Posted: October 27th, 2022

reading response

For the reading responses you should address six questions on an assigned reading where each question should be answered in one half-page paragraph. Each response should thus be 3 double-spaced pages (Times New Roman, 12 point font, 1 inch margins) divided into six paragraphs. Each paragraph should include one quote from the text. Quotes should be no longer than two lines each.

Hito Steyerl

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In Defense of
the Poor Image

The poor image is a copy in motion. Its quality is
bad, its resolution substandard. As it
accelerates, it deteriorates. It is a ghost of an
image, a preview, a thumbnail, an errant idea, an
itinerant image distributed for free, squeezed
through slow digital connections, compressed,
reproduced, ripped, remixed, as well as copied
and pasted into other channels of distribution.
đđđđđđđđđđThe poor image is a rag or a rip; an AVI or a
JPEG, a lumpen proletarian in the class society
of appearances, ranked and valued according to
its resolution. The poor image has been
uploaded, downloaded, shared, reformatted, and
reedited. It transforms quality into accessibility,
exhibition value into cult value, films into clips,
contemplation into distraction. The image is
liberated from the vaults of cinemas and
archives and thrust into digital uncertainty, at
the expense of its own substance. The poor
image tends towards abstraction: it is a visual
idea in its very becoming.
đđđđđđđđđđThe poor image is an illicit fifth-generation
bastard of an original image. Its genealogy is
dubious. Its filenames are deliberately
misspelled. It often defies patrimony, national
culture, or indeed copyright. It is passed on as a
lure, a decoy, an index, or as a reminder of its
former visual self. It mocks the promises of
digital technology. Not only is it often degraded
to the point of being just a hurried blur, one even
doubts whether it could be called an image at all.
Only digital technology could produce such a
dilapidated image in the first place.
đđđđđđđđđđPoor images are the contemporary
Wretched of the Screen, the debris of audiovisual
production, the trash that washes up on the
digital economies’ shores. They testify to the
violent dislocation, transferrals, and
displacement of images – their acceleration and
circulation within the vicious cycles of
audiovisual capitalism. Poor images are dragged
around the globe as commodities or their
effigies, as gifts or as bounty. They spread
pleasure or death threats, conspiracy theories or
bootlegs, resistance or stultification. Poor
images show the rare, the obvious, and the
unbelievable – that is, if we can still manage to
decipher it.

1. Low Resolutions
In one of Woody Allen’s films the main character
is out of focus.1 It’s not a technical problem but
some sort of disease that has befallen him: his
image is consistently blurred. Since Allen’s
character is an actor, this becomes a major
problem: he is unable to find work. His lack of
definition turns into a material problem. Focus is
identified as a class position, a position of ease
and privilege, while being out of focus lowers
one’s value as an image.

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Shoveling pirated DVDs in Taiyuan, Shanxi province, China, April 20, 2008.

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Nine 35mm film frames from Stan Brakhage’s Existence is Song, 1987.

đđđđđđđđđđThe contemporary hierarchy of images,
however, is not only based on sharpness, but
also and primarily on resolution. Just look at any
electronics store and this system, described by
Harun Farocki in a notable 2007 interview,
becomes immediately apparent.2 In the class
society of images, cinema takes on the role of a
flagship store. In flagship stores high-end
products are marketed in an upscale
environment. More affordable derivatives of the
same images circulate as DVDs, on broadcast
television or online, as poor images.
đđđđđđđđđđObviously, a high-resolution image looks
more brilliant and impressive, more mimetic and
magic, more scary and seductive than a poor
one. It is more rich, so to speak. Now, even
consumer formats are increasingly adapting to
the tastes of cineastes and esthetes, who
insisted on 35 mm film as a guarantee of pristine
visuality. The insistence upon analog film as the
sole medium of visual importance resounded
throughout discourses on cinema, almost
regardless of their ideological inflection. It never
mattered that these high-end economies of film
production were (and still are) firmly anchored in
systems of national culture, capitalist studio
production, the cult of mostly male genius, and
the original version, and thus are often

conservative in their very structure. Resolution
was fetishized as if its lack amounted to
castration of the author. The cult of film gauge
dominated even independent film production.
The rich image established its own set of
hierarchies, with new technologies offering more
and more possibilities to creatively degrade it.

2. Resurrection (as Poor Images)
But insisting on rich images also had more
serious consequences. A speaker at a recent
conference on the film essay refused to show
clips from a piece by Humphrey Jennings
because no proper film projection was available.
Although there was at the speaker’s disposal a
perfectly standard DVD player and video
projector, the audience was left to imagine what
those images might have looked like.
đđđđđđđđđđIn this case the invisibility of the image was
more or less voluntary and based on aesthetic
premises. But it has a much more general
equivalent based on the consequences of
neoliberal policies. Twenty or even thirty years
ago, the neoliberal restructuring of media
production began slowly obscuring non-
commercial imagery, to the point where
experimental and essayistic cinema became
almost invisible. As it became prohibitively

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expensive to keep these works circulating in
cinemas, so were they also deemed too marginal
to be broadcast on television. Thus they slowly
disappeared not just from cinemas, but from the
public sphere as well. Video essays and
experimental films remained for the most part
unseen save for some rare screenings in
metropolitan film museums or film clubs,
projected in their original resolution before
disappearing again into the darkness of the
archive.
đđđđđđđđđđThis development was of course connected
to the neoliberal radicalization of the concept of
culture as commodity, to the commercialization
of cinema, its dispersion into multiplexes, and
the marginalization of independent filmmaking.
It was also connected to the restructuring of
global media industries and the establishment of
monopolies over the audiovisual in certain
countries or territories. In this way, resistant or
non-conformist visual matter disappeared from
the surface into an underground of alternative
archives and collections, kept alive only by a
network of committed organizations and
individuals, who would circulate bootlegged VHS
copies amongst themselves. Sources for these
were extremely rare – tapes moved from hand to
hand, depending on word of mouth, within circles

of friends and colleagues. With the possibility to
stream video online, this condition started to
dramatically change. An increasing number of
rare materials reappeared on publicly accessible
platforms, some of them carefully curated
(Ubuweb) and some just a pile of stuff (YouTube).
đđđđđđđđđđAt present, there are at least twenty
torrents of Chris Marker’s film essays available
online. If you want a retrospective, you can have
it. But the economy of poor images is about more
than just downloads: you can keep the files,
watch them again, even reedit or improve them if
you think it necessary. And the results circulate.
Blurred AVI files of half-forgotten masterpieces
are exchanged on semi-secret P2P platforms.
Clandestine cell-phone videos smuggled out of
museums are broadcast on YouTube. DVDs of
artists’ viewing copies are bartered.3 Many works
of avant-garde, essayistic, and non-commercial
cinema have been resurrected as poor images.
Whether they like it or not.

3. Privatization and Piracy
That rare prints of militant, experimental, and
classical works of cinema as well as video art
reappear as poor images is significant on
another level. Their situation reveals much more
than the content or appearance of the images

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Chris Marker’s virtual home on Second Life, May 29, 2009.

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themselves: it also reveals the conditions of their
marginalization, the constellation of social
forces leading to their online circulation as poor
images.4 Poor images are poor because they are
not assigned any value within the class society of
images – their status as illicit or degraded grants
them exemption from its criteria. Their lack of
resolution attests to their appropriation and
displacement.5
đđđđđđđđđđObviously, this condition is not only
connected to the neoliberal restructuring of
media production and digital technology; it also
has to do with the post-socialist and
postcolonial restructuring of nation states, their
cultures, and their archives. While some nation
states are dismantled or fall apart, new cultures
and traditions are invented and new histories
created. This obviously also affects film archives
– in many cases, a whole heritage of film prints
is left without its supporting framework of
national culture. As I once observed in the case
of a film museum in Sarajevo, the national
archive can find its next life in the form of a
video-rental store.6 Pirate copies seep out of
such archives through disorganized privatization.
On the other hand, even the British Library sells
off its contents online at astronomical prices.
đđđđđđđđđđAs Kodwo Eshun has noted, poor images
circulate partly in the void left by state-cinema
organizations who find it too difficult to operate
as a 16/35-mm archive or to maintain any kind of
distribution infrastructure in the contemporary
era.7 From this perspective, the poor image
reveals the decline and degradation of the film
essay, or indeed any experimental and non-
commercial cinema, which in many places was
made possible because the production of culture
was considered a task of the state. Privatization
of media production gradually grew more
important than state controlled/sponsored
media production. But, on the other hand, the
rampant privatization of intellectual content,
along with online marketing and
commodification, also enable piracy and
appropriation; it gives rise to the circulation of
poor images.

4. Imperfect Cinema
The emergence of poor images reminds one of a
classic Third Cinema manifesto, For an Imperfect
Cinema, by Juan García Espinosa, written in
Cuba in the late 1960s.8 Espinosa argues for an
imperfect cinema because, in his words, “perfect
cinema – technically and artistically masterful –
is almost always reactionary cinema.” The
imperfect cinema is one that strives to overcome
the divisions of labor within class society. It
merges art with life and science, blurring the
distinction between consumer and producer,
audience and author. It insists upon its own

imperfection, is popular but not consumerist,
committed without becoming bureaucratic.
đđđđđđđđđđIn his manifesto, Espinosa also reflects on
the promises of new media. He clearly predicts
that the development of video technology will
jeopardize the elitist position of traditional
filmmakers and enable some sort of mass film
production: an art of the people. Like the
economy of poor images, imperfect cinema
diminishes the distinctions between author and
audience and merges life and art. Most of all, its
visuality is resolutely compromised: blurred,
amateurish, and full of artifacts.
đđđđđđđđđđIn some way, the economy of poor images
corresponds to the description of imperfect
cinema, while the description of perfect cinema
represents rather the concept of cinema as a
flagship store. But the real and contemporary
imperfect cinema is also much more ambivalent
and affective than Espinosa had anticipated. On
the one hand, the economy of poor images, with
its immediate possibility of worldwide
distribution and its ethics of remix and
appropriation, enables the participation of a
much larger group of producers than ever before.
But this does not mean that these opportunities
are only used for progressive ends. Hate speech,
spam, and other rubbish make their way through
digital connections as well. Digital
communication has also become one of the most
contested markets – a zone that has long been
subjected to an ongoing original accumulation
and to massive (and, to a certain extent,
successful) attempts at privatization.
đđđđđđđđđđThe networks in which poor images
circulate thus constitute both a platform for a
fragile new common interest and a battleground
for commercial and national agendas. They
contain experimental and artistic material, but
also incredible amounts of porn and paranoia.
While the territory of poor images allows access
to excluded imagery, it is also permeated by the
most advanced commodification techniques.
While it enables the users’ active participation in
the creation and distribution of content, it also
drafts them into production. Users become the
editors, critics, translators, and (co-)authors of
poor images.
đđđđđđđđđđPoor images are thus popular images –
images that can be made and seen by the many.
They express all the contradictions of the
contemporary crowd: its opportunism,
narcissism, desire for autonomy and creation, its
inability to focus or make up its mind, its
constant readiness for transgression and
simultaneous submission.9 Altogether, poor
images present a snapshot of the affective
condition of the crowd, its neurosis, paranoia,
and fear, as well as its craving for intensity, fun,
and distraction. The condition of the images

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Thomas Ruff, jpeg rl104, 2007.

speaks not only of countless transfers and
reformattings, but also of the countless people
who cared enough about them to convert them
over and over again, to add subtitles, reedit, or
upload them.
đđđđđđđđđđIn this light, perhaps one has to redefine the
value of the image, or, more precisely, to create a
new perspective for it. Apart from resolution and
exchange value, one might imagine another form
of value defined by velocity, intensity, and
spread. Poor images are poor because they are
heavily compressed and travel quickly. They lose
matter and gain speed. But they also express a
condition of dematerialization, shared not only
with the legacy of conceptual art but above all
with contemporary modes of semiotic
production.10 Capital’s semiotic turn, as
described by Felix Guattari,11 plays in favor of the
creation and dissemination of compressed and
flexible data packages that can be integrated
into ever-newer combinations and sequences.12
đđđđđđđđđđThis flattening-out of visual content – the
concept-in-becoming of the images – positions
them within a general informational turn, within
economies of knowledge that tear images and
their captions out of context into the swirl of
permanent capitalist deterritorialization.13 The
history of conceptual art describes this

dematerialization of the art object first as a
resistant move against the fetish value of
visibility. Then, however, the dematerialized art
object turns out to be perfectly adapted to the
semioticization of capital, and thus to the
conceptual turn of capitalism.14 In a way, the
poor image is subject to a similar tension. On the
one hand, it operates against the fetish value of
high resolution. On the other hand, this is
precisely why it also ends up being perfectly
integrated into an information capitalism thriving
on compressed attention spans, on impression
rather than immersion, on intensity rather than
contemplation, on previews rather than
screenings.

5. Comrade, what is your visual bond
today?

But, simultaneously, a paradoxical reversal
happens. The circulation of poor images creates
a circuit, which fulfills the original ambitions of
militant and (some) essayistic and experimental
cinema – to create an alternative economy of
images, an imperfect cinema existing inside as
well as beyond and under commercial media
streams. In the age of file-sharing, even
marginalized content circulates again and
reconnects dispersed worldwide audiences.

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đđđđđđđđđđThe poor image thus constructs anonymous
global networks just as it creates a shared
history. It builds alliances as it travels, provokes
translation or mistranslation, and creates new
publics and debates. By losing its visual
substance it recovers some of its political punch
and creates a new aura around it. This aura is no
longer based on the permanence of the
“original,” but on the transience of the copy. It is
no longer anchored within a classical public
sphere mediated and supported by the frame of
the nation state or corporation, but floats on the
surface of temporary and dubious data pools.15
By drifting away from the vaults of cinema, it is
propelled onto new and ephemeral screens
stitched together by the desires of dispersed
spectators.
đđđđđđđđđđThe circulation of poor images thus creates
“visual bonds,” as Dziga Vertov once called
them.16 This “visual bond” was, according to
Vertov, supposed to link the workers of the world
with each other.17 He imagined a sort of
communist, visual, Adamic language that could
not only inform or entertain, but also organize its
viewers. In a sense, his dream has come true, if
mostly under the rule of a global information
capitalism whose audiences are linked almost in
a physical sense by mutual excitement, affective
attunement, and anxiety.
đđđđđđđđđđBut there is also the circulation and
production of poor images based on cell phone
cameras, home computers, and unconventional
forms of distribution. Its optical connections –
collective editing, file sharing, or grassroots
distribution circuits – reveal erratic and
coincidental links between producers
everywhere, which simultaneously constitute
dispersed audiences.
đđđđđđđđđđThe circulation of poor images feeds into
both capitalist media assembly lines and
alternative audiovisual economies. In addition to
a lot of confusion and stupefaction, it also
possibly creates disruptive movements of
thought and affect. The circulation of poor
images thus initiates another chapter in the
historical genealogy of nonconformist
information circuits: Vertov’s “visual bonds,” the
internationalist workers pedagogies that Peter
Weiss described in The Aesthetics of Resistance,
the circuits of Third Cinema and
Tricontinentalism, of non-aligned filmmaking
and thinking. The poor image – ambivalent as its
status may be – thus takes its place in the
genealogy of carbon-copied pamphlets, cine-
train agit-prop films, underground video
magazines and other nonconformist materials,
which aesthetically often used poor materials.
Moreover, it reactualizes many of the historical
ideas associated with these circuits, among
others Vertov’s idea of the visual bond.

đđđđđđđđđđImagine somebody from the past with a
beret asking you, “Comrade, what is your visual
bond today?”
đđđđđđđđđđYou might answer: it is this link to the
present.

6. Now!
The poor image embodies the afterlife of many
former masterpieces of cinema and video art. It
has been expelled from the sheltered paradise
that cinema seems to have once been.18 After
being kicked out of the protected and often
protectionist arena of national culture, discarded
from commercial circulation, these works have
become travelers in a digital no-man’s land,
constantly shifting their resolution and format,
speed and media, sometimes even losing names
and credits along the way.
đđđđđđđđđđNow many of these works are back – as
poor images, I admit. One could of course argue
that this is not the real thing, but then – please,
anybody – show me this real thing.
đđđđđđđđđđThe poor image is no longer about the real
thing – the originary original. Instead, it is about
its own real conditions of existence: about
swarm circulation, digital dispersion, fractured
and flexible temporalities. It is about defiance
and appropriation just as it is about conformism
and exploitation.
đđđđđđđđđđIn short: it is about reality.
đđđđđđđđđđ×
An earlier version of this text was improvised in a response at
the “Essayfilm – Ästhetik und Aktualität” conference in
Lüneburg, Germany, organized by Thomas Tode and Sven
Kramer in 2007. The text benefitted tremendously from the
remarks and comments of Third Text guest editor Kodwo
Eshun, who commissioned a longer version for an issue of
Third Text on Chris Marker and Third Cinema to appear in
2010 (co-edited by Ros Grey). Another substantial inspiration
for this text was the exhibition “Dispersion” at the ICA in
London (curated by Polly Staple in 2008), which included a
brilliant reader edited by Staple and Richard Birkett. The text
also benefitted greatly from Brian Kuan Wood’s editorial
work.

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Hito Steyerl is a filmmaker and writer. She teaches
New Media Art at University of Arts Berlin and has
recently participated in Documenta 12, Shanghai
Biennial, and Rotterdam Film Festival.

đđđđđđ1
Deconstructing Harry, directed
by Woody Allen (1997).

đđđđđđ2
“Wer Gemälde wirklich sehen
will, geht ja schließlich auch ins
Museum,” Frankfurter
Allgemeine Zeitung, June 14,
2007. Conversation between
Harun Farocki and Alexander
Horwath.

đđđđđđ3
Sven Lütticken’s excellent text
“Viewing Copies: On the Mobility
of Moving Images,” in e-flux
journal, no. 8 (May 2009), drew
my attention to this aspect of
poor images. See http://e-
flux.com/journal/vi ew/75.

đđđđđđ4
Thanks to Kodwo Eshun for
pointing this out.

đđđđđđ5
Of course in some cases images
with low resolution also appear
in mainstream media
environments (mainly news),
where they are associated with
urgency, immediacy, and
catastrophe – and are extremely
valuable. See Hito Steyerl,
“Documentary Uncertainty,” A
Prior 15 (2007),
http://magazines umenta.d
e/frontend/article.php?IdLan
guage=1&NrArticle=584.

đđđđđđ6
Hito Steyerl, “Politics of the
Archive: Translations in Film,”
Transversal (March 2008),
http://eipcp.net/transversal
/0608/steyerl/en.

đđđđđđ7
From correspondence with the
author via e-mail.

đđđđđđ8
Julio García Espinosa, “For an
Imperfect Cinema,” 
trans.
Julianne Burton, Jump Cut, no.
20 (1979): 24–26.

đđđđđđ9
See Paolo Virno, A Grammar of
the Multitude: For an Analysis of
Contemporary Forms of Life
(Cambridge, MA: MIT Press,
2004).

đđđđđđ10
See Alex Alberro, Conceptual Art
and the Politics of
Publicity(Cambridge, MA: MIT
Press, 2003).

đđđđđđ11
See Félix Guattari, “Capital as
the Integral of Power
Formations,” in Soft Subversions
(New York: Semiotext(e), 1996),
202.

đđđđđđ12
All these developments are
discussed in detail in an
excellent text by Simon Sheikh,
“Objects of Study or
Commodification of Knowledge?
Remarks on Artistic Research,”
Art & Research 2, no. 2 (Spring
2009),
http://www.artandresearch.or
g.uk/v2n2/sheikh.html.

đđđđđđ13

See also Alan Sekula, “Reading
an Archive: Photography
between Labour and Capital,” in
Visual Culture: The Reader, ed.
Stuart Hall and Jessica Evans
(London/New York: Routledge
1999), 181–192.

đđđđđđ14
See Alberro, Conceptual Art and
the Politics of Publicity.

đđđđđđ15
The Pirate Bay even seems to
have tried acquiring the
extraterritorial oil platform of
Sealand in order to install its
servers there. See Jan Libbenga,
“The Pirate Bay plans to buy
Sealand,” The Register, January
12, 2007,
http://www.theregister.co.uk
/2007/01/12/pirate_bay_buys_
island.

đđđđđđ16
Dziga Vertov, “Kinopravda and
Radiopravda,” in Kino-Eye: The
Writings of Dziga Vertov, ed.
Annette Michelson (Berkeley:
University of California Press,
1995), 52.

đđđđđđ17
Vertov, “Kinopravda and
Radiopravda,” 52.

đđđđđđ18
At least from the perspective of
nostalgic delusion.

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For the reading responses you should address six questions on an assigned reading where each question should be answered in one half-page paragraph. Each response should thus be 3 double-spaced pages (Times New Roman, 12 point font, 1 inch margins) divided into six paragraphs. Each paragraph should include one quote from the text. Quotes should be no longer than two lines each.

The following questions should be addressed, in the order that they are listed here:

1.      What is the central thesis of the text?

2.      What is the author’s motivation for writing the text? What is at stake?

3.      What key concepts/terminology does the author use to organize their argument? What is the relationship and distinction between them?

4.      What examples are used to explain or support the thesis? Do they work well?

5.      What critical concerns do you have of the argument at hand?

6.      What is an example of a contemporary issue the text helps us address? Briefly elaborate on how the text illuminates, complicates, or helps you navigate the issue you identified.

(you don’t need external sources but if they were helpful they are welcome)

Yang Zhou

Reading test1

2021.1.23

Enlightenment

The Central Thesis

The article’s major thesis includes the disability of a man to use his understanding without the need to have other people’s guidance. The term is referred to as enlightenment or “the man’s emergence from his self-incurred immaturity.” Enlightenment involves a range of ideas united on sovereignty and senses evidence as to the fundamental source of advanced idea and knowledge, including toleration, progress, liberty, fraternity, and other related elements. In essence, the thesis revolves around the fact that many people in the contemporary world possess laziness and cowardice in using their understanding of aspects. Instead, they depend on other people’s guidance. Immaturity has become the second nature of humans, and it is difficult for an individual to work his way out of it. Besides, it has become a habit of many people to rely on others to use a payment approach for other individuals to think on their behalf.

The Author’s Motivation

I think the author’s major motivation to write the text is the need for the public to have their freedom of using their understanding and breaking the chain of a permanent immaturity. In essence, “people are used to immaturity that they are incapable of trusting their understanding in different aspects” since they were never given a chance to put what they believe into practice (Nagamori, 2020). They lack experience in exercising their understanding, and as such, they are used to believe and follow what has been decided by others without the need to question why things are done in a certain way. What is at stake is the public concern that is not given its freedom. Few people who have managed to work themselves out of the immaturity might drive the whole public in their interests that may not benefit the public instead.

Terminologies Used

One of the author’s key terminology includes enlightenment, which is the ability of an individual to emerge from their self-incurred immaturity. The author uses the terminology to emphasize that the public should have the courage to use its understanding. The author also emphasizes that” there are more chances for enlightening the entire public if its concern is set to freedom.” Another significant terminology utilized by the author is immaturity. He uses the immaturity terminology to show men’s inability to use their understanding without the need to have guidance from others. Instead of cultivating their minds and freeing themselves from others’ chains, they rely on other people’s opinions to make theirs on certain aspects of life (Nagamori, 2020). The relationship between the two terminologies is that immaturity prevents people from achieving their enlightenment, which is the basic to man’s freedom.

Author’s Examples

One of the examples the author uses to support his thesis includes the presence of a “book to have an understanding in place of an individual.” The example has worked well to support the thesis since a book will eventually enable a person to understand a certain concept, thereby ending up not using their own thinking (Pinker, 2018). Another essential example used includes a spiritual adviser to have a conscience for another person. Also, the example works well since the spiritual advisor will use his own understanding of a concept on behalf of another person. Besides, another example used is the use of a doctor to judge one’s diet. Here, the patient fails to use his own understanding of what he should eat and instead rely on a doctor to tell him what he should eat and that one not to use in the diet.

Critical Concern

As an international student, I don’t really know enough about this to make a statement, and my analysis is probably more international. Anyway, my critical concern is that with time, the public freedom to use their own understating on different matters is being depleted by few enlightened individuals. People are anonymously prevented from using their understanding of different aspects and instead are forced to follow certain ways following an autocratic despotism. People are forced to follow certain understanding without questioning or arguing with them. For example, a tax-official will ask an individual to pay a certain amount without questioning why it is being paid. As such, “this is likely to lead the public to oppression and prevent revolution and reform regarding freedom of thinking and to use one’s understanding to judge or make a decision in life.”

 

    

A Contemporary Issue

One of the common issues is the government ruling on certain policies that benefit a specific group of people but undermine the public interest. For instance, on many occasions, the Trump administration has attempted to undermine the public trust in democracy. In 2020, Trump attempted to undermine the public’s confidence in voting procedures (Fried and Harris, 2020). Specifically, his reaction to the expansion of some states in mail-in voting in the pandemic’s name undermined the voters’ confidence following his tweet, “the Mail-In Ballots would be fraudulent.” Here, he was forcing the public to use his thinking in judging the Mail-In Ballot process. Many Americans had lost confidence in this process, and this shows how they were immature. They could not use their understanding, and rather, they believed the understanding of another person to make their own conclusion. The text helps in navigating the issue by enlightening people to use their understanding of matters.

Work Cited

Amy Fried, Douglas B. Harris. (2020). In Suspense: Donald Trump’s Efforts to Undermine Public Trust in Democracy. Derived from;

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12115-020-00526-y

Nagamori, N. (2020). Kant’s Theory of Imagination: From Immaturity to Enlightenment.

Pinker, S. (2018). Enlightenment now: The case for reason, science, humanism, and progress. Penguin.

 

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