Posted: October 27th, 2022

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Lecture Outlines

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Withgott | Laposata

Sixth Edition

ENVIRONMENT the science behind the stories

Chapter 3

Evolution, Biodiversity, and

  • Population Ecology
  • © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc.

  • Lecture objectives
  •  Explain natural selection with evidence.
     Describe how evolution influences biodiversity.
     Discuss the causes of species extinctions, including

    significant mass extinction events.
     List the levels of ecological organization.
     Predict the growth of a population based on its

    characteristics.
     Assess a population’s logistic growth, carrying

    capacity, and limiting factors.
     Identify efforts and challenges in biodiversity

    conservation.
    © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc.

     Hawaii’s geographic isolation in the middle of the
    Pacific Ocean has created a cradle of

    evolution.

     Half of the native bird species have gone extinct
    since the 18th century, primarily due to human
    influences.

    © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc.

     The aki is one of 18 living species of Hawaiian
    honeycreepers that diverged from a single ancestral
    species that reached Hawaii millions of years ago.
     Each species has its own set of unique

    characteristics, such as bill shape.

    © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc.

     The aki has a distinctly curved bill that it uses to get
    nectar from a similarly shaped flower.

     Hawaiian forests are under siege due to clearcutting
    and non-native species introduction first by
    Polynesian settlers, then European settlers.

    © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc.

  • Evolution: The Source of Earth’s Biodiversity
  •  A species is a classification of organism whose

    members can interbreed and produce fertile
    offspring.

    © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc.

     A population is a group of individuals within a
    species that live in the same geographic area.

     Populations change over multiple generations as
    genetic changes alter their physical and behavioral
    characteristics, a process called evolution.
     Evolution originates in genes and often leads to

    modifications in appearance or behavior.

    © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc.

  • Natural selection shapes organisms
  •  Evolution is driven by natural selection, a process

    that favors certain inherited characteristics over
    others, causing them to be passed on more
    frequently.

     The idea of natural selection is based on three
    observations:
     Organisms face a constant struggle to survive and

    reproduce.
     Organisms tend to produce more offspring than can

    survive to maturity.
     Individuals of a species vary in their attributes.

    © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc.

     The concept of natural selection was first proposed
    in the 1850s by Charles Darwin and, independently
    by Alfred Russel Wallace, two British naturalists.

     Attributes are passed from parent to offspring
    through genes.
     Genes that lead to better reproductive success will

    eventually evolve through the entire population. This
    is called adaptation.

    © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc.

  • Selection acts on genetic variation
  •  Accidental changes in DNA, called mutations, give

    rise to genetic variation in individuals.
     The mixing of genetic material through sexual

    reproduction also generates variation.
     Natural selection can drive a feature in a particular

    direction.

    © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc.

     The average bill length of the ‘i’iwi can shift
    depending on the environment.
     An environment with flowers

    with short nectar tubes would
    favor short beaks.
     An environment with flowers

    with long nectar tubes would
    favor long beaks.

    © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc.

    Selective pressures from the environment
    influence adaptation
     Closely related species that live in different

    environments tend to diverge in their traits.
     Different selective pressure → different adaptations

    © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc.

     Unrelated species living in similar environments in
    separate locations may independently acquire
    similar traits.
     Similar selective pressures.
     This is called convergent

    evolution.
    © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc.

  • Evidence of selection is all around us
  •  Humans have conducted selection under our own

    direction, called artificial selection.
     Domesticated dogs, cats, and livestock

    © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc.

    Understanding evolution is vital for modern
    society
     Many medical advances have resulted from our

    knowledge of evolution.
     How infectious diseases spread and gain or lose

    potency.
     Tracking evolving strains of influenza, HIV, and other

    pathogens.
     Detection of the evolution of antibiotic resistance in

    bacteria.

    © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc.

  • Evolution generates biodiversity
  •  Biological diversity, or biodiversity, refers to the

    variety of life across all levels.
     Species, genes, populations, and communities

     About 1.8 million species have been identified, but
    the actual amount may be 3–100 million.

     The process by which new species are generated is
    termed speciation.

    © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc.

  • Speciation produces new types of organisms
  •  Allopatric speciation occurs when

    populations become physically
    separated over a geographic
    distance.

     When a mutation arises in an
    organism of one of the populations,
    it does not spread to the other.
     Eventually the populations grow so

    different that they can no longer
    mate.

    © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc.

    We can infer the history of life’s diversification
    by comparing organisms
     Scientists represent the

    history of divergence with
    phylogenetic trees.
     Constructed by analyzing

    genes and external traits
    of organisms

    © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc.

     Taxonomists group species into categories meant to
    reflect evolutionary relationships.
     Related species are grouped into a genus, related

    genera are grouped into families, etc.

    © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc.

  • Fossils reveal life’s long history
  •  A fossil is an imprint in stone of a dead organism.
     By dating the rock layers that

    contain fossils, paleontologists
    can learn when the organisms
    lived.
     The body of fossils worldwide

    is called the fossil record.
     The vast majority of species

    that once lived have
    disappeared due to
    extinction.

    © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc.

    Some species are especially vulnerable to
    extinction
     Extinction occurs when the

    environment changes more
    rapidly than the species can
    adapt.

     Small and narrowly
    specialized populations are
    the most vulnerable.
     For example, Hawaii’s native

    birds and plants did not
    evolve defenses against
    mammal predators.

    © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc.

     Species that are endemic to a region, meaning they
    occur nowhere else on the planet, are especially
    vulnerable.
     If an event affects their region, it affects all members

    of the species.
     Island-dwelling species are also at elevated risk of

    extinction, because many have been isolated from
    typical evolutionary pressures, such as the presence
    of predators.

    © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc.

    Earth has seen several episodes of mass
    extinction
     Most extinction happens gradually, at a rate called

    the background extinction rate.
     The Earth has seen at least five mass extinction

    events that wiped out 50–95% of Earth’s species
    each time.
     The most catastrophic was the Permian extinction,

    250 million years ago.
     Causes can include volcanism, asteroid impact,

    methane releases, and global warming.

    © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc.

     Today’s extinction rate is 100–1000 times higher
    than the background rate, and rising.

     Causes stem from human population growth:
     Altering or destroying natural habitats
     Overhunting and overharvesting
     Pollution of air, water, and soil
     Introduction of non-native species
     Climate change

    © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc.

  • Review Questions
  • 1. Broccoli is a type of vegetable created by human

    farmers by breeding wild mustard plants for large
    flower buds and stems. Both are the same species,
    Brassica oleracea. What is this an example of?
    a. Speciation
    b. Artificial selection
    c. Natural selection
    d. Background extinction

    © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc.

    Presenter
    Presentation Notes
    Answer: b

    Review Questions
    2. Which of these is an accurate statement regarding

    extinction?
    a. Most extinctions have occurred due to catastrophic

    natural disasters.
    b. Species are currently going extinct at a level

    significantly below the background rate.
    c. Species are currently going extinct at a level

    significantly greater than the background rate.
    d. The fossil record only contains evidence of a single

    mass extinction event.

    © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc.

    Presenter
    Presentation Notes
    Answer: c

  • Ecology and the Organism
  •  Ecology is the study of the interactions among

    organisms and with their environments, and
    includes many levels.

     The organism, a single
    living thing

     A population, or group of
    individuals of the same
    species that live in the
    same area

    © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc.

     A community includes all of the populations of
    species that live and interact within an area.
     Community ecology studies these interactions.

     Ecosystems include communities and all of the
    abiotic, or nonliving parts of the environment.
     Ecosystem ecology studies the flow of energy

    and nutrients between the living and nonliving parts.

    © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc.

     The biosphere is the sum total of all living things
    and habitats on the Earth.
     Landscape ecology examines how ecosystems,

    communities, and populations are distributed across
    the Earth.

    © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc.

  • Each organism has habitat needs
  •  Each organism has a relationship with its habitat,

    the environment in which it lives.
     Rock, soil, leaf litter, plant life, etc.
     Depending on the species, a habitat may be a square

    meter of soil, or many miles of land.
     Organisms thrive in certain habitats and not others,

    creating patterns of habitat use.
     Mobile organisms are able to choose where they

    live, a process called habitat selection.

    © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc.

  • Organisms have roles in communities
  •  An organism’s role in its community is its niche.
     Includes resource use and interaction with other

    organisms
     Species with narrow niches are specialists.
     The ‘akiapōlā’au

    specializes in digging
    grubs out of trees.

     Species that can utilize
    a wider variety of
    resources are
    generalists.

    © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc.

    Population Ecology
     Population size, the number of organisms in an

    area at a given time, will grow when resources are
    abundant and natural enemies are few.
     Declines due to resource

    loss, natural disaster, or
    impacts from other
    species
     The North American

    passenger pigeon
    declined and went extinct
    due to overhunting.

    © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc.

     Population density describes the number of
    individuals per unit area.

     Population distribution describes the spatial
    arrangement of organisms within an area.
     Random distribution shows no particular pattern.
     Uniform distribution has individuals spaced evenly.
     Clumped distribution occurs when individuals

    concentrate in certain areas.

    © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc.

     Sex ratio is the proportion of males to females.
     1:1 ratios are seen in monogamous species; ratios

    vary in others.
     Age structure describes the number of individuals

    of different ages within a population.
     This can help to predict whether a population will

    grow or shrink in the near future.

    © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc.

  • Populations may grow, shrink, or remain stable
  •  Demographers, scientists who study population

    change, track the four key population factors:
     Natality — Births within the population.
     Mortality — Deaths within the population.
     Immigration — Arrival of individuals from outside the

    population.
     Emigration — Departure of individuals from the

    population.
     A population’s rate of natural increase is

    determined by subtracting the death rate from the
    birth rate.

    © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc.

     The actual population growth rate includes the
    effects of emigration and immigration:

    (birth rate – death rate) + (immigration rate – emigration rate)

     Rates may be expressed per 1000 individuals per
    year. These can be used in the formula.

     Growth rates may be expressed as percentages:
    population growth rate x 100%

    © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc.

    Unregulated populations increase by
    exponential growth
     When a population increases by a fixed percentage

    each year, it undergoes exponential growth.
     When graphed, these populations produce a

    J-shaped curve.
     Exponential growth only

    occurs in nature when a
    population is small,
    competition is minimal,
    and environmental
    conditions are ideal.

    © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc.

  • Limiting factors restrain growth
  •  Eventually, every population is constrained by

    physical, chemical, and biological limiting factors in
    the environment.
     These factors determine carrying capacity, the

    maximum population size of a species that an
    environment can sustain.

     Population growth slows
    as it reaches the carrying
    capacity. This produces
    an S-shaped curve called
    logistic growth.

    © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc.

     The Eurasian collared dove is a non-native species
    that has reached carrying capacity in Florida, where
    it was introduced.
     In other areas, its population grows slowly or

    exponentially, depending on how recently it arrived.

    © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc.

    The influence of some factors depends on
    population density
     The density of a population can enhance or diminish

    the effect of some limiting factors.
     Density-dependent factors rise and fall with

    population density.
     Predation, disease

     Density-independent factors are unaffected by
    population density.
     Temperature extremes, catastrophic natural disasters

    © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc.

  • Life history strategies vary among species
  •  The life history theory explains how natural

    selection influences reproduction, survival and
    lifespan.
     Differences in how species invest in reproduction,

    parental care, and survival are depicted in
    survivorship curves.

    © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc.

     Type III survivorship curves occur when species
    produce many offspring, but do not care for them.
     Survival is due to chance.
     These are also called r-selected species, and do well

    in changing and unpredictable environments.

    © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc.

     Type I survivorship curves are observed in species
    that have few offspring, but invest heavily in their
    survival.
     These are also called K-selected species, and are

    found in stable environments.

    © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc.

  • Conserving Biodiversity
  •  Human development and resource extraction are

    speeding the natural rate of environmental change
    that affects populations.
     One example is introduced species, which displace or

    kill native species.

    © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc.

  • Innovative solutions are working
  •  A wide variety of organizations work to protect land,

    remove alien species, and restore native habitats.
     These efforts can create economic benefits, as

    visitors are drawn to wildlife and natural areas.
     This is called ecotourism.
     Hawaii’s economy takes

    in $12 billion annually
    from more than 7 million
    visitors per year.

    © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc.

  • Climate change poses an extra challenge
  •  As temperatures and rainfall patterns change, even

    protected areas may be affected.
     The mountainous Hakalau Forest in Hawai’i is

    predicted to experience an increase in the range of
    malaria-carrying mosquitoes.

    © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc.

    Review Questions
    3. Which is a true statement about this graph?

    a. This species is undergoing exponential growth.
    b. Limiting factors are present for this species.
    c. The carrying capacity for this species is apparent.
    d. This is an example of a Type III survivorship curve.

    © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc.

    Presenter
    Presentation Notes
    Answer: a

    • Slide Number 1
    • Lecture objectives

    • Slide Number 3
    • Slide Number 4
    • Slide Number 5
    • Evolution: The Source of Earth’s Biodiversity

    • Slide Number 7
    • Natural selection shapes organisms

    • Slide Number 9
    • Selection acts on genetic variation

    • Slide Number 11
    • Selective pressures from the environment influence adaptation
    • Slide Number 13
    • Evidence of selection is all around us

    • Understanding evolution is vital for modern society
    • Evolution generates biodiversity
      Speciation produces new types of organisms

    • We can infer the history of life’s diversification by comparing organisms
    • Slide Number 19
    • Fossils reveal life’s long history

    • Some species are especially vulnerable to extinction
    • Slide Number 22
    • Earth has seen several episodes of mass extinction
    • Slide Number 24
    • Review Questions
      Review Questions
      Ecology and the Organism

    • Slide Number 28
    • Slide Number 29
    • Each organism has habitat needs
      Organisms have roles in communities
      Population Ecology

    • Slide Number 33
    • Slide Number 34
    • Populations may grow, shrink, or remain stable

    • Slide Number 36
    • Unregulated populations increase by exponential growth
    • Limiting factors restrain growth

    • Slide Number 39
    • The influence of some factors depends on population density
    • Life history strategies vary among species

    • Slide Number 42
    • Slide Number 43
    • Conserving Biodiversity
      Innovative solutions are working
      Climate change poses an extra challenge
      Review Questions

    Lecture Outlines

    Withgott | Laposata

    Sixth Edition

    ENVIRONMENT the science behind the stories

    Chapter 4

  • Species Interactions
  • and
    Community Ecology

    © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc.

  • Lecture objectives
  •  Compare types of species interactions.
     Describe feeding relationships and energy flow

    using food webs.
     Discuss characteristics of a keystone species.
     Characterize disturbance, succession, and

    community change.
     Predict the impacts of an invasive species and

    suggestion responses to it.
     Explain restoration ecology.
     Identify and describe terrestrial biomes of the world.

    © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc.

    Central Case Study: Black and White and
    Spread All Over: Zebra Mussels Invade the
    Great Lakes
     In 1988, it was discovered that zebra mussels had

    been introduced to the Great Lakes through ballast
    water discharged from European ships.
     Within six years, they had spread into the Mississippi

    River watershed, reaching 19 U.S. states.
     They currently are found in 30 states.

    © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc.

     The mussels spread quickly because they were free
    of predators and parasites.

     The mussels impact humans by clogging water
    intake pipes at factories and municipal water plants,
    as well as damaging docks, fishing gear, and boats.
     They have cost the Great Lakes economies an

    estimated $5 billion over the first 10 years.

    © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc.

     Zebra mussels also have ecological impacts,
    including the consumption and depletion of
    microscopic algae, protists, and cyanobacteria
    called plankton.
     The tiny aquatic animals that eat phytoplankton,

    called zooplankton, are becoming depleted due
    to a lack of food.

     Native mussels are
    becoming suffocated by
    the zebra mussels.

    © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc.

     The zebra mussel population may have peaked,
    however, due to other changes in the ecology of the
    Great Lakes.
     The quagga mussel (Dreissena bugensis) is another

    invasive species that is competing with zebra
    mussels.
     Native fish, crabs, ducks, and other predators are

    beginning to use the mussels as a food source.

    © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc.

    Species Interactions
     Species like zebra mussels interact with their

    ecological community in many ways.
     Organisms that seek the same resource have a

    relationship called competition.
     Intraspecific competition takes place between

    members of the same species.
     Interspecific competition takes place between

    members of different species.
     Competition becomes more intense when

    populations are more dense.

    © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc.

     If one species is a stronger competitor, it may
    exclude other species from the resource. This is
    competitive exclusion.
     Zebra mussels had this effect on native mussels.

     Otherwise, if no single competitor excludes others,
    species live side-by-side. This is species
    coexistence.

     Coexisting species will alter their behaviors to
    minimize competition, altering their niche.
     A niche is a species role in an ecosystem, including

    resource use, habitat use, food consumption, and
    other attributes.

    © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc.

     The full potential niche of a species is called its
    fundamental niche.

     An individual that only plays part of its role due to
    competition or other interactions has a realized
    niche.
     The quagga mussel is pushing the zebra mussel into

    from a fundamental to a realized niche.

    © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc.

     Over many generations, natural selection may favor
    resource partitioning, where individuals use
    shared resources in different ways.
     This may lead to

    character displacement,
    where competing species
    diverge and develop
    different characteristics.

    © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc.

  • Predators kill and consume prey
  •  Predation is the process by which individuals of one

    species (the predators) capture, kill, and consume
    individuals of another (the prey).

     Predation may
    affect population
    dynamics, such as
    when an increase
    in prey favors an
    increase in
    predators and
    vice-versa.

    © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc.

     Predators that are better at capturing prey will live
    longer and reproduce more. Natural selection will
    favor adaptations that enhance hunting.

     Prey have the risk of death as a selective pressure,
    causing the evolution of many types of defenses.

    © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc.

  • Parasites exploit living hosts
  •  Parasitism is a relationship where one organism

    depends on the other for nourishment.
     Parasitism, unlike predation, usually does not result in

    an organism’s death.
     Parasites live with their hosts in many ways:
     Inside the host, such as tapeworms
     On the host’s exterior, such as sea lampreys
     Free-living, such as cuckoos, who lay their eggs in the

    nests of other species

    © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc.

     Parasites that cause disease are called pathogens.
     Pathogens can be protists (malaria), bacteria

    (tuberculosis), or viruses (hepatitis).
     Parasites and hosts adapt and counter-adapt to

    each other through a process called coevolution.

    © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc.

  • Herbivores exploit plants
  •  In herbivory, animals feed on the tissues of plants.
     Insects are the most common type of herbivore.

     Plants have also evolved defenses, such as toxic
    chemicals, thorns, spines, or irritating hairs.

    © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc.

  • Mutualists help one another
  •  Mutualism is a relationship where two or more

    species benefit each other.
     Many mutualistic relationships occur as part of

    symbiosis – a close physical association between
    species.
     Others, such as in

    pollination, only require
    free-living organisms
    to encounter each
    other once.
     Birds or insects transfer

    pollen from flower to
    flower, causing fertilization.

    © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc.

  • Review Questions
  • 1. Two different bird species compete for the same

    kinds of insects. One is more active in the morning,
    the other in the evening. What is this an
    example of?
    a. Intraspecific competition
    b. Resource partitioning
    c. Competitive exclusion
    d. Herbivory

    © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc.

    Review Questions
    2. Microbes are found in the digestive tract of all

    humans. They are given a place to live and help to
    digest our food. What type of relationship is this?
    a. Interspecific competition
    b. Parasitism
    c. Herbivory
    d. Mutualism

    © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc.

  • Ecological Communities
  •  A community is an assemblage of populations

    organisms living in the same area at the same time.
     Community ecologists study which species coexist,

    how they interact, how communities change over
    time, and why these patterns occur.

     Some of the most important interactions among
    community members involve who eats whom.

    © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc.

  • Energy passes among trophic levels
  •  Species in a community are given a rank within the

    feeding hierarchy, called a trophic level.
     Producers use photosynthesis or chemosynthesis

    to make their own sugars.
     Primary consumers consume producers.

    © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc.

     Secondary consumers prey
    on primary consumers.

     Tertiary consumers prey on
    secondary consumers.

     Detritivores scavenge waste
    and dead bodies.

     Decomposers break down
    nonliving matter into smaller
    molecules.
     These play an especially

    important role in cycling
    nutrients back into soil for
    plants to use.

    © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc.

    Energy, numbers, and biomass decrease at
    higher trophic levels
     At each trophic level, most of the energy input is

    either used for maintenance or lost as heat.
     Trophic levels will only have about 10% of energy

    content, organisms, and biomass compared to the
    one below them.

    © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc.

     Biomass is the collective mass of living matter in a
    given place and time.
     The pyramid pattern of energy and biomass illustrates

    why eating at lower trophic levels decreases your
    ecological footprint.

    © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc.

    Food webs show feeding relationships and
    energy flow
     The flow of energy and feeding relationships from

    lower to higher trophic levels is depicted in a food
    chain.

     Food webs incorporate all of the interlinking food
    chains within an entire community, showing the map
    of energy flow.

    © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc.

    © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc.

  • Some organisms play outsized roles
  •  A species that has an impact far greater than its

    abundance is called a keystone species. Keystone
    species can include:
     Decomposers that recycle nutrients and replenish the

    soil.
     “Ecosystem engineers,” such as beavers and prairie

    dogs, who physically alter ecosystems.
     Top predators, who control populations of lower

    trophic level consumers, are often keystone species.

    © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc.

     If top predators are lost, primary consumers will
    overconsume producers and alter the entire
    ecosystem. This is called a trophic cascade.
     This is one example of a disturbance.

    © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc.

    Communities respond to disturbance in various
    ways
     A disturbance is any event that has rapid and

    drastic effects on the community and ecosystem.
     Disturbances can be small and localized, such as a

    tree falling and creating a gap in the forest canopy.
     Disturbances can be large, like hurricanes.
     Disturbances may also recur regularly, such as prairie

    fires or insect outbreaks.
     A community that resists change and remains stable

    shows resistance to the disturbance.
     A community that is changed by a disturbance but

    returns to its original state has resilience.
    © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc.

  • Succession follows severe disturbance
  •  Severe disturbances may eliminate all or most of the

    species in a community, initiating a series of
    changes called succession.

     Succession begins with the colonization of pioneer
    species.
     Pioneer species, such as grasses and forbs, spread

    over long distances easily and are adapted for
    growing quickly.

     Over time, pioneers are overtaken by longer-living
    climax community species, such as hardwood
    trees.

    © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc.

     Primary succession occurs when a disturbance
    removes all plant or soil life.
     Lichens secrete acids that break down rock,

    beginning the process of soil formation.

    © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc.

     Secondary succession begins with a disturbance
    that alters the community but leaves the soil life
    intact.
     Farming, fires, storms, and landslides are examples.

    © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc.

  • Communities may undergo shifts
  •  Communities do not pass through the stages of

    succession evenly; ecological conditions may
    promote or inhibit progression.

     At times, communities may undergo a regime shift,
    meaning that the entire character of the community
    changes from the disturbance.
     Occurs from climate change, loss of a keystone

    species, or introduction of an invasive species.
     In some cases, human disturbance is causing

    no-analog communities, which are mixtures of
    species that have not previously occurred on the
    Earth.

    © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc.

    Invasive species pose threats to community
    stability
     Introduced species are non-native arrivals to a

    community brought by people.
     Most fail to establish populations, but the ones that

    thrive are called invasive species.
     Introduced species become invasive when limiting

    factors that normally regulate their population growth
    are absent.
     Lack of competition, predators, or parasites.

    © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc.

     Zebra mussels became invasive and had both
    positive and negative impacts on communities.

    © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc.

     Both zebra and quagga mussels have spread
    throughout the waterways of North America.

    © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc.

    We can respond to invasive species with
    control, eradication, or prevention
     The problems caused by zebra and quagga mussels

    led to the passage of the National Invasive Species
    Act of 1996.
     Ships must dump their freshwater ballast at sea and

    replace it with saltwater before entering the Great
    Lakes.

     Funding has been provided for control measures:
     Applying toxic chemicals, heat, sound, electricity, UV

    light, and carbon dioxide to stress the mussels.
     Control and eradication has been very expensive, so

    now attention is given to preventing future invasions.
    © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc.

  • Altered communities can be restored
  •  Scientists who study restoration ecology devise

    ways to restore altered areas to their condition
    before industrialized civilization.

     Ecological restoration may have two aims:
     Restore the functionality of an ecosystem.
     Return a community to its “pre-settlement” condition.

    © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc.

     Nearly all the U.S. tallgrass prairie has been
    removed for farmland. A 1000-acre area near
    Chicago has been restored with native vegetation.

    © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc.

     In Florida, dams, canals, and levees are being
    undone to restore the natural water flow to the
    Everglades.

    © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc.

     Invasive species, such as garlic mustard and
    Burmese pythons, have also been removed from
    these areas.

    © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc.

    Review Questions
    3. Which is an example of a secondary consumer in

    this food web?
    a. White-tailed deer
    b. Deer mouse
    c. Eastern cottontail
    d. Rat snake

    © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc.

    Review Questions
    4. A forest fire destroys most of the animal and plant

    life in a community. The soil and soil life are intact.
    Within several decades, most of the original
    community has been restored. What is this an
    example of?
    a. A disturbance.
    b. Primary succession
    c. Secondary succession
    d. A and B
    e. A and C

    © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc.

  • Earth’s Biomes
  •  Despite communities being in very different locations

    in the Earth, they often have similar structure and
    function.

     A regional complex of similar communities is called a
    biome.
     Biomes are classified primarily by dominant plant type

    and vegetation structure, which in turn is the result of
    climate.

    © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc.

  • Climate helps determine biomes
  •  Temperature and precipitation exert the greatest

    influence over all other climatic factors.

    © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc.

     Temperature and precipitation are highly correlated
    with latitude, creating global patterns of biomes.

    © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc.

     Climate also varies with elevation. At higher
    altitudes:
     Temperature, atmospheric pressure, and oxygen

    decline.
     Ultraviolet radiation increases.

     Mountains also affect climate through the
    rainshadow effect.
     When moist air rises a steep slope, it cools and

    condenses, releasing precipitation.
     The air that reaches the other side of the mountain is

    now very dry, creating an arid region.

    © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc.

     Climate diagrams, also called climatographs, depict
    seasonal changes in temperature and precipitation
    and help to tell the story of a biome.

     Temperate deciduous forests, for example, are
    found at mid-latitudes and have relatively even
    precipitation throughout the year.
     Winters are frozen, causing the trees to drop their

    leaves.

    © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc.

     Temperature differences between winter and
    summer are more extreme and rainfall diminishes in
    temperate grasslands.
     These biomes are also known as prairie or steppe.

    © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc.

     Temperate rainforests are rich in rainfall, but still
    found in mid-latitudes.
     Mostly contain coniferous trees.
     Soils are fertile, but susceptible to erosion if the

    forests are cleared.

    © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc.

     Tropical rainforests have dark, damp interiors, lush
    vegetation, and highly diverse communities.
     High numbers of trees species intermixed at low

    densities.
     Acidic soils that are low in organic matter.

    © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc.

     Tropical dry forests have wet and dry seasons that
    each occupy about half of the year.
     Temperature is consistently warm.
     Leaves are shed during the dry season.

    © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc.

     Savannas are tropical grassland interspersed with
    acacias or other trees.
     Found in dry tropical areas, including parts of Africa,

    Australia, and India.
     Distinct wet and dry seasons.

    © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc.

     Deserts are the driest biome, receiving less than
    25 cm of rain per year.
     Soils have high mineral and low organic matter

    content.
     Animals and plants must adapt to minimize water

    loss.

    © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc.

     Tundras are also very dry, but are consistently cold
    all year.
     Underground soil is permanently frozen, called

    permafrost.
     Tundras are unoccupied by humans, but are the most

    directly impacted by air pollution and climate change.

    © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc.

     Boreal forests, also called taiga, are also cold, but
    receive more precipitation than tundras.
     They are dominated by few species of evergreen

    trees.
     Soils are acidic and nutrient-poor.

    © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc.

     Chaparral is only found in a few small patches
    throughout the world.
     Covered by a dense thicket of evergreen shrubs.
     Mild, wet winters and warm, dry summers.
     Fires are frequent.
     Climate is induced by nearby oceans.

    © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc.

    Review Questions
    5. Which is a true statement regarding this

    climatograph?
    a. There are seasonal shifts in temperature.
    b. There are seasonal shifts in precipitation.
    c. There are seasonal shifts in both temperature and

    precipitation.
    d. None of the above.

    © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc.

    Review Questions
    6. What type of biome is depicted by this

    climatograph?
    a. Tropical rainforest
    b. Tropical dry forest
    c. Temperate grassland
    d. Desert

    © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc.

    • Slide Number 1
    • Lecture objectives

    • Central Case Study: Black and White and Spread All Over: Zebra Mussels Invade the Great Lakes
    • Slide Number 4
    • Slide Number 5
    • Slide Number 6
    • Species Interactions

    • Slide Number 8
    • Slide Number 9
    • Slide Number 10
    • Predators kill and consume prey

    • Slide Number 12
    • Parasites exploit living hosts

    • Slide Number 14
    • Herbivores exploit plants
      Mutualists help one another
      Review Questions
      Review Questions
      Ecological Communities
      Energy passes among trophic levels

    • Slide Number 21
    • Energy, numbers, and biomass decrease at higher trophic levels
    • Slide Number 23
    • Food webs show feeding relationships and energy flow
    • Slide Number 25
    • Some organisms play outsized roles

    • Slide Number 27
    • Communities respond to disturbance in various ways
    • Succession follows severe disturbance

    • Slide Number 30
    • Slide Number 31
    • Communities may undergo shifts

    • Invasive species pose threats to community stability
    • Slide Number 34
    • Slide Number 35
    • We can respond to invasive species with control, eradication, or prevention
    • Altered communities can be restored

    • Slide Number 38
    • Slide Number 39
    • Slide Number 40
    • Review Questions
      Review Questions
      Earth’s Biomes
      Climate helps determine biomes

    • Slide Number 45
    • Slide Number 46
    • Slide Number 47
    • Slide Number 48
    • Slide Number 49
    • Slide Number 50
    • Slide Number 51
    • Slide Number 52
    • Slide Number 53
    • Slide Number 54
    • Slide Number 55
    • Slide Number 56
    • Review Questions
      Review Questions

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