I have to write a Scientific Report. Listed below are the notes I collected during lab that can be used in my report, but if you find other information online regarding the effects of antacid in the stomach( I did not use actual stomach acid but other acids that may have similar PH levels close to the stomach), you can use it also but just make sure you provide reference. I just need help filling in the rest of the information I don’t know and is not listed below. I also attached a copy of directions and the do’s/don’ts on how the Scientific report should be written.
Notes from class
The Effects of Rolaids, Tums, and Alka-Seltzer on Stomach Acid
A.) 6 PH Sticks and each one labeled Acid #1, Acid #2, Base #1, Base #2, Unknown #1, and Unknown #2
B.) 3 Test Tubes
C.) 1 Tray
D.) 3 Stirring Rods
E.) 1 Dropper
A.) 1 drop of HCL on Acid #1 strip
B.) 1 drop of Acetic Acid on Acid #2 strip
C.) 1 drop of Ammonia on Base #1 strip
D.) 1 drop of Bleach on Base #2 strip
E.) 1 drop of Lemon Juice on Unknown #1 strip
F.) 1 drop of Cocoa Cola on Unknown #2 strip
G.) 2 Drops of HCL in each test tube
Results on PH Grid
A.) Acid #1 PH is 1(Acidic)
B.) Acid #2 PH is 6(Acidic)
C.) Base #1 PH is 8(Basic)
D.) Base #2 PH is 7(Neutral)
E.) Unknown #1 PH is 2(Acidic)
F.) Unknown #2 PH is 4(Acidic)
A.) Rolaids (active ingredients-Calcium Carbonate 1000mg, Magnesium Hydroxide 200mg, Simethicone 40mg)
B.) Tums (active ingredients- Calcium Carbonate 1000mg)
C.) Alka-Seltzer (active ingredients- Anhydrous citric acid 1000mg, Aspirin 325mg, Sodium Bicarb 1916mg)
A.) After crushing each antacid, they are then placed each one in the test tube of HCL and sat there for 3 minutes
B.) Tube 1(Alka-Seltzer) dissolved
C.) Tube 2(Rolaids) chalky appearance, material remained to the top undissolved
D.) Tube 3(Tums) material settled to the bottom and material is undissolved
Results of Antacid
A.) Tube 1(Alka-Seltzer) PH is 8(Basic)
B.) Tube 2(Rolaids) PH is 6(Acidic)
C.) Tube 3(Tums) PH is 7(Neutral)
Writing a Formal Lab Report and Scientific Papers
General Tips o Be concise. In scientific writing, it is very important to say as much as is needed while using as few words as possible. Lab reports should be thorough, but repetition should be avoided. The entire report should be clear and straightforward.
· Write in the third person. Avoid using the words “I” or “we” when referring to the experimental procedure. For example, instead of “I boiled 50 mL of water for 10 minutes,” the report should read, “50 mL of water was boiled for 10 minutes.” This can be a bit difficult to get used to, so it is important to pay close attention to the wording in the report
· Use correct verb tenses. Many students become confused when trying to decide whether to use past or present tense in their reports. If referring to anything that happened in the past, then use the past tense. For example, if you are writing about an experiment you have already performed, then refer to it in the past tense. Present tense should be used when referring to a scientific principle, such as, “Water is two parts hydrogen and one part oxygen.” The general rules for verb tenses are as follows:
· The experimental procedure has already been conducted, so use the past tense of the verb when referring to it:
Ex: The purpose of the experiment was…
The compound was weighed to 5 g…
· The report, equipment, and theory still exist, so use the present tense of the verb for them:
Ex: The purpose of this report is…
Bunsen burners are used…
Document created by: Lakesha Allen
Document created by: Lakesha Allen
LAB REPORT FORMAT
· Paper: 8.5” x 11”
· Spacing: Double-spaced
· Margins: 1 inch
· Font: Times New Roman, 12 pt (EVERY word in your paper should have this font type and size)
· APA FORMAT
Major Paper Sections:
· Title Page
· Materials and Methods
The title should be less than ten words and should reflect the factual content of the paper. A good title is straightforward and uses keywords that researchers in a particular field will recognize. It should not contain abbreviations or words that serve no purpose.
Type your title in upper and lowercase letters centered in the upper half of the page. Your title may take up one or two lines. All text on the title page, and throughout your paper, should be double-spaced. Beneath the title, type the author’s name: first name, middle initial(s), and last name. Do not use titles (Dr.) or degrees (PhD). Beneath the author’s name, type the institutional affiliation, which should indicate the location where the author(s) conducted the research.
Begin a new page. On the first line of the abstract page, center the word “Abstract” (no bold, formatting, italics, underlining, or quotations marks). Beginning with the next line, write a concise summary of the key points of your research. (Do not indent.)
The report abstract is a short summary of the report. It should be no more than one paragraph (150-250 words) and should include about one or two sentences on each of the following main points:
Brief background information introducing your topic Purpose of the experiment, Brief explanation of how you tested your purpose, The results of your experiment (Include the actual data), Brief explanation of the results, Overall conclusion
It may help to complete the abstract LAST because it is a summary of your entire report.
The introduction defines the subject of the report. It must outline the scientific purpose(s) or objective(s) for the research performed and give the reader sufficient background to understand the rest of the report. Care should be taken to limit the background to whatever is pertinent to the experiment. A good introduction will answer several questions, including the following:
Why was this study performed?
Answers to this question may be derived from observations of nature or from the literature.
What knowledge already exists about this subject?
The answer to this question must review the literature, showing the historical development of an idea and including the confirmations, conflicts, and gaps in existing knowledge.
What is the specific purpose of the study?
The specific hypotheses and experimental design pertinent to investigating the topic should be described
A hypothesis: what is expected to happen in the experiment based on background information?
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Explain what steps were taken in performing the experiment. This is the section where you describe the procedures you used in conducting the experiment.
Use the narrative format. This section should not be in a list format or read like a recipe. The information should be relayed in a story type of writing.
Only include the important details. Not every detail needs to be included. Only the relevant elements should be mentioned.
Generally, this section attempts to answer the following questions:
What materials were used?
How were they used?
Where and when was the work done? (This question is most important in field studies.)
The results section should include a summary of the data without discussing their implications AND be presented into tables, figures, graphs, photographs, and so on. But data included in a table should not be duplicated in a figure or graph.
All figures and tables should have descriptive titles and should include a legend explaining any symbols, abbreviations, or special methods used. Figures and tables should be numbered separately and should be referred to in the text by number, for example:
1. Figure 1 shows that the activity decreased after five minutes.
2. The activity decreased after five minutes (fig. 1).
Figures and tables should be self-explanatory; that is, the reader should be able to understand them without referring to the text. All columns and rows in tables and axes in figures should be labeled.
This section of your report should concentrate on general trends and differences and not on trivial details. Many authors organize and write the results section before the rest of the report.
Hypothesis support. Start your discussion with a statement supporting or not supporting your hypothesis.
Relate the results. This section should not just be a restatement of the results but should emphasize interpretation of the data, relating them to existing theory and knowledge. In writing this section, you should explain the logic that allows you to accept or reject your original hypotheses. You should also be able to suggest future experiments that might clarify areas of doubt in your results.
Interpret the results. The reader needs to know what the results of the experiments mean. Why is the data like it is? Why is this data important to know? Answering these questions will take raw data and make it meaningful for the reader.
This section lists all articles or books cited in your report. It is not the same as a bibliography, which simply lists references regardless of whether they were cited in the paper. The listing should be alphabetized by the last names of the authors.
Describes lab content concisely, adequately, appropriately o You need to make up a title that clearly states what you are doing in your experiment.
· Not so good title: The Ways Light Affect Plant Growth o Explanation: This title is extremely broad and does not tell the reader what the experiment focuses on. What type of light? Sunlight? Candlelight? What kind of plant? Rose? Pine tree? Potato? It needs to be more specific and say exactly what is being tested.
· Better title: The Effects of Blue, Red, and Green Light on Lilium longiflorum Growth.
o Explanation: Now the reader knows exactly what you’re testing for and what exact plant you tested the effects on.
· Conveys a sense of the full report concisely and effectively o The abstract is a summary of your ENTIRE paper and should have components from each section: Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion
· Provides background information that introduces the topic o Your abstract should start with two or three sentences providing pertinent background information of your experiment is important
Example: Lilium longiflorum is a species of lily native to the southern islands of Japan and Taiwan. Most growth occurs during the summer in full sun, but these plants have issues when growing inside of an enclosure (e.g. house).
o Above you have briefly described what plant you’re looking at and followed up with a reason to investigate.
States the purpose of the experiment o Explain why you’re conducting the experiment
Example: The purpose of this experiment is to investigate whether the exposure of Lilium longiflorum to blue, red, or green light will yield better growth inside of a home.
· Briefly explains how the purpose was tested o Provide a brief description of how you tested your purpose
Example: Three samples of Lilium longiflorum were placed inside of a controlled environment and each only exposed to one type of light: blue (Lily 1), red (Lily 2), or green (Lily 3). All conditions except light color exposure was the same: food, light intensity, amount of water, and type of soil. After three months, each plant’s stem length was measured for growth.
· State key results o You need to provide the final data for your experiment. Numbers need to be stated.
Example: Better growth occurred in Lily 2. Lily 2’s stem grew 6” in three months, while Lily 1 had a stem growth of 2” and Lily 3 had no growth.
· Interprets data o Briefly explain why you think the results occurred this way
Example: Green light is considered to be the least efficient wavelength in the visible spectrum for photosynthesis because plants reflect green more than any other wavelength. Experiments conducted by Michigan State University (2014) show that growth between wavelengths 300 and 800nm were the least effective in the green spectrum and higher towards the red spectrum. This experiment further supports their findings.
· Provides main conclusions o Explain how the uses and importance of your experiment
Example: When growing Lilium longiforum, growers should use red light to help with growth. Further studies should investigate how red light affects other types of plant growth, especially in areas with harsh climates.
· Provides background information to support investigation o You need to provide enough background information that explains your experiment so the reader understands
· Using the experiment with the lilies, information that would be good to provide is the classification of lilies, how they grow, what is their natural environment, photosynthesis, how light in converted into energy, color wavelengths, the visible spectrum, previous experiments conducted on your topic. All of this would be good information to provide in order for the reader to have a good foundation for the experiment you’re about to perform.
· Know your reader. Sometimes you may have to go into a lot of detail and other times you will not have to explain as much.
· Explains the objectives and purpose of the lab o State the purpose of your experiment and the reason that it is important to test
· States hypothesis and provides logical reasoning for it o Come up with a hypothesis that can be backed up scientifically
Example: The study performed by Michigan State University (2014) showed that wavelengths between 600 and 700nm was the most effective at growing tomatoes, salvia, petunias, and impatiens. Therefore, Lilium longiforum will grow the best when only exposed to red light as oppose to blue or green light.
· Adequately utilizes scientific resources to support concepts o Use credible websites, books, textbooks, scientific journals, or other types of media to support the information in your lab report
MATERIALS AND METHODS
· Gives enough details to allow for replication of procedure o The only details that are needed are the steps that can be repeated. Someone should be able to read this section and follow the exact steps and get the same results.
· Written in correct format o Everything should be written in a complete paragraph and in past tense.
· Incorrect Format: Place 2mL of HCl in a glass test tube
· Correct Format: Two milliliters of hydrochloric acid was placed in a glass test tube.
Your results section should have two components: A written section and a table and/or figure.
· Presents verbal findings clearly and with sufficient support o The written portion of your results section should summarize your results o Include any general trends, differences, or important observations
· Opens with effective statement of overall findings o The first sentence should be the final results
Example: Red light exposure was the best for Lilium longiforum growth
· Presents visuals clearly and accurately o Include a table, graph, figure, or image clearly illustrating your results o Any visual that you place in your paper should have a descriptive title and be labeled (whether it’s a table or a figure) correctly.
Example: Figure 1. Stem growth in Lilium longiforum after being exposed to blue, red, or green light for three months.
o All visuals should be correctly labeled using APA formatting. (e.g. Titles for tables go above while titles for figures go below)
· Successfully integrates verbal and visual representations o Make sure you refer to your tables or figures when speaking about your results
Example: Figure 1 shows that stem growth in Lily 2 increased by 6” over the course of three months
· Opens with effective statement of support of hypothesis o The very first statement in your discussion should state whether your hypothesis was supported or not supported
Example: The hypothesis that Lilium longiforum would grow better when exposed to red light was supported.
· Backs up statement with reference to appropriate findings o After stating whether or not your hypothesis was supported or not, you need to refer back to the data to verify this statement with proof.
Example: Figure 1 shows that Lily 2 had more stem growth, increasing by 6”, as oppose to Lily 1 with 2” and Lily 3 with no growth.
· You need to state the exact figure or table that shows the data and then state the findings.
· Provides sufficient and logical explanation for the statement o You must scientifically explain and go into detail, why the results occurred in this way. o You can talk about past research and other information that you have found that backs up your results.
· If your hypothesis is not supported, then come up with scientific reasons behind the unexpected results.
· Sufficiently addresses other issues pertinent to lab o If something occurred that could have altered the results of the experiments, (e.g.
accidental overwatering) then state what happened. Only if you think it could have affected the results.
· Talk about future experiments that can be conducted or anything that should be further investigated related to your research
Example: It was shown that red light was better for lily growth, but future investigations can look at specific wavelengths in the red color spectrum and see which precise wavelength is better for growth.
· Convincingly describes what has been learned in the lab o Wrap up your discussion with an overall summary of your research o Make sure you have a concise and thorough discussion
· Citations and references adhere to proper format o Citations and references need to be in APA format o Seek help from the library or writing center for help
· Paper format adheres to APA style o Paper needs to be in APA format
· Report is written in scientific style: clear and to the point o Your paper should only include relevant material and should not be too wordy
OVERALL AIMS OF THE REPORT
· Has successfully learned what the lab is designed to teach o Make sure that you cover all items in each section o Make sure your paper is thorough and makes sense o Use transitions as you move throughout each section
· Demonstrates clear and thoughtful scientific inquiry o After you have the results, make inferences and deductions which shows you understand the research you’re conduction and what the results mean
· Accurately measures and analyzes data for lab finding o Use the correct units and calculations for your results o Analyze your data correctly and explain your results effectively