Posted: January 24th, 2023

psychology

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The APA Methods Section

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The APA methods section starts right after the last Hypothesis and the word “Methods” is a centered
heading. It does not begin on a new page. The APA methods section contains three subsections:
Subjects, Materials (and/or Apparatus), and Procedures. In addition, the materials subsection includes
references to the Appendix. Instructions for the Appendix is included here also.

Participants

Report the number of subjects you plan to use in your study. The total number may be broken down
into males and females, or in the case of quasi-experiments in the various groups from which the
subjects were selected. For example you may have beginners, novices, and experts and need 20 in each
category. How do you know how many subjects you will need? The past research that is summarized in
your introduction included subject’s information…how many was typical in past research? That’s about
how many you should use too. If you are doing correlation research you will need 30 subjects per
variable at least. If you are doing group research the minimum number is 5 per group, but 10 per group
is better, at the minimum. These are rough guidelines; let the past research guide you.

In addition to the total number of subjects, include how many groups and how many per group (if you
have groups), but do not define the groups or discuss what you will be doing with them – that info goes
in the procedures subsection to be written later. Include the kind of subjects you plan to use. By this I
mean college students or general population, special populations like women aged 35-55 only, etc. If
you plan to have a specific number of females and males, or equal numbers of various ethnic
backgrounds, include this too. If you just plan to have males and females but don’t know how many of
each and it’s not really important anyway, you can leave out the numbers, but do say both males and
females will be included.

In addition to number and kind, include a detailed description of your selection method. Random
selection? Stratified sampling? Use the terms learned in class and tell the reader exactly how you plan
to implement the selection strategy. For example, let’s the research you’ve been reading typically uses
quota sampling to ensure that equal numbers of freshmen, sophomores, juniors, and seniors are
represented. You decide that 40 of each class will work fine. Now tell the reader how will do quota
sampling at MTSU. How does one go about “getting” freshmen? sophomores? juniors? and seniors?
You could talk to professors and ask to come their classes and recruit volunteers for your study. You
could stand in the Student Center, the lobby of the Library, and other locations where students gather
and simply ask people to volunteer as they walk by. You could wait in the hall outside of classes and talk
to students as they leave class. If you ask enough students, hang out near or in 1000-level classes, 2000-
level, 3000 and 4000 level, you will get enough volunteers of each category – just be sure that one
question you ask on a demographic survey is their college class. Once all the surveys are in you can then
simply split them into the four class categories for analysis. If you are doing experimental (not survey)
research, then you must first determine the college class. You might put up flyers around campus
requesting volunteers to meet at a designated location or you might ask professors to encourage
students to volunteer by giving them extra credit (and announcing the meeting location and time). Once
the volunteers show up, you then simply ask them their college class and assign them to the
experimental group or control group using a counterbalanced procedure (as described in the textbook).

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Materials

This second subsection of the Methods section reports the materials to be used in the study. Materials
refer to Questionnaires. One that everyone will include is the consent form. The MTSU official consent
form is available in D2L Content. The form is one that I already filled out for some past research. I’ve
highlighted in yellow the parts that you must change to correspond to your proposed research. I could
have provided a blank copy, but I think if you see one that was actually used in real-life research you will
have an easier time filling it out.

A second survey that most everyone will include is a demographic form. Almost always we need to
know if the person is male or female, their age, and other subject information. Sometimes these
questions can be included as first or last questions on some other survey, but often there are sufficient
numbers of these that a one-page demographic sheet is needed.

If your proposed research is a survey type, then you will have one or more questionnaires to describe in
this section. Provide the official name of the survey, how many questions it has, how the questions are
scored, the range of possible scores, the meaning of a high score and a low score, as well as quoting a
question or two as examples. Also include a full copy of the questionnaire in the appendix (every form is
included in the appendix). Do this for each and every questionnaire.

Most research involves providing instructions to the subjects whether it’s experimental or observational
and those instructions must be written out, put in an appendix, and described in this materials
subsection. If you have different instructions for different groups, you must write out the instructions
for each group.

Some studies will use various machinery (stop watches, computers, exercise monitors, etc.) and that
would then be included in an “Apparatus” subsection just like Materials, but describing the machinery
(make, model, where purchased, calibrations, etc.). Some studies will have both materials and apparatus
and they may be combined into one subsection (Materials/Apparatus) or two separate side headings (it
doesn’t matter which comes first). It is possible that you may do a study that uses lots of stimuli that are
presented on a computer monitor or some other means of showing them to subjects. In that case you
may have a separate subsection called “Stimuli.”

It is possible that you may use some specialized equipment or articles that are used in your study, like
maps, or a special room with specific design features, or maybe the study is planned for outdoors in a
city park. These things may require a special subsection with a unique side heading…perhaps “Location
of the Study,” or “The Room of Silence” in which you would give exact descriptions and size, shape
details; you may even need to provide diagrams.

Procedures

The third subsection of the Methods section is procedures. Here is where you tell the reader exactly
what you plan to do in the order you plan to do it. The entire Methods section, with subjects, materials,
and procedures is like a cooking recipe. In recipe’s you have a list of ingredients and any particulars (like
if fresh or frozen). That part of the recipe is the things needed list and is like the subjects and the
materials (or apparatus). The part of the recipe that tells you how to combine the ingredients and how
to cook them is the procedures section. So the procedures section is what you plan to do with your

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subjects and the materials. It’s easiest sometimes to write this subsection in the order that you can
envision doing the research.

After randomly selecting subjects from a subject pool (for example) you may then have them all meet in
a room on campus where you randomly assign them to groups. Or maybe you plan face-to-face
interviews one-on-one in a convenience sample. And then you plan to have one group leave the room
and wait in the hall while you read instructions to the remaining group. Instructions are read to the
group (see appendix X). They first fill out the consent form, which is handed back to the researcher, and
then they are handed the survey packet with the demographic form on top. They fill out each page of
the packet (the contents were described in the materials subsection, so no need to do that again here).
Once all the questionnaire’s are completed the subjects turn in the entire packet to the researcher. This
is repeated in four locations across campus.

The above is a description of survey research in which students meet the researcher as a group. Imagine
how it would read if you plan one-on-one interviews around campus instead. Or what if you are
planning an experiment with four groups getting therapy? You would then describe the specific
instructions, treatments, durations, etc., for each group.

Appendix

Everyone will have an Appendix. The appendix will be composed of several items that are identified by
letter starting with A. The consent form in its entirety will be Appendix A. If you use a demographic
form it will be Appendix B. Instructions will be another appendix (C?) and so will the questionnaires (D,
E, F?). These appendices are full and complete copies of all the materials and/or stimuli that you plan to
use in the research. For proposals for research it is important to show that you are ready to go once
given the grant money or the IRB approval and the only way to convince people that you are ready is to
have one copy of all your materials ready.

I once had a grad student ask to go ahead with IRB submission without the questionnaire he planned to
use to save time. The questionnaire was difficult to obtain, but one copy was being mailed from the
publisher to arrive in a week or two. I said ok, IRB approved the project, but then when the survey came
in the mail, it was not what he thought it was and he had to rewrite the Methods and Results section
and then go back to the IRB for permission for the “new” research. This glitch cost him an extra
semester! And he discovered that the survey copy they sent was a “sample” and not the real thing at
all. The real thing cost $50.00 per copy! He planned on 200 subjects! The company also did not reveal
how the items were to be scored – you send the completed surveys back to the company who then
scores each one and returns the scores, but keeps the original surveys! So he had double mailing costs
as well. Working with MTSU officials in the Research Office we managed to get the company to provide
100 copies at a nominal cost. Many companies will do this for student research, but it does take time
and lots of communication back and forth. It is best to locate surveys that are free and publicly available
on the internet. Remember, one “rule” for this project is that it is something you can do, with your
current knowledge, your current skill and ability, and that you have access to everything you need to do
the project. Another rule is that you can complete the project in one semester. The basic idea is that
this is honest-to-goodness something you can actually do, not a pie-in-the-sky idealistic I-might-could-if!

The primary purpose of the Methods and subsections is to provide enough detail that anyone reading
your proposal could do the study exactly the same way.

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Risk-Takers with Specialized Survival Traits: Some

Personality Characteristics

of Scuba Divers

Donald F. Kendrick and Susan M. Gant

Middle Tennessee State University

2010
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The title page contains the title of the paper, the authors, the institution affiliation, and the year, all centered and in

that order as you see above. The entire document has page numbers in the upper right-hand corner. you may add

header info, as discussed in the textbook (chapter 15) and in the pocket guide, but it’s not needed for class.

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Risk-Takers with Specialized Survival Traits: Some Personality

Characteristics of Scuba Divers
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Recently there has been an increase in the popularity of high-risk recreational activities

(Morgan, 1995; Biersner, & LaRocco, 1983).
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Many individuals who feel drawn to participate in

these types of activities are seeking out experiences that involve complex and varied stimulation.

They are known to put themselves at risk, physically and socially, for the sensation that has been

commonly referred to as “a rush” (Taylor, O’Toole, Auble, Ryan, & Sherman, 2002; Zuckerman,

1979). Since the introduction of Zuckerman’s Sensation Seeking Scale (1979)
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, many

researchers have explored the personality traits of “thrill-seekers.”
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A typical high sensation seeker chooses to participate in activities that maximize external

stimulation (Zuckerman, 1979). Some of the personality traits that have been assessed by

researchers as being correlated to high sensation seeking are trait anxiety, perceived locus of

control, self-esteem, and impulsivity (e.g., Biersner & LaRocco, 1983; Zuckerman, 1979; Rossi

& Cereatti, 1993; Taylor, O’Toole, Auble, Ryan & Sherman, 2001; Furnham, 1984; Zuckerman

& Kuhlman, 2000). Much of the past research on risk-takers used measures that were designed

to assess abnormal personality characteristics such as the MMPI. When these types of measures

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The title is repeated on the second page, which begins the literature review; also notice that the title is double-

spaced and that it is double spaced from title to first sentence of the first paragraph. Paragraph formatting puts an

extra half-space between paragraphs, so you need to go into that menu and change it. In Word, you check the box

that says no extra space between paragraphs.
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Citations are to journal articles in the References at end of the paper and include the authors last names and the

year of the article. Many students try to use “et. al.” in place of authors names, but the rules for proper use for “et.

al.” are complicated and students rarely use it correctly. It’s best to use all authors last names, all the time.
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Notice that citations may have authors and years in parentheses, or the author as text and only the year in

parentheses. If you quote, which is not a good idea, include the page number for the quote.
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The first paragraph starts general and the information becomes more specific.

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are used, recreational and professional risk-takers (such as scuba divers) do not differ from

normative samples (Biersner & Cameron, 1970; Biersner & LaRocco, 1983). More recent

studies, which have assessed risk-takers who participate in a variety of activities (such as

mountain climbing, bull riding, skydiving, etc.), compare these groups to more appropriate

normative groups (those who do not participate)
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. Such studies have indicated that those

individuals who score high in sensation seeking score differently in the areas of impulsivity, self-

esteem, anxiety, masculinity, and locus of control (Morgan, 1995; Taylor, O’Toole, Auble, Ryan

& Sherman, 2001; Brievic, 1994).

Few studies have been done in this area that measure specific types of risk-takers (as

determined by the activity in which they participate) on several personality scales at once. One

type of risk-taker that has not been thoroughly assessed as of yet is the scuba diver. It has been

shown that individuals enrolled in beginner scuba diving classes score lower than average in

state and trait anxiety when measured (Morgan, 1995; Biersner & LaRocco, 1983). Some

studies have found that scuba divers score significantly lower on locus of control measures

(Biersner & LaRocco, 1983). These results, when contrasted with studies of other types of risk-

takers (see Migdal, 1990), suggest that some individuals who are drawn to scuba diving may be

considered a specialized sub-group of sensation seekers whose personality traits increase

survivability.
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The accessibility of scuba diving as a recreational activity has increased. At several

resorts and on many cruise lines, scuba diving has become a popular activity. In these situations,

any guest that wishes to participate is given minimal training in the fundamentals of diving. An

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If you say “recent research…” or “some researchers…” or “some studies…” you then need to provide citations of

what or who those are.
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Although not done here, giving details of some of the studies is required. You may even spend an entire paragraph

on one part of one study. Also, your intro will be longer than this sample – about 6 pages or so.

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interest in professional diving (Navy Seal, underwater welding, salvage, etc.) has increased as

well. As some corresponding personality traits of the sensation seeking individual, such as poor

impulse control, could prove to be a deadly combination during diving activity, it would be

beneficial
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to determine what personality types are best suited to this high-risk activity.

The purpose of this study will be
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to characterize the personality traits of the scuba diver.

A variety of personality inventories will be given including sensation seeking, impulsivity, trait

anxiety, self-esteem, assertiveness, locus of control, and androgyny. Three groups will be

compared: scuba diving students, experienced scuba divers, and non-divers.
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Hypothesis One.
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Scuba diving students and experienced divers will show higher levels

of sensation-seeking than nondivers.

Hypothesis Two. Scuba diving students and experienced divers will be lower on trait

anxiety than nondivers.

Hypothesis Three. Scuba diving students and experienced divers will differ on some of

the remaining personality surveys from nondivers.

Methods
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Participants

Students at Middle Tennessee State University will be sampled. They will volunteer

from the Psychology Department subject pool, come from requests during Scuba classes, and

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Here the authors are making a case for the need for some additional research, issues that have not been adequately

addressed by previous research.
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The last paragraph of the introduction is the statement of purpose. In a proposal you use future tense “will be”

because you are proposing a project for the future. If you are reporting a study that you did already, then you use

past tense, “the purpose of this study was…”
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The purpose is stated in one sentence, maybe two, then a short description of how the purpose will be fulfilled is

given. This may take one sentence or several.
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After the purpose at least one testable hypothesis must be stated and typically 3-6 hypothesis are stated. This is

not typical publication style, but is required for Honor’s thesis, Master’s thesis, and Doctoral dissertations.
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Notice that Methods begins right after the purpose paragraph (not on new page).

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may come from random sampling from around campus.

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All volunteers will be accepted.

Approximately 100 students will be sampled.
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Materials

The MTSU consent form will be used (see Appendix A).
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The consent form includes a

tear-off section with the researchers contact information that student keep. A Demographic

Survey (Appendix B) will ask gender, age, and scuba diving experiences (none, some, training,

experience level, etc.). Next in the packet of forms will be the Zuckerman Sensation Seeking

Scale, Form IV. This is a 36 question, self-report, forced choice (one of two) survey that

measures a need for stimulation in the respondent (see Appendix C). A high score (20 to 34)

indicates a great need for stimulation, an intermediate score (11 to 20) indicates an average need

for stimulation, and a low score (0 to 10) indicates an aversion to high levels of stimulation

(Zuckerman, 1979).
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It is composed of 4 subscales: Thrill and Adventure Seeking, Boredom

Susceptibility, Disinhibition, and External Stimulation. Higher subscale scores indicate a greater

tendency to seek adventure, more likely to become bored, readier to release inhibitions, and more

enjoyment of sensory experience.

The Rotter Locus of Control Scale (see Appendix D) consists of 29 self-report, forced

choice (internal versus external response) questions. It is scored on an relative scale of 1-29,

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If you use a specialized sampling technique, such as stratified sampling, use the term and describe the details of

how you will do it. Using the subject pool includes its own method – by posting announcements for students

enrolled in general psychology for students to select from several studies and sign up for those they are interested in.
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How many will it take? All studies are different, make sure your number is reasonable for your study.
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Full accurate copies of all forms and surveys are included in appendices at the end of the paper, after References.

Appendices start with A and lettered in order of mention (A, B, C, etc.). Scroll down to the end of the paper to see

the surveys in appendix format.
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Notice that all surveys are described, terms defined, the possible scores are given as well as the meaning of high

and low scores. For equipment (computers, stopwatches, stimuli) detailed descriptions would be included with

make and model numbers, perhaps pictures of stimuli or diagrams (shown as Figures).

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with a higher score indicating more external control, and a lower score indicating more internal

control (Rotter, 1966).

The Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale (se Appendix E) is a 38 question, self-report, forced

choice (true or false) survey that measures the respondent’s level of trait anxiety. A high score

(16 to 38) indicates a higher than average level of trait anxiety, an intermediate score (6 to 15)

indicates an average level of trait anxiety, and a low score (0 to 5) indicates a lower than average

level of trait anxiety (Taylor, 1953).

The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (see Appendix F) consists of 10 self-report, Likert-

style response questions that measure the respondent’s level of positive or negative feelings

about oneself (Rosenberg & Kaplan, 1982). Responses are summed and averaged for scores that

range from 1 to 5. Higher scores indicate higher self-esteem

The College Self-Expression Scale (see Appendix G) is a 50 question, self-report, Likert-

type response survey that measures assertiveness. The responses to each question are summed

for a range from 0-250. A high score (146 to 250) indicates the individual is strongly assertive.

An intermediate score (104 to 145) indicates that the individual is average in regards to

assertiveness. A low score (0 to 103) indicates that the individual is not assertive (Galassi, Delo,

Galassi & Bastien, 1974).

The Rosenbaum Self-Control Schedule (see Appendix H) consists of 36 self-report,

Likert-style response questions, which measures the respondent’s use of self-management

methods in problem solving. A high score (above 48) indicates frequent use of self-management

strategies. An intermediate score (6 to 47) indicates average use of self-management strategies.

A low score (below 6) indicates a minimal use of self-management strategies (Rosenbaum,

1980).

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Procedures

The participants will be filling out the surveys in various campus locations depending

on where they were sampled.

The subject pool volunteers will arrive at an on-campus classroom and take their survey’s

as a group. These instructions will be read to them:
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On each desk is a packet of surveys. The first one is the consent

form. Please read it and sign and date if you agree to participate in

this study. The study involves questionnaires designed to classify

you regarding gender and age and a few other characteristics and

relate these to your personality as measured in the remaining

surveys. There is no time limit, please answer all survey items as

honestly as you can, do not skip any items, and if you are unsure

about how to answer, then please make your best guess. Once you

sign the consent form, please tear it off and hand it to me before

you begin filling out the surveys. Pencils are available; raise your

hand if you need one. When you have completed the surveys

please bring place them in this box; you may then leave. If you

would like to know the results of the study, which should be

complete in about 3 months, please write your email address on

your consent form and I will contact you, or simply email me at the

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All research includes instructions to subjects. If they are short you may simply quote them verbatim as you see

here – nicely inset. If they are long or different instructions to different groups, then you will need to describe them

briefly here and put them in full in an appendix.

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address shown on the bottom half of the consent form. You may

begin.

On-campus scuba classes
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will also be visited and students will be asked to participate in

the study. They will be approached after class is over as they are leaving. They will fill out the

surveys on the spot, in the hallway, or in a nearby empty classroom if available. The same

instructions will be read to them (see above) as was read to the subject pool volunteers.

Professors will be contacted in person to request attendance during one of their non-scuba

classes to distribute the surveys during their class. Giving extra credit to those who volunteer

will be encouraged, but not required. The students will fill out the surveys during the class

period. They will be read the instructions as stated above.

Finally, students will be approached at various locations on campus such as outside the

library, the student union building, hallways and lounge areas in campus buildings, etc. They

will be asked to participate if they agree they will be read the same instructions as the other

participants. They may be in small groups, or lone individuals, and may fill out the surveys

sitting in the hall, at a booth in the grill, and tables and chairs in lounge areas.

Consent forms will be separated from survey packets
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and put away for future use in

contacting those interested in the results. The surveys will be scored as they become available

and the data recorded in a spreadsheet (Microsoft Excel). Data collection is expected to take 30

days, with another two weeks for final scoring and recording.
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Since subjects are being recruited from several sources, each source is discussed separately.
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Keeping Consent forms separate from all other research materials is required by Ethics policies at MTSU (and

everywhere else too).
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Think about the number of forms to score, the number of subjects, and make an educated guess at how long it will

take.

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References

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Biersner, R. J. & Cameron, B. J. (1970). Betting preferences and personality characteristics of

Navy divers. Aerospace Medicine, 41, 658 –661.
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Biersner, R. J. & LaRocco, J.M. (1983). Personality characteristics of US Navy divers. Journal

of Occupational Psychology, 56, 329 –334.

Furnham, A. (1984). Extroversion, sensation seeking, stimulus screening and Type “A”

behavior pattern: The relationship between various measures of arousal. Personality and

Individual Differences, 5, 133 – 140.

Galassi, J.P., Delo, J.S., Galassi, M.D. & Bastien, S. (1974). The college self-expressions scale:

A measure of assertiveness. Behavior Therapy, 5, 165 – 171.

Migdal, K. (1990). Demand for stimulation as set against risk perception and anxiety level

among mountain climbers. Biology of Sport, 7, 65 – 75.

Morgan, W.P. (1995). Anxiety and panic in recreational scuba divers. Sports Medicine, 20, 398

– 421.

Rosenbaum, M. (1980). A schedule for assessing self-control behaviors: Preliminary findings.

Behavior Therapy, 11, 109 – 121.

Rosenberg, M. & Kaplan, H.B. (Eds.). (1982). Social Psychology of the Self-Concept. Arlington

Heights, Illinois: Harlan Davidson, Inc.

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The word References is used instead of “works cited” because this is APA style. Center this heading.
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References are alphabetical by first authors last name. Give initials of authors first name and middle name, do not

give full names. Use & between author’s names. The year is in parenthesis, then comes the article title, the journal

title (underlined or italicized), then the journal volume number (also underlined or italicized), and finally the page

numbers of the article. If you used the internet to find the article you will have to add the “doi” information (see the

pocket guide).

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Rossi, B. & Cereatti, L. (1993). The sensation seeking in mountain athletes as assesses by

Zuckerman’s Sensation Seeking Scale. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 24,

417 – 431.

Rotter, J.B. (1966). Generalized expectancies for internal vs. external reinforcement.

Psychological Monographs, 80, 10-14.

Suinn, R.M. (1968). Removal of social desirability and response set items from the Manifest

Anxiety Scale. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 28, 1189 – 1192.

Taylor, J.A. (1953). A personality scale of manifest anxiety. Journal of Abnormal and Social

Psychology, 48, 285 – 290.

Taylor, D.M., O’Toole, K.S., Auble, T.E., Ryan, C.M. & Sherman, D.R. (2001). Sensation

seeking personality traits of recreational scuba divers. South Pacific Underwater

Medicine Society (SPUMS) Journal, 31, 25 – 28. doi: 10.1016/S0001-4575(97)00017-1
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Zuckerman, M. (1979). Sensation Seeking: Beyond the Optimal Level of Arousal. New York:

Halsted Press. 221.
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Zuckerman, M. & Kuhluman, D.M. (2000). Personality and risk taking: Common biosocial

factors. Journal of Personality, 68, 997-999.

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Articles found online require the doi code. Those found in the library, in physical paper journals, do not have a

doi code. You can see that all the other references were found in the library.
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When citing books, the book title is italicized or underlined, the publisher city is given, then the publisher name

and name finally the total number of pages of the book.

http://psycnet.apa.org/doi/10.1016/S0001-4575(97)00017-1

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Appendix A: Consent Form

Principal Investigator: _Susan Gant_________________

Study Title: ____ Risk-Takers with Specialized Survival Traits: Some Personality Characteristics

of Scuba Divers

Institution: Middle Tennessee State University

Name of participant: _________________________________________________ Age: ___________

The following information is provided to inform you about the research project and your participation in it. Please
read this form carefully and feel free to ask any questions you may have about this study and the information given
below. You will be given an opportunity to ask questions, and your questions will be answered. Also, you will be
given a copy of this consent form.

Your participation in this research study is voluntary. You are also free to withdraw from this study at any time. In the
event new information becomes available that may affect the risks or benefits associated with this research study or
your willingness to participate in it, you will be notified so that you can make an informed decision whether or not to
continue your participation in this study.

For additional information about giving consent or your rights as a participant in this study, please feel
free to contact the MTSU Office of Compliance at (615) 494-8918.

1. Purpose of the study:
You are being asked to participate in a research study because the researcher is a student
learning to conduct research and needs help with this class assigned research project. The
project is designed to teach the student the basics of designing research, collecting and analyzing
data, and writing results. The data will be use for no other purpose.

2. Description of procedures to be followed and approximate duration of the study:

Participants are asked to fill out a short form of questions regarding a few personal items (for
example age and sex) and then to fill out a short sensation-seeking scale. This scale measures
one’s attitude toward risky activities such as riding motorcycles. A variety of other personality
measures will be taken as well.

3. Expected costs:

There are no costs to the participants other than their time.

4. Description of the discomforts, inconveniences, and/or risks that can be reasonably
expected as a result of participation in this study:
There are no discomforts, inconveniences, or risks expected as a result of your participation. You
may find some of the survey items, silly, irrelevant, or meaningless to you.

5. Compensation in case of study-related injury:
There is no compensation. No injury is expected as a result of filling out the survey forms.

6. Anticipated benefits from this study:
a) The potential benefits to science and humankind that may result from this study are the experience

and knowledge gained by the student-researcher as an inherent part of her/his education.

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b) The potential benefits to you from this study are the good feeling and knowledge that you are

helping a college student complete assignments required for her/his graduation and future success.

7. What happens if you choose to withdraw from study participation: Nothing. You may
withdraw at any time for any reason with no recrimination.

8. Contact Information. If you should have any questions about this research study or possibly

injury, please feel free to contact Donald F. Kendrick, Professor of Psychology (615 898
2706).

9. Confidentiality. All efforts, within reason, will be made to keep the personal information in your

research record private but total privacy cannot be promised. Your information may be shared
with MTSU or the government, such as the Middle Tennessee State University Institutional
Review Board, Federal Government Office for Human Research Protections, but only if you or
someone else is in danger or if we are required to do so by law.

10. STATEMENT BY PERSON AGREEING TO PARTICIPATE IN THIS STUDY

I have read this informed consent document and the material contained in it has been
explained to me verbally. I understand each part of the document, all my questions have
been answered, and I freely and voluntarily choose to participate in this study.

Date Signature of patient/volunteer

Consent obtained by:

Date Signature

Printed Name and Title

14
Appendix B: Demographic Form

Psychological Survey Information Sheet

1. What is your gender? Male ______ Female ______

2. What is your age? ________

3. What is your marital status (circle or mark one)?

Single Divorced Married wo/children Married w/children

4. What are your hobbies, interests, and/or sports (please list below)?

5. What is your birth order (circle or check one)?

Only Child First Second Third Fourth More than Fourth

6. What is your Education level? (circle or check one)?

Some High School High School Graduate College Freshman

College Sophomore College Junior College Senior

College Graduate Graduate School, Master’s

Graduate School, Doctorate

7. Do you work: Full Time? Part-Time? Not at all?

8. Do you scuba dive (circle or check one)?

Yes.

No, but I’m in a beginning scuba class.

No, but I would like to.

No, and I don’t want to.

9. If you scuba dive: How Long since your last class? __

How Many total dives have you made? ____

Most Common Type of Diving (reef, cave, wreck): ____

15

Appendix C: Sensation-Seeking Scale

Sensation Seeking Scale -form V (SSS-V)

Interest and preference test

Directions: Each of the items below contains two choices A and B. Please

indicate which of the choices most describes your likes or the way you feel. In some cases you

may find items in which both choices describe your likes or feelings. Please choose the one

which better describes your likes or feelings. In some cases you may find items in which you do

not like either choice. In these cases mark the choice you dislike least. Do not leave any items

blank. It is importanr you respond to all items with only one choice, A or B. We are interested

only in your likes or feelings, not in how others feel about these things or how one is supposed to

feel. There are no right or wrong answers as in other kinds of tests. Be frank and give your

honest appraisal of yourself.

1.

A. 1 like “wild” uninhibited parties.

B. I prefer quiet parties w~th good conversation.

2. A. There are some movies I enjoy seeing a second or even third time.

B. I can’t stand watching a movie that I’ve seen before.

3.

A. I often wish I could be a mountain climber.

B. I can’t understand people who risk their necks climbing mountains.

4.

A. I dislike all body odors.

B. I like some of the earthy body smells.

5.

A. 1 get bored seeing the same old faces.

B. I like the comfortable familiarity of everyday friends.

6.

A. I like to explore a strange city or section of town by myself, even if

it means getting lost.

B. I prefer a guide when 1 am in a place I don’t know well.

7.

A. I dislike people who do or say things just to shock or upset others.

B. When you can predict almost everything a person will do and say he

or she must be a bore.

16
8.

A. I usually don’t enjoy a movie or play where I can predict what will

happen in advance.

B. I don’t mind watching a movie or play where I can predict what will

happen in advance.

9.

A. I have tried marijuana or would like to.

B. I would never smoke marijuana.

10.

A. I would not like to try any drug which might produce strange and

dangerous effects on me.

B. I would like to try some of the drugs that produce hallucinations.

11.

A. A sensible person avoids activities that are dangerous.

B. I sometimes like to do things that are a little frightening.

12.

A. I dislike “swingers” (people who are uninhibited and free about

sex).

B. I enjoy the company of real “swingers.”

13.

A. I find that stimulants make me uncomfortable.

B. I often like to get high (drinking liquor or smoking marijuana).

14.

A. I like to try new foods that I have never tasted before.

B. I order the dishes with which I am familiar so as to avoid disappoint-

ment and unpleasantness.

15.

A. I enjoy looking at home movies, videos, or travel slides.

B. Looking at someone’s home movies, videos, or travel slides bores

me tremendously.

16.

A. I would like to take up the sport of water skiing.

B. I would not like to take up water skiing.

17.

A. I would like to try surfboard riding.

B. I would not like to try surfboard riding.

17
18.

A. 1 would like to take off on a trip with no preplanned or definite

routes, or timetable.

B. When I go on a trip I like to plan my route and timetable fairly care-

fully.

19.

A. I prefer the “down to earth” kinds of people as friends.

B. I would like to make friends in some of the “far-out” groups like

artists or “punks.”

20.

A. I would not like to learn to fly an airplane.

B. I would like to learn to fly an airplane.

21.

A. I prefer the surface of the water to the depths.

B. I would like to go scuba diving.

22.

A. I would like to meet some persons who are homosexual (men or

women).

B. I stay away from anyone I suspect of being “gay” or “lesbian.”

23.

A. I would like to try parachule jumping.

B. I would never want to try jumping out of a plane, with or without

a parachute.

24.

A. I prefer friends who are excitingly unpredictable.

B. I prefer friends who are reliable and predictable.

25.

A. I am not interested in experience for its own sake.

B. 1 like to have new and exciting experiences and sensations even if

they are a little frightening, unconventional, or illegal.

26.

A. The essence of good art is in its clarity, symmetry of form, and

harmony of colors.

B. I often find beauty in the “clashing” colors and irregular forms of

modem paintings.

27.

A. I enjoy spending time in the familiar surroundings of home.

18
B. I get very restless if I have to stay around home for any length

of time.

28.

A. I like to dive off the high board.

B. I don’t like the feeling I get standing on the high board (or I don’t go near it at all).

29.

A. I like to date persons who are physically exciting.

B. I like to date persons who share my values.

30.

A. Heavy drinking usually ruins a party because some people get loud

and boisterous.

B. Keeping the drinks full is the key to a good party.

31.

A. The worst social sin is to be rude.

B. The west social sin is to be a bore.

32.

A. A person should have considerable sexual experience before mar-

riage.

B. It’s better if two married persons begin their sexual experience with

each other.

33.

A. Even if I had the money, I would not care to associate with flighty

rich persons in

the “jet set.”

B. I could conceive of myself seeking pleasures around the world with

the “jet set.”

34.

A. I like people who are sharp and witty even if they do sometimes

insult others.

B. I dislike people who have their fun at the expense of hurting the

feelings of others.

35.

A. There is altogether too much portrayal of sex in movies.

B. I enjoy watching many of the “sexy” scenes in movies.

36.

A. I feel best after taking a couple of drinks.

B. Something is wrong with people who need liquor to feel good.

37.

19
A. People should dress according to some standard of taste, neatness,

and style.

B. People should dress in individual ways even if the effects are some-

times strange.

38.

A. Sailing long distances in small sailing crafts is foolhardy.

B. I would like to sail a long distance in a small but seaworthy sailing

craft.

39.

A. I have no patience with dull or boring persons.

B. I find something interesting in almost every person I talk to.

40.

A. Skiing down a high mountain slope is a good way to end up on

crutches.

B. I think I would enjoy the sensations of skiing very fast down a high

mountain slope.

END OF TEST

Note. Some of the items have been slightly modified from the original

version of form V in order to explain outmoded colloquial or slang terms like swingers, to use

terms more relevant to current times such as videos with home movies and substituting punks for

hippies, to remove currently offensive terms like queer and substitute prevalent terms like gay.

and to make the items more inclusive as in substituting persons for members of the opposite sex

in item 29 referring to dating preferences. These should probably make no differences in item

response characteristics but the author would 3apreciate any new information from item

analyses.

Scoring key for SSSform V

One point for each agreement (if subject chose A for number 3, that’s one point for TAS.

TAS 10 3A llB 16A 17A 20B 21B 23A 28A 38B 40B

ES 10 48 6A 9A 10B 14A 18A 19B 22A 268 378

Dis 10 1A 12B 13B 25B 29A 30B 32A 33B 358 36A

BS 10 2B 5A 7B 8A 15B 24A 27B 31B 34A 39A

Total 40 1A 2B 3A 4B 5A 6A 78 8A 9A 10B

1lB 12B 13B 14A 15B 16A 17A 18A 19B 208

218 22A 23A 24A 25B 26B 278 28A 29A 30B

20
31B 32A 338 34A 35B 36A 378 38B 39A 40B

“The Total score may also be obtained by summing the four subscale scores but it may be

desirable to also score the 40 items and check with the sum of the subscales.

21
Appendix D: Locus of Control

Locus of Control Scale

For each of the fol1owing items, read through both sentences. Then decide which

statement is truer, as far as your own experience is concerned. If you think statement “a” is truer

for you, mark or highlight “a.” If you think statement “b” is truer, mark or highlight “b.” You

mark or highlight just the letter, or the whole statement.

I more strongly believe that:

1. a. Children get into trouble because their parents punish them too much.

b. The trouble with most children nowadays is that their parents are too easy with them

2. a. Many of the unhappy things in people’s lives are partly due to bad luck.

b. People’s misfortunes result from the mistakes they make.

3. a. One of the major reasons why we have wars is because people don’t take enough

interest in politics.

b. There will always be wars, no matter how hard people try to prevent them.

4. a. In the long run people get the respect they deserve in this world.

b. Unfortunately, an individual’s worth often passes unrecognized no matter how

hard he tries.

5. a. The idea that teachers are unfair to students is nonsense.

b. Most students don’t realize the extent to which their grades are influenced

by accidental happenings.

6. a. Without the right breaks one cannot be an effective leader.

b. Capable people who fail to become leaders have not taken advantage of their

opportunities.

7. a. No matter how hard you try some people just don’t like you.

b. People who can’t get others to like them don’t understand how to get along with

others.

8. a. Heredity plays a major role in determining one’s personality.

b. It is one’s experiences in life which determine what they’re like.

9. a. I have often found that what is going to happen will happen.

b. Trusting to fate has never turned out as well for me as making a decision to take

a definite course of action.

10. a. In the case of the well prepared student there is rarely if ever such a thing

22
as an unfair test.

b. Many times exam questions tend to be so unrelated to course work that studying

is really useless.

11. a. Becoming a success is a matter of hard work; luck has little or nothing to do

with it.

b. Getting a good job depends mainly on being in the right place at the right time.

12. a. The average citizen can have an influence in government decisions.

b. This world is run by the Few people in power, and there is not much the little

guy can do about it.

13. a. When I make plans, I am almost certain that I can make them work.

b. It is not always wise to plan too far ahead because many things turn out to

be a matter of good or bad fortune anyhow.

14. a. There are certain people who are just no good.

b. There is some good in everybody.

15. a. In my case getting what I want has little or nothing to do with luck.

b. Many times we might just as well decide what to do by flipping a coin.

16. a. Who gets to be the boss often depends on who is lucky enough to be in the right

place first.

b. Getting people to do the right thing depends upon ability, luck has little or

nothing to do with it.

17. a. As far as world affairs are concerned, most of us are the victims of forces

we can neither understand, nor control.

b. By taking an active part in political and social affairs the people can

control world events.

18. a. Most people don’t realize the extent to which their lives are controlled by

accidental happenings.

b. There really is no such thing as “luck”.

19. a. One should always be willing to admit mistakes.

b. It is usually best to cover up one’s mistakes.

20. a. It is hard to know whether or not a person really likes you.

b. How many friends you have depends upon how nice a person you are.

21. a. In the long run the bad things that happen to us are balanced by the good ones.

b. Most misfortunes are the result of lack of ability ignorance, laziness on all

three.

22. a. With enough effort we can wipe out political corruption.

23
b. It is difficult for people to have much control over the things politicians

do in office.

23. a. Sometimes I can’t understand how teachers arrive at the grades they give.

b. There is a direct connection between how hard I study and the grades I get.

24. a. A good leader expects people to decide for themselves what they should do.

b. A good leader makes it clear to everybody what their jobs are.

25. a. Many times I feel that I have little influence over the things that happen to me.

b. It is impossible for me to believe that chance of luck plays an important part in

my life.

26. a. People are lonely because they don’t try to be friendly.

b. There’s not much use in trying to hard to please people, if they like you, they

like you.

27. a. There is too much emphasis on athletics in high school.

b. Team sports are an excellent way to build character.

28. a. What happens to me is my own doing.

b. Sometimes I feel that I don’t have enough control over the direction my life

is taking.

29. a. Most of the time I can’t understand why politicians behave the way they do.

b. In the long run the people are responsible for bad government on a national

as well as on a local level.

24
Appendix E: Trait Anxiety Scale

Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale

The statements below inquire about your behavior and emotions. Consider each statement

carefully. Then indicate whether the statement is generally true or false for you. Record your

responses, True (T) or False (F), in the spaces provided on the left.

_____1. I do not tire quickly.

_____2. I believe I am no more nervous than most others.

_____3. I have very few headaches.

_____4. I work under a great deal of tension.

_____5. I frequently notice my hand shakes when I try to do something.

_____6. I blush no more often than others.

_____7. I have diarrhea once a month or more.

_____8. I worry quite a bit over possible misfortunes.

_____9. I practically never blush.

_____10. I am often afraid that I am going to blush.

_____11. My hands and feet are usually warm enough.

_____12. I sweat very easily even on cool days.

_____13. Sometimes when embarrassed, I break out in a sweat which annoys me greatly.

_____14. I hardly ever notice my heart pounding and I am seldom short of breath.

_____15. I feel hungry almost all the time.

_____16. I am very seldom troubled by constipation.

_____17. I have a great deal of stomach trouble.

_____18. I have had periods in which I lost sleep over worry.

25

_____19. I am easily embarrassed.

_____20. I am more sensitive than most other people.

_____21. I frequently find myself worrying about something.

_____22. I wish I could be as happy as others seem to be.

_____23. I am usually calm and not easily upset.

_____24. I feel anxiety about something or someone about all the time.

_____25. I am happy most of the time.

_____26. It makes me nervous to have to wait.

_____27. Sometimes I become so excited that I find it hard to get to sleep.

_____28. I have sometimes felt that difficulties were piling up so high that I could not overcome

them.

_____29. I must admit that I have at times been worried beyond reason over something that

really did not matter.

_____30. I have very few fears compared to my friends.

_____31. I certainly feel useless at times.

_____32. I find it hard to keep my mind on a task or job.

_____33. I am unusually self-conscious.

_____34. I am inclined to take things hard.

_____35. At times I think I am no good at all.

_____36. I am certainly lacking in self-confidence.

_____37. I sometimes feel that I am about to go to pieces.

_____38. I am entirely self-confident.

26

Appendix F:

Self-Esteem Scale

Self-Esteem Scale

For each of the statements below, write down your level of agreement using the following scale:

1 = Agree very much

2 = Agree

3 = Neither agree nor disagree

4 = Disagree

5 = Disagree very much.

1. At times I think I am no good at all.

2. 1 take a positive view of myself.

3. All in all, I am inclined to feel that I am a failure.

4. 1 wish I could have more respect for myself.

5. 1 an1 able to do things as well as most other people.

6. 1 feel that I am a person of worth, at least on an equal

plane with others.

7. On the whole, I am satisfied with myself.

8. 1 feel I do not have much to be proud of.

9. 1 feel that I have a number of good qualities.

. 10. 1 certainly feel useless at times.

27
Appendix G: Assertiveness Scale

Please answer the questions by filling in the appropriate number from 0-4 in the blank provided

at the left of each item, where

0: Almost Always or Always

1: Usually

2: Sometimes

3: Seldom

4: Never or Rarely

Your answer should reflect how you generally express yourself in the situation. If in responding

to any of the questions you find that the situation described is not presently applicable to you -for

example, you do not have a room mate, please do not skip the question. Instead, answer it in

terms of how you think you would be likely to react if you were in the situation. Please do not

skip any questions.

_____1. Do you ignore it when someone pushes in front of you in line?

_____2. When you decide that you no longer wish to date someone, do you have marked

difficulty telling the person of your decision?

_____3. Would you exchange a purchase you discover to be faulty?

_____4. If you decided to change your major to a field which your parents will not

approve, would you have difficulty telling them?

_____5. Are you inclined to be over-apologetic?

_____6. If you were studying and if your room mate was making too much noise,

would you ask him to stop?

_____7. Is it difficult for you to compliment and praise others?

_____8. If you are angry at your parents, can you tell them?

_____9. Do you insist that your room mate do his fair share of the cleaning?

_____10. If you find yourself becoming fond of someone you are dating, would you have

difficulty expressing these feelings to that person?

28
_____11. If a friend who has borrowed $5.00 £ran you seem to have forgotten about it,

would you remind this person?

_____12. Are you overly careful to avoid hurting other people’s feelings?

_____13. If you have a close friend wham your parents dislike and constantly criticize,

would you inform your parents that you disagree with them and tell them of

your friend’s assets?

_____14. Do you find it difficult to ask a friend to do a favor for you?

_____15. If food, which is not to your satisfaction is served in a restaurant, would you

comp1ain about it to the waiter?

_____16. If your room mate, without your permission, eats food that he knows you have

been saving, can you express your displeasure to him?

_____17. If a salesman has gone to considerable trouble to show you some merchandise

which is not quite suitable, do you have difficulty saying no?

_____18. Do you keep your opinions to yourself?

_____19. If friends visit when you want to study, do you ask them to return at a more

convenient time?

_____20. Are you able to express love and affection to people for whom you care?

_____21. If you were in a small seminar and the professor made a statement that you

considered untrue, would you question it?

_____22. If a person of the opposite sex whom you have been wanting to meet smiles or

directs attention to you at a party, would you take the initiative in beginning

conversation?

_____23. If someone you respect expresses opinions with which you strongly disagree,

would you venture to state your own point of view?

_____24. Do you go out of your way to avoid trouble with other people?

_____25. If a friend is wearing a new outfit which you like, do you tell that person so?

_____26. If after leaving a store you realize that you have been “short-changed,” do you

go back and request the correct amount?

_____27. If a friend makes what you consider to be an unreasonable request, are you able

to refuse?

29

_____28. If a close and respected relative were annoying you, would you hide your

feelings rather than express your annoyance?

_____29. If your parents want you to come home for a weekend but you have made

important plans, wou1.d you tell them of your preference?

_____30. Do you express anger or annoyance toward the opposite sex when it is

justified?

_____31. If a friend does an errand for you, do you tell that person him much you

appreciate it?

_____32. When a person is blatantly unfair, do you fail to say something about it to him?

_____33. Do you avoid social contacts for fear of doing or saying the wrong thing?

_____34. If a friend betrays your confidence, would you hesitate to express annoyance to

that person?

_____35. When a clerk in a store waits on someone who has cone in after you, do you

call his attention to the matter?

_____36. If you are particularly happy about someone’s good fortune, can you express

this to that person?

_____37. Would you be hesitant about asking a good friend to lend you a few dollars?

_____38. If a person teases you to the point that it is no longer fun, do you have difficulty

expressing your displeasure?

_____39. If you arrive late for a meeting, would you rather stand than go to a front seat

which could only be secured with a fair degree of conspicuousness?

_____40. If your date calls on Saturday night 15 minutes before you are supposed to meet

and says that she (he) has to study for an important exam and cannot make it,

would you express your annoyance?

_____41. If someone keeps kicking the back of your chair in a movie, would you ask him

to stop?

_____42. If someone interrupts you in the .middle of an important conversation, do you

request that the person wait until you have finished?

_____43. Do you freely volunteer information or opinions in class discussions?

30
_____44. Are you reluctant to speak to an attractive acquaintance of the opposite sex?

_____45. If you lived in an apartment and the landlord failed to make certain necessary

repairs after promising to do so, would you insist on it?

_____46. If your parents want you home by a certain time which you feel is much too

early and unreasonable, do you attempt to discuss or negotiate this with them?

_____47. Do you find it difficult to stand up for your rights?

_____48. If a friend unjustifiably criticizes you, do you express your resentment there

and then?

_____49. Do you express your feelings to others?

_____50. Do you avoid asking questions in class for fear of feeling self-conscious?

31
Appendix H: Impulsivity Scale

Indicate how characteristic or descriptive each of the following statements is of you by using the

code given below.

+3 very characteristic of me, extremely descriptive

+2 rather characteristic of me, quite descriptive

+1 somewhat characteristic of me, slightly descriptive

-1 somewhat uncharacteristic of me, slightly undescriptive

-2 rather uncharacteristic of me, quite undescriptive

-3 very uncharacteristic of me, extremely undescriptive

Record your responses in the spaces provided on the left.

______1. When I do a boring job, I think about the less boring parts of the job and the

reward that I will receive once I am finished.

______2. When I have to do something that is anxiety arousing for me, I try to visualize

how I will overcome my anxieties while doing it.

______3. Often by changing my way of thinking I am able to change my feelings about

almost everything.

______4. I often find it difficult to overcome my feelings of nervousness and tension

without any outside help.

______5. When I am feeling depressed I try to think about pleasant events.

______6. I cannot avoid thinking about mistakes I have made in the past.

______7. When I am faced with a difficult problem, I try to approach its solution in a

systematic way.

______8. I usually do my duties quicker when somebody is pressuring me.

______9. When I am faced with a difficult decision, I prefer to postpone making a

decision even if all the facts are at my disposal.

______10. When I find that I have difficulties in concentrating on my reading, I look for

ways to increase my concentration.

______11. After I plan to work, I remove all the things that are not relevant to my work.

______12. When I try to get rid of a bad habit, I first try to find out all the factors that

maintain this habit.

32

______13. When an unpleasant thought is bothering me, I try to think about something

pleasant.

______14. If I would smoke two packages of cigarettes a day, I probably would need

outside help to stop smoking.

______15. When I am in a low, I try to act cheerful so my mood will change.

______16. If I had the pills with me, I would take a tranquilizer whenever I felt tense and

nervous.

______17. When I am depressed, I try to keep myself busy with things that I like.

______18. I tend to postpone unpleasant duties even if I could perform them immediately

______19. I need outside help to get rid of some of my bad habits.

______20. When I find it difficult to settle down and do a certain job, I look for ways to

help me settle done.

______21. Although it makes me feel bad, I cannot avoid thinking about all kinds of

possible catastrophes in the future.

______22. First of all I prefer to finish a job that I have to do and then start doing the

things I really like.

______23. When I feel pain in a certain part of my body, I try not to think about it.

______24. My self-esteem increases once I am able to overcome a bad habit.

______25. In order to overcome bad feelings that accompany failure, I often tell myself

that it is not so catastrophic, and that I can do something about it.

______26. When I feel that I am too impulsive, I tell myself “stop and think before you

do anything.”

______27. Even when I am terribly angry at somebody, I consider my actions very

carefully.

______28. Facing the need to make a decision, I usually find out all the possible

alternatives instead of deciding quickly and spontaneously.

______29. Usually, I do first the things I really like to do even if there are more urgent

things to do.

33

______30. When I realize that I cannot help but be late for an important meeting, I tell

myself to keep calm.

______31. When I feel pain in my body, I try to divert my thoughts from it.

______32. I usually plan my work when faced with a number of things to do.

______33. When I am short of money, I decide to record all my expenses in order to plan

carefully for the future.

______34. If I find it difficult to concentrate on a certain job, I divide the job into smaller

segments.

______35. Quite often I cannot overcome unpleasant thoughts that bother me.

______36. Once I am hungry and unable to eat, I try to divert my thoughts away from my

stomach or try to imagine that I am satisfied.

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