PART 1Question 1 Patterned social arrangements that have an enabling or constraining effect on agency are referred to as:StructureInstitutionsFree willSocializationQuestion 2 _____ is considered the first female sociologist and argued that injustices such as slavery and women’s inequality stunted a society’s moral development.Auguste ComteÉmile DurkheimKarl MarxHarriet MartineauQuestion 3 Formal organizations characterized by written rules, hierarchical authority, and a paid staff, intended to promote organizational efficiency, are referred to as:InstitutionsUniversitiesBureaucraciesGovernmentQuestion 4 The relationship between agency and structure is _____, as, agency influences structureone-sided, structure enables or constrains agencyreciprocal, they both have an effect on one anothernonexistent, there is no relationship between the twoQuestion 5 Accepted social behaviors and beliefs are referred to as:NormsCultureSocial statusValuesQuestion 6 The bonds that unite the members of a social group is referred to as:CultureSocial solidarityNormsSocietal unityQuestion 7 _____ believed that nearly all known societies are characterized by some system of division by economic class, which results in conflict as classes compete for wealth, power, and resources.Auguste ComteÉmile DurkheimKarl MarxHarriet MartineauQuestion 8 The ability to evaluate claims about truth by using reason and evidence is referred to as:Critical thinkingSociological imaginationScientific reasoningLogical thoughtQuestion 9 The ability of individuals and groups to exercise free will and to make social change is referred to as:StructureAgencyFree choiceIndividualismQuestion 10 A researcher finds that as income increases, square footage of respondent’s home also increases. This is an example of:Positive correlationPositive causationNegative correlationIncreasatory relationshipQuestion 11 A variable is defined as:The description of a relationshipA phenomena that is constantly changingA term used to summarize a set of phenomenaA concept that can take on two or more possible valuesQuestion 12 A _____ relationship is one in which one variable is the cause of another variable.CorrelatedCausalPositiveStatisticalQuestion 13 The degree to which two or more variables are associated with one another is referred to as:CausationStatistical relationshipCorrelationFrequencyQuestion 14 _____ reasoning starts from specific data and tries to identify larger patterns from which to derive more general theories.LogicalInductiveGround-levelDeductiveQuestion 15 A researcher finds that as years spent driving increases, the number of accidents decreases. This is an example of:Negative causationNegative correlationPositive correlationDecreasing relationshipQuestion 16 The term used to summarize a set of phenomena is:DefinitionConceptOperationalizationPatternQuestion 17 The repetition of a previous study using a different sample or population to verify or refute the original findings is referred to as:VerificationReplicationValidationReliabilityQuestion 18 A culture that exists together with a dominant culture but differs from it in some important respects is referred to as:EthnicitySubcultureCountercultureSubgroupQuestion 19 The ability of a local culture to absorb outside influences that fit in and enrich their culture while resisting those that are alien is known as:Staying powerGrobalizationGlocalizationGlobalizationQuestion 20 The beliefs, norms, behaviors, and products common to the members of a particular group are referred to as:EthnicityCultureSocietyClassQuestion 21 Powerful mores, the violation of which is considered serious and even unthinkable, are referred to as:Criminal lawsCommandmentsTaboosFundamental valuesQuestion 22 Cultural representations of social realities are referred to as:ImagesSymbolsTrademarksEthnographiesQuestion 23 The worldview whereby we judge other cultures by the standards of our own is referred to as:PatriotismNationalismEthnocentrismMulticulturalismQuestion 24 Particular ideas that people accept as true are referred to as:ReligionCultural normsValuesBeliefsQuestion 25 Abstract and general standards in society that define ideal principles such as right and wrong are referred to as:LawsPublic opinionsReligious beliefsValuesPART 2Question 1 What is the sociological definition of significant others?Specific people important in a child’s life who have the greatest impact on their self-evaluationRelationships characterized by intense emotional ties, face-to-face interaction, intimacy, and a strong, enduring sense of commitmentThose whose opinions provide the basis for how we judge our own attitudes or behaviorsPeople of similar age and social standing that influence our norms and valuesQuestion 2 Adopting the behavior or standards of a group you emulate or hope to join is referred to as:ConformityClique socializationAnticipatory socializationPro-active conformityQuestion 3 Which of the following behaviors is most likely the result of family socialization?Texting and holding a face-to-face conversation at the same timeStanding during the playing of the national anthemArriving to an important appointment 15 minutes earlyPerforming specific household choresQuestion 4 Psychoanalysis, the psychological perspective that emphasizes the complex reasoning processes of the conscious and unconscious mind, is associated with which major theorist?George Herbert MeadSigmund FreudCharles H. CooleyJean PiagetQuestion 5 How would sociologists define social learning?The process by which people learn the culture of their societyThe way people adapt their behavior in response to social rewards and punishmentsThe way people are socialized to act in a given situationThe process by which people learn norms, what is acceptable and unacceptable behaviorQuestion 6 The unspoken classroom socialization to the norms, values, and roles of a culture that school provides is referred to as:Textbook socializationSocialization curriculumCurriculum of inequalityHidden curriculumQuestion 7 _____ refers to when members of a group ignore anything that goes against the group consensus.Discompromise effectGroup cohesionGroupthinkConsent partialityQuestion 8 Power exercised over those who recognize it as deserved or earned is referred to as:Authentic authorityElectoral powerPersonal powerLegitimate authorityQuestion 9 Which of the following is an example of a secondary group?Two close friends who practice tennis togetherA father who plays catch with his sonA college basketball teamA family who watches football together every SundayQuestion 10 The simplest group, consisting of two persons, is referred to as:PairDyadDuoPrimary relationshipQuestion 11 The ability of groups to exclude outsiders participating in the group or enjoying group resources is referred to as:Social exclusionSocial closureFactioningClique capacityQuestion 12 Large, impersonal groups with minimal emotional and intimate ties are referred to as:Secondary groupsPrincipal groupsReference groupsRemandiary groupsQuestion 13 The act of having multiple wives is referred to as:MonogamyMormonismPolygamyPolyandryQuestion 14 The argument that deviant behavior is little more than a product of the labels people attach to certain types of behavior is referred to as:Catalogue theoryAssociation theoryLabeling theoryCriminal label theoryQuestion 15 An act defined in the law as punishable by fines, imprisonment or both is referred to as:DevianceLaw-breakingCrimeCriminalityQuestion 16 In the United States, which of the following would not be considered to be a normative cultural goal that people strive for?Earning economic successRaising and supporting a familyGaining recognition or fameMaintaining a steady routine, day-to-dayQuestion 17 A crime considered so heinous that it is punishable by death is referred to as:Capital offenseDeath penalty crimeEye-for-an-eye offenseFelony crime.Question 18 The idea that what is labeled deviant or criminal—and therefore who gets punished—is determined by the interests of the dominant class is referred to as:Class-dominant theoryClass conflict theoryCapitalist culture theoryMarxist theoryQuestion 19 According to Karl Marx, the _____ own the means of production, which they use to exploit the labor of the _____.proletariat, bourgeoisieindustrialists, massescapitalist class, worker classbourgeoisie, proletariatQuestion 20 The value of everything a person owns minus the value of everything he or she owes is referred to as:WealthIncomeNet capitalValue of assetsQuestion 21 A person’s economic position in society, based on differences in income, wealth, and occupation, is referred to as:CasteSocioeconomic categoryClassSocial classificationQuestion 22 The upward or downward status movement of individuals or groups over time is referred to as:Social progressionCultural promotionSocial mobilitySocioeconomic stasisQuestion 23 Which of the following is the best sociological definition of income?An individual’s yearly salaryWages, tips, and other compensationThe amount of money a person or household earns in a given period of timeThe value of everything a person owns, minus the value of everything he or she owesQuestion 24 Areas that lack places that sell competitively priced, healthy, and fresh food are referred to as:Food wastelandsGrocery desertsFood desertsFood insecure regionsQuestion 25 The systematic ranking of different groups of people in a hierarchy of inequality is referred to as:Social stratificationSocial inequalityClass differencesClass status

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