Estimated Average Requirements (EARs)

© 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 All Rights Reserved.

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Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA): the average daily dietary intake level that sufficiently meets the nutrient requirements of nearly all (97 to 98 percent) healthy individuals in a particular life stage and gender group.
Adequate Intake (AI): a recommended intake value that is assumed adequate when an RDA cannot be determined. The AI is based on observed or experimentally determined approximations of nutrient intake by a group (or groups) of healthy people.
Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL): the highest level of daily nutrient intake that is likely to pose no risk of adverse health effects for almost all individuals in the general population. As nutrient quantities increase above the UL, the potential risk of adverse effects increases.
Estimated Average Requirement (EAR): a daily nutrient intake value estimated to fulfill the requirement of half of the healthy individuals in a life stage and gender group. The EAR is used to assess dietary adequacy.

Hewlings/Medeiros
Nutrition: Real People, Real Choices 1e
© 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 All Rights Reserved.
2.*
The DRIs
© 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 All Rights Reserved.

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This slide features a figure representing the DRIs. The slide shows that the RDAs are greater than the EARs. The amount consumed if meeting an EAR would have the greatest risk of inadequacy among the different requirements. As a comprehension check, ask students where the AI would fall on the graph. As a hint, inform them the ULs represent the highest level of intake with the greatest risk of adverse affects.

Hewlings/Medeiros
Nutrition: Real People, Real Choices 1e
© 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 All Rights Reserved.
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RDA for Energy?
Estimated Energy Requirement
Rough estimate
Dependent on energy use
Maintain healthy weight
Many online sites to calculate

http://www.mypyramid.gov
See formula text appendix

© 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 All Rights Reserved.

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The EER presents difficulties for some students. The basic concept is that formulas are used specific to gender, age, height, weight, and physical activity. Most online programs apply these calculations directly. If the instructor wants to show formulas, there is an Excel template at http://www.cdc.gov/pcd/issues/2006/oct/06_0034.htm, or the chart can be found at http://www.health.gov/dietaryguidelines/dga2005/report/HTML/table_d3_1.htm.

Hewlings/Medeiros
Nutrition: Real People, Real Choices 1e
© 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 All Rights Reserved.
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Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range (AMDR)

Protein: 10–35% of total calories
Fat: 20–35%
Carbohydrates: 45–65%

© 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 All Rights Reserved.

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The Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range provides a general recommendation for the contribution each macronutrient should make to daily caloric values. It provides a wide range to accommodate for varied activity levels and individual differences. The AMDR is associated with a decrease in the risk of lifestyle (chronic) diseases. Refer students to the application tip in the text for an example of a 2,000-calorie diet.

Hewlings/Medeiros
Nutrition: Real People, Real Choices 1e
© 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 All Rights Reserved.
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Serving Sizes
Portion distortion: a “huge” problem

© 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 All Rights Reserved.

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Portion distortion slide series: http://hp2010.nhlbihin.net/portion/.
A good handout: http://lancaster.unl.edu/food/PortnDis .
The revised MyPyramid has attempted to explain and clarify a correct portion size. This was done in response to research that reported most people believed a serving size was one glass or one plate of food, regardless of the size of the glass or plate. This major misconception has led to what many experts call portion distortion. Portion distortion is one of the main causes of the obesity epidemic. Now is a good time for a relaxed conversation about portion sizes. How many calories are in the largest size drink?

 
Nutrition Facts Label Changes
Nutrition Facts Label Changes
Image source: FDA

Did we find all of the changes? Read the slide.
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New science is available to help consumers make decisions about food
Daily values updated to the 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines
 
WHY the changes?

New science is available to help consumers make decisions about food.
The % Daily Value helps consumers determine what nutrients are in the food product and if that nutrient is high, or low. If 20% or more of a nutrient, it is high; and 5% or less of a nutrient, it is low. The % Daily Value is based on a 2,000 calorie diet.
The daily values have been updated based on the 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines.
Serving size is now based on what people actually eat. This has changed over time. It is not based on what they should eat.
Added sugars are now listed on the label to inform consumers how much sugar is added to the food product. This is different than the natural sugars that are already in the product or food.

Changes in nutrients required on the label were made because Vitamin D and potassium are nutrients that Americans do not get enough of in their diet. Vitamin D is important in bone health and potassium helps to lower blood pressure.

Serving sizes have changed since the original nutrition facts. Serving sizes will be more realistic to reflect how much people typically eat at one time. Serving sizes must be based on the amount of the food or beverage that people actually eat not what they should eat. Packaging affects how much people eat and drink. If you drink the entire bottle in one setting it will be considered one serving. The Nutrition Facts label information is based on the serving size given for the food.
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Serving Size Changes
Image source: FDA

Serving sizes have changed since the original nutrition facts. Serving sizes will be more realistic to reflect how much people typically eat at one time. Serving sizes must be based on the amount of the food or beverage that people actually eat or drink not what they should eat or drink.
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Terms are used to describe nutrients in foods.
On labels, these terms have approved definitions. 
Nutrient Content Claims

Various terms have been used to describe nutrients in foods. When used on food labels, these terms have a consistent meaning.
“Reduced fat” is an approved definition.
Note: If you had a container of reduce fat, low fat or regular Half and Half, you could compare the Nutrition Facts on the products. Examples: How much fat would be in each product, and how many calories per serving would each contain.
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Nutrient Content Claims
Calorie free less than 5 calories per serving
Reduced
calorie at least 25% fewer calories than regular version
Low calorie 40 calories or less per serving
Fat free less than 0.5 grams fat per serving (trans or saturated)
Reduced fat at least 25% less fat than regular version
Low fat 3 grams or less of fat per serving

Here are the approved definitions for terms associated with calories and fat.
Note – Again, if you had 2 food products; for example: one reduced calorie/fat and one regular calorie product, you could compare the labels.
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Nutrient Content Claims
Sugar free less than 5 calories per serving
Reduced sugar at least 25% less sugar than regular version
No added sugar no sugars added during processing or packing, including ingredients that contain sugar such as juice or dry fruit
Sodium free less than 5 mg of sodium per serving
Reduced sodium at least 25% less sodium than regular version
Low sodium 140 mg or less sodium per serving
Light/Lite 1/3 fewer calories or 50% less fat than regular version

These are approved terms for sugar, sodium, and light/lite.
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Nutrient Descriptor Terms
High, rich in, excellent source of: 20% or more of Daily Value
Good source of, contains, provides: 10% to 19% of Daily Value
More, enriched, fortified, added: 10% or more of Daily Value

Descriptor terms such as high, rich in, excellent source are defined.
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New Terms

Gluten Free Labeling
In 2014, “gluten free” “without gluten”, “free of gluten” and “no gluten” was defined by FDA. Previously these terms were used and the consumer could not be sure that the product did not contained gluten. Now foods labeled with these terms cannot contain an ingredient that is any type of wheat, rye, barley or crossbreeds of these grains or an ingredient derived from these grains without a processing step to remove gluten.
Healthy
In 2016, FDA has proposed that the term “Healthy” have a standard definition. Food manufacturers can use the term if their product is not low in total fat but has a fat profile made of mostly mono and polyunsaturated fats OR contain at least 10 % of the Daily Value of potassium or Vitamin D.
Natural
Currently the term “Natural” does not have a definition but FDA is considering a standard definition for Natural.
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Label examples: Natural, Healthy, Gluten Free
 

Examples of foods with these terms used on the label.
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Health Claims

Read the slide.
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Example of Approved Health Claims

These are the approved health claims about cancer risk. The participant guide lists all the approved health claims. What are some of the claims that you see on food labels?
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Open Dating on Foods

“Use By” Date (or expiration date)
last date recommended for the use of the food product while it is at peak quality.
Infant formula is required to have a “Use By”, do not purchase formula that is past this date.

“Sell-By” Date
lets the store know how long to display the product for sale. Consumers should buy the food product before this “sell by” date.

“Best if Used by (or Before)” Date
lets you know the best flavor or quality of the product. This date is not a purchase or safety date.
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Manufacturers have until July 2018 to make the change
2 standard phrases
“BEST If Used By” describes quality where the food may not taste or perform as expected but is still safe to use
“USE by” applies to the few products that are highly perishable and/or have a food safety concern over time
Lead by Food Marketing Institute and Grocery Manufacturers Association
Information source: Grocery Manufacturers Association at http://bit.ly/2lxTVtk | Image: Created by Alice Henneman
New Voluntary Date Labels

In a new industry-wide effort to reduce consumer confusion about product date labels, grocery manufacturers and retailers have joined together to adopt standard wording on packaging about the quality and safety of products. The new voluntary initiative streamlines the myriad date labels on consumer products packaging down to just two standard phrases. 
“BEST If Used By” describes product quality, where the product may not taste or perform as expected but is safe to use or consume. “USE By” applies to the few products that are highly perishable and/or have a food safety concern over time; these products should be consumed by the date listed on the package – and disposed of after that date.
The new initiative for common phrasing is led by the Food Marketing Institute (FMI) and the Grocery Manufacturers Association (GMA), the two major trade associations for retailers and consumer products manufacturing.
Manufacturers have until July 2018 to make the change. As these standards are voluntary, there is no guarantee that every company will adopt them. In some states, there may be labeling regulations that preempt the industry standards.

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Proper Storage
After the date passes, the product may not be the best quality but the product should be safe, wholesome and of good quality, if handled properly.
Refrigerated foods should be safe if they have been handled properly and stored at 400 F or below. 
Image source: USDA/FSIS

Read the slide.
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Proper Storage of Canned Foods
Image source: USDA/FSIS
If canned foods are not exposed
to freezing temperature or
temperatures above 900 F and the
cans are not dented, rusted or
swollen, they are safe to eat.
Discard dented, rusted or swollen
cans.
High acid foods (i.e. tomatoes & fruits)
keep peak quality for 12 to 18 months.
Low acid foods (i.e. meats, vegetables, and mixed foods) keep 2 to 5 years if stored in a cool dark place.

Read the slide.
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The date on egg cartons is either a “Sell By” or “Use By” date.
The date can’t be more than 45 days from pack date of eggs.
Always purchase eggs before “Sell By” or “Use By” date.
Refrigerate eggs in original carton.
Place them in coldest part of refrigerator, not the door.
For best quality, use eggs within 3 to 5 weeks of when purchased.
The date on the carton may have passed but the eggs are safe to use.
 
Proper Egg Storage

Read the slide.
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Food Storage App
Image source: USDA/FSIS

Read the slide.
Note: if you have a smart phone bring up the app and show participants how the app works.
http://blogs.usda.gov/2015/04/02/new-usda-foodkeeper-app-your-new-tool-for-smart-food-storage/

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Other Label Statements…
No hormones added or raised without hormones
GMO Free
Image source: USDA/SNAP-Ed

Some other label statements can be no hormones added or raised without hormones; and GMO Free.
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Hormone Free
“Free of hormones” or “hormone free” vs. “No hormones added” or “raised without hormones”
Anything that is or has been alive contains hormones, including plants!
Is there anything in this photo that is “hormone free”?

Before discussing hormones in foods, it is important to make a distinction between “free of hormones” and “no hormones added” or “raised without hormones.” Anything that is or has been alive contains hormones, including plants. There is no such thing as “hormone free” meat or animal products. 
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Added hormones aren’t allowed by USDA in pork and poultry.
A claim of “no hormones added” on pork or poultry must be followed by the statement, “Federal regulations prohibit the use of hormones.”  
Pork and Poultry
We have hormones but no “added” hormones

Read slide and add:  Be aware, the claim of “no hormones added” may be in much larger letters than the statement saying the use of hormones is prohibited.
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Hewlings/Medeiros
Nutrition: Real People, Real Choices 1e
© 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 All Rights Reserved.
1.*
Organic Foods
Food grown without using specific pesticides, herbicides, or other synthetic products listed under USDA organic standards
Meats, poultry, and eggs that come from animals that are not given hormones or antibiotics

© 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 All Rights Reserved.

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For many people, whether food is organic or locally grown influences their food choices. But what does organic really mean? To clarify any misconceptions, ask students how they would define organic. The “You Decide” topic regarding the use of hormones and antibiotics can also be discussed here.

Hewlings/Medeiros
Nutrition: Real People, Real Choices 1e
© 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 All Rights Reserved.
1.*

USDA Organic Seal
“100% Organic” – All ingredients are organic, and the USDA Organic logo may be used on the packaging.
“Organic” – A minimum of 95% of the ingredients are organic, and the USDA Organic logo may be used on the packaging.
“Made with organic ingredients” – 70% to 94% of the product is organic, and the USDA Organic logo CANNOT be used on the packaging.
Ingredient panel only – The food has less than 70% organic ingredients, and the word “Organic” can ONLY be used on the ingredient panel.
© 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 All Rights Reserved.

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What the organic seal really means.

Hewlings/Medeiros
Nutrition: Real People, Real Choices 1e
© 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 All Rights Reserved.
1.*
Genetically Engineered Foods (GMO)
Foods whose DNA has been altered to bring about a desired trait
May be found in 70-75 percent of all processed foods
Regulated by
FDA
USDA
EPA
Source: U.S. Food and Drug Administration
© 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 All Rights Reserved.

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The conversation on food choices and organic foods makes for an easy segue into a discussion of GMOs. Many people indicate they will not eat GMOs. This is a big issue in the UK. Ask students if they would eat GMOs. Many will be surprised to hear that they are most likely consuming such foods and that the item does not have to say so on the label. The graph shows the top three GMO crops in 2003: corn, soybeans, and cotton. Ask students to look at the labels of the food they eat. How often do they eat soybeans or corn?

Are you paying extra for a food when none of its ingredients contained GMOs in the first place?
Which banana is NOT a GMO food?
GMO-Free
GMO-Free
No GMO
labeling

In today’s market place, you may find foods promoted as “GMO free” or “contains no GMOs.” Before you pay extra for this food, be aware it may not be made with any ingredients that contain GMOs in the first place. In other words, the same type of food without that label may also be free of GMO ingredients.
As to which banana is NOT a GMO food … neither of them are GMO foods and never have been!
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GMO Foods in United States
Currently available …
Corn (field and sweet)
Soybeans
Cotton
Canola
Alfalfa
Sugar beets
Papaya (Hawaiian)
Squash
More information …
Arctic Apples (will be available in some areas by 2017)
NOTE: Not all versions of all these foods are genetically engineered.
Before being placed on the market, genetically modified foods must be approved by the Food and Drug Administration, the USDA and the Environmental Protection Agency

Read the slide.
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Hewlings/Medeiros
Nutrition: Real People, Real Choices 1e
© 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 All Rights Reserved.
2.*
Cage-Free or
Free-Roaming
Eggs
Are they really “free”?
© 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 All Rights Reserved.

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This slide is a great place for discussion. Ask students what type of eggs they buy and why. Next, ask if they believe one way is better for the chickens and why. Depending on how much detail you want to go into, this is a great topic to reemphasize that nutrition is more than just eating; that it is also an agricultural act, a moral act, and an environmental act. Many websites provide additional information and pictures on this topic: http://www.all-creatures.org/anex/chicken.html.
Many student organizations are calling for changes from their cafeterias: http://www.mndaily.com/articles/2005/12/05/66465 and http://thedartmouth.com/2006/03/30/news/dds/.
 

Can you eat healthy if you are busy and on a budget?

Hewlings/Medeiros
Nutrition: Real People, Real Choices 1e
© 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 All Rights Reserved.
2.*
© 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 All Rights Reserved.

This slide covers the quick easy health meal prep section at the end of chapter 2. Great place for student discussion and to really engage students in applying what they have just learned about healthy meal planning. Take the recipes here and have students add to them. Online students can share tips and meal prep ideas that are quick, easy and healthy.
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