Portland based motivation project paper and presentation

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Runninghead: Goal Setting and Extrinsic Motivation

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Increasing Extrinsic Motivation for Seemingly Mundane Tasks:

Applying Goal Setting Theory

to Coffee Shop Workers

Amanda Tolmachev

Portland State University

Katherine Werth

Portland State University

Timothy Oxendahl

Portland State University

Goal Setting and Extrinsic Motivation



Saint Simon’s Coffee Company is a local, family-owned business in Northeast Portland. Their

intrinsically-based motivation to provide quality customer service and to produce specialty

coffee drinks is clearly demonstrated by both the managers and staff. To explore the underlying

psychological mechanisms of the dynamics of the organization, three qualitative interviews were

conducted. Based on the data collected from these interviews, it was concluded that the

employees enjoy the social aspects of their jobs (e.g., motivated by relational factors) and

possess an authentic interest in the end product (making drinks, sourcing quality coffee), but

there is inconsistent feedback given to employees along with a low level of extrinsic motivation

to complete the relatively mundane day-to-day tasks. To address these issues, we recommend

that the Saint Simon’s Coffee Company utilizes goal setting theory to develop specific,

measurable, attainable, relevant, and time-bound (SMART) goals. Additionally, we recommend

that they capitalize on the employee’s inherent desire for self-knowledge and social comparison

by allowing them to create their own drinks once they’ve completed the uninteresting tasks,

which will provide extrinsic motivation to complete the mundane tasks while also capitalizing on

their pre-existing intrinsic motivation. Finally, we recommend that the management team

provides feedback on a regular (quarterly) basis. In light of the upcoming business expansion,

these recommendations will create helpful structure for employee development and business


Keywords: motivation, goal setting, feedback

Goal Setting and Extrinsic Motivation


Increasing Extrinsic Motivation for Seemingly Mundane Tasks: Applying Goal Setting Theory

to Coffee Shop Workers

Saint Simon’s Coffee Company is a locally owned coffee shop in the heart of Sullivan’s

Gulch in Northeast Portland. It has been open since 2014 and is in the process of opening up a

new location in North Portland. The core values at Saint Simon’s include treating their

employees like family and treating every customer as if they are a friend. These beliefs likely

come from the fact that they are family owned and operated. Two of the three owners came from

working at Dutch Bros, so they try to emulate the friendliness of the large scale chain while

making specialty coffee.

We interviewed three of the employees: Marissa, a barista who is going to become a

manager when the new location opens; Seth, one of the owners who is also a barista; and Darren,

one of the owners who is currently the store manager but will be relocating to the new location

when it opens. All three of these individuals have been with the shop since it opened. In addition

to appreciating the flexibility this job affords, they thoroughly enjoy the art of producing coffee

products and thrive on the social interactions inherent in their work.

Problem diagnosis

The employees we interviewed each expressed a strong sense of relatedness and

affiliation with the company and its objectives, as evidenced by the following quote: “I also

really care about the people I work for…knowing that I’m doing work that represents them well

also motivates me a lot” (Appendix B). This high level of relatedness also shows in their similar

views regarding their favorite and least favorite parts of their jobs. When asked which aspects of

the job they enjoy most, all three mentioned that interacting with customers was a key

contributor to why they enjoy working at Saint Simon’s. Similarly, bad days at work were

Goal Setting and Extrinsic Motivation


unanimously associated with negative customer interactions brought about by either customers

or the employee being in a negative emotional state. For example, one employee stated, “When I

get frustrated, [I] start working angry, just kind of like slamming things around…trying to try to

get things back on track and get things back on where they should be” (Appendix A). As

demonstrated, relational dynamics with customers and coworkers are a key component to each

employee’s level of motivation.

Since positive client interactions are integral to the work experience, it comes as no

surprise that the employees show a high level of intrinsic motivation when performing client-

facing tasks. For example, one interviewee indicated that, “craft coffee is really fun to make”

(Appendix B). The employee’s drive to perform customer-facing duties in their job role is

something they look forward to each day. In contrast the interviewees also indicated low levels

of extrinsic motivation to perform non-client-facing tasks required to maintain the business.

Administrative tasks (e.g. payroll, bookkeeping, scheduling, etc.) as well as upkeep tasks (e.g.

cleaning, restocking inventory, etc.) were all mentioned as necessities of the respondents’

respective job roles, but none of the interviews mentioned feeling any sense of enjoyment when

performing these tasks, such as “It’s all checklist, you know? It’s clean this, do this, mop this,

dust this, stock this…” (Appendix C). Without a sense of intrinsic joy felt by performing these

tasks, the employees must rely on extrinsic motivation to ensure that these business upkeep tasks

are performed to company standards.

This dichotomy between the high motivation to perform client-facing duties and the low

motivation to perform business upkeep duties may be an issue as Saint Simon’s plans to open

their second location. Preparing for the new location not only diverts focus from the employee’s

day-to-day responsibilities, but also affects the balance of client-facing vs business tasks.

Goal Setting and Extrinsic Motivation


Specifically, the tasks unique to the opening of the new store (e.g. hiring, training, and

scheduling new employees, securing additional inventory, etc.) do not necessarily involve client

interactions. In order to successfully handle this shift in priorities without sacrificing quality of

work or morale, the employees of Saint Simon’s must implement some means of increasing

extrinsic motivation to perform the necessary tasks which do not bring them a natural sense of


Theory and Evidence

Goal setting theory provides a helpful framework for understanding the organizational

and interpersonal dynamics at Saint Simon’s Coffee Company. According to Locke and Latham

(2002), goal setting serves four primary functions: 1) directing energy toward relevant tasks, 2)

increasing effort/energy, 3) increasing persistence, and 4) evoking pre-existing task knowledge

and the discovery of novel strategies. Consequently, goal setting is positively correlated with

productivity and job performance. Further, the relationship between goals and performance may

be moderated by levels of perceived importance, self-efficacy, and feedback. Interestingly, goal

setting appears to be more relevant to simple tasks compared to complex tasks. Therefore,

considering that we are interviewing coffee shop workers whose tasks are relatively cognitively

simple, goal setting is a useful framework to use for our project.

Further, research by Martin, McNally, and Taggar (2016) deepens our understanding of

the dynamic in which the setting of goals positively affects job performance (“goal-performance

effect”) by analyzing two self-evaluative factors (the need for self knowledge and the need for

self-validation) and whether or not external evaluation influences these relationships. In total,

405 participants participated in an idea generation task, wherein half of them were assigned to an

“external evaluation” group (the experimenter recorded their performance and compared it with

Goal Setting and Extrinsic Motivation


past participants) and the other half were assigned to a non-evaluated group. The participants

were further separated into groups that were given a general goal (“do your best”), a specific

goal with a self-validation manipulation, and a specific goal with a self-knowledge manipulation.

The findings revealed that external evaluation did not have significant effect on performance,

while both self-knowledge and self-evaluation, combined with specific goals, did have an effect

on performance.

This study is relevant to our project in multiple ways. First, the findings indicate that

excessive external regulation is not conducive to improved job performance, which may inform

the suggestions we make to those who manage the employees at this organization. Second, the

significant findings related to the need for self-knowledge (meaningful performance outcomes)

and self-validation (social comparison) present implications for how the organization can foster

greater levels of motivation in their employees. Finally, the finding that specific goals are more

efficacious than general goals suggests that Saint Simon’s Coffee Company may benefit from

developing specific goals, such as those found in the SMART approach (specific, measurable,

achievable, relevant, time-bound).

Therefore, Saint Simon’s Coffee Company will likely benefit from a goal-setting strategy

that uses specific and difficult goals designed by the employees, as this may create a greater level

of dedication to the more uninteresting tasks to ensure that the tasks get completed to proper

standards and in a timely fashion. Further, acknowledging that feedback is a significant

moderator of the relationship between goals and performance, the adoption of a standardized,

company-wide feedback protocol may also be efficacious. Additionally, Saint Simon’s should

consider how the goals created by the organization relate to their employee’s needs for self-

knowledge and social comparison. Implementing these processes, based in scientific theory and

Goal Setting and Extrinsic Motivation


empirical evidence, will provide a framework for employee development and sustained business


Proposed Solution

To properly utilize goal-setting theory to increase extrinsic motivation at Saint Simon’s,

we recommend the implementation of SMART goals. We would suggest that the main owner

collaborates with each employee to set a goal for timely completion of day-to-day tasks and a

skill building goal that employees can pursue during slow times. Coupling these goals with

regular feedback, such as a quarterly check-in, will help employees stay on track with their goals.

Implementing these two different forms of goals should help both the company and the

employees. The task completion goal will promote an increase in extrinsic motivation and ensure

upkeep standards stay intact during this transition period. The managing owner should make sure

he is helping employees set specific, measurable, achievable, relevant, and time-bound goals to

ensure goal acceptance. In addition to a shop upkeep goal, a personal growth goal will also help

the shop maintain standards and possibly improve them. Due to the current change the company

is experiencing, employees should be encouraged to set a personal skill goal, such as learning a

new latte art design every month or creating a new drink for the menu, to help take up some of

the free time the workers experience during the slower periods of the work day. The opportunity

to develop new skills may satisfy the need for self-knowledge and social comparison, thereby

further enhancing levels of intrinsic motivation. This goal, coupled with feedback, can help the

employees feel a sense of personal growth while the company experiences organizational

growth, and will help ensure that the main owner and manager are staying in tune with both



Goal Setting and Extrinsic Motivation


The employees of Saint Simon’s Coffee Company are currently going through a

transitional period as they divert attention and resources away from their day-to-day activities to

prepare for the opening of a second location. During this transition, we have identified that

employees are experiencing low levels of motivation to perform the daily tasks which are not

intrinsically interesting, thus indicating a lack of extrinsic motivation. We believe that a

standardized, company-wide goal setting framework may provide a flexible means of increasing

motivation while maintaining an individual employee’s focus. We recommend having each

employee discuss and implement a SMART goal for themselves with the management team.

This goal will provide a source of extrinsic motivation by presenting the employee with a

measurable, time-sensitive deadline for which they themselves (and the management team) can

be held accountable. We also encourage quarterly check-ins to discuss goal progress and how it

is affecting work performance and perceived motivation. Based on the findings of related

research, we believe this strategy will help maintain employee focus during this period of

transition and may even become a long-term practice within the company.

Goal Setting and Extrinsic Motivation



Locke, E. A. & Latham, G. P. (2002). Building a practically useful theory of goal setting and

task motivation: A 35 year odyssey. American Psychologist, 57, 705-717.

Martin, B, McNally, J., & Taggar, S. (2016). Determining the importance of self-evaluation on

the goal-performance effect in goal setting: Primary findings. Canadian Journal of

Behavioural Sciences, 48, 91-100.

Goal Setting and Extrinsic Motivation


Appendix A

Interview 1: Darren

Katie 0:01
So first off, what are your primary responsibilities?

Primary responsibilities as my, my job title? I am the founder/owner/manager of this current
location. My, my responsibilities include rent scheduling, doing payroll, doing stop orders for
product and anything really involving the overall production of what comes out of this job.

Katie 0:35
And what do you enjoy most about your job?

Um, I have to say most, I enjoy the people. I get to interact with tons of people daily, even not
only customers, but also other business owners, other people that we collaborate with and that
sort of thing, building those relationships and coming up with cool connections and things like

Katie 0:57
And what do you enjoy least about your job?

Darren 1:00
Probably least is the all the behind the scenes stuff as far as you know like bookkeeping, finances
that sort of thing pretty much none of the fun stuff where you actually get to make coffee and
talk to people and do all that but I mean it’s at the same time it’s necessary but it’s not necessarily
my favorite so

Katie 1:23
and what motivates you to do your job well?

Um, I guess the motivation is mostly just based on we want to do well here and we want to we
want the business to succeed. And I think that’s a major motivation because when when we get
all of our employees on board and on the same page, we want us all to do good. And so if
everyone’s kind of working towards a common goal that creates a lot of you know, everyone’s
pushing each other forward.

Goal Setting and Extrinsic Motivation


Katie 1:55
And would you say that you are more driven by the fear of making a mistake? Or by desire to
challenge yourself and try new things?

Oh, that’s a good question. Um, I would say the latter it’s always really fun to, to push ourselves
to try new things, especially right now with with where we’re going trying to expand the business
and stuff because I mean we could just be you know, plenty happy doing this one and making it
by and that kind of thing but we want to keep pushing ourselves and keep getting better at our
craft and what we do

Katie 2:31
and do your personal goals align with your organization’s mission?

Darren 2:37
Yes, I’ve at least my for me personally. Yes. I’ve always wanted to always wanted to run a
business own a business and be an entrepreneur and this was really this is a really good avenue
of making that happen and and pushing that forward.

Katie 2:56
Is there anything in particular that you would that would dramatically affect your level of
commitment to your job?

Darren 3:04
Um, I would say that you never know what’s going to happen in life. And so obviously, if there
was something that really required me and I needed to do something, go somewhere and help
help somebody else. Or, or for me personally, if I had to, I would, but as far as as far as where it’s
at right now, I don’t see anything in the foreseeable future that would take me away from what
we’re doing here.

Is there anything that would positively affect your commitment?

Oh, um not that I can think of, actually.

Katie 3:38
Um, does your work present sufficient challenges to prevent boredom while also providing
opportunities for growth?

Goal Setting and Extrinsic Motivation


Um, yeah. I think so. I think just in the nature of a coffee shop it’s never boring just because
there’s always so many different things happening and it’s never the same thing every day. So
you come into work, you don’t know who you’re going to see you talk to..that sort of thing..What
was the second part of that question?

Katie 4:06
Providing opportunities for growth.

Oh, yes. Um, well, yeah, I mean, that’s, that’s what we’re trying to do right now, especially
growth for our company growth for myself as an individual and and growth for the employees as

Katie 4:22
And do you feel like you are given adequate support and your role as well as constructive
feedback about your performance?

Yeah, I believe so. When when the three of us started this together, we were all very clear on
what our lines of authority were and where our areas of expertise were. And so we drew very
clear lines of not crossing over into each other’s jurisdiction and that sort of thing and then that
also has provided us with ways of giving each other feedback that aren’t you know it’s not
personal it’s nothing like that but it’s when the other when the other pieces see one piece not
working quite as well or could do something a little better, we can address it and talk about it and
make make all of us work as a cohesive unit

Katie 5:10
And would you feel comfortable voicing a negative opinion to your coworkers if an issue were to

Well, I’m the manager. So yes, I do that all the time. And it’s basically basically once if, if we get
a bad feedback, either from a customer from an experience that someone had, we try and address
it immediately and usually try and do it individually one on one with the person as to not, you
know, embarrass them or make them feel that they’re being attacked or anything like that. But
yeah, I’m comfortable with that. That sort of thing. Yes.


Goal Setting and Extrinsic Motivation


And imagine a terrible day at work and what went wrong?

Um probably a terrible day at work for me just being on the managerial side is that we run out of
product for some reason, our power goes out, some sort of part of the production gets messed up.
And so we can’t do our jobs properly. That would probably be the worst day of work. Or it has
like vandalism and stuff like that has happened as well. So that kind of makes a crappy day at
work. But other than that, I love what I do and got into it for a reason. So it’s, it’s something that I
and it’s nothing that would deter me from continuing forward and keeping, keeping going.

And what emotions does a bad day at work usually invoke?

Typically, I mean, for me, it’s typically just frustration and when I get frustrated, like to start
working, angry, just kind of like slamming things around and just like oh, but uh, but yeah, so I
would say mostly it’s it’s just frustration and anxiety, trying to try to get things back on track and
get things back on where they should be.

Katie 6:55
And imagine an ideal day at work and what went right?

Darren 7:00
An ideal day at work is usually like a sunny morning that is just crazy busy and we have ordered
properly staffed, we have everyone in the positions they need to be in and that kind of flow we
call it a flow because it’s everyone when people come into the shop to get their coffee and go
back out, it should be just one big flow of everyone moving and when everyone’s doing well at
their job and and having a good time while doing it. That just amps it up by like 20 times of just
having a good flow having a positive energy and really just cranking drinks out

and what emotions would you associate with those days?

Um, I mean, yeah, it would be just like joy and having fun with what we’re doing and being fast
and efficient and I would hope that our employees feel you know, a sense of pride and ownership
themselves of the of the business.

Katie 8:00
Thank you very much.

Goal Setting and Extrinsic Motivation


Goal Setting and Extrinsic Motivation


Appendix B

Interview 2: Marissa

Alright. Um, so what are your primary responsibilities?

Marissa 0:09
Um, I am a barista so making drinks, um greeting customers, educating customers on coffee,
taking orders, restocking, cleaning, um yeah, so just pretty simple tasks that have to do with like
cafe service, food service, customer service.

Katie 0:34
And what do you enjoy the most about your job?

Um free coffee, maybe not the most, but that’s up there. Um, interactions with my co workers. I
work with really great people and spending time with them is really fun, honestly. And then also
just craft coffee is really fun to make, so just making coffee on a regular basis

Katie 1:06
What do you enjoy least about your job?

Marissa 1:13
Um, I think the most challenging part is some days when I don’t feel like talking to people and
having to talk to people, it’s really hard just because you are in service. So there’s a lot of public
interaction. And so like, if you’re just having a day, where you don’t really feel like interacting
with people that can be really hard. That can be probably the hardest part.

Katie 1:33
and what motivates you to do your job well?

Marissa 1:38
Um, I think I hold myself to a pretty high standard. So, just like knowing that I came, did my job,
did it well, I then can go home and not have to think about it, and I also really care about the
people I work for and so knowing that I’m doing work that represents them well, also motivates
me a lot to like do, to do well

Katie 2:02
and would you say that you are more driven by the fear of making a mistake or by the desire to
challenge yourself and try new things?

Goal Setting and Extrinsic Motivation


Marissa 2:16
I think the latter, now. I think when I was younger, I was more driven by fear of making mistakes
but I think now is as I’ve gotten older and I’m very well versed in like cafe service, the idea of
like doing something a little bit more challenging or just like being, trying to be resourceful in
challenging situations is like probably yeah, what I would lean towards.

do your personal goals align with this organization’s mission?

Marissa 2:52
um, I would say yes, although I’m not, I don’t foresee myself personally being in coffee for like a
very long time. But, I think what Jared really wants to promote in his business, is something that
I would promote in any kind of venture that I have, just like treating people well, respectfully,
and giving them really good service and coffee.

Katie 3:25
Is there anything in particular that would dramatically affect your level of commitment to this
job both negatively and positively?

Marissa 3:38
Um, probably not something that would be within the job. It would have to be something like in
my life that’s happening that I would, that would change my commitment to it. Um, but uh, I
can’t think of anything specifically, but I think that would probably be one factor that would just
change how I would, change my focus on being here. But, I don’t think it would necessarily be
like a, my work would suffer I think it would just be a matter of me like taking a step away for
like, you know, trimming down hours or days so that I can be able to maybe pursue something
else, but..

Katie 4:28
And does your work present sufficient challenges to prevent boredom while also providing
opportunities for growth?

Marissa 4:44
Um, I think in this position, there’s always opportunity for us to be doing something, so the
boredom doesn’t necessarily lie in the activities it just kind of like it’s just the repetitiveness of
them I think is where the boredom would come in. Um, and what was the second part of your


Goal Setting and Extrinsic Motivation


Um, and do they provide opportunities for growth?

Yes. Yeah, Jared’s been pretty…um, for the most part, like it has been saying, like we can,
there’s always an opportunity to move up. And I think hopefully when they open the second
shop, maybe that will like, having more positions, or like, having more people with larger
amounts of responsibilities, but for the most part, like, I kind of feel like I view the position in a
way that’s it’s more of like functioning as a way to like, I don’t know, it serves my lifestyle at the
moment. So it’s like I’m not really looking like, I’m not really seeking to pursue that but if I were
ever to like approach Jared and be like, hey, I want to like participate in more of this, that or
whatever and I want more responsibility he would be really open to, to working something out.

Katie 6:07
Do you feel like you are given adequate support in your role as well as constructive feedback?

Marissa 6:15
Umm, I’d say yes to the first one. Um, I think sometimes, I wish we had a little bit more
feedback. But, when we do, when I do receive feedback, it’s mostly positive so I take that as a
good sign but I think sometimes, I wish there was more, like, I guess, constructive criticism not
necessarily like, I don’t know if that makes sense, like, because I’m someone who, like, wants to
do well and wants to be better and, like, challenge myself and so, like, hearing um, yeah. Hearing
a little bit more, like, maybe constructive criticism would be beneficial for me. But yeah,
feedback in general, we typically do receive, like, a regular amount of feedback on our, just on
our performance or on what we’re doing.

Katie 7:13
And would you feel comfortable voicing a negative opinion to your co workers if there was an

Marissa 7:22
Uuum, like, with the, with my job? Or just like the position or anything?

Yeah, an issue at work.

Um, it would depend on what it was. I think there’s a level of like appropriateness when it comes
to, like, sharing things with my coworkers, like, there’s some, like, little daily, like, day to day
things that I don’t mind sharing with them on, like, the regular basis, but if it was like a larger
issue, like, I trust my coworkers and I, like, wouldn’t mind sharing things with them, but I would

Goal Setting and Extrinsic Motivation


also want to make sure I went through the right, like, avenues of, like, protocol. Like, if it was a
big issue, I’d just go straight to Jared and just be like, “Hey, this is like what’s up.” But if it’s
something like a little bit smaller, I could, I definitely feel comfortable approaching my co
workers with, with that, but I wouldn’t, it would just depend on what it was. Yeah.

Katie 8:23
and imagine a terrible day at work.


What went wrong and what emotions does it evoke?

Marissa 8:31
Um, I think some things that come to mind are probably just customer interactions that don’t go
so well. Um, those can be really challenging for me because they always say don’t take things
personally. But like, you know, I just do sometimes and so, um, emotion wise I usually just like
kind of feel, I feel anxious, I feel stressed, I feel like I…But I try to channel that into doing like a
task or something to get my mind off of the interaction that was maybe negative. And so, yeah.

Katie 9:17
and then imagine an ideal day at work.


and what went right and what emotions does that evoke?

Yeah. Um, I’d probably say like good customer interactions, making really good drinks. Just
having like, a really good flow of people and getting tasks done. Um, that would just be like
ideal, having really good interaction, like, also, like, a good, like, workflow with whoever I’m
working with, that’d be ideal. And that just, like, those kind of days, they just feel like smooth, I
feel relaxed, I feel I just feel really positive and more upbeat, more willing to like engage with
people and um, yeah.

Katie 10:02
Thank you very much.

Goal Setting and Extrinsic Motivation


Goal Setting and Extrinsic Motivation


Appendix C

Interview 3: Seth

Seth 0:00
Alright, fair enough. My name is Seth Brock. It is 6:35 on February 13, and the year of our Lord
2019. I’m here with Katie. And she’s gonna ask me some questions.

Katie 0:12
All right, so what are your primary responsibilities?

In my occupation at the shop? At the store? My primary responsibilities are making coffee and
ensuring customers have a pleasant experience. Pretty standard stuff as far as baristaing goes.

Kaite 0:31
and what do you enjoy the most amount of your job?

Seth 0:38
getting to work with people I genuinely enjoy because that seems to be something that I have
been really fortunate with and past occupations. So always be working with surrounding yourself
with people that you get along with and that kind of challenge you and push you and inspire you
and very lucky to be around a lot of beautiful people over there so I can honestly say the best part
of that job is is the people I mean I enjoy coffee but coffee is coffee.

Katie 1:07
and what do you enjoy the least about your job?

Seth 1:19
Um, that’s tricky. least enjoyable part, I’d say would be probably the shortness of the shifts
because sometimes when you’re when you’re trying to hold down a part time minimum wage job
you want to make sure that the times you are there are worth it like a good long shift. shifts over
there pretty short, so I’ve noticed that like and this is coming strictly from a place of being like
kind of financially tight right now I’m like, Oh, I wish these shifts were longer so that answer
will change according to how financially secure I’m feeling. You know

Katie 1:52
what motivates you to do your job well?

Seth 2:04

Goal Setting and Extrinsic Motivation


honestly just I take a lot of pride in that shop. And so you kind of feel like in a way it represents
you, in a personal way. And so you want to put your best foot forward.

Katie 2:25
would you say that you are more driven by the fear of making a mistake or by the desire to
challenge yourself and try new things?

Unknown 2:40
I pick C a potential for gain.

Can you explain that?

Seth 2:44
Yes, I will elaborate. See, I think that most people have two things that serve as primary
motivators, one of them being the fear of loss. The other thing the potential for gain. Um, I try to
stay worry free. Because I’m someone who already runs a little anxious so I try to not sweat the
small stuff and small stuff being things out of my control the things I am in control of to do well
then I feel like I inherently have the responsibility to do them well because I can you know what
I mean

Katie 3:19
Do your personal goals align with your organization’s mission?

Seth 3:25
My personal goals. In a word yes. This occupation serves wonderfully, the way most occupations
do, in a manner of enabling the employee to do the other things that really make them tick
outside of work, you know. So this is one of those things a lot of people go to shop they don’t
even like in order to pay for the things that they do like, the vacations, and the fun time, the
downtime, the good times. Um, for me I actually really enjoy what I do over there. And so that is
just an extra bonus. That’s a little like, you know, just cherry on top of the Sunday that I happen
to… the job allows me the free time and the money to get my things paid and also be able to do
the things that are personal to me, that motivate me as a human. So yeah, I think it serves its job

Katie 4:28
Is there anything in particular that would dramatically affect your level of commitment to your
job either positive or negative?
Katie 5:00

Goal Setting and Extrinsic Motivation


Is there anything in particular that would dramatically affect your level of commitment to your
job? And it can be either positive or negative or both.

Something that would happen that would affect my commitment? No. Um, well, obviously if I
was to get shitcanned I wouldn’t be as committed to the job. But as long as I’m there i think, i
think something that might affect my commitment is if maybe other leadership somehow took
the reins like if I’m on the minute percentile chance that Jared would just happen to sell the
company you know and suddenly have new bosses to new boss, new manager that might affect it
because I’d be like, well, it’s hard to work under someone when you’ve been there for six years,
you know what I mean? So that might that might affect it, but no, nothing really else other than a
change of leadership would really affect my commitment.

Katie 5:57
and does your work present sufficient challenges to prevent boredom while also providing
opportunities for growth?

Seth 6:06
Yes. Given that I work a lot of afternoon shifts that are inherently not as busy as a morning shift.
It’s gonna be a little slower. But I don’t think boredom ever really settles in. Because when you
got downtime over there, there’s things to clean, there’s things to do. And so yeah, that would be
my answer that.

Katie 6:28
and do you feel like you are given adequate support in your role as well as constructive feedback
about your performance?

Seth 6:39
constructive feedback? There’s plenty of that. Jared won’t hesitate to tell me if he wants
something done differently. So yeah, I feel like I’m properly enabled to do my job. I don’t feel
like anyone’s really like slacking off on direction or anything. In fact, quite the opposite. This
job, it’s very spelled out, what you have to do. It’s all checklist, you know. It’s clean this, do this,
mop this, dust this, stock this, and so I mean, no you never really, never really get bored. But I
think that’s a personal choice anyway.

Katie 7:18
Would you feel comfortable voicing a negative opinion to your co workers if an issue were to


Goal Setting and Extrinsic Motivation


I did today.

Katie 7:32
You want to maybe talk about it?

Seth 7:36
Yeah, no, I have no..I’m just an outspoken person, so if something’s not up to snuff, I’ll be like
why is it this way and not that way? You know, so that I don’t have a problem with that. I
worked the afternoon with Tess today, she’s wonderful. And yeah, we..let’s see, what do we..
what are we talking about today?.. Oh, I guess the only things that really ever come up are either
scheduling conflicts, maybe a last minute adjustment to the schedule that nobody knew about, or
something, that kind of thing. There’s constantly little inconveniences around the shop. But a lot
of it is just, what I would consider an inconvenience is something that inhibits the workflow.
And so that’s really just a matter of like a why are we doing it this way and not that way, which is
like there’s always a time and a place to bring those things up. So, so yeah, I don’t, I don’t feel at
all. I don’t feel any level of discomfort, voicing my concerns, if that helps.

And imagine a terrible day at work. What went wrong?

Seth 8:45
I was late. I was probably late and it set me off, a terrible mood. So I’m like, shoot, I’m not
putting my best foot forward. That’s all.

and what emotions does that evoke?

Oh, just uh, self loathing.

Katie 9:07
and then imagine an ideal day at work. and what went right?

Seth 9:12
What went right? Oh shoot. Usually I had great conversations with my co workers, great
interactions with customers. Nobody tried to break a window or coming in and start you know,
try to steal anything or lock themselves in the bathroom to take a sponge bath or you know, it’s a
good day at work if things go on without a hitch playing good music everyone’s having a good

Goal Setting and Extrinsic Motivation


and what emotions do good days evoke?

Seth 9:40
Gratisfaction. That’s a word. Gratitude, satisfaction of general sense of well being, you know,
when you’re having a good day, you walk a little taller, people treat you nice, chins a little
higher, you know when you’re feeling on top of the world or not. And a good day at work makes
you feel just a little better than when you when you got there.

Katie 10:05
Thank you very much.

AppliedMotivation Project Description

In accordance with OUR University’s commitment to “let knowledge serve the

city,” the applied project in this class will offer you the opportunity to apply what you

about motivational theories and applications to actual organizations in the portland
community ​a non-profit organization PORTLAND, or (4) a private organization IN
PORTLAND.​ We recommend clients should have 10 or fewer members (​Note​: this may
mean you work with a department within a larger organization) and be located in the
Portland metropolitan area.

As an aspiring motivation expert/consultant, you are asked to propose a plan for your
client with the goal of facilitating/increasing motivation of either (1) the
employees/members of the organization OR (2) the clients/customers of the
organization (e.g. recruiting new volunteers/members for the target organization). You,
as the consultant, shall examine and describe what motives are ​currently ​behind their
work, and what motivational ​barriers ​are present before you propose solutions to the
unit management. The goal of the proposal will ultimately be to propose feasible
solutions (based on theory and empirical evidence) that your clients can implement in
order to increase motivation.

The project will be completed as a group (2 to 3 person) project. You will need to
identify your “client” and get in contact with them ASAP in order to setup interviews. You
should interview at least 2-3 individuals who represent different perspectives of the topic
you are consulting about. ​Minimum ​1 interviewee per group member.

A ​maximum ​6-page double-spaced (​APA style​) proposal for your client(s) is required
for this course. The proposal should be written in an appropriate manner for consulting
purposes including appropriate citations but should not be filled with psychology
“jargon.” It is up to the group whether or not the proposal is actually submitted to your
clients. The proposal should include the following components.

● You should apply at least one of the motivation theories/ideas we discuss in this
class to this project and cite the original theorist(s).

● You should incorporate at least one empirical article and one other scholarly
work (2 total) that provide evidence to support your diagnosis and proposed

● Any article you used that is helpful ​and ​actually cited/quoted needs to be listed at
the end of the proposal as part of the “references.”

● The references list and required appendix (e.g., interview notes) are not included
in the 6- page limit.

● You ​must ​include your interview transcripts with contact information for the
interviewee (typed) in an Appendix at the end of your paper.

● The proposed solutions shall be discussed in specific detail, including feasibility,
and should be backed up by empirical evidence.



The Implementation of Flow Theory and Mentors to Perpetuate Intrinsic Motivation in Umdzes


Portland State University



At the Portland Shambhala Center a time keeper of a meditation session is known as an umdze

(oom-zay). Due to the number of skills it requires the process of becoming competent at this

volunteer position is rarely completed. Shortages are common. This becomes taxing for the few

experienced umdzes. To gain information three interviews were conducted. According to the

interviewees training is available but it does not follow them through the practice necessary to

gain the competency and confidence the position requires. More problems arise when

inconsistencies in the training leave trainees either intimidated by the details and formalities

required by the position or feeling unprepared due to a lack of instruction. An additional

complication occurred when two of the trainees responded differently to the same level of

formality in their training. This leads one to question how to create an effective training when a

technique inspires one individual but deters another. The end result of these issues diffuses the

intrinsic motivation that inspired them to volunteer. It will be suggested that experienced umdzes

mentor and implement Csikszentmihalyi’s Flow theory. Proper implementation of the theory will

result in a cycle of ability/challenge balance, leading to competency, leading to intrinsic

motivation (Eccles & Wigfield, 2002). This is a key strategy that will inspire trainees to reach

higher and higher levels of competency (Martin & Cutler, 2002).


The Implementation of Flow Theory and Mentors to Perpetuate Intrinsic Motivation in Umdzes

A time keeper of a meditation session is known as an umdze (oom-zay). This is a

volunteer position whose overall responsibilities include: opening and closing the shrine, keeping

track of the temperature, orderliness, and lighting of the room, leading chants, and signaling the

alternating sessions of sitting and walking periods. Most importantly they sit in an elevated

visible position (on a small stage) and face all others to exemplify the dignity of the meditative


The Portland Shambhala Center regularly experiences a shortage of umdzes. The center

requires an umdze for every meditation session; typically there are one to two sessions daily.

Additionally there are weekend retreats that require extensive hours of guided meditation

practice all of which is lead by an umdze. Usually these needs are met by a handful of dedicated

members who volunteer. This can become taxing for these individuals.

Fortunately, with the umdze training that is currently available, there is a consistent

stream of interested people who want to become competent umdzes. Unfortunately issues with

scheduling logistics and the lack of confidence that accompanies the beginning of a new task

diffuses their efforts and keeps them from reaching their goals. The level of competency required

by the position to umdze regularly is rarely achieved.

The goal of this assessment is to provide recommendations founded in Flow theory in

order to create an environment to foster consistent opportunities for competency and intrinsic

motivation within inexperienced volunteers. To reach this optimal state the implementation of a

mentor to monitor this environment for each individual will be recommended. This is an

important strategy that will provide the long term motivation necessary to complete the process

required to become a regular umdze.


Problem diagnosis

To gain foundational information about the barriers that inhibit the training process, three

separate interviews were conducted. Because it is important to obtain information from

volunteers who have different levels of experience, each of the interviewees was hand selected

is extensive (see Appendix C). She can umdze at all levels including some of the more difficult


Additional interview information revealed a large discrepancy in the sophistication of the

think the training is too formal because one of the trainings is formality.” What became clear was

that each individual responded differently to the training creating different motivational issues

for each volunteer. This poses immediate difficulty in choosing an effective training program

when something like formality motivates one individual but is a deterrent for another.

However where all interviewees largely agreed was that all of them wanted to improve

doing it and would like to become more comfortable with the chants and gonging.

according to their level of experience. For example (Interview 3) experience and expertise as an umdze

performance oriented tasks such as chant leading. (Interview 2) umdzes sessions without chanting (see

Appendix B) and (Interview 1) has received training but has very limited experience (see Appendix

trainings. For example, (Interview 1) attended a casual form of training that was offered on the weekend

retreats and felt that it did not have enough detail. (Interview 3) and (Interview 1) attended a more formal

training. (Interview 1) indicated that it was formal to the point of intimidation. (Interview 2) thought “I don’t

their level of competency (confidence). For example (Interview 1) stated that she wanted “experience

in this type of leadership role” and saw it as an “opportunity to gain some confidence.” (Interview 2) felt

that “more confidence would help” (Interview 3) also mentioned that she has gained confidence through


Other significant barriers that were mentioned were: time logistics, not enough time to

volunteer and/or incompatible schedules; lack of feed back, at this point there is little feedback

given; and chant leading, the chants are complicated and lengthy.

What was notably going well was that all interviewees were experiencing an inspiring

sense of relatedness as a result of volunteering (Deci & Ryan, 2000). Although this is positive

and helpful, it does not contribute enough motivation to counter the depleting effects that occur

as a result of inconsistencies in training and/or how each individual responds to training. The

ending consequence of the current training diffuses the volunteer’s efforts such that intrinsic

motivation dissipates, competence becomes lack of competency, and volunteers stop trying.

As stated this problem has many issues but due to time and resource limitations and

because everyone in the interview independently emphasized its importance, increasing

competency (see Appendix D) will be the most efficient way to develop more intrinsic

motivation and therefore will be the goal and focal point of this paper. Many of the other issues

will be addressed indirectly.


When considering options to address the aforementioned need for competency, it is my

belief that Flow theory is the best fit. Csikszentmihalyi defines flow as an immediate subjective

experience that occurs when people are engaged in an activity. The experience of flow is

characterized by: a feeling of immersion in an activity; a moment in time when awareness and

action merge; a clear focus of the task at hand; a lack of self-consciousness; and, most applicable

to this assessment, a feeling of being in control of the outcome of one’s actions and

environmental factors, i.e. competence (Eccles & Wigfield, 2002).

The experience of flow can only occur for the intrinsically motivated individual. Typical

volunteers have little exterior motivation. They choose to participate because they want to. This


desire comes from internal sources and therefore is intrinsic motivation. Since intrinsic

motivation is the springboard for the flow experience and our volunteers fit the description

(Eccles & Wigfield), Flow Theory will generalize to umdze volunteers exceptionally well.

The flow experience is further described to be a reward in itself; but of equal importance

are the results of the flow experience.


is one of the results. Competency also

promotes intrinsic motivation (Deci & Ryan, 2000; Eccles & Wigfield, 2002) which is the

driving force that when combined with ability/challenge balance (a challenge that is neither too

difficult nor too easy), creates the supportive environment for the flow experience to occur. This

process becomes a cycle. It begins again when the results of the flow experience increases the

competency that becomes intrinsic motivation… (Martin & Cutler, 2002). This cycle perpetuates

itself and is how long term motivation will be achieved (see Appendix E).


Theater actors were the subject of an exploratory study that observed the effects of Flow

theory as it pertains to acting. The study reported how often the state of Flow occurred for the

actors. Additionally prerequisite and environmental conditions associated with Flow were noted.

Understanding these conditions will allow us to recreate the state of flow for the trainees.

The role of the theater actor and umdze share many key skills. Both require the individual

to perform on a stage, memorize lines, and maintain unwavering focus for extended periods of

time. For these reasons the observations obtained in this study will generalize to umdzes (Martin

& Cutler, 2002).

What is specifically applicable to our situation is the way long term intrinsic motivation

is achieved. First, the actors had good amount of inherent intrinsic motivation; this is what

brought them to try acting in the first place. Next, the director implemented an appropriate

ability/challenge balance to increase the possibility that a state of flow would occur. The moment


flow occurs so follows the development of intrinsic motivation. Although competency is not

directly stated, synonyms such as ‘sense of control’ and ‘accomplishment’ indicate that

competency does occur as a result of the flow experience (Eccles & Wigfield,


The following quotations show how the observations and information gained from the

exploratory study on theater actors were applied to increase long term intrinsic motivation.

Directors should take particular care to match role difficulty with actors’ skill levels and

provide actors with acting goals. Such practices should increase the probability of

achieving flow. Theater professionals and educators are interested in retaining students.

The results of the present investigation, although correlation suggest that purposefully

trying to create “ in-the-moment” flow experiences for actors also may have long-range

benefits through the development of intrinsic motivation (Martin &

Cutler, 2002).

Intrinsic motivation coupled with feelings of efficacy, has been associated with increased

effort and persistence, particularly when faced with failure experiences (Martin & Cutler,


Proposed Solution

To best implement Flow Theory it is suggested that the center request experienced

umdzes mentor the inexperienced trainees. This should occur after trainees receive their initial

training. The main reason for mentorship is to steward the flow experience for the trainees. To

do this effectively it is recommended that the center have a specific informational session for

interested mentors that will provide them with a clear understanding of: 1) Flow experience;

what it is and its relationship to competency, 2) Competency; what it is (see Appendix D) and

how it promotes intrinsic motivation. 3) Intrinsic motivation and how to direct it and make the

most of it by creating the appropriate ability/challenge balance. 4) The ability/challenge balance;


what it is, and how it creates the optimal environment for the flow experience to occur. 5) The

self perpetuating nature of the cycle is a tactile experience, for example: The flow experience

feels like your best day playing your favorite sport; you had focus, accuracy and no self doubts.

This gave you a feeling of mastery which leads to competence at your skill and as a desirable

consequence provided the motivation (intrinsic), that drove you to try your sport at a new level

of difficultly. Your coach suggested an appropriate challenge that allowed you to gain new skills

while still maintaining adequate control. Soon after followed the flow experience and the cycle

began again (see Appendix E).

A clear understanding of these key ideas will provide an effective strategy for creating

long term motivation (Eccles & Wigfield, 2002; Martin & Cutler, 2002). Also having a mentor

will inherently address some of the other issues that were mentioned such as: Too much or too

little formality, a mentor will be able to introduce formality in increments; scheduling, it is easier

to coordinate one on one; feed back, mentors will provide valuable feedback that will help

people know how they are doing and what needs work; and general support and assistance with

any other issues that can arise as the training progresses. It will also meet volunteers’ relatedness

needs on a more personal level (Deci & Ryan, 2000).


The original intrinsic motivation of our volunteers was strong enough to create the desire

to become and umdze. Working with a mentor who will implement flow theory will provide

volunteers with the opportunity to capitalize on their original intrinsic motivation. By creating

goals with the appropriate challenge required to experience incremental levels of mastery the

volunteers will reach their original goal of competency (Eccles & Wigfield, 2002; Martin &

Cutler, 2002).



Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2000). The” what” and” why” of goal pursuits: Human needs and the

self-determination of behavior. Psychological inquiry,11(4), 227-268.

Eccles, J. S., & Wigfield, A. (2002). Motivational beliefs, values, and goals. Annual review of

psychology, 53(1), 109-132.

Martin, J. J., & Cutler, K. (2002). An exploratory study of flow and motivation in theater

actors. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 14(4), 344-352.


Appendix A

Interview 1

1) Rate your level of involvement in the center, one being that you just get emails and 10

being hired staff that also volunteers.

Three, I attend meditation practices, donate money to the center, and volunteer occasionally.

2) Where would you rate being a regular meditator and umdze?

A meditator would be a two. An Umdeze would be a four.

3) What do you see the umdze’s role as?

A meditation leader and an example of good meditation skills.

4) Do you think it is necessary to have one?


5) What if there was not one how would the sit be different and does it matter?

Without one the sit would be more difficult. Because you are working with the vastness, fluidly,

and fickle nature of the mind Meditation can have a fleeting, dream like feeling, especially if you

are tired or especially distracted with a life issue. Anything that can help legitimize your practice

is helpful. The umdze does this in many ways.

6) Have you ever been an umdze?


Did you like it? Why or why not?

It was a mixed bag. It was good in the sense that it helped me stay focused and sit still because I

was supposed to be providing the example. It was also stressful because of the protocol. I didn’t

want to make a mistake.

7) What inspired you to try it?

Two things, first I wanted to help out the center. Second, it seemed like an opportunity to gain

some confidence. The umdze is something of a meditation role model. I had hoped to gain

experience in this type of leadership role.

8) How was your experience? Did your feel comfortable doing it?

Again this was a mixed bag. I did gain some confidence and got more comfortable the more I did


If so what was the most enjoyable part?

The feeling of confidence and knowing that I was helping out.

What would make the experience better?

Having a split shift or someway to make the sit not quite so long.

First Name


If not what about it was unpleasant or difficult? If so what could help alleviate or eliminate

the issue?

The physical position is challenging to hold in example form for two 25min shifts in a row. Also,

I was never comfortable with leading the chants.

9) If there were something about the responsibilities of the umdze that you could change

what would it be?

Make it a chant optional position for beginner Umdzes or possibly break the position down into

umdze and chant leader.

10) Is being umdze something you want to do again?


11) What are the 3 most significant reasons that prevent you from umdzing?

Time, to do a proper job you have to train and learn the chants.

The chants are difficult to learn and there are a lot of them, I mean have you ever paid attention

to just the pronunciation of some of them. I forget even the easy names like Alokeshvara the

language from Tibetan to English)

Also, I think I suffer from lack of confidence, which is ironic because the only I will get more

confidence is by doing it.

12) Is there anything, as you see it within the organization that prevents you from doing it

more often?

I am afraid of high standards and not being able to live up to them.

13) What are the 3 most significant reasons why you would do it again?

It makes me feel more connected with the center. Also, I get a lot out of feeling useful.


14) Is being an umdze helpful to your meditation practice? If so how?

Yes, definitely. When you are up there everything you do is amplified. If you are confident with

your skill level you get to feel more confident. Even if you are not at your best knowing that you

can weather being put on the spot builds confidence too.

15) Do your family and friends support your efforts to volunteer at the meditation center?


16) Is there enough umdze training available at the center?


17) What did you think of your training? Do you need more? Do you think the training and

formality is a deterrent? If so how?

Bodisatfa Mahisatfa … (Interview 1 went on about some of the difficulty in the translation of the


My training was in depth, formal, and rigorous, especially the chants. I did appreciate the

structure of the training, however, I would be more likely to umdze if there was less pressure

(formality) placed on the training.

18) Would a less formal training and meditation session be good or bad? What can you for

see happening if some of the formality is dropped?

I would like a less formal training with possibly someone there to help with the chants.

19) What is currently being done to help the problem?

I don’t know.

20) What could be done to encourage people to become umdezes?

Have more non formal trainings available. Also, make sure people understand they can make

mistakes. My training was from Name ( Name is known for her precision and perfectionism).


Appendix B

Interview 2

1) Rate your level of involvement in the center, one being that you just get emails and 10
being hired staff that also volunteers.


What do you do at the center?

I am a volunteer at the weekend retreats. I also am a meditator and umdze.

2) Where would you rate being a regular meditator and umdze?

A meditator, maybe one or two, an umdze maybe five.

3) What do you see the umdze’s role as?

The umdzes role is to help provide a container for the meditators to sit in. Provide instruction as

to when to walk and sit, and to be an example .

4) Do you think it is necessary to have one?

5) What if there was not one how would the sit be different?

The support staff (pause), its like yak oil candles. The butter or oil is put in a bowl with a wick to

create light. The light is the teachings. The umdze represents the bowl.

So you are saying it’s crucial and you cannot meditate without it? Well you can, but it’s not

nearly as powerful.

6) Have you ever been an umdze?
Did you like it? Why or why not?

I liked it because you provide a sense of protection; I imagine the way a parent does for a child,

although not as extreme. It gets you out of your “poor me” all little me world. It pushes you to

put more effort into your meditation. It’s very dignified and gives you a sense of awareness of

your own dignity.

And what I don’t like about it is sometimes it is hard to be in front of a group of people. There

the fear of messing up. There is physical discomfort that I have to endure more of because I am

in front of people than I would if I was in the back row. Sometimes because I am put on the spot

the pain issues can be unbearable. And I also like it because there is a sense of giving back to


7) What inspired you to try it?

(The answer is found in question 6)

8) How was your experience? Did your feel comfortable doing it?

First Name


(This question was answered in question 6 above)

If so what was the most enjoyable part?

(This question was answered in question 6 above)

What would make the experience better?

Having a more limber body and a Buddha mind.

Is there something you can think of as far as the logistics of the position that could be made

easier like breaking up the shifts into shorter sessions and sharing the position with

someone else?

Breaking up the shifts would certainly make things easier.

Can you think of anything else? It would be nice if you got consistent instructions on how to

umdze. For example when you ring the gong do you let it ring or do you deaden it. Every center

has rules that are different for the position.

Is there anything else you can think of that could help alleviate or eliminate any unpleasant


More confidence would help. And how would you get more confidence? Meditate and continue

with Kasung training ( A kasung is another volunteer position who’s primary focus is to watch

over the meditation hall and monitor the area so that meditators can be relaxed knowing that

their property, coats and valuables, and anyone who has entered the center by mistake or other

motivation has someone to which they can direct their needs.)

9) If there were something about the responsibilities of the umdze that you could change

what would it be?

Are you also considering that the umdze is in charge of the chant leading?


Yes, then I might releive the umdze of that responsibility because knowing what the names are

and the breathing is difficult. I would also be sure that the umdzes have consistent training.

10) Is being umdze something you want to do again?


11) What are the 3 most significant reasons that prevent you from umdzing?

Time, I don’t have enough of it. That would be the #1 reason. #2 would be that I am never asked

to umdze, and #3 would be physical discomfort.

12) Is there anything, as you see it within the organization that prevents you from doing it
more often?


13) What are the 3 most significant reasons why you would do it again?

(Due to time constraints the answer to this question will be derived from question 6)

14) Do you feel that being an umdze is helpful to your meditation practice? If so how?

(Due to time constraints the answer to this question will be derived from question 6)

15) Do your family and friends support your efforts to volunteer at the meditation center?

Yeah sure.

16) Is there enough umdze training available at the center?

I don’t know. I’ve seen it offered at every Shambhala level above level 3. (Shambhala is this

particular branch of Tibetan Buddhism and a ‘level’ refers to the incremental training session

offered at Shambhala centers worldwide)

17) What did you think of your training?

It was good but different from the training I received in Juneau.

Do you need more?

You always need more training it’s not unlike CPR, you don’t want to get rusty.

Do you think the training and formality is a deterrent?

What formality, do you mean having 20 mins of designated walking?

from how to hold the gong mallet, to how to stand while you wait for people to sit, to how to

breathe while chanting. It was overwhelming.
Oh I see, I think I needed more of the formality because mine was so casual I don’t feel like I

knew what to do.

It sounds like you think consistency would be helpful.

Yes. A lot of the training I have seen has been the loosey goosey stuff.

18) Would a less formal training and meditation session be good or bad? What can you

foresee happening if some of the formality is dropped?

I think you would see more people doing it in a less formal way.

19) What is currently being done to help the problem?

I thought I saw an advertisement for umdze training.

20) Do you have any ideas of your own that you think would encourage people to become


Offer free food. I know at school when they offer free food at least the people who show up are

not as grumpy. Also, I have only seen them advertise training at the levels. I haven’t ever seen

them offer specifically for umdze training outside the levels. In other words they haven’t asked.

For example when I showed up to meditate on Tuesday night and the scheduled umdze was not

there someone asked me if I would step in and I said ‘yes’.

No, my training for example was given by Name, there was a formal way to do everything


Appendix C

Interview 3

1) Rate your level of involvement in the center, one being that you just get emails and 10
being hired staff that also volunteers.

Well, I would put myself very high on that rating scale with either a 9 or a 10, now I do not get

any kind of compensation but the things that I have taken on and the responsibilities that I have,

have just grown and grown so if this were a working job and I was doing everything I was

committed to do I think I would be working maybe 20-30 hours a week.

So your like a twelve.

Well, (laughter) put me at a 9.

2) Where would you rate being a regular meditator and umdze?

Well, I would rate my umdze responsibilities at a 2 compared to my other responsibilities at the

center, I umdze about once a week. I don’t really understand the part about the mediator part.

Ok, what I am trying to do with rating these “positions” is to quantify effort. In other

words compared to being an umdze, which you rated at a 2, how much effort is required to

simply participate as a meditator?

(Somehow this did not get recorded, but from her low rating of the responsibilities of the umdze

it is safe to assume that the participant role is equal to or less than that of the umdze)

3) What do you see the umdze’s role as?

First I must show up reliably. I have to be familiar with the routine, which doors need to be

closed up, management of the shrine, that sort of thing and I have to be aware of the ritual. I see

the real job as holding the space for the people who come to meditate. Giving them a sense that

the person sitting in the umdze seat know what she is doing so that all they have to do it devote

themselves to their meditation. So that is a way of just holding the space for them.

Is this a responsibility that you find enjoyable?

Yes, I do, but for the longest time that was not the case, in the beginning it was a very anxiety

provoking activity and that eased quite quickly except for in the area of chanting. For a long,

long, long time wasn’t comfortable for me. Some of the more complicated gonging, I do Sundays

twice a month where there is something called a roll down (a specific gonging sequence), and

almost my entire areal of anxiety revolved around making this sound and the majority of my

anxiety is centered around either chanting or gonging.

4) Do you think it is necessary to have one?

I do. It is a focal point for people. Putting myself in just the role of a meditator one of the things

that I look for is that I am doing it with others. There is a power in that that is stronger than the

power of meditating by my self and meditating with others helps me keep my seat more firmly

than I am able to do it on my own. And so I think that it is the umdze that is the primary person

that helps people who come to meditate to think yes this is the place, this is the space, this is the

time to meditate.

5) What if there was not one how would the sit be different and does it matter?

It would change the experience of the people who meditate at the center.

6) Have you ever been an umdze?
First Name


(The answer to this question can be found within question 3)

Did you like it? Why or why not?
(The answer to this question can be found within question 3)

7) What inspired you to try it?

I can’t remember, but I think I was interested and curious about getting more involved with the

center and had decided this was going to be my meditation home and was looking for ways to do

that. I don’t think that I had started some of my other volunteer activities yet, so it just seemed

like it might be an interesting thing to do.

8) How was your experience? Did your feel comfortable doing it?
(The answer to this question can be found within question 3)

If so what was the most enjoyable part and what would make the experience better?

Well, because my comfort level with the experience is at about 95%, I don’t feel the need to

make it better. It was not the ritual that made it uncomfortable, it was a very personal reaction to

any performance and for me the performance aspects are the chanting and gonging and I

understand that it is me who is classifying those as performances. So it is stage fright nothing

else, lighting the shrine, closing down the shrine, nothing else after the first two or three times

that I did it and figure out what was needed cause me any anxiety.

If not what about it was unpleasant or difficult? If so what could help alleviate or eliminate
the issue?

(Answer in question 8 above)

9) Is there any way that some of the anxiety that is caused by the chants and gonging can be


How I got over it was just by doing it. Initially what I wanted and never got was a recording of

someone, a good chanter, doing the chants. I see chanting as having a singing element and I have

never had any confidence in singing. I can sing if someone is leading or singing beside me but I

have no confidence in singing on my own. Having a recording would allow me to hear it over

and over in my head. It took me a long time to develop any confidence in chanting.

11) Can you think of any other areas that would deter you from umdzing.

What did deter me I was able to overcome by doing it so I am beyond deterrents.

12) Is there anything, as you see it within the organization that prevents you from doing it
more often?

No, but from my own life yes, I just have too much going on.

13) What are your best reasons for doing it?

At this point being a umdze is a reliable way to get me to the center to meditate. I’ll show up for

other people. I tend not to show up for myself.

14) Do you feel that being an umdze is helpful to your meditation practice? If so how?

It makes me visible in the center to the degree that I benefit from the sense of community.

15) Do your family and friends support your efforts to volunteer at the meditation center?


The answer is a qualified yes. The qualification is that I have gotten myself over involved with

the center because of the level of responsibility that I have taken on and it creates some tension

within my home because I spend so much time on it and not enough time with my husband.

16) Is there enough umdze training available at the center?

For new umdzes I think not. For experienced umdzes I think yes because you can talk to other

people who umdze and ask questions. Because of this I am always learning something that I did

not know before. I don’t feel the need for additional training in a formal sense but as new umdze

I think very regular refreshers would be helpful.

formality is a deterrent? If so how?

think that for us westerners the idea of formality is very off putting and I think there is a lot of

value in confronting what that is about, and developing some understanding about the purpose of

ritual because when you are doing it you aren’t just doing it for yourself, your doing it for the

other people in the room. So I don’t think the training is too formal, I don’t think the training is

too demanding, I do think there needs to be more training available especially early on. I do

think there needs to be regular refreshers so that people can brush up their skills and ask


18) Would a less formal training and meditation session be good or bad? What can you for
see happening if some of the formality is dropped?

(This question is answered in question 17 above)

19) What is currently being done to help the problem?

I’m sure she is meeting it whole heartedly.


20) What could be done to encourage people to become umdezes?

Besides what I have already mentioned what needs to happen is people have to do it, over and

over to get comfortable with it. So they need to be reminded of that. Is there anything you would

like to mention that I have missed?

No, no, I think you’ve got it.

17) What did you think of your training? Do you need more? Do you think the training and

I don’t think the training is too formal because one of the trainings is formality. (Interview 3 had her
training from Name who gave the most formal and rigorous training of the teachers at the center). I

I’m not sure, I’m kind of out of the loop with that. I do know that Name is in charge of that and

(Name is the same person I have attempted to interview two times and have not been able to


Appendix D

There is an important distinction that needs to be made regarding the definition of

competency. There are two types of competency that can be achieved. First, competency is an

innate need that can be considered to be an ultimate reason for survival (Deci & Ryan, 2000).

The drive behind this type of competency is what brought the volunteers to the original training

session. The second is viewed as result of exploration or play. This is the type that is typically a

result of flow (Eccles & Wigfield, 2002). This type is our goal.


Appendix E

Cycle of Long Term

Intrinsic Motivation

Flow Experience

Intrinsic Motivation




Applied Motivation Group Project

Example Paper Outline

1) Abstract

24 Hour Fitness is a fitness facility corporation. We chose to interview 3 employees at the
Hollywood location who were all in the service field. All employees were intrinsically motivated
to perform well at the company originally but had lost motivation through time. Motivation was
lost due to the employees not feeling respected by supervisors, not being recognized and
receiving poor wages and benefits. They felt that they had to do more than their job description
included for a very small amount of money. We have chosen to use the cognitive evaluation
theory to help these employees become intrinsically motived and excited to work again. We also
are going to use the goal setting theory to help the company create more specific goals for the
employees in comparison to their broad goals currently. By motivating the employee’s
intrinsically and creating specific attainable goals we hope to help this keep employees excited to

TA/Instructor Comment: I would include a sentence summarizing the solutions that you are

2) Intro

The Hollywood 24 Hour Fitness is a fitness facility that offers group classes, exercise
equipment and a pool. They are one of many 24 Hour Fitness around the country. Our group
interviewed three employees: a sales representative who has been with the company for three
years, a membership counselor that has been with the company for four years and a kid’s club
attendant who has been with the company for two years. All of these employees feel invested in
this company but have motivational boundaries that we will discuss further in this paper.

TA/Instructor Comment: Why is this project important to this organization (How will the
organization suffer if motivation remains low)?

3) Problem Diagnosis

The most prominent motivational issue is that employees do not feel recognized for their
hard work. Many employees feel that they do things that are out of their job description and do
not get recognized for going above and beyond what they need to do. The lack of extrinsic
motivation has resulted in a very high turnover rate. The employees that stay in their positions
have to pick up the slack for the missing employees. These employees are not given any
financial incentive unless they are promoted and it is very hard to be promoted when the
supervisors do not recognize the employee’s hard work. The employees either lose their intrinsic
motivation or leave the company from the result of not being extrinsically motivated by their

4) Theory

Interviewing with 24 Hour Fitness helped us gain an understanding that some of the
employees there began their positions with positive intentions of learning about the company and
the field of public health/fitness. Unfortunately, it seems that due to lacking encouragement and
support from management the employees have lost interest and now view their jobs as a
monotonous task rather than an opportunity to learn. Throughout our interviews we noticed that

PSY 345 – Motivation Winter 2020

Applied Motivation Group Project

the Cognitive Evaluation and Goal Setting theories were applicable to what the employees were
saying about their positions. The Cognitive Evaluation theory consists of two main extrinsic
motivators, which are controlling and informational. Cognitive Evaluation theory has three main
propositions, which it follows, and we will use these propositions to increase motivation
throughout the work environment. Proposition one states that external events affect a person are
a person’s intrinsic motivation when they influence the perceived locus of causality for that
behavior. Proposition two adds to that by clarifying that events that promote greater perceived
competence will increase intrinsic motivation. Proposition three finishes the theory by stating
that events relevant to the regulation of behavior have three different aspects with different

We also decided to focus on goal-setting theory because one of the main issues at 24
Hour Fitness is not achieving recognition for work and therefore not being motivated to
accomplish goals. It would be helpful if each employee had a specific list of goals that the team
together could work towards. Difficult and specific goals help to enhance employee performance
by encouraging persistence and strategy. Managers and higher- level staff could also be
encouraged to give more feedback to their employees and potentially have a monthly or bi-
monthly meeting to discuss progress and achievements towards these goals.

TA/Instructor Comment: I would cite key scholarly work about the theory/theories you are

5) Solutions

We would like to apply the Cognitive Evaluation theory by suggesting a more structured
management system in which each department head is responsible for a group of employees as
well as making each manager a list of their job responsibilities. This will better construct who is
responsible for which employees and what they can do to motivate those specific employees and
what they can do to encourage them. Feedback is the key component to Cognitive Evaluation
theory and we suggest that managers meet with their employees to evaluate how they have been
doing with their tasks and projects as well as encouraging the managers to develop a more
empathetic relationship with their employees as they learn more about the goals and attitudes of
that employee.

Because employees at 24 Hour Fitness are feeling a lack of recognition we could form
some sort of bulletin board in the break room where exceptional employees could be recognized
for their work during that particular month. People could leave notes to each other or
anonymously to direct the employee’s attention towards certain actions or attitudes that you
noticed throughout the month. At the end of each month, whichever
employee had the most recognition would win some sort of prize or monetary appreciation.

For our solutions on goal setting theory we would encourage these meetings to occur
monthly or bi-monthly, as previously stated, to focus on progress and achievement. It would be
helpful if there were more rewards and punishments so that the company as a whole could focus
more on operant conditioning. The managers and chain of command in general could instill a
sense of self-efficacy in the employees and encourage them to accomplish their goals because at
this point in their lives, most employees are working towards gaining experience in their chosen
field for their futures. If we were able to further analyze the employees in their performance and
motivational frameworks we would have a better understanding as to the more specific goals
each individual would have; at this point our emphasis lies on meeting regularly with employees

PSY 345 – Motivation Winter 2020

Applied Motivation Group Project

to focus on their goals within and outside of 24 Hour Fitness.

6) Summary

The employees of 24 Hour Fitness need more encouragement, recognition and feedback
to feel that keeping their job is worthwhile. Using the Cognitive Evaluation and Goal Setting
theory, we think that motivation could be increased intrinsically and performance overall could

TA/Instructor Comment: Don’t forget to include empirical evidence to support the
theory/theories you are using and/or solutions that you are proposing to address the motivational
issues. Finally, make sure that you are connecting your theory, evidence, and solution to ensure
that your paper is coherent and flows well.

PSY 345 – Motivation Winter 2020

Applied Motivation Group Project Rubric

Author Names:

Criteria Grade
Theory and Application (65 points)
− Introduction (5 points)

(Give your readers some background of your consulting: Why is this proposal
necessary/important? Why does your client need your consulting/expertise?)

− Problem diagnosis (briefly describe your interview results and analyze the
current motivational status and possible motivational barriers/problems of the
members of the club/unit or your individual client you are consulting) (10
ü You need to use original points/comments (e.g., quotes) from your

interviews (e.g., data) to support your diagnosis; use pseudonyms for your

− Application of theoretical background to the selected topic (15 points)
ü Appropriate and accurate interpretation of your target motivation

theory(ies); (concepts and theoretical models/mechanisms);
ü Cite the original theorists for the theory(ies) used;
ü Clearly explain the appropriateness of applying the target theory(ies) in

the context of your consulting (which motivational mechanism(s) will help
solve your clients’ problem(s); why?)

− Integration of empirical evidence (15 points)
(e.g., description of the study such as study sample, method, and conclusions;
describe the connection between this study and your consulting; describe how
this study is appropriate evidence, in terms of being consistent with the
theory(ies) chosen and being applicable to your consulting situations)

− Quality of solutions (20 points)
(e.g., the quality of the proposed solutions in terms of their specificity,
feasibility, and their connection with the theory/evidence discussed)

Structure (20 points)
− Abstract (5 points): Need to mention all components of the paper (background,

problems, theory, and solution); it is similar to the executive summary of a
project report.

− Reference list (5 points): Minimum 1 reference about your theory and 1
reference about your empirical evidence other than Reeve (2009)

− Follows APA’s publication rules & style – 6th Edition (5 points)
(e.g., title at the top of the 1st page of the body, cite interview notes in-text, in-
text references to scholarly work, typed, Times New Roman font, 12pt font,
double spaced, and 1′ for margins)

− Interview notes (Typed AND Attached) (5 points)

PSY 345 – Motivation Yang/Allen

Quality of Writing (10 points)

− Avoids technical errors (5 points) (e.g., punctuation, spelling, singular-plural
agreement, subject-verb agreement, etc.)

− Uses clear and well-organized prose/structure (5 points) (e.g., uses structured
paragraphs and subheadings if appropriate, logical flow, no single sentence or
run-on paragraphs)

Group Responsibilities Allocation Sheet (5 points)
Total (100 points):
Other Comments:

PSY 345 – Motivation Yang/Allen

Applied Motivation Project
Happy Hour

Shalene Allen
PSY 345 – Winter 2020

Instructor: Liu-Qin Yang, Ph.D.


What is this Project?

Group Formation + Sign-Up


Extra Credit


Purpose: Science into Practice

• Create University–Community partnerships
• Learn + Apply course materials
• Build professional skills
• Build professional networks
• Potential for internships & jobs!

Group Project

1. Interview an organization with the goal of increasing motivation
(e.g., employees of Powell’s Books)

2. Examine motivational levels of client

3. Identify + Diagnose motivational barriers

4. Propose solutions to client based on theoretical and empirical

General Project Guidelines (4)

• Form group of 2-3 people (I think 3 is good)
• Group must be signed up by 11:59 on Tuesday 1/16 via Qualtrics or on D2L
• Each group member’s first and last name

• Interview at least 2-3 individuals (in-person interviews are preferred)
• Interviewees must have different positions within organization
• Interview as many individuals as the number of group members

• Max. 6-page, double space (APA style) proposal of potential solutions
for client
• Use at least (1) piece of theoretical evidence and at least (1) piece of

empirical research to support the motivation theory and proposed
• Theory and empirical evidence should be related to each other

Client Categories

1. University-Community partnership program at PSU
• PSU Student Ambassadors

• Student Ambassadors and Motivation
• List of PSU-community capstone partnerships

2. Team/club/organization/group at PSU
• PSU Women’s Track + Field

• Extrinsic Motivation in Teams: Assessing the influence of peer motivation factors on
individual performance towards a team-oriented goal


Client Categories

3. Non-profit organization or association in the Portland metro area
• Oregon Human Society

• Motivating Dog Owners to Attend “Manners” Training Classes

4. Department/team of a local business or local branch of a global
• Regal Cinemas Fox Tower 10

• Management Techniques Matter: Using Social Cognitive Theory to Increase Motivation of a Movie
Theater’s Staff

Paper Format

• Title page
• Abstract (150-200 words)
• Main body – maximum 6 pages
• References
• Tables/Charts (if applicable)
• Appendix – Interview Notes

• Interview transcripts

• APA formatting: Purdue Owl Website


Paper Format – Main Body

• Introduction
• Diagnoses of problem

• Interview/Observations

• Application of theory
• Supporting evidence

• Literature/Empirical evidence (published, peer-reviewed scholarly work)
• Solutions

• Description
• Implementation/Justification

• Conclusion

Interview Requirements

• Interview 2-3 participants (dependent on group size)
• Different jobs/roles within organization

• All group members must be involved in interview process
• Each group member must interview at least 1 person
• Attendance in interviews

• Transcriptions of Interviews


• Organization’s motivational state
• Are people motivated?

• Motivational currency
• Motivational barriers?
• How has the organization addressed barriers in the past?

• What is the organization currently doing?

• Overall goals dependent on your project topic!
• Will likely be different for each group.

Effective Interviewing Strategies

Trull, S.G. (1964) Strategies of Effective Interviewing. Harvard Business Review. Retrieved from


Planning + Preparation

• Prepare
• Avoidance motivation approach

• Know the purpose of the interview
• Let the interviewee know:

• Talking points, in writing, ahead of time
• Established expectations

• Be careful…you can over-plan
• Too many details to interviewee
• Keep it simple

Interview Preparation

• Questions
• Interviewer’s tools to produce the


• Effective questions v. non-effective questions

• Funnel-approach
• Fear of Silence – don’t be afraid!!
• Avoid jetting questions at interviewee

• Art of Listening – thinking & writing over listening

Guiding the Conversation

• Direction of conversation depends on you
• Voice/tone à Friendly conversation

• Not strict Question + Answer
• Reflection à restating a reply might help you clarify a point

• Interviewer behavior
• Verbal

• Voice inflections
• Non-verbal cues

• Nodding

Effective Interviewing

• Open-ended questions

• Avoid leading questions

• Probe issues in depth

• Let the informant lead

• What is an open-ended question?

• Are you interested in motivation?
• What interests you about motivation?

What? Where?
Who? When?
How? Why?**

Effective Interviewing
• Open-ended questions
• Avoid leading questions
• Probe issues in depth
• Let the informant lead

• Phrased to suggest a certain answer
or implies a certain, correct answer
• Allow respondent space to answer

in their own terms with their own

What are problems that you have with
your organization?

Tell me about your relationship with your

Effective Interviewing
• Open-ended questions
• Avoid leading questions
• Probe issues in depth
• Let the informant lead

• Gain clarification for data

• Getting more information

• Be careful
• Maintain friendly/cordial


Effective Interviewing
• Open-ended questions
• Avoid leading questions
• Probe issues in depth
• Let the informant lead

• What questions
• “what exactly do you mean by…?

• Echo Probe
• Restatement of what respondent said
• Don’t overuse

• Uh-huh Probe
• Encouraging interviewee to continue

by using affirmative noises
• Be genuine

• Examples
• “Can you give me an example of…?

Effective Interviewing
• Open-ended questions
• Avoid leading questions
• Probe issues in depth
• Let the informant lead

• Introduce interviewee to a topic
and get out of the way.

• Let the interviewee provide the

Concluding the Meeting

• The final 10%
• Maintain active listening
• Avoid misinterpretation
• Miss important information

• Summarize
• Courtesy
• Thanking interviewer for their time

The Follow-Up

• Gratitude
• Learned information
• Establish connection
• Results of research

Interview Questions

• Questions should help you collect information regarding:
• Your research question
• Organization’s goals
• Interviewee’s role and goals within their job role
• Interviewee drives and motivational level in relation to achieving their goals

• Are they motivated by their work?

How do you ask someone about their motivation levels?

Interview Questions

• The barriers/challenges that may hinder their goal achievement or intrinsic motivation
• Are they directly related to motivation or NOT?
• Are they internal or external?
• Level of difficulty (e.g. controllable or uncontrollable)?

• The consequences of those barriers and challenges
• How far away are they from achieving their goals?
• How unhappy are they (e.g. intragroup conflict)?

• What measures have your client(s) taken to improve/enhance their current situation?
• Their past solutions to problems?
• Their current solutions to problems?

Performing scholarly research

Accessing databases

• Step 1: Go to PSU Library page – http://library.pdx.edu
• Step 2: “Sign in to request items” log in with your Odin ID
• Step 3: “Research tools & collections” and select the source you want

to use
• If using Google Scholar you’ll login, then search.

• Step 3: Review “By Subject”. Click Psychology.
• Step 4: Choose database – recommend psycINFO
• Step 5: Research away!


Tips for searching

• Don’t randomly select
• Read titles
• Find articles that have been cited by others
• Frequently cited articles tend to be important

• Use “advanced search” filters on Google Scholar,
• by author, year, or journal

• Review references list of article for other relevant research
• Utilize your textbook
• Has several important literature relating to your topics
• Helpful for theory-building and further explanation


Research carefully

• Regular google search

• Wikipedia

• Popular science articles (most magazines)

• Opinion based articles (New York Times, Huffington Post)

• Use peer-reviewed articles

Scholarly Articles

• Peer-reviewed professional journals
• Theoretical papers
• Empirical studies

• Book (theory-based)
• Chapter from edited book
• Textbook
• Handbook
• Scholarly book

• Each group is required to cite:
• at least 1 published, peer-

reviewed empirical study &

• at least 1 theoretical piece of
scholarly work

• Empirical = derived from
experimentation/observation (i.e.

first-hand data collection)

APA Formatting

• APA formatting tutorial (Most up-to-date version of APA 2019)
• https://www.apastyle.org/index

Other helpful resources:
• Paper Structure
• https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/

• References
• https://www.library.cornell.edu/research/citation
• https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/02/





Extra Credit = Extra Feedback

• Provide groups with feedback leading up to final paper
• 3 assignments (submitted online) + 1 class presentation

• Interview Questions (1 pt)
• Outline of Lit. Review (2 pts)
• Outline of Final Paper (2 pts)
• Presentation (5 pts)

• 10 possible extra points for working on your project throughout the semester
• Points conditional on having enough for us to provide feedback

Literature Review

• Read scholarly articles
• 1 theoretical piece and 1 empirical study (only peer-reviewed)
• You must read articles that you cite

• Any scholarly work that defines and supports your theory
• “Reeve (2015)” is not sufficient!

• Empirical article: Describe the study (e.g. sample, methods, important findings)
and connecting it to your project topic
• The connection is important

Literature Review

• What should be included?
• Citation, abstract, important findings
• Why is this article/study relevant to your group project and organization?

• Submit to D2L dropbox
• Literature Review
• Articles in literature review

• This will serve as a guide of the articles that you will use in your final

Paper Outline

• For us to provide helpful feedback, include details
• This is the infrastructure of your paper
• A few bullet points/sentences per section
• Provide enough information for us to follow your logic
• Why did you choose this theory for your topic?
• Brief statement of proposed intervention

• How will you implement change? How will it increase motivation?
• Why will your solution work?
• What empirical evidence did you find that supports your proposed solution?


• 10 minutes maximum presentation
• 5 extra points
• 5 points will be deducted from your final project grade if you sign up to

present and fail to present
• Notify me by 2/27 if you are unable to present, and you will lose no points

• Presentation dates: 3/5, 3/10, & 3/12
• Presentation slots are first come, first serve

Successful Group Work

• 2-person v. 3-person groups
• You must interview as many individuals as you have group members

• Stages of Group Development (Tuckman & Jensen, 1977)
• Forming

• In this stage, people are excited and ready for the work ahead; generally positive expectations, but also some anxiety
about how the group will mesh together.

• Storming
• Not as exciting anymore; realize that team may not live up to expectations; excitement might shift to anger + frustration;

members might have concerns that the group might not be able to reach goals

• Norming
• Resolving discrepancies; increased comfort with self within the group; start being productive; making small wins…got

your interviews done

• Performing
• Members are satisfied with team’s progress; members are aware of strengths/weaknesses; members are confident in

team abilities to complete the tasks and achieve goals

Successful Group Work

• Start as early as possible
• Create clear structure, goals, and tasks to build trust
• Redefine large goals and tasks into smaller, manageable tasks
• Group evaluations
• Let us know of problems ASAP
• Group evaluations

Time Block What to work on Due Date Points
1/8 – 1/17 Required: All groups formed and signed up (see link in D2L). Exchange contact

information, communication is key for this project.

1/17 – 1/24

Required: Submit a signed group contract (see document on D2L) 1/23
Strongly Recommended: Finalize project focus, initial information gathering
(e.g., target of consulting and its accessibility), develop interview questions.

1/24 – 1/31
Extra Credit: Tailored interview questions 1/30 1
Strongly Recommended: Lock the interviewees; set the appointment(s) with
them; conduct interviews:

1/31 – 2/14
Extra Credit: Presentation sign-up (see link in D2L). 2/6

Extra Credit: Literature review (theories applied to similar situations, available
empirical evidence, solutions previously proposed, success stories etc.)

2/13 2

2/7 – 2/26 Extra Credit: Outline the paper structure. 2/25 2

2/26 – 3/12

Email a copy of the presentation slides to stfox@pdx.edu by 11:59pm the day
before your presentation to D2L.

3/4, 3/9,

Extra Credit: Presentation of paper project;
Presented on 3/5, 3/10, or 3/12

3/5, 3/10,
3/12 5

2/2 – 3/14
Required: Write up the paper! Paper due by 5PM on 3/13 (5-pt penalty each
day for late papers)

3/13 100







House Keeping

• Exam 1 feedback today

• Review your Exam 1 scantron with the key
– Today or Tue or at our office hours

– With Shalene or me

• project drill on Tue 2/


• Any questions about the project?

Psychological Needs and

Liu-Qin Yang, Ph.D.

Motivation comes from…

Needs Cognitions Emotions















-Group norms

-Role expectations

Internal vs.



Explicit vs.


Approach vs.








• Intra-individual condition that is essential for
life, growth, and/or well-being

– Physiological, psychological, and social needs

• Unmet need→ impetus to act

– Avoid damage to body, self, or relationships


– All needs generate energy

• Differences
– Target of behavior (e.g., food vs. people)

– Nature of motivation from needs
• Deficiency motivation

– Reduce the deficit (e.g., hunger, thirst, etc.)

– Avoidance motivation; anxious–calm emotion

• Growth motivation
– Advance development (e.g., learn, strengthen social


– Approach motivation; happy–sad emotion


Physio Psych


Innate Learned

Any condition necessary

for life and well-being


















Psychological Needs

• Tied to human nature and healthy

– Generate interest and enjoyment

– Growth (vs. deficiency) motivation

– Inherent (vs. learned)

– Organismic (resources from, exchange with, and
adapt to environment)

Physio Psych
Innate Learned
Any condition necessary
for life and well-being

Are Psychological Needs Motivating?

• A short, evidence-based video…




Psychological Needs

• Organismic needs

– Autonomy

– Competence

– Relatedness

Psychological Needs

• Organismic needs
– Organismic theories assume that

organisms (us!):

• …are inherently active and adaptive

– Intrinsic motivation

• …require environmental resources to develop

– Does the environment nurture or frustrate?

• …in active exchange with the environment

– vs. reactive, mechanistic theories

Need for Autonomy

• Core of Self-determination (Deci & Ryan, 1987)

• When own interests & values guide dec-
making and behavior
– People don’t like it when external forces pressure

them to think or behave in particular ways!






Need for vs. Perceived Autonomy


Internal locus
of control



Need for


All About Autonomy

• Locus of control

– Perceived causal source of motivation

– Internal → External

• Internal: can affect change in world;
master of own domain!

• External: little or no control; pawn subject to fate

– Example items

• There will always be war, no matter what.

• When I make plans, I can make them work.

All About Autonomy

• Volition

– Unpressured willingness to engage in activity

– “Want to do” vs. “do not want to do”

– I freely want/don’t want to do this






All About Autonomy

• Perceived choice

– Degree of decision-making flexibility when
there are 2+ options

• Freedom vs. obligation/pressure

– control over the process of choosing options

• E.g., “You can practice piano, do your homework, or eat
like this, or…”

• Vs. “I can practice piano, do my homework, or eat like
this, or…”

All About Autonomy

• Environment is critical!!!

– Autonomy–supportive environment

• Identifies and supports interests & preferences

• …

• Not permissive, laissez-faire, or indulging!

– Controlling environment

• Externally-prescribed ways for thinking & acting

– What’s your motivating style? (p163)

Practice your motivating style

• An in-class activity




All About Autonomy

• Positive outcomes due to autonomy (e.g.,
Table 6.3)

– Higher self-esteem & self-efficacy

– Preference for challenges

– Greater creativity

– Lower quitting rates

– Performance improvements

– Cultural differences

Need for Competence

• Desire to exercise skills, be effective in
interactions with env, and master challenges

Need for Competence

• Involves fit b/w skills and challenges

– Match→ “flow”

• Concentration & absorption in activity

• Moderate to high fit

– Skill < challenge

• Anxiety, self-doubt, self-consciousness

– Skill > challenge

• Boredom, disinterest





Need for Competence (Flow theory)










(M. Csikszentmihalyi, 1975; Yang et al., 2008)



Figure 6.4

What are the take home messages?

Need for Competence

• Other requirements:

– Performance feedback

• Give task- not person-level feedback

• Emphasize progress rates

– Learning-oriented environment

• Failure tolerated

• Error management training

– Structure

• Information about goals and means to meet them





Food for Thought

• What goal would you propose/choose if your
self- and other-assessments suggest that
inadequate challenge is the issue for your low

Need for Relatedness

• Desire to establish close emotional bonds with
others and maintain warm, “+” relationships

– Quality over quantity!!!

Need for Relatedness

• Satisfying social bonds
– Other person…

• …cares about your welfare

• …likes you

• …accepts your ‘true’ self




Need for Relatedness

• Types of relationships

– Communal

• Based on genuine care

– Exchange

• Based on economic or social exchange

– E.g., employee–employer, neighbors

– *Only communal meets
relatedness needs

Need for Relatedness

• When relatedness needs are met…

–  satisfaction & well-being

–  coping &  stress

–  “+” emotions & mood

–  loneliness, depression

Recap for Today’s Lecture
⚫ Organismic vs. mechanistic needs

⚫ Physiological needs

⚫ Psychological needs

⚫ Autonomy

⚫ Competence

⚫ Relatedness

⚫ Psychological needs at work

⚫ Self-managed team

⚫ Optimal challenges

⚫ Relationships at work

⚫ What’s the engagement model (Figure 6.7)?





Extra slides

Person–Environment Dialectic: We are

active Organisms (Organismic theories)


•Personality traits


•Choices, incentives, &
•Behavioral feedback
•Other people
•Work & family roles
•Culture & group norms

Need for Autonomy

• Autonomy–supportive style

–  intrinsic motivation by:

• Creating opportunities to express interests

– e.g., child draws, breaks things

• Helping diagnose motivation problems

– Ask questions and provide feedback

– No “What’s wrong with you?” or
“That was stupid!”






Need for Autonomy

• Autonomy–supportive style
–  intrinsic motivation by:

• Communicating the value or utility of behavior
– “because” phrases (e.g., “Brush your teeth because

it prevents cavities” vs. “Brush ‘em or else you will
be in trouble!”)

– Rationalized behavior more likely to be internalized

• Accepting negative emotions & responses as valid

• Praise progress and improvements

Need for Autonomy

• “+” work-related outcomes

–  performance

–  creativity

–  job satisfaction

–  responsibility for outcomes

–  turnover & absenteeism

Need for Competence: : Optimal
Challenge for Most People

Low High









Anagram Experiment (Optimal

Challenge → Optimal Performance?)

⚫ Susan Harter (1974, 1978)

⚫ Four groups: Anagram-solving problem

➢ Very easy: Three letter (tea → ate)

➢ Easy: Four letter (Evil → Vile)

➢ Moderately difficult (optimal challenge):

Five letters (Evian → Naïve)

➢ Very hard: Six and more letters

• (Carthorse → Orchestra)

Need for Autonomy

• Applications at work

– Employee-set goals, process autonomy, self-

development opportunities

• Theory: Job characteristics theory,
self-determination theory, goal-setting

• Practices: participative management, mgmt by
objectives, virtual offices & telecommuting,

Need for Competence
• Applications at work

– Can you think of any management strategies
that may help meet employees’ need for

• For example: How to increase the fit between
employees’ skill levels and the challenge level
provided by their job, through selection,
placement, training, performance feedback etc.?




Need for Relatedness

• Relatedness at work
– Coworker relations are important!

– Leader-member exchange (LMX)
• Relationship with your supervisor is important too!

– Affective organizational commitment
• Attachment to org; internalize group goals

– Continuance org commitment
• Sacrificed benefits; few alternatives; exchange

– Outcome: organizational citizenship behavior

Physiological Needs – Ch4 (optional)

• Physiological needs

– Deficient biological condition

• E.g., water loss, lack of nutrients, physical injury,

Physiological Need Regulation

• Hull’s drive theory (Homeostasis)
– Physio. deficit→Drive→ Energizes & directs action

• Drive: psychological discomfort (motivational state)




State (Drive)

Go to school Experience ‘flow’ Eat yummy sandwich

Satiated state Check email Think about Subway™

9:00am 10:00am 11:00am 12:00pm













bodily need


gives rise to




behavior occurs
as attempt to
gratify drive


ry behavior



Drive is

The physiological


→ take actions




Hunger: Social-Cognitive Factors

Eating Ice



Social Setting

Alone 3-person Group

Males 162.5 231

Females 107.5 150

Social Facilitation Effect (Modified Table 4.1)



Psychological Science

The online version of this article can be found at:

DOI: 10.1177/0956797611418677

published online 17 October 2011Psychological Science
Marieke Roskes, Daniel Sligte, Shaul Shalvi and Carsten K. W. De Dreu

The Right Side? Under Time Pressure, Approach Motivation Leads to Right-Oriented Bias

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XX(X) 1 –5
© The Author(s) 2011
Reprints and permission:
DOI: 10.1177/0956797611418677

Approach-motivated humans and nonhumans alike display a
behavioral asymmetry consisting of a right-oriented bias.
When dogs observe their owners, they wag their tail toward
the right (Quaranta, Siniscalchi, & Vallortigara, 2007); when
toads attempt to catch prey, they are more likely to flick
their tongue at prey to their right side than to their left side
(Vallortigara, Rogers, Bisazza, Lippolis, & Robins, 1998);
when humans kiss their romantic partners, they turn their head
to the right twice as often as they turn it to the left (Güntürkün,
2003); and when approach-motivated humans quickly divide a
line into two equal parts, they show a rightward bias (Friedman
& Förster, 2005; Nash, McGregor, & Inzlicht, 2010).

This right-oriented bias in approach-motivated individuals
is associated with left-hemispheric brain activation (Harmon-
Jones, 2003; Nash et al., 2010). Evolutionary theory suggests
that brain lateralization evolved because it enhanced cognitive
capacity and brain efficiency: Lateralization allows each
hemisphere to specialize in specific tasks that can be per-
formed with increased precision and reduced cognitive costs
(Levy, 1977). Groups of individuals presumably benefited
from having the same directionality of brain lateralization
because the sharing of directional behavioral tendencies

increased intergroup coordination. Higher levels of coordination
would increase a group’s likelihood of survival (Vallortigara &
Rogers, 2005) until the directional behavioral tendency
became evolutionarily stable (Ghirlanda & Vallortigara, 2004).
For example, African hunting dogs move together and hunt
in coordinated groups to overpower large prey (Courchamp,
Rasmussen, & Macdonald, 2002). These dogs exhibit an evo-
lutionarily embedded tendency to move in synchronized ways
while they close in on their prey, thereby reducing the effort
required for coordinating their actions and increasing their
likelihood of success.

Humans, like other animals, routinely respond to stimuli in
their environment and calibrate their responses to attain posi-
tive outcomes. However, incorporating relevant situational
cues into one’s actions and decisions requires time and
cognitive resources (Bargh & Ferguson, 2000; Schneider &
Chein, 2003). For example, much guidance is needed to

Corresponding Author:
Marieke Roskes, Department of Psychology, University of Amsterdam,
Weesperplein 4, 1018 XA Amsterdam, The Netherlands
E-mail: m.roskes@uva.nl

The Right Side? Under Time Pressure,
Approach Motivation Leads to
Right-Oriented Bias

Marieke Roskes, Daniel Sligte, Shaul Shalvi, and
Carsten K. W. De Dreu
University of Amsterdam


Approach motivation, a focus on achieving positive outcomes, is related to relative left-hemispheric brain activation, which
translates to a variety of right-oriented behavioral biases. In two studies, we found that approach-motivated individuals display
a right-oriented bias, but only when they are forced to act quickly. In a task in which they had to divide lines into two equal
parts, approach-motivated individuals bisected the line at a point farther to the right than avoidance-motivated individuals did,
but only when they worked under high time pressure. In our analysis of all Fédération Internationale de Football Association
(FIFA) World Cup penalty shoot-outs, we found that goalkeepers were two times more likely to dive to the right than to the left
when their team was behind, a situation that we conjecture induces approach motivation. Because penalty takers shot toward
the two sides of the goal equally often, the goalkeepers’ right-oriented bias was dysfunctional, allowing more goals to be scored.
Directional biases may facilitate group coordination but prove maladaptive in individual settings and interpersonal competition.


right-oriented bias, approach, avoidance, motivation, line bisection, evolution theory, soccer, football, goalkeepers, evolutionary
psychology, brain

Received 2/21/11; Revision accepted 6/26/11

Research Report

Psychological Science OnlineFirst, published on October 17, 2011 as doi:10.1177/0956797611418677

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2 Roskes et al.

overcome the automatic tendency to think in stereotypical
ways (Sassenberg & Moskowitz, 2005; Stewart & Payne,
2008). When time pressure increases and swift action is
required, individuals become exceedingly likely to act on their
initial automatic impulses (Gray, 2001; Tomarken & Keener,
1998). Focusing on situations in which accurate responses to
stimuli are required, we predicted that the right-oriented bias
under approach motivation is especially pronounced when
people have to act quickly and do not have time to calibrate
their behavior. We tested this hypothesis in two ways. In an
experiment, we found that approach-motivated humans
showed a right-oriented bias, but only when they had to act
quickly. Using archival data from the Fédération Internatio-
nale de Football Association (FIFA) World Cup, we replicated
this finding. We found that goalkeepers whose team was
behind, and whose role in regaining their team’s chance of
winning the game was thus crucial, were two times more
likely to dive to the right than to the left when the opposing
team shot toward the goal.

Experimental Evidence
In our experiment, we manipulated the motivation of partici-
pants (approach motivation vs. avoidance motivation) and
asked them to accurately divide lines into two equal parts under
either high or low time pressure. We predicted that participants
in the approach-motivation condition would demonstrate a
relative right-oriented bias, but only under high time pressure.



Thirty-eight students (10 men, 28 women; mean age = 21.34
years, SD = 4.36) participated in return for €2.50. They were
randomly assigned to the conditions of a 2 (motivation:
approach vs. avoidance) × 2 (time pressure: high vs. low)
between-subjects design. Participants were asked to look at a
maze in which a cartoon mouse was depicted as either trying
to find a piece of cheese at the end of the maze (approach con-
dition) or trying to escape from an owl that was hovering over
the maze (avoidance condition). They were asked to write a
vivid story from the perspective of the mouse. In the approach
condition, they were instructed to write about “the happiest
day in the life of the mouse” by imagining the mouse getting
closer to the cheese, finding it, and eventually eating it. In the
avoidance condition, they were instructed to write about “the
terrible death of the mouse” by imagining the mouse attempt-
ing to escape the owl and eventually being caught, killed, and
eaten (Friedman & Förster, 2005).

After writing their story, participants completed a line-
bisection task in which they were presented with eight 14-cm
lines that appeared one at a time in different locations on a
computer screen for either 4,000 ms (low-time-pressure con-
dition) or 1,500 ms (high-time-pressure condition); the inter-
stimulus interval was 1,000 ms. Participants were instructed to

divide each line into two equal parts by clicking on it at the
appropriate location and to be as accurate as possible. The
line-bisection task is typically presented as a paper-and-pencil
task in which, after bisecting each line, participants can
directly move on to the next line, finishing the task rather
quickly. The computerized version in our experiment allowed
us to precisely manipulate the time frame for dividing each
line. The 4,000 ms per line allotted to participants in the low-
time-pressure condition gave them ample opportunity to over-
ride automatic behavioral inclinations. Therefore, we expected
to replicate past findings concerning the right-oriented bias of
approach-motivated individuals in the high-time-pressure, but
not the low-time-pressure, condition.

A pilot test of the line-bisection task (N = 18) verified that
participants under low time pressure took more time to bisect
lines (M = 2.19 s, SD = 0.66) than did participants under high
time pressure (M = 1.12, SD = 0.13), t(16) = −4.71, p < .001. To verify that participants in the two time-pressure condi- tions of our main experiment were similarly motivated to perform the task well, we asked participants to indicate their agreement with two statements: “It was important for me to do the line-bisection task well” and “I tried to be as accurate as possible.” Responses were made on 7-point scales (1 = strongly disagree, 7 = strongly agree; α = .94) and were aver- aged to form an index of motivation. As expected, partici- pants in the low- and high-time-pressure conditions were similarly highly motivated to perform well (low time pres- sure: M = 6.11, SD = 1.05; high time pressure: M = 6.11, SD = 0.70), t(16) = 0.00 , p = 1.00. This finding was impor- tant because our focus was on situations in which people who are motivated to respond accurately to a stimulus either do or do not have sufficient time to adjust their behavior by over- riding automatic biases.

Deviations from the lines’ true midpoints were measured in
pixels and averaged across the eight lines to create an overall
bisection error index; positive values indicate a right-oriented
bias (a rightward deviation from the midpoint). Greater posi-
tive deviations signify greater relative left-hemispheric activa-
tion. On average, people who read from left to right bisect lines
left of their actual centers1; we therefore assessed participants’
right-oriented bias in relative rather than absolute terms
(Friedman & Förster, 2005; Nash et al., 2010). As predicted, a 2
(motivation: approach vs. avoidance) × 2 (time pressure: high
vs. low) analysis of variance predicting bisection deviations
revealed a significant interaction effect, F(1, 34) = 4.136, p = .05,

2 = .11 (see Fig. 1). A simple-effects analysis showed that

under high time pressure, approach-motivated participants made
more right-oriented judgments (M = 2.61, SD = 2.37) than did
avoidance-motivated participants (M = −5.62, SD = 2.62), F(1,
37) = 5.77, p = .02. No effect of motivational orientation was
found in the low-time-pressure condition, F(1, 37) = 0.35, p = .56.2

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Approach Motivation Leads to Right-Oriented Bias 3

Archival Evidence: Goalkeepers Dive Right

Our experiment supported the hypothesis that approach-
motivated individuals demonstrate a stronger right-oriented
bias than avoidance-motivated individuals do, but only when
they have to act quickly and cannot override their automatic
behavioral tendencies. To substantiate these experimental
findings, we analyzed the diving behavior of soccer goalkeep-
ers during penalty shoot-outs. During penalty shoot-outs,
goalkeepers are motivated to accurately respond to the ball
being shot toward them by diving to the left, diving to the
right, or standing still (the last strategy is rarely used; Bar-Eli,
Azar, Ritov, Keidar-Levin, & Schein, 2007).

Goalkeepers seek clues (e.g., the movements of penalty
takers’ kicking leg and trunk and the position of penalty takers’
hips) regarding the direction toward which the ball will be shot
(Tyldesley, Bootsma, & Bomhoff, 1982; Williams & Burwitz,
1993), but the fast-moving stimulus gives goalkeepers little
time to react (balls shot toward the goal reach speeds of more
than 80 km/hr). However, as German goalkeeper and World
Cup finalist Oliver Kahn explained,

You can read a lot from the body language of the shooter
and where he will be shooting. It is a psychological
game between the goalkeeper and the taker. It has a lot
to do with eye contact and body language. (quoted in
“Goalkeepers Give Shoot-Out Tips,” 2010, para. 4)

Indeed, goalkeepers dive in the correct direction more often
than would be predicted if the direction of their diving were
random (Savelsberg, Van der Kamp, Williams, & Ward, 2005).
They must respond without having much time to calibrate
their response (Bar-Eli et al., 2007), and such speed would
increase the likelihood of their automatic behavioral tenden-
cies taking effect (Schneider & Chein, 2003).

To test our prediction that approach-motivated goalkeepers
would display a right-oriented diving bias, we analyzed data
from all penalty shoot-outs in the history of the FIFA World
Cup. The World Cup is the most widely viewed sporting event
in the world, with revenues exceeding a billion dollars (FIFA,
2010), and winning this competition has far-reaching conse-
quences. Tied knockout-stage matches in the World Cup are
decided by penalty shoot-outs. Five players from each team
alternate in shooting penalties from a distance of 11 m toward
a 7.32-m × 2.44-m goal defended by the other team’s goal-
keeper. If the ball successfully makes it into the goal, the goal
is considered scored; if the goalkeeper intercepts the ball, the
goal is considered saved; if the ball misses the goal completely,
it is considered off target. When the shot is saved or off target,
no point is awarded to the penalty taker’s team. If the score
remains tied, the teams continue to take penalty shots until a
winner is determined.

Because failures to score are rare (71% of World Cup shoot-
out penalties have been scored), humiliating, and generally con-
sidered avoidable, penalty takers focus on not missing more
than they do on scoring. Because penalty takers are avoidance
motivated and have time to strategize about the penalty shot, we
did not expect them to display a right-oriented bias. In contrast,
because a successful defense of the goal has heroic connotations
and is a relatively rare event in World Cup penalty shoot-outs
(only 20% of penalty shots have been successfully saved), goal-
keepers focus on the positive outcome of saving more than they
do on the consequences of failing. As American goalkeeper
Brad Friedel suggested, “I think of penalty kicks as no-lose situ-
ations for a goalkeeper. All the pressure is on the field player,
who is supposed to score” (quoted in Benjamin, 2003, para. 1).
Oliver Kahn explained: “Kickers are the ones that can lose in a
penalty shoot-out; goalkeepers are the ones that can win and
ultimately become the heroes” (quoted in “Goalkeepers Give
Shoot-Out Tips,” 2010, para. 25). This approach motivation
should be even stronger for goalkeepers whose team is behind
and whose role in regaining the possibility to win the game is
crucial (i.e., when a penalty taker from the goalkeeper’s team
has missed a previous penalty; in World Cup history, this situa-
tion applies to 12% of all penalties). Because goalkeepers are
focused on successfully accomplishing their task and have to
respond in a split second, we hypothesized that they should dis-
play a right-oriented bias (i.e., they should dive right) when
their team is behind and their approach motivation is therefore

We retrieved data for FIFA World Cup matches that ended in
penalty shoot-outs from the FIFA Web site (FIFA, 2011). All
penalties in World Cup shoot-outs (from the first, between
West Germany and France in 1982, to the most recent, between
Uruguay and Ghana in 2010) were coded by three independent
coders for the direction of the penalty taker’s shot (left, mid-
dle, or right), the direction in which the goalkeeper dove (left,







Time Pressure

Avoidance Motivation

Approach Motivation


Fig. 1. Results from the line-bisection task: average deviation from the
center of the line as a function of time pressure and motivation. Negative
numbers indicate left-oriented deviations, and positive numbers indicate
right-oriented deviations.

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4 Roskes et al.

middle, or right), the score from the goalkeeper’s team’s per-
spective (behind, tied, or ahead), and the outcome of the pen-
alty (score, save, or off-target shot). Coders agreed on 95% of
the cases. Agreement concerning the remaining 5% was
reached by discussion following repeated viewing of those
penalties. In total, 204 penalty shots were used to settle 22
matches; 71% (144) of these penalty shots were scored, 20%
(41) were saved, and 9% (19) were off target (for data for all
penalty shoot-outs, see the Supplemental Material available

As predicted, goalkeepers were more likely to dive to the right
(71%) than to the left (29%) when their team was behind, χ2(1,
N = 24) = 4.17, p = .04, but not when their team was ahead
(right: 48%; left: 51%; χ2 < 1, n.s.) or when the game was tied (right: 49%; left: 48%; χ2 < 1, n.s.; see Fig. 2). As expected, penalty takers did not show a right-oriented bias: They shot to the right and to the left to similar extents whether their team was behind, ahead, or tied (all χ2s < 1, n.s.; see Fig. 2). Because penalty takers shot equally to the right and to the left, whereas goalkeepers dove more than twice as often to the right as to the left when their team was behind, goalkeepers were almost 3 times less likely to save the shot when their team was behind (2 of 24 shots saved; 8%) than when their team was not behind (39 of 180 shots saved; 22%). In situations in which the goal- keeper’s team was behind, this tendency translated to 90% (18/20) of on-target shots being scored; in contrast, 79% of penalty shots were scored (71/90) when the game was tied, and 73% (55/75) were scored when the goalkeeper’s team was ahead.

A vast body of research has linked approach motivation to
left-hemispheric brain activation (see Davidson, Jackson, &
Kalin, 2000), and a wide range of right-oriented behavioral

biases have been documented among animals (Vallortigara &
Rogers, 2005) and, to a lesser extent, among humans (e.g.,
Güntürkün, 2003). Our analyses of experimental and archival
data reveal that humans are subject to this right-oriented bias
when quick action is required and automatic tendencies pre-
vail over calibrated responses. Our experiment showed that
when approach-motivated individuals act without time pres-
sure, they no longer demonstrate a right-oriented bias. This
finding suggests that having sufficient time to adjust behavior
may reduce or even eliminate habituated behavioral biases.

Our investigation contributes to the discussion of the evo-
lutionary development and social functions of brain lateraliza-
tion. Directionality of behavioral biases presumably evolved
because it facilitates synchronized group behavior. Our archi-
val analysis shows that in situations that do not require group
coordination, goalkeepers rely on their habituated rightward
bias, even when this tendency is dysfunctional. Preparing for
personally relevant approach-related action strengthens left-
hemispheric brain activity (Harmon-Jones, Lueck, Fearn, &
Harmon-Jones, 2006). People may therefore be especially
prone to this directional bias in important situations that
require them to act. Ironically, overriding automatic behav-
ioral tendencies may seem most difficult when overriding such
tendencies matters most, and this difficulty can benefit (and
enable exploitation by) opponents, such as predators or pen-
alty takers in soccer matches.

The prevalence of seemingly dysfunctional directional biases
in individual settings suggests that the human brain may be
wired for group coordination and for preparing people to cooper-
ate rather than to compete (Dawkins, 1976; Vallortigara &
Rogers, 2005). Brain asymmetries, including a right-oriented
bias, may be functional for group coordination, but acting in
accordance with such automatic tendencies may backfire in
competitive situations in which group coordination is not needed.


Marieke Roskes, Daniel Sligte, and Shaul Shalvi contributed equally
to this research.

Declaration of Conflicting Interests

The authors declared that they had no conflicts of interest with
respect to their authorship or the publication of this article.


This research was supported by Grant NWO-400-06-098 from the
Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research to Carsten K. W.
De Dreu and Bernard Nijstad.

Supplemental Material

Additional supporting information may be found at http://pss.sagepub


1. In countries where people read from left to right, people tend
to display a leftward bias on the line-bisection task, whereas in


























Left Middle Right

Fig. 2. Percentage of goalkeepers’ dives and penalty takers’ shots that were
to the left, middle, and right as a function of whether the goalkeeper’s team
was behind, tied with, or ahead of the penalty taker’s team.

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Approach Motivation Leads to Right-Oriented Bias 5

countries where people read from right to left, people tend to display
a rightward bias (Jewell & McCourt, 2000).
2. These results were not qualified by participants’ handedness (24%
of participants in our sample were left-handed). Past research sug-
gests that handedness and directionality of brain lateralization are
independent factors (e.g., Hopkins & Bennett, 1994; Rogers, 2009).


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House Keeping

• Project group sign-up and contract: all done?

• Exam 1: 1/23 –12:00PM in our classroom
– Bring your scantron and a right pencil

– Group Project time: 1PM-1:50PM

• We will review brain & motivation, discuss
suppl. Article 2, subgroup discussions of suppl.
articles from the extra-credit exercise (see d2L
for the announcement), and then do Exam 1



Chapter 3 (partial) & Supplementary

Article (2)

Liu-Qin Yang, Ph.D.


Why is the Brain Important?

Thinking Brain

Cognitive and Intellectual Functions
“What task it is doing”

Motivated Brain

“Whether you want to do it”

Emotional Brain

“What your mood is while doing it”




The Brain

• Three basic principles

– 1. Day-to-day events activate biochemical agents

• Won a lottery  dopamine ( joy)

• On a diet ghrelin ( hunger)

The Brain
• Three basic principles

– 2. Biochemical agents stimulate brain

• Neurotransmitters for
nervous system (fast or slow;
e.g., dopamine)

• Hormones for
endocrine system (fast or slow;
e.g., cortisol)

The Brain
• Three basic principles

– 3. Brain structure motivational state

• Stimulation of structure or pattern of structures
generates specific motivation

– Hypothalamus


– Right prefrontal cortex avoidance motivation







(i.e., dieting)

B iochemical



(a hormone)
produced and
circulated in

the blood








creates th


experience of


The Motivated Brain

Food Deprivation Activates the Ghrelin Release that

Stimulates the Hypothalamus to Create Hunger


l Event

pleasant event





(a neurotrasmitter)
released and

circulated into brain

Br ain










The Emotional Brain

Good Event Activates The Dopamine

Release That Stimulates Positive Affect



A stressful life
event (e.g.,

potential layoff)

Br ain


(and further

adrenal glands)


Cortisol is
released into

blood and then
saliva systems



Make riskier

The “Stressed” Brain

Stressful Event Activates The Cortisol

Release That Stimulates Risky Behavior







The Brain

• Looking at the brain


• electroencephalogram

– CT scan

• Computed tomography (X-ray)

– PET scan

• Positron emission tomography

– Radioactive glucose

The Brain
• Looking at the brain


• Magnetic resonance imaging

– Radio waves & spin

– fMRI

• Functional MRI

– Blood flow

Brain and Motivation

• Emotional, cognitive, and social brain

– A video clip about science and application

• How is it related to motivation?



Motivation & the Brain

• Approach motivation

– Hypothalamus

• Pleasure related to basic bio functions

• Regulates endocrine
system (pituitary)
& autonomic nervous system

Motivation & the Brain
• Approach motivation

– Left prefrontal cortex (PFC)

• Approach motivation

• Happy-sad emotions

RIGHT prefrontal lobe

LEFT prefrontal lobe

Motivation & the Brain

• Avoidance motivation

– Right prefrontal cortex (PFC)

• Avoidance motivation

• Anxious-calm emotions

RIGHT prefrontal lobe

LEFT prefrontal lobe



Basic Motivation

• Approach
– Left PFC

– Sensitivity to rewards
• Gains AND non-gains

• Avoidance
– Right PFC

– Sensitivity to punishment
• Losses AND non-losses

RIGHT prefrontal lobe
LEFT prefrontal lobe
Basic Motivation

Variable Approach Avoidance

Brain control Left prefrontal cortex Right prefrontal cortex

Brain systems Beh Activation System


Beh Inhibition System


Personality Extraversion Neuroticism

Self-view Ideal self Ought, feared self

Affect Positive Affect (PA)

(e.g., happy)

Negative affect (NA)

(e.g., anxious)

Article (2)

• How many studies were done?

• What methods were used?

• What are the key conclusions and



Biochemical Agents:

• Chemical messengers in the nervous system

• 4 are particularly relevant for motivation:

– Dopamine

– Serotonin

– Norepinephrine

– Endorphin

• Incentives (stimuli that foreshadow the imminent delivery of rewards) triggers
dopamine release.

Dopamine Release and Incentives

• Dopamine release teaches us which events in the environments are rewarding.

Dopamine Release and Reward

• Dopamine release activates voluntary goal-directed approach responses.

Dopamine and Motivated Action

• Addictive drugs are potent reinforcers because their repeated usage produces
hypersensitivity to dopamine stimulation.


Copyright © 2014 John

Wiley & Sons, Inc.
All rights reserved

Biochemical Agents:

• Serotonin

– Regulates mood & emotion (cope with stress),
appetite, muscle contraction, cognitive functions
(e.g., memory)

• Norepinephrine

– Regulates arousal & alertness

• Endorphin

– Inhibits fear, anxiety, pain

– “natural pain relievers”



Biochemical Agents: Hormones

• Cortisol: The “stress hormone”

– Acute vs. chronic

• Testosterone:

– The “gender-related hormone”

• Oxytocin: The “bonding hormone”

– Discussion of Article (2b)


• Three basic principles of the brain
– Stimulation of structure  specific motivation

– Biochemical agents stimulate brain structures

– Environmental stimuli activate biochemical agents

• Why is brain a motivational brain?
– Approach orientation and left prefrontal

– Avoidance orientation and right prefrontal

– This orientation is central (personality, affect, etc.)

• Biochemical Agents
– Which 4 neurotransmitters are the most relevant?

– Which hormones are the most relevant to motivation?




Goal Setting and Extrinsic Motivation

Increasing Extrinsic Motivation for 24 Hour Fitness

Mohammed Alshaikh

Liu-Qin Yang


The 24-Hour Fitness is a physical fitness company. The study focused on interviewing three employees at the Hollywood location, whereby they were all allocated service duties
. Evidently, all employees, previously had the intrinsic motivation to deliver on company’s
mission, but they lost the motivation along the way. Such could be attributed to lack of respect from the top-level management, feeling unappreciated, and poorly remunerated. According to them, the responsibilities at the company are sometimes not covered by the job description as earlier indicated when they joined the company
. Also, the overtime work does not accompany sufficient monetary gain.

For this study, cognitive evaluation theory (CET) is chosen to help employees at the company become more intrinsically motivated have the urge to enthusiastically work again
. Also, goal setting theory will be used to help the organization have measurable and achievable goals, as opposed to the current wide-scope goals set by management. By keeping the employees motivated and excited about work, it is believed that employees will become more productive.

According to Deci (1975), cognitive evaluation theory was developed from the research on dynamic and multifaceted variable such as the external events, for instance rewards and choices, as well as people enjoyment – popularly known as intrinsic motivation. As compared to operant theory, which postulates that reinforcement contingencies with regard to environment control behavior. As such, it is speculated that the theory was introduced before any satisfying activities were identified, which bear non-separable results. As Deci argues, people are known to have intrinsic motivation, which can be represented as engagement within behaviors that bear an element of curiosity, exploring new dimensions, and wanting to face tougher challenges.

Therefore, intrinsic motivation is a manifestation of an inherent tendency to grow, and according to Staub, (2013) it is evident in infants’ readiness to explore its environment through play and behavior. In operational terms, an IM
activity is undertaken for the purpose of satisfying own self; the behavior is innate and equally satisfying. Also, according to Murayama et al. (2010) the attributional aspect of the activity, behaviors od such type have an innate unproven locus of causality because people tend to believe that their behaviors as a result of perceived self-believe as opposed to action of external control


As a physical wellness facility, the 24-Hour Fitness offers a wide array of fitness services such as group classes and a pool, as well as exercise equipment. As one of the many fitness services across the country, the Hollywood location was chosen to represent other similar establishments, and a maximum of three employees with a specific focus on the sales representative with a working experience of three years at the company
; membership counselor with a four-year working experience at the company; and kid’s club attendant with a working experience of two years at the company. All the selected participants are convinced that they have dedicated their efforts for the company, but they feel some motivational impediments for
the period they have worked for the company.

It is important to state the meaning of the pleasure at this time, as this is the opposite approach of hedonic of fitness which is the IM’s central point
(Bajari & Benkard, 2005). In SDT, IM doesn’t include explicit enjoyment pursuit and activeness proceeding engagement of activity which means enjoyment seekers are not conclude as those people who are naturally motivated. But, we describe enjoyment as the outcome of full engagement in a particular activity. Hedonic approach differs with this opinion, as the later emphasizes on the significance of looking for satisfaction immediately from the pursuit of individual and it is similar with approach of carpe diem in life (Qingpu, 2002). Activities of hedonic approach can be enjoyable but does not relate to satisfying individual basic psychological needs, hence the feelings generated from those pursuits are expected to be short term and superficial. In addition, (Bajari & Benkard, 2005). outlined that involvement of daily in activities of hedonic approach such as drinking alcohol, overeating didn’t add up to being healthy. Instead, IM generated enjoyment most likely to be long term and relevant to individual, and it is beneficial to the growth of individual as well as eudemonia (Qingpu, 2002). Clarification of the interest meaning as used in the hedonic and CET approach is beneficial to all individual. In the hedonic approach, activities of hedonic aid interest of individual or benefits of individual; in CET, interest involves feelings of being attracted to an activity. Therefore, approach of hedonic interest signifies extrinsic motivation form, which involves an activity being done to get distinguishable result (Bajari & Benkard, 2005).

Problem Diagnosis

Problem Diagnosis

Workers feeling not being acknowledged for their efforts is the main upcoming motivational problem. Most workers want to be recognized when they do task outside their job description. The rate of turnover is very high
because they lack extrinsic motivation. Many employees leave the jobs and the few remaining workers have to work extra hard to fill the gap of the employees missing. Financial incentives are not given to these hardworking employees who remain in their positions nor promoted when their managers don’t recognize hard work of workers. Due to lack of extrinsic motivation or intrinsic motivation, employees leave the organization.

According to the second respondent “
The aspect that motivates me at the job is the growth that I receive from getting to meet new clients every day and also motivating them to reach out to their training goals. I also get motivated when I am part of the success of the company and the rewards that come from that.” (Appendix XX)

Outcome convergence outlined at the end of this part signifies a very important step in external effects’ understanding motivation of people processes. This reviewed study in this part concentrates on events themselves majorly, the surveillance‘s absence or presence as well as the structure of reward, for instance, and the study of motivation of people on average impacts and in relation to variables.
However, as outlined by theory of cognitive evaluation, the effects of motivational processes’ event are evaluated, and not by the event on objective characteristics but by individual’s meaning of psychology. The descriptors of individual’s skills with respect to behavior are perceived competence and causality of perceived locus
and not environmental property. These shows the reality organization of a person.

Thus, regardless of whether an occasion will be deciphered as informative, controlling, or otherwise amotivating is an issue of the general remarkable quality of these perspectives to the perceiver, and is influenced by their sensitivities, foundation, plans, just as by the real setup of the event. The third respondent posit that, “This means that I am doing my job right and this gets quite bigger when the kids appreciate the work I do and this motivates me to work even harder to ensure that the programs that we have here is suited to their unique needs. The gratification I get gives me the motivation that I can make it and that I can perform better.” This means that natural occasions are affordances that are utilized by the perceiver in the interior development of motivationally pertinent information sources. At the point when we center our analysis is at the degree of the beneficiary’s understanding, three significant implications have demonstrated to be experimentally helpful.

Also, the second respondent posits that “
My goals is to create a community-like organization where people feel free to share the inherent values and goals.” The respondent proposes that the relational setting inside which an occasion is experienced could be a significant determinative factor in the impact of the occasion on the perceiver. Secondly, it proposes that personal differential in the perceiver of an occasion may assume a significant factor in deciding how the event is experienced. Furthermore, it considers the likelihood that the events that start and direct a few behaviors might be, to a great extent or entirely, inside an individual and hence generally free of situational occasions. This has prompted an investigation of the relationship of different sorts of inward regulatory occasions to self-determination “To be sincere, I pride myself as a capable sales representative for the company and especially when we can achieve the best sales targets, and when our clients enjoy our services. It makes me happy and makes me wish to enjoy that “winning streak” though it is hard in business.” We will currently talk about every one of these three subjects thus.


The 24 Hour Fitness interview has helped us increase an understanding that some workers there started their positions with positive goals of finding out about the organization and the field of general wellbeing. In contrast, due to lack of motivation and great support from supervisors
, workers lost interest and see their occupations as monotonous task instead of a chance to learn. All through our interview we found out that the Goal Setting and Cognitive Evaluation hypotheses were pertinent to what the workers were stating about their positions. According to Gagné et al (2018), the Cognitive Evaluation hypothesis comprises of two principle extrinsic motivators, that is informational and controlling. Cognitive Evaluation theory consists of three parts: Suggestion one outlines that events from external influence an individual are intrinsic motivation of individual when they impact the apparent locus of causality for that conduct
. Secondly, it explains events that advance more significant perceived skills that increases natural motivation. Finally, it expresses that event that deals with behavioral regulatory which have three unique perspectives with various significances (Gagné et al., 2018),

Likewise, we focused on Goal Setting Theory since one of the primary issues at 24 Hour Fitness isn’t accomplishing acknowledgment for work. It would be useful if every worker had a particular rundown of objectives that the group together could progress in the direction of
. Troublesome and explicit objectives help to improve representative execution by empowering diligence and procedure. Supervisors
and higher management level could likewise be urged to give more rewards to their workers and have frequent meetings to talk about advancement and accomplishments towards these objectives. Cognitive Evaluation Theory has been suggested as a suitable hypothetical system for clarifying the impeding impacts of execution unexpected compensations on behaviors which are intrinsic motivators (Lunenburg, 2011).

The scholars of cognitive motivation and reinforcement like Lunenburg (2011) and Gagné et al., (2018) have insisted on the significance of a linkage between wanted reactions and the receipt of esteemed results, irrespective of the source, as a means of promoting motivation of individual. This position’s challenges, however, have as of late overwhelmed the persuasive writing. according to Gagné et al., (2018), Cognitive Evaluation Theory (CET) suggests that under specific conditions, the reward system execution unforeseen prize frameworks may detrimentally affect inherently roused conduct
. “Characteristically roused practices are those practices that are propelled by the basic requirement for ability and self-determination (Gagné et al., 2018)

Deci additionally recommends that money related prizes dependent upon task execution are bound to initiate the controlling part of the prize which, by changing the locus of causality from inward to outside, prompts a decrease in characteristic inspiration. This is less inclined to happen, he accepts, for fiscal results that are not directed on an exhibition unexpected premise. Further he proposes that associations should pay to draw in and guarantee the cooperation of individuals in authoritative exercises, however that they ought to depend upon such systems as occupation advancement and participative administration to rouse execution by representatives. These methods should prompt improved sentiments of ability and self-assurance without a going with move from an inward to an outer conviction about the locus of causality (Deci, 1975).


According to Gagné et al. (2018) they tried to experiment on CET by CET by controlling capability data and payment contingency. But, their outcomes were not steady of the hypothesis. However, the trial controls didn’t altogether impact the procedures expected by CET, that is, individual skills and locus of causality, making the hypothesis negative. Moreover, the reward possibility control didn’t impact the intrinsic motivation level. All things considered, this was because of a lacking plan wherein all subjects in a “high” reward condition were given $2.00 toward the finish of four preliminaries and all subjects in a “low” reward condition were likewise remunerated with $2.00 toward the finish of four preliminaries, the main contrast being that these subjects were given no regularizing information through which they could think about their presentation and accordingly, probably, evaluate the possibility among execution and pay.


The Cognitive Evaluation hypothesis is applied by proposing a progressively organized administration framework in which every head of department is answerable for an employees group and assigning each supervisor their job description (Gagné et al., 2018) The main component of Cognitive Evaluation hypothesis is feedback and we propose that supervisors to meet with their workers to assess how they have been doing with their activities and task. Also, managers are encouraged to build up a progressively sympathetic relationship with their workers as they study the attitudes and objectives of that employee. Since workers at 24 Hour Fitness are feeling an absence of acknowledgment we could frame a type of announcement board in the lounge where uncommon workers could be perceived for their work during that specific month. Individuals could leave notes to one another or namelessly to coordinate the representative’s consideration towards specific activities or mentalities that you saw consistently. It would be useful if there were more rewards and disciplines so the organization overall could concentrate more on operant molding. The administrators and levels of leadership when all is said in done could impart a feeling of self-viability in the workers and urge them to achieve their goals (Gagné et al., 2018)


The 24 Hour Fitness employees requires greater support, feedback and acknowledgment to feel that their work is beneficial. Utilizing the Goal Setting and Cognitive Evaluation hypothesis, we feel that inspiration could be expanded characteristically and execution generally could improve. The reasons for this paper are to look at the irregularity findings of Deci and to introduce an investigation that was intended to test the psychological assessment hypothesis of motivational task in both an exhausting and a fascinating undertaking setting. When Deci is right, an individual would hope to locate that a no contingent-pay plan would bring about a more significant level of execution for a fascinating assignment, while an unexpected compensation plan would bring about a more elevated level of execution for an exhausting errand, since Deci (1975) proposes that impression of a worker of explicit parts of his undertaking will decide how decidedly he reacts to the task, both typically and emotionally. Also, ibid suggested that the four angles as being significant determinants of inborn inspiration are assortment offered by the assignment, self-rule of the task, task identity, and task feedback


Bajari, P., & Benkard, C. L. (2005). Demand estimation with heterogeneous consumers and unobserved product characteristics: A hedonic approach. Journal of political economy, 113(6), 1239-1276.

Deci, E. L. (1975) .The effects of contingent and noncontingent rewards and controls on intrinsic motivation. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 8, 219-222.

Gagné, M., Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2018). Self-determination theory applied to work motivation and organizational behavior.

Gerhart, B., & Fang, M. (2015). Pay, intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, performance, and creativity in the workplace: Revisiting long-held beliefs. Annu. Rev. Organ. Psychol. Organ. Behav., 2(1), 489-521.

Lunenburg, F. C. (2011). Goal-setting theory of motivation. International journal of management, business, and administration, 15(1), 1-6.

Murayama, K., Matsumoto, M., Izuma, K., & Matsumoto, K. (2010). Neural basis of the undermining effect of monetary reward on intrinsic motivation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 107(49), 20911-20916.

Qingpu, N. (2002). The application of Cognitive Approach to CET [J]. Foreign Language World, 3.

Staub, E. (2013). Positive social behavior and morality: Social and personal influences. Elsevier.

Appendix A

Interview 1: Sales Representative


Welcome to 24 Hour Fitness. My name is Bill Asper. It is a beautiful morning of the month of February, 2020. Mark is here with some questions to ask. So let us get started

0:12 All right, could you tell me about your primary responsibilities here at 24 Hour Fitness?

Okay. My primary responsibilities include giving sales presentations to our potential and

Ensuring that the business meets its sales targets. Also, there are other roles that I may be called upon to perform apart from what I assigned to do.

0:31 And what makes you enjoy your job?


Working with people I honestly enjoy because it is something I have experienced over years as sales representative. So I can say that it the people generally that make me happy at work. Also, I like enjoy interacting with new clients and when then the company meets its sale targets. It brightens up my day.

1:07: And what makes you less likely to enjoy your job?

Thank for the question. I can honestly say that given the current tight financial situation, in wish I could work for more hours so as to earn more money for the overtime. I understand that it may not be viable for the company to shoulder that financial burden, but yeah, I would like to probably earn more on top of my gross salary although it may come with other disadvantages as well such as having little time for my family

1:52: What motivates you to do well in your job?

To be sincere, I pride myself as a capable sales representative for the company and especially when we can achieve the best sales targets, and when our clients enjoy our services. It makes me happy and makes me wish to enjoy that “winning streak” though it is hard in business.

2:25: what motivates you? Is it the struggle to do better every day or to avoid making mistakes at any cost?

I would say the struggle to do better each day.

Kindly expound on that?

Yes, I will expound on that. In most cases people, especially in business avoid risks. Also, there is that push to succeed and generate profits for the company, which may result in financial reward or simply a recognition by your superiors. But for me personally, I like taking risks, and trying out new things. So in general, I am motivated to explore new ideas, and see if it will turn out to be advantageous to me and the company.

3:19 how does your personal goals align with that your organization’s mission?

According to me, my goals, I can say, reflect the company’s mission. The culture in the company I work for enables it employees to fulfill their career goals as well as balancing those for the company. So in general, I agree that personal goals are important, but it is more fulfilling when they align with those of the company.

4:28 Is there anything in particular that would dramatically affect your level of commitment to your job either positive or negative? in your own opinion, what can you say May positively or otherwise impact your level of commitment to your job?

Perhaps there are things that may kill the morale for work such as low wages coupled with an excess workload that does not match the salary. Also, respect is important in every aspect of life, so when your superiors show little respect to those below them, I am sure the level of commitment drops. On the flipside, there are things that makes me want to put more effort to the company. For instance, recognition by the top level management and a pay rise of course.

5:57 and how do you view current job challenges? Do they prevent you from getting boredom while pushing you to grow?

Perhaps challenges exist in every job but it thinks unlike routine tasks, difficult situation motivates me to work even harder and ensure that I solve the problem at hand, which I think provided for an opportunity to grow, as well as prevent boredom.

6:28 do you think in your department there is adequate feedback mechanisms as well as a clear way evaluating you job performance?

I am impressed that the company have an excellent feedback mechanism. My manager will do everything to ensure that feedback from the clients reaches my desk on time, which I think is the best way to go. As for job evaluation, the department has fair of appreciating and correcting its team which I believe the right step in the right direction.

7:18 how comfortable are raising issues whenever you feel there are some in the company?

Actually I feel that I have a moral responsibility to voice out concerns whenever I notice one. There is nothing wrong saying it even I feel it may offend some people, but what it may come back haunting the company, and me included? I strongly feel that it is my responsibility to point out the problems whenever I spot them. Luckily our company does not reprimand anyone who raise genuine issues.

8:45 what was your worst day at work?

I remember this day we had a stuff meeting, and the company in bad shape. Sales were meager, and customer service pathetic. The room was so tense I felt like I wanted to walk out but I did not. All the gloomy faces were not the best scene at all.

8:30 what comes to your mind when you encounter such situations?

Nothing a morale killer, and self-hate.

9:07 what is the most memorably positive day at work?

I had this client who came up to me and thanked me for the excellent service at the company. Surprisingly, I thought I did not deserve the credit but I felt good that I contributed to the excellent customer service.

9:40 who do you feel when you hear such positive feedback from your clients?

Extremely happy. Perhaps it kick-starts a positive mood at work especially when you know have done your part. Everything becomes easy on my part because I will develop a framework for repeating the success.

10:05 thank you very much for your time.

Appendix B.

Interview 2: Membership counselor

0:00 what are your primary responsibilities?

As a membership counselor, I am responsible for guiding the clients of the company regarding their membership at the club. I guide them on how they can become members and pretty much how they can make the most out of their membership herein.

1:03 what aspects of the job do you enjoy the most?

I enjoy guiding the new members when starting their membership. I also enjoy the satisfaction and gratification that comes from seeing that the members I introduced are satisfied about the services they are receiving.

1:59 what do you enjoy the least about your job?

I least enjoy the leadership and governance mode of the organization. In essence, I do not enjoy the fact that the supervisors are not quite friendly to the employees. I like freedom in my work and consequentially enjoy being free and creative at work.

2:35 what aspect of the job motivates you?

The aspect that motivates me at the job is the growth that I receive from getting to meet new clients every day and also motivating them to reach out to their training goals. I also get motivated when I am part of the success of the company and the rewards that come from that.

3:40 are you more driven by fear of failure or the challenge of trying new things?

I am more driven by failure. It is almost blatant that I have to achieve the goals of the center and if I am not able to achieve them, it means that I am not able to reach out to their goals. I scares me when I am not able to reach out to the goals set before me by the supervisors of the fitness center.

4:20 Does your personal goals align with the mission of the organization?

My goals is to create a community-like organization where people feel free to share the inherent values and goals. Through the leadership portrayed by the organization, it is quite evident that the organization is more inclined towards profit making rather than the satisfaction of all the customer. For this reason, it do not think that my goals do align with those of the organization in most of the times.

5:50 is there anything that would positively or negatively affect your commitment to the organization?

I think there are things that would positively affect my commitment and there are also those that would negatively affect my commitment to the organization. First close supervision is likely to affect my commitment to the organization. As mentioned earlier, I like a free environment that allows me to be creative about my job. When I am able to work with the clients unbridled, it means that I can tailor-make the work I do in such a way that I am able to work flexibly towards certain goals and objectives. When there is close supervision and an authoritarian leadership, it makes me feel used and not part of the businesses’ initiative to fulfil the customer needs. So, this is likely to affect my commitment to the organization.

6:30 does your work come with growth opportunity and present sufficient challenges for growth?

My work does come with little growth opportunity. This is because of the fact that the supervisors of the organization do not allow me specific activities such as job rotation and enrichment, all of which are important in the growth of my career. There are sufficient challenges for growth. For example, receiving new clients every day allows me to get different experiences and unique perspectives towards the job every day.

7:20 Do they come with the opportunity for growth?

The challenges such as having to deal with different customer issues definitely come with the opportunities for growth. This is because of the fact that it puts me in the perspective to know what each client needs according to their unique needs. Typically, being able to study the perspective of the client to me is key in getting deeper into the needs of each customer.

8:55 do feel like you are given enough support and constructive feedback?

Currently, I feel like I am not given enough support allowing me to reach towards specific goals and objectives that are in line with my personal and career goals. I feel like I do not get enough feedback that I could use to streamline my job so that I can deliver quality work to the customers out there.

9:45 would you feel comfortable voicing an opinion about others?

I am comfortable voicing a positive opinion about others. However, i would have to be very cautious when voicing a negative opinion about others. When it comes to my fellow employees, I am quite comfortable voicing my opinion to them. However, I am not quite comfortable voicing my opinion to the management of the firm.

10:25 what goes wrong with voicing an opinion and what emotions does it come with?

I have once tried voicing an opinion to a superior of the firm. However, it came with a negative repercussion. This is because of the fact that it turned out to be a brawl between me and them. The supervisor instead, advised me to focus on my work rather than concentrating on criticizing their work. I was definitely devastated to the core. I felt like resigning my job at the organization.

Thank you very much.

Appendix C

Interview 3: Kids club attendant.

0:01: What are your primary responsibilities?

I work with the parents of kids to ensure that their children have the best possible experience at the club. I also take part in the design of the children fitness and fun programs. This needs an assessment of the needs and interests of the children so that we can come up with activities and programs that thrill them and beneficial to their health.

0:50 what aspects of the job do you enjoy the most?

I enjoy being part of the fun of the kids. The enjoyment comes from getting to know that the service we provide perfectly suits their needs and expectations. I also enjoy knowing that the children are having fun and they are always coming back for more. This means that I have done my jog perfectly and it indicates that there is likely to be a few complaints.

1:30 what do you enjoy the least about your job?

What I enjoy the least about my job is the regular appraisals and criticism done right after the appraisal of my job. This always sends me dejected and it makes me feel like the supervisors as well as other leaders do not appreciate my efforts to ensure that the children are happy and their expectation are met. Bottom-line is that these appraisals make me feel unappreciated.

2:20 what aspect of the job motivates you?

I get motivated whenever I see the kids enjoying the service we provide. This means that I am doing my job right and this gets quite bigger when the kids appreciate the work I do and this motivates me to work even harder to ensure that the programs that we have here is suited to their unique needs. The gratification I get gives me the motivation that I can make it and that I can perform better.

3:00 are you more driven by fear of failure or the challenge of trying new things?

I am more driven by fear of failure, if I failed to meet the set organizational goals, it would be detrimental to my ability to do my job and reach out to the goals set before me by the supervisor and other leaders. However, I am driven to achieve higher goals on behalf of the organization when I receive some more positive feedback from both the supervisor and the customers. When I get involved in the decision making process, I also get to feel like I am part of the organization at large.

3:45 Does your personal goals align with the mission of the organization?

My personal goals of providing the customer with an exemplary experience definitely aligns with those of the organization. For this reason, I would like to out across the fact that I sometime, my goals do not align with those of the organization. For example, some of the goals are set to ensure profitability rather than fostering interpersonal relationships.

4:25 is there anything that would positively or negatively affect your commitment to the organization?

Allowing me to be part of the decision making process at the organization is likely to positively impact my commitment to the organization. However, destructive criticism and close supervision is also likely to negatively affect my commitment to the organization. If criticism grew intense and I lack the moral support from the supervisors, I would like to give up working at the organization. Such happenings would be detrimental to my working relationship at the firm.

5:00 does your work come with growth opportunity and present sufficient challenges for growth?

My work comes with very little opportunity for growth. It does not come with features allowing me to get enriched with skills. Besides that, the handy appraisals that are done regularly are quite detrimental to my working environment. This is because of the fact that most often, the supervisors’ criticism is negative and destructive.

5:50 Do they come with the opportunity for growth?

There is an opportunity for growth when I work with different kids. These kids have different needs and perspectives of the service. Being able to study them and tailor-make the service according to their unique needs is what will definitely endow me with the unique perspective of knowing how to serve different customer needs.

6:30 do feel like you are given enough support and constructive feedback?

I do not feel like I am given enough support. This is because the supervisors are not quite supportive and this reduces the motivation to work. The negative criticism from the supervisors is quite detrimental to my ability to reach out to my work goals and objectives. For this reason, I do not feel as if I am given enough support allowing me to reach out to my personal and work-related goals.

7:40 would you feel comfortable voicing an opinion about others?

I would not feel quite comfortable voicing my opinion about others. This is mainly because of the fact that it is not everybody that would take the opinion positively. Besides that, the environment of the organization is not designed such that people can voice their opinions about the work environment whenever they like.

8:20 what goes wrong with voicing an opinion and what emotions does it come with?

When the other party, especially when they are my supervisors take the opinion negatively, it can become detrimental to my ability to collaborate with them. As a matter of fact, it might become quite toxic to the work environment. The consequence is a work environment that does not foster individual as well as group well-being.

�I don’t see a reference section in this paper, make sure to reference and cite the empirical and theoretical evidence on a separate references page

�Should also include Portland State University


Just your name (as the author) and the affiliation

�The abstract should be one page in length and has different formatting than the other pages. Please reference APA format, and also look at both the sample papers posted on D2L for reference

�Agreed with Shalene here: the abstract is like an executive summary, with 1-2 sentences to describe each main section of your paper.

Your paper includes general introduction, problem diagnosis, theory and evidence, solutions, and a short conclusions section (if you have space)

See the paper rubric on D2L

�Sentence does not flow, what is allocated service duties? Were they all working in customer service positions? Be more specific

�Sentence needs revising, do you mean all employees wanted to uphold the company’s mission? Make more clear

�Make a little clearer about what you mean here

�Try rephrasing this sentence

�Make sure to use full wording for this and only abbreviate if you’ve shown above the full wording with abbreviation

�Revise sentence to be more specific/clear

�Make sure you are using APA formatting throughout the paper. This includes the title at the beginning of the paper

�Consider revising to be more clear by what you mean by this

�I would suggest revising, something similar to this, but please use your own sentence and be more clear, “While the participants have been working for this company, they have felt some motivational barriers”

�Please revise to be more clear

�This can be described in the first section of your paper (overall introduction) to justify why it is important for the organization to get some recommendation from your project.

�This appendix should include the original interview script of this particular interviewee.

All quotes need to have a cite of certain appendix, per APA format

�Please cite the empirical study you found and describe it a bit more in terms of its relevance and applicability to your project context (specifically the problem of low extrinsic motivation—if that is the main focus of your project)

�“Perceived autonomy” instead?

Cognitive evaluation theory needs to be cited whenever you describe the theory or applying the tenets/propositions of the theory, per APA

�I thought the workers were not receiving support from their supervisor’s? Revise to make sure you are staying consistent

�Please rephrase to make sure you are staying consistent, and please cite the reference

�I’m not sure goal setting theory would help individuals work get acknowledged, look back on the theories in class and the transcripts again to make sure you have good reason to apply the theory

�Are you trying to relate goal setting theory directly to the managers and supervisors?

�Try rephrasing, and make sure CET would be a good fit for this organization, try looking back at your rationale and transcripts

�I’m having a hard time following some of these proposed solutions and connections to theory and evidence, try looking back on the transcripts you collected, and then look at some of the materials from class to see if you can make the flow smoother with regards to theory, evidence, and proposed solutions

�Did you talk about compensation plans in your transcripts? How does this relate back to the solutions and motivational barriers you are proposing exist within the organization?

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