It is believed that globalization has numerous benefits to the economy of China. In recent decades, China has witnessed rapid economic growth due to economic reforms. Its GDP has increased by more than seven percent per annum. However the fact that globalization negatively affects the environment cannot be ignored. Apparently China is witnessing serous environmental problems. Not only do these problems impair the progress in the economic development but also have harmful effects on the peoples’ health. The government of China can consider formulating clear policies, educate the masses concerning these issues and using technology to tackle these problems. Some of the pollutions that need to be tackled include; water, soil and air pollution.
T1. Soil Erosion
Globalization has had a significant effect on the soil. This is because it causes deforestation which then leads to soil erosion. The end result is desertification. Desertification for instance is caused by different reasons depending on the area. They include population pressure, socioeconomic factors, policy, and international trade as well as land use patterns. Globalization decreases land productivity hence leading to degradation. As people clear forests so as to create space for mans activities like urbanization and agriculture, the land is left bare. There is nothing to hold the soil together. Such land is prone to soil erosion which if it persists could lead to desertification. Erosion degenerates land hence making it less productive. For farming activities lower the soil organic matter. This usually causes poor soil structure hence increasing the vulnerability of the soil to erosion.
China is widely known for its extensive mining activities. There activities have rendered the land bare and hence makes it vulnerable to erosion.
To tackle this problem, the government needs to educate the masses on the dangers of deforestation and the importance of planting trees. The mining activities are supposed to be controlled so as to prevent the problem from escalating. People need to be taught on the best farming processes that will render the soil vulnerable to erosion. Gabions could also be built in areas that are adversely affected by the problem of erosion.
T 2. Land pollution
Land pollution occurs when hazardous wastes are disposed on the land. Such substances could be urban wastes, agricultural chemicals, fertilizers, industrial wastes and radioactive substances. “Such chemicals contaminate the land surface as well as the soil and hence may render the land unsuitable for farming” (Engelking 2007, p. 52). This occurs when the urban waste matter is discriminately dumped. The mining processes may also contribute to the process. Such chemicals can lead to respiratory problems, skin complications, birth defects, and even cancer (Engelking, 2009).
The problem of land pollution can be tackled by educating the Citizens of China on the hazard posed by littering the environment. The items that are used domestically could be recycled or reused. People should dispose the waste matter in the right manner. Organic waste has to be disposed in non residential areas while the inorganic matter should be recycled.
T3. Water pollution
This involves the contamination of water bodies. This kind of pollution affects organisms and plants in these water bodies. This damages individual species as well as the biological communities. This form of pollution occurs whenever pollutants are discharged into the bodies without undergoing treatment to remove the harmful compounds. Considering the fact that China is an industrialized nation, factories frequently opt to discharge their affluent into these water bodies. About 90% of the cities in China suffer from water this kind of pollution.
Some of the organic water pollutants include detergents, chloroforms, and food processing waste, herbicides and insecticides, petroleum volatile organic compounds. Most of the inorganic pollution is caused by sulfur dioxide, ammonia, chemical wastes, fertilizers, heavy metal substances and silt (Hart, 2007).
This problem can be checked by treating those wastes that are deposited to the water bodies. The sewage systems in especially in urban centers should be kept in good condition so as to prevent the organic waste from trickling into the water bodies. Erosion control measures should be employed to minimize the surface run-off. Farmers need not to overuse the agricultural chemicals.
T4. Air Pollution
Air pollution involves the emission of toxic fumes into the air. Everyone in way contributes to air pollution in his/her capacity. Carbon dioxide is among the main pollutants of the air. This gas forms a big percentage of the gases that are emitted in many factories across China. Combustion of fossil fuels and deforestation greatly contribute towards the increased levels of this gas in the atmosphere. It is also emitted during any volcanic activity. It is a major contributor towards global warming. Most automobiles, air jets, and marine vessels also release fume to the atmosphere. Other pollutants include Aerosol sprays, nuclear fumes. Other dangerous gases that pollute the air include carbon monoxide and Sulfur dioxide. “Air pollution can cause acid rain, which occurs whenever sulfur dioxide combines with Nitrogen dioxide” (Hart 2006, p. 62).
This problem can be fixed through reducing the number of automobiles, recycling products, avoiding so much of the fire cracker use; Companies have to treat the gases before they release them into the atmosphere.
All these forms of pollutions can be reduced if the government will enact and implement policies that are geared towards reducing the pollution. Companies should embrace social corporate responsibility by embracing environmental friendly policies. Globalization in general should be embraced cautiously because some of its effects could be very harmful to humanity.