Managing for Growth

Considering the concepts studied in the reading this week on managing talent and reading assignments in previous weeks and in the material presented in the classroom,

  • summarize key principles that you think are important in building flourishing organizations.
  • Give examples from the course material
  • and relate them to an example or examples you have experienced in the organizations in which you have worked.

The body of your reading response should be 2-3 pages in length in APA format (excluding references, title page, and notes). You may use other references to support your conclusions and arguments. You should post your completed assignment to this portal prior to the due date and time noted for this exercise.

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Management techniques

focusing on communication

processes can help you avoid

disruptive team-based conflict.

Conflict Leadership
Navigating Toward Effective

and Efficient Team Outcomes

Ana Shetach

Teams are becoming more common as workers join virtual, autono-
mous, cross-functional, action-learning,
and many other kinds of teams. By their
very nature, working teams are poten-
tial settings for varied professional as
well as personal, ego-based conflicts.
This article posits that management and
team decisions, behaviors, and outcomes
are a direct consequence of the nature
of conflict-management—throughout
overall team management and teamwork
processes. It suggests easily applicable
managerial techniques for harnessing
conflict situations toward effective and
efficient overall team results.

The following questions are discussed
as well as some proposed insights:

• Can you learn processes and acquire
skills to produce increasingly efficient
and effective team results?

• What are potentially positive conflicts?

• What makes the difference between
positive and negative conflict

• How can you develop conflict-
management skills?

• What is the role of team leadership
in positive conflict navigation?

This article also considers the issue
of interests and intentions underlying
the management of conflict situations
during the various stages of team
leadership, within and among organi-
zational units and teams. It provides
insights to support the argument that
team decisions, behaviors, and out-
comes, are a direct consequence of how
well conflicts are handled throughout
the overall team process.

The Nature of Conflict
Conflicts within working teams—

often stemming from differences of
opinions or incongruent interests—are
fairly common. In particular, teamwork
settings associated with assignment and
project processes create suitable condi-
tions for conflicts. Their nature, depth,
complexity, the rate of the partners’
involvement in those situations, and,
especially, how well the conflicts are
handled may all have a significant effect
on the overall, ultimate results of the
associated projects.

Handling conflict always has been a
central factor in human life and history
that determined the consequences of
the particular venture. This applies to

The Journal for QualiTy & ParTiciPaTion July 201226

all levels of human existence, whether political,
organizational, or personal. Human nature, on a
basic behavioral level, has not changed. Conflicts,
with their direct and indirect consequences, still
continue to affect the results of our doings on a
day-to-day basis, thus impacting our lives. Within
organizational settings, the fashion by which con-
flicts are managed has a direct impact on the overall
directions taken by management and teams.1

Conflict is a normal state of affairs and is neither
negative nor positive by nature. For the purpose of
this article it is defined as “differences of opinions
and/or contradiction of interests among two or
more people, parties, or factors” (departments,
organizations, nations, etc.). This definition is
based on the assumption that differences among
human beings present themselves continuously in
all communication settings due to the following
two basic reasons:

• First, interpersonal differences exist on every
possible dimension—age, sex, race, looks, feel-
ings, education, upbringing, experience, attitude,
opinions, cultures, nations, religion, etc.

• Second, contradictory interests often are due to
the affiliation of people with differing cultures,
positions, roles, status, and hierarchy levels.
They also are a result of association and/or
commitment to a specific firm, department,
organization, level, group, country, culture,
religion, etc. On a deeper level, another factor
might be people’s personal ego needs.

Conflicts are assumed to arise consistently
among human beings who work with each other
in any setting on the basis of one or both of the
above reasons.1 Whether the disagreement and/
or the contradiction of interests will be dealt with
constructively or steered in a destructive direction
depends on the parties involved and how they
handle and manage the situation. This is particu-
larly critical in teamwork and project settings, where
effectively handling each team assignment may
affect or even determine ultimate success.

When two parties are communicating and a
conflict occurs, as long as both sides continue to
concentrate on the issue, they are headed toward
a satisfactory solution. As they do their best not to
get personally involved—and thereby lose their
ability to clearly see their mutual objectives and
interests—the process is bound to be resolved
constructively. The same is true for managing

any discussion within a team regarding any issue
or mutual interest. Keeping the discussion on a
matter-of-course level increases the probability of
a high-level, creative solution that is acceptable
to all parties involved. Additionally, it ensures a
cooperative relationship among the parties for
the involvement of all in the future progress of
the project.

Politics and power play a major role among
people in any setting or level at work. The condi-
tions for personally evoked emotional conflicts
abound in team settings. Such conditions may
include the following:

• As members of workgroups promote their ideas
and opinions at decision-making stages.

• When highly cooperative activities are needed
during implementation stages.

• During times of pressure-filled deadlines.

• When various stakeholders have high expecta-
tions for the team.

People who are able to develop their awareness
and focus on their personal position vis-à-vis the
conflict-evolvement process have a higher chance
of controlling the direction in which the conflict
will evolve and, therefore, effectively direct the
final result of the process.

Team Management and Conflict Leadership
Managing teams is a highly complex assignment,

often involving high organizational stakes and
expectations, vast financial investments, involve-
ment of numerous factors/stakeholders, and the
ability to handle professionally heterogenic and
diversified teams.

Yet, at the bottom line, everyday assignments
and long-term projects are about attaining two
basic objectives: arriving at optimal decisions and
implementing them efficiently, toward obtain-
ing goals and destinations.2 Figure 1 (as well as
Figure 4A) shows this basic conceptualization of
team management.

Project Decision-Making Processes
Adizes proposes that managers can be cat-

egorized according to their capability to view,
analyze, and understand situations, problems,
and assignments.2 These different outlooks deter-
mine their managerial styles. The four critical
factors by which managers can be categorized
include the following: 27

• P—Doer, performer, seeing the world in con-
crete terms

• A—Organizer, bureaucrat, by-the-rules person

• E—Entrepreneur, creative, full-spectrum (macro)
points of view, long-term perspective

• I—A people person, natural facilitator, good

A person’s managerial style is composed of a
different combination of these four traits. Each
manager could be stronger in some of these traits
and weaker in the others. The managerial capabili-
ties constitute four different managerial dimensions
or points of view. Combined, they create a whole
multidimensional perspective on any issue. No one
individual, according to Adizes, is capable of a bal-
anced perspective at all times, or for a long time,
regarding all situations. Team thinking and team
planning are often required, especially in complex
processes, such as project management. All four
aspects of thinking are necessary to produce quali-
tative and workable decisions. Decisions, which
are both qualitative and workable, require all of
the aforementioned four capabilities: concrete and
practical planning, organizational perspectives,
a long-term creative and macro initiative, and
people-oriented thinking.

Conflicts naturally arise when people with dif-
ferent managerial personalities are discussing an
issue or an assignment. Different points of view
and opinions are essential for problem-solving
and decision-making practices within projects.
They inspire and eventually bring about creative,
quality solutions. The process by which these solu-
tions are derived is bound to be complex, however.
It will inevitably be “conflictual.” Whether these
conflicts will eventually contribute better solu-
tions to problems and excellent project results,
rather than accelerating toward disastrous situa-
tions, depends on how they are handled. Thus, the
effective management of team decision-making

processes requires high-level conflict-resolution
awareness and skills to promote the required
collaboration among decision makers to make
quality decisions.

Adizes’ basic managerial conception (see
Figure 1) implies that decision-making processes
are cardinal in project management, but that
without efficient implementation processes, proj-
ects may risk not materializing as expected.

Team Implementation Processes
One of the critical managerial acts that can help

overcome difficulties that may arise within teams
during management processes of assignments
and projects is the preliminary “mapping-out”
of processes. This singles out in advance the
potential difficulties and conflicts that may sur-
face throughout the project. Shetach3 proposes
Adizes’ “CAPI” model4 as an efficient tool for this
pre-mapping analysis (see Figure 2). CAPI stands
for coalesced authority, power, and influence. It is
believed that to manage assignments and projects
effectively and efficiently, leading them toward
successful completion, it is essential to coalesce
these three forces (or energy sources.)4 Coalescing
these forces implies getting all the stakeholder
representatives to collaborate in managing the
project from its beginning to the end. This is nec-
essary to ensure efficient implementation of all
subsequent decisions and actions.

The CAPI model does this primarily by shed-
ding light on all potential conflict zones and
junctions and by proposing the optimal processes

Figure 1: The Goals of



Ef�cient Implementation
of Decisions

Effective Decision

Adizes, 2004

Figure 2: The “CAPI” Model


(of Cooperation)



The Journal for QualiTy & ParTiciPaTion July 201228

for extracting better
solutions and higher
levels of support and
cooperation in those
potentially hazardous
situations. These opti-
mal processes ensure
both the quality of
the decisions taken
within the project and
the smooth process of
their implementation.
This applies whether
the decision is a solu-
tion to a problem
within a project or the
promotion of a project
as a whole. The ele-
ments within this tool
are elaborated in the following:

• The factor of “authority”—The CAPI model
advises users to verify in advance whether
the project manager has the full authority
to act independently upon decisions taken
within the project. Likewise, any particular deci-
sion regarding a specific aspect of the project
requires a similar advance verification to ensure
its efficient implementation.

• The factor of “power of cooperation”—To ensure
maximum success in any decision, the CAPI
model recommends taking initial steps to
ensure full cooperation of all “power holders”
in the future. This ensures that cooperators
have the necessary know-how and/or capabili-
ties and/or resources as well as the willingness
and interest to cooperate. In politics these
steps are termed “lobbying” or getting your
potential cooperators to willingly and fully
cooperate when their cooperation is needed
in the future.

• The factor of “influence or information”—You
should also make sure in advance that the
decision you are taking is a qualitative, suit-
able, and workable one; otherwise you might
discover (often too late), that the decision was
not based on the full volume of data regarding:

• The nature of the assignment/project and/or
its objectives.

• The relevant environment within which it

• The limitations and constraints on its
“smooth” application.

• The resources available for the project
(budget, manpower etc.).

A CAPI team includes the figure of authority,
representatives of all cooperating factors, and all
the people who have the necessary know-how and
expertise to solve the problems and arrive at qual-
ity decisions. Such a composition of assignment/
project teams ensures on one hand both quality
decisions and efficient implementation processes.
On the other hand, it is bound to evoke profound
differences of opinions and contradictory inter-
ests among its members. CAPI teams are potential
settings for varied and profound professional, as
well as personal, ego-based conflicts.

To maximize efficient implementation,
the CAPI model is coupled with the Revised
Decision-Square model (RDSM).5 The RDSM
provides team managers with simple techniques
to ensure efficient follow-up and control during
decision-implementation processes throughout
the project. This tool minimizes destructive
ego-evoked conflicts and maximizes smooth,
cooperative implementations.

It collapses all the possible variety of decision
aspects into four categories that constitute the
four sides of a square. Those decision aspects
include the goals, a detailed operative descrip-
tion of the final project/decision results, a
detailed implementation timetable, resources

Figure 3: The Decision-Square Model—An Elaborated Example



March 11


A clear and
detailed list
of assignments
for each team

A detailed
list of
plans for

– Project/decision


– Manifested operative description
– Schedule for application: March 15
April 2
May 1 29

and processes for their attain-
ment, and the distribution of
assignments among committee
members, as well as agreed-upon
dates for future follow-up meet-
ings of the team/committee. It
also includes the name of the
team-nominated project/decision
coordinator. Figure 3 presents a
detailed RDSM.

The RDSM states that the
more thoroughly, clearly, and
unequivocally you “seal” (specify
in detail) all decision aspects, the
better your chance of efficient
implementation. It recommends
sealing at least one decision
square regarding that task or proj-
ect before the end of every team
meeting. Usually, more than one
will be appropriate (e.g., a square
per each topic or aspect of the
overall issue or project aspect).

This tool touches on extremely
basic issues, such as tying up
all loose ends, ensuring clear
and unambiguous communi-
cations within teams, setting
follow-up meetings and dates,
etc. Following the RDSM lead
has significance in limiting
situations that may evoke un-
necessary conflicts centering
on various misunderstandings,
power struggles, and interper-
sonal differences.

The potential contribution of
the CAPI model, coupled with
the RDSM, is the combined abil-
ity to lead managers and teams
through a comparatively safe
route to successful assignment/
project finalization and achieve-
ments. The two models meet
this objective by maximizing
opportunities for constructive
and potentially creative conflict
resolution processes while simul-
taneously minimizing time- and
energy-consuming conflicts.

Figure 4: The Interwoven Team-Leadership—Conflict-Management
Model (TLCM)



Taking Quality Decisions Ef�cient Implementation

of the Decisions

CAPI Teams

Contradictory Interests

PAEI Complementary Teams

Different Points of View


of Con�icts

Taking Quality Decisions Ef�cient Implementation

of the Decisions
CAPI Teams
Contradictory Interests
PAEI Complementary Teams
Different Points of View
of Con�icts

Taking Quality Decisions Ef�cient Implementation

of the Decisions
CAPI Teams
Contradictory Interests
PAEI Complementary Teams
Different Points of View

De�ning clear


A tight “sealing”
of all “decision


(rather than


management of
team decision-

making processes

Identifying the
appropriate con�ict-
coping style for the
particular situation

Based on Adizes, 1992, 2004, 2011

The Journal for QualiTy & ParTiciPaTion July 201230

The Interwoven Team-Leadership—
Conflict-Management Model

Team management, in all its complexity and
variations, is basically about the efficient han-
dling of conflict situations. Figure 4 illustrates
this notion. Team leadership is intertwined with
conflict management as follows:

• The management of teamwork, assignments,
and projects is about effective and efficient
decision-making and decision-implementation

• Decision-making processes are about cre-
ative team processes, which are based on the
“richness” of variations in team members’
interpersonal and professional know-how and
experiences along with their differing points
of view.

• Decision-implementation processes are about
handling conflicts, which tend to center on
various misunderstandings, power struggles,
and interpersonal differences in the inter-
pretation of details within decisions and
instructions, etc.

Figure 4C points out possible directions and
tools that can efficiently direct the positive han-
dling of conflict situations toward creative and
suitable goal-oriented solutions and the promo-
tion of overall successful team results:

• Defining a clear set of project and sub-project
goals, testing, and retesting them at every junc-
tion for handling dilemma and conflict along
the project process.

• Trying to handle conflict situations on a matter-
of-course level (rather than letting them deteri-
orate toward ego-controlled power struggles).

• Identifying suitable conflict-coping styles for
attaining the destined goals within each and
every particular conflict situation along the
project process.

• Leading efficient and collaborated team decision-
making processes.

• Tightly sealing each and every decision using the
RDSM 5 approach.

Successful team management, regardless of

the content or professional occupation involved,
is about extracting and maximizing the potential
essence of conflicts and of conflict situations
within teams. Communication processes within
teams are inlaid with conflicts—potential under-
lying differences, as well as overt contradictions
of opinions and interests. Monitoring those and
navigating toward desirable results is mastering
team leadership to perfection.

1. Ana Shetach, “The Four-Dimensions Model: A
Tool for Effective Conflict Management,” Journal of
International Studies of Management and Organization,
Fall 2009, pp. 82-106.

2. Ichak Adizes, Leading the Leaders: How to Enrich Your
Style of Management and Handle People Whose Style is
Different From Yours, The Adizes Institute Publishing, 2004.

3. Ana Shetach, “Obstacles to Successful Management of
Projects and Decision and Tips for Coping With Them,”
Team Performance Management, Fall 2010, pp. 329-342.

4. Ichak Adizes, Mastering Change, The Adizes Institute
Publishing, 1992.

5. Ana Shetach, “The Revised Decision-Square Model
(RDSM): A Tool for Effective Decision-Implementation
in Teams,” Team Performance Management, Spring 2009,
pp. 7-17.

Ana Shetach
Ana Shetach is an organizational consultant specializing
in team processes and team development. She works with
management groups, teams, and individual managers,
focusing on strategically effective decision-making and
decision-implementation processes. A resident of Haifa,
Israel, Shetach is also currently lecturing in The Max-Stern
Academic College of Emek-Yezreel. Contact Shetach at

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  • University of Nebraska – Lincoln
  • DigitalCommons@University of Nebraska – Lincoln
  • Faculty Publications: Agricultural Leadership,
    Education & Communication Department

    Agricultural Leadership, Education &
    Communication Department


    Motivation and Transactional, Charismatic, and
    Transformational Leadership: A Test of
    John E. Barbuto Jr.
    University of Nebraska – Lincoln,

    Follow this and additional works at:
    Part of the Other Public Affairs, Public Policy and Public Administration Commons

    This Article is brought to you for free and open access by the Agricultural Leadership, Education & Communication Department at
    DigitalCommons@University of Nebraska – Lincoln. It has been accepted for inclusion in Faculty Publications: Agricultural Leadership, Education &
    Communication Department by an authorized administrator of DigitalCommons@University of Nebraska – Lincoln.

    Barbuto, John E. Jr., “

  • Motivation and Transactional, Charismatic, and Transformational Leadership: A Test of Antecedents
  • ” (2005).
    Faculty Publications: Agricultural Leadership, Education & Communication Department. Paper 39.

    Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies, 2005, Volume 1 1, Number 4

    Motivation and Transactional, Charismatic,
    and Transformational Leadership: A Test of


    John E Barbuto Jr

    Relationships between leaders’ motivation
    and their use of charismatic, transactional, and /
    or transformational leadership were examined
    in this study. One hundred eighty-six leaders
    and 759 direct reports from a variety of
    organizations were sampled. Leaders were
    administered the Motivation Sources Inventory
    (MSO while followers reported leaders’ full
    range leadership behaviors using the Multi-
    factor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ-rater
    version). Leaders were also administered the
    self-rating version of the Multi-factor
    Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ-rater version).
    The Motivation Sources Inventory subscales .
    subsequently signzjkantly correlated with leader
    self-reports of inspirational motivation,
    idealized influence (behavior) and
    individualized consideration (range, r = .10 to
    .29), as well as with raters’ perceptions of
    inspirational motivation, idealized influence
    (behavior) and individualized consideration
    (range, r = .18 to .19). The Motivation Sources
    Inventory subscales significantly correlated with
    leaders’ self-reports of charisma, transactional
    and laissez-faire leadership (range, r = .12 to
    .28), with rater-reports of the same variables
    (range, r = .16 to .29).

    Antecedents of transformational behavior
    have been examined sparsely since the concept
    was first articulated and researched (Burns,
    1978; Bass, 1985). Those few studies that have
    examined the construct as a criterion variable
    have included Avolio’s (1 994) examination of
    life events and experiences, Bass’s (1985)
    exploration of early career challenges, Howard
    and Bray’s (1988) study of personality variables,
    Atwater and Yammarino’s (1993) study of
    personal attributes as precedents to
    transformational leader behaviors, and Barbuto,

    Fritz, and Marx’s (2000) study of work
    motivation and transformational leadership.
    Results of these inquiries demonstrate that
    dispositional variables play some role in
    transformational leadership, but much research
    is necessary to ascertain which variables explain
    the greatest variance in data. This study tests the
    relationship between leaders’ sources of
    motivation and their use of transactional,
    charismatic, and transformational leadership.

    Literature Review

    Full Range Model of Leadership
    Transformational leadership theories grew

    from Bums’s (1978) work in political
    leadership. Bums (1 978) described the
    transforming leader as one who is able to lift
    followers up from their petty preoccupations and
    rally around a common purpose to achieve
    things never thought possible. Bass (1 985)
    developed a typology of leadership behaviors
    fitting into the broad categories of transactional
    and transformational leadership. Bass (1 985)
    identified laissez-faire, management-by-
    exception, and contingent reward as the key
    types of transactional leadership. Most
    conceptualizations of transactional leadership,
    however, exclude laissez-faire because it
    represents the absence of leadership.

    Transformational leadership was
    operationalized at the time to include charisma,
    intellectual stimulation, and individualized
    consideration (see Avolio, Waldman & Einstein,
    1988; Bass, 1990). Through theory refinements
    and research, a fourth component of
    transformational leadership was identified –
    inspirational motivation. Later, after one of the
    key components – charisma – received increased
    scrutiny and criticism as potentially

    A Test of Antecedents Volume 1 1, Number 4,2005 27

    incompatible with transformational ideals (see
    Barbuto, 1997; Hunt, 1999), the term ‘charisma’
    in the full range leadership model was
    eventually changed to idealized influence. The
    full range leadership model describes the
    distribution of leadership behaviors, ranging
    from completely inactive (laissez-faire) to
    transactional behaviors to transformational

    Transactional Leadership
    Bradford and Lippitt (1 945) described

    laissez-faire leadership as a leader’s disregard of
    supervisory duties and lack of guidance to
    subordinates. Laissez-faire leaders offer little
    support to their subordinates and are inattentive
    to productivity or the necessary completion of
    duties. Lewin, Lippitt and White (1939) studied
    boys’ clubs in which adults were taught to lead
    each group as either a laissez-faire leader or a
    democratic leader. Laissez-faire leaders gave
    their groups complete freedom and offered little
    guidance. These groups proved to be confused
    and disorganized, and their work was less
    efficient and of poorer quality than the work of
    groups whose leaders exhibited different
    behaviors. From the outset, laissez-faire has
    demonstrated itself to be the most inactive, least
    effective, and most frustrating leadership style.
    Katz, Macoby, Gurin, and Floor (1951) studied
    railroad section groups that were deemed to be
    unproductive. The leaders of these groups gave
    complete control to the group members and the
    members did not respond to the challenge.
    Studies show that policies and practices that
    reflect non-involvement of supervisors lead to
    low productivity, resistance to change, and low
    quality of work (Argyris, 1954; Berrien, 1961;
    Murnigham & Leung, 1976).

    Management-by-exception has it roots in
    contingent reinforcement theories (Bass, 1990)
    whereby subordinates are rewarded or punished
    for a designated action. Leaders practicing
    management-by-exception do not get involved
    with subordinates until failures or deviations in
    workflow occur (Bass, 1985; 1990).
    Intervention by the leader occurs only when a
    failure takes place and punishment or corrective
    action is necessary. The leader sets up pre-
    determined actions for specific failures and

    enforces the punishments when necessary.
    Passive leaders tend to get involved only when
    necessary and refuse to set a plan of action.
    Such leaders expect only the status quo from
    subordinates, do not encourage exceptional work
    (Hater & Bass, 1988), and wait to be notified of
    failures. Active leaders, unlike their passive
    counterparts, regularly search for failures and
    devise systems that warn of impending failures
    before they occur (Hater & Bass, 1988).

    Leaders who practice management by
    exception routinely provide negative feedback
    because they only initiate contact with
    subordinates when failures occur. This action
    stimulates subordinates to maintain the status
    quo and strive for perfection at their job.
    However, the behavior does not encourage or
    foster growth of the person or job performance.
    In a management-by-exception environment,
    any non-routine circumstances will require
    leader intervention, because employees have not
    been encouraged to solve problems and have not
    been given the autonomy to develop confidence
    or to learn fiom experiences (See Bass, 1985;

    Leaders and followers both participate in a
    contingent rewards approach to management,
    because it reflects behavior that is reciprocal in
    nature (Howell & Avolio, 1993). Each party
    agrees to a system of rewards and works to meet
    mutual expectations for certain achievements or
    behaviors (Bass, 1990; Seltzer & Bass, 1990).
    This approach stems partly from reinforcement
    theory and has been central to leadership theory
    and practice for many years. Bass (1990)
    described many examples from early Greek
    mythology in which contingent rewards were
    used by the gods. Kelman (1958) discussed
    instrumental compliance and instrumental
    inducements in early discussions of this type of
    leadership. Blanchard and Johnson (1 985)
    described transactional management as a simple
    process of creating strong expectations with
    employees, along with clear indications of what
    they will get in return for meeting these
    expectations. Most research has linked
    contingent rewards to positive organizational
    outcomes (Howell & Avolio, 1993; Lowe,
    Kroeck, & Sivasubramaniam, 1996).

    28 Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies Barbuto, Jr.

    Charismatic Leadership
    Charisma is believed to be the fundamental

    factor in the transformational process and is
    described as the leader’s ability to generate great
    symbolic power. Weber (1 947) first described
    the concept of charismatic leadership as
    stemming from subordinates’ (or followers’)
    perceptions that the leader is endowed with
    exceptional skills or talents. In its origins,
    charismatic leadership was a focus in studying
    political and world leaders (Bums, 1978; House,
    Spangler & Woycke, 1991). Research of
    charismatic leadership has consistently found
    significant relationships with follower trust,
    effort, and commitment (Howell & Frost, 1989;
    Lowe et al., 1996).

    Transformational Leadership
    Bass (1985) espoused a theory of

    transformational leadership that built on the
    earlier works of Burns (1978). The degree to
    which leaders are transformational was
    measured in terms of the leader’s effect on
    followers. Followers of transformational leaders
    feel trust, admiration, loyalty, and respect
    toward leaders and are motivated to perform
    extra-role behaviors (Bass, 1985; Katz & Kahn,
    1978). Transformational leaders have been
    shown to increase followers’ trust satisfaction
    and citizenship (Podsakoff, MacKenzie,
    Morrman & Fetter, 1990). Leaders high in
    transformational behaviors achieve maximum
    performance from followers because they are
    able to inspire followers to raise their criteria for
    success and develop innovative problem solving
    skills (Bass, 1985; Yammarino & Bass, 1990).

    The transformational leader-follower
    relationship is viewed as one of mutual
    stimulation and is operationalized with three
    distinct characteristics: intellectual stimulation,
    individualized consideration, and inspirational
    motivation (Barbuto, 1997; Bass, 1985; Bass &
    Avolio, 1990). Individualized consideration
    describes leaders acting in the role of employee
    mentors (Bass, 1 985). Inspirational motivation
    describes leaders passionately communicating a
    future idealistic organization that can be shared
    (Hater & Bass, 1988). Intellectual stimulation
    describes leaders encouraging employees to
    approach old and familiar problems in new ways
    (Bass, 1985; Deluga, 1988).

    The motives inherent in the full-range
    leadership model have been examined
    surprisingly little during the past 20 years of
    transformational leadership research. This
    project, therefore, tests the specific relationships
    between leaders’ sources of work motivation
    and the full range leadership behaviors used by
    leaders in the workplace. The next section
    reviews the motivation literature and develops
    the expected relationships between the variables
    of interest.

    Sources of Motivation in the

    Toward a Meta-Theory of Work

    Leonard, Beauvais, and Scholl (1999)
    proposed a new typology of motivation sources,
    which was later operationalized with scales to
    measure the taxonomy (Barbuto & Scholl,
    1998). This taxonomy was further developed
    and tested to predict leaders’ behaviors (Barbuto
    & Scholl, 1999; Barbuto, Fritz & Marx, 2000).
    In two independent research studies examining
    antecedents of leaders’ behaviors (using these
    two motivation taxonomies), the five sources of
    motivation (Barbuto & Scholl, 1998; Leonard,
    Beauvais & Scholl, 1999) were better able to
    predict behavior than McClelland’s (1 985)
    three-need model (see Barbuto, Fritz & Marx,
    2000; 2002). These five sources of motivation
    include intrinsic process, instrumental, self-
    concept-external, self-concept-internal, and goal

    The Five Sources of Work Motivation

    Intrinsic Process Motivation
    If people are motivated to perform certain

    kinds of work or to engage in certain types of
    behavior for the sheer fun of it, then intrinsic
    process motivation is occurring. For this source
    of motivation, the work itself acts as the
    incentive because workers enjoy what they are
    doing. Similar constructs to intrinsic process
    motivation can be found extensively in the
    literature. Developmental theorists have
    described a similar motive using the terms
    heteronymous morality (Kohlberg, 1976),

    A Test of Antecedents Volume 1 1, Number 4,2005 29

    impulsive (Loevinger, 1976; Kegan, 1982), and,
    to a lesser extent, pre-operational (Piaget,
    1972). Other need-based descriptors similar to
    intrinsic process include early existence needs
    (Alder fer, 1969), intrinsic pleasure needs
    (Murray, 1 964) and physiological needs
    (Maslow, 1954). Bandura (1 986) describes
    sensory intrinsic motivation and physiological
    intrinsic motivation in terms similar to those
    used to describe intrinsic process motivation.
    This motive also has been articulated as intrinsic
    motivation to obtain task pleasure (Deci, 1975)
    and intrinsic task motivation devoid of external
    controls or rewards (Staw, 1976).

    Past researchers (Deci, 1975; Katz & Kahn,
    1978; Staw, 1976) have used the term intrinsic
    motivation to represent personal satisfaction
    derived from achievement of goals or tasks.
    Intrinsic process motivation is distinct from the
    classical interpretation of intrinsic motivation
    because the emphasis with the former is on
    immediate enjoyment or pleasure during the
    activity, rather than on the satisfaction that
    results from its achievement. The classic
    intrinsic motivation is better represented in this
    motivation taxonomy as self-concept-internal, to
    be explained in more detail in this paper.

    Intrinsically motivated leaders find
    enjoyment and pleasure in the work they do
    (Barbuto, Fritz, & Mam, 2002). The leaders’
    enjoyment of their work environment could
    inspire the followers to emulate the leaders’
    behavior and incorporate enjoyment with work
    (Avolio, Waldman, & Einstein, 1 988).

    Hypothesis 1: Leaders’ intrinsic process
    motivation will be positively related to
    charismatic and transformational leadership

    Instrumental Motivation
    Instrumental rewards motivate individuals

    when they perceive their behavior will lead to
    certain extrinsic tangible outcomes, such as pay,
    promotions, bonuses, etc. (Kelman, 1958). This
    source of motivation integrates Etzioni’s (1 96 1)
    alienative and calculative involvement,
    Barnard’s (1938) exchange theory, and Katz and
    Kahn’s (1978) legal compliance and external
    rewards. Developmental theorists have described
    a similar motive as concrete operational (Piaget,

    1972), instrumental (Kohlberg, 1976), imperial
    (Kegan, 1982), and opportunistic (Loevinger,
    1976). Similar instrumental motives have been
    described by need theorists as a need for power
    (Murray, 1964; McClelland, 1961), a need for
    safety (Maslow, 1954), or late stages of
    existence needs (Alderfer, 1969).

    Instrumental motivation is different from
    the classic extrinsic or external motivation
    (Deci, 1975; Katz & Kahn, 1978; Staw, 1976) in
    that this motive derives from tangible external
    rewards, whereas the classic definition includes
    social rewards and interpersonal exchanges (in
    this typology, motivation that derives from these
    rewards is termed self-concept-external).
    Extrinsic motivation is further divided in this
    meta-theory into two categories of motives:
    tangible (instrumental) and social (self-concept-
    external). This motivation is characterized by
    optimizing self-interests, but with the
    recognition that every thing or want has its
    tangible price.

    Instrumentally motivated leaders see the
    value in a reward system for employees
    (Barbuto, Fritz, & Mam, 2002). Similarly,
    transactional leaders work within a system of
    reward/punishment for employees (Bass, 1 990).
    We expect that leaders high in instrumental
    motivation will likely also be higher in
    transactional behaviors.

    Hypothesis 2: Leaders’ instrumental
    motivation will be positively related to
    transactional leadership behaviors.

    Self-Concept-External Motivation
    This source of motivation tends to be

    externally based when individuals are other-
    directed and seek affirmation of traits,
    competencies, and values from external
    perceptions. The ideal self is adopted from the
    role expectations of reference groups, explaining
    why individuals high in self-concept-external
    motivation behave in ways that satisfy reference
    group members, first to gain acceptance, and
    after achieving that, to gain status.

    This source of motivation is similar to
    Etzioni’s (1 96 1) social moral involvement,
    extrinsic interpersonal motivation described by
    Deci (1975) and Staw (1976), and Barnard’s
    (1938) social inducements, conformity to group

    30 Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies Barbuto, Jr.

    attitudes, and communion. This source of
    motivation also resembles social identity theory,
    in which the focus is on establishing and
    maintaining social reference and standing
    (Ashforth & Mael, 1989). Developmental
    theorists have described a similar motivational
    stage as interpersonal (Kohlberg, 1976; Kegan,
    1982), early formal operational (Piaget, 1972),
    and conformist (Loevinger, 1976).

    Other researchers have described similar
    motivation as a need for affiliation (McClelland,
    1961; Murray, 1964), need for love, affection,
    and belonging (Maslow, 1954), and as
    relatedness needs (Alderfer, 1969). Katz and
    Kahn (1978) describe employees seeking
    “membership and seniority in organizations,”
    “approval from leaders,” and “approval fi-om
    groups” in terms similar to those used to
    describe self-concept-external motivation.
    Classic articulations of social rewards or social
    exchanges are consistent in concept and
    motivational explanation with self-concept-
    external motives.

    Kuhnert and Lewis (1987) propose links
    between interpersonal motivations and high-
    order transactions, described here in terms
    similar to charismatic leadership. Barbuto and
    Scholl(1999) examined the relationship between
    work motivation and influence tactics used and
    found significant correlations between self-
    concept-external motives and social tactics, such
    as ingratiating and personal appeals. Barbuto et
    al. (2000) examined motivation and
    transformational leadership and reported
    negative relationships between self-concept-
    external motivation and transformational
    leadership. We expect that self-concept-external
    motivation will share many characteristics with
    transactional leadership, but also will
    demonstrate some relationship with social
    transactions, such as those commonly described
    in the referent influences of charismatic

    Hypothesis 3: Leaders’ self-concept
    external motivation will be positively related to
    leaders’ transactional and charismatic leadership

    Self-Concept-Internal Motivation
    Self-concept-based motivation will be

    internal when individuals are inner-directed. In

    this type of motivation, the individuals set
    internal standards for traits, competencies, and
    values that become the basis for their ideal
    selves (Leonard, Beauvais, & Scholl, 1999).
    Persons are then motivated to engage in
    behaviors that reinforce these standards and later
    achieve higher levels of competency.

    This source is similar to McClelland’s
    (1 96 1) need for achievement, Deci’s (1 975)
    internal motivation to overcome challenges, and
    Katz and Kahn’s (1978) ideal of internalized
    motivation derived from role performance.
    Bellah et al. (1985) describe individualism in
    terms similar to those used to describe self-
    concept internal motivation. Developmental
    theorists have described a similar stage using
    such terms as full formal operational (Piaget,
    1972), social system (Kohlberg, 1976),
    institutional (Kegan, 1982), and conscientious
    (Loevinger, 1976). Similar motives are
    described as a need for achievement
    (McClelland, 196 1 ; Murray, 1964), need for
    esteem (Maslow, 1954), motivating factors
    (Herzberg, 1968), and growth needs associated
    with developing one’s potential (Alderfer,

    Bandura (1 986) describes self-evaluative
    mechanisms, self-regulation, and personal
    standards in terms similar to those used to
    describe self-concept-internal motivation. Katz
    and Kahn (1978) describe a motive similar to
    internalized motivation as “self-expression
    derived from role performance.” This motive
    also has been described as “intrinsic motivation
    to overcome challenges” (Deci, 1975) and
    “intrinsic motivation to pursue personal
    achievement” (Staw, 1976).

    A leader who is inspired by self-concept-
    internal motivation is likely to value individual
    employees and the inherent strengths and
    contributions each makes. This leader’s use of
    individualized consideration is likely to inspire
    followers to see the goals of the leader as well as
    goals for personal growth (Bass, 1985). Kuhnert
    and Lewis (1987) proposed relationships
    between Kegan’s (1982) institutional stage of
    ego development, where the focus is on self-
    authorship and self-determination, and
    transformational leadership. Barbuto and Scholl
    (1 999) tested relationships between motivation
    and influence tactics and found some

    A Test of Antecedents Volume 1 1, Number 4,2005 3 1

    relationships between self-concept-internal
    motivation and inspirational appeals,
    consultation tactics, and rational persuasion. Of
    Yukl’s (1998) ten influence tactics, these three
    seem to share the strongest behavioral
    similarities to transformational leadership.
    Barbuto et al. (2000) expected to find
    relationships between self-concept-internal and
    transformational leadership, but weren’t able to
    demonstrate a relationship. We cautiously
    expect a relationship to exist between this
    motive and transformational leadership

    Hypothesis 4: Leaders’ self-concept
    internal motivation will be positively related to
    leaders’ charismatic and transformational
    leadership behaviors.

    Goal Internalization Motivation
    Behavior motivated by goal internalization

    occurs when individuals adopt attitudes and
    behaviors congruent with their personal value
    systems. Strong ideals and beliefs are
    paramount in this motivational source (Barbuto
    & Scholl, 1998). Individuals motivated by goal
    internalization believe in the cause and have
    developed a strong sense of duty to work toward
    the goal of the collective.

    This source of motivation is similar to
    Kelman’s (1 958) value system, Katz and Kahn’s
    (1978) internalized values, Deci’s internal
    valence for outcome (1 975), and Etzioni’s
    (1961) pure moral involvement. Each of these
    perspectives emphasizes a virtuous character and
    a desire not to compromise these virtues. Bellah
    et al. (1985) describe habits of the heart in terms
    similar to goal internalization. Developmental
    theorists describe a similar motivational stage as
    post-formal operational (Piaget, 1972)’
    principled orientation (Kohlberg, 1976), inter-
    individual (Kegan, 1982)’ and autonomous
    (Loevinger, 1976). Need theorists describe a
    similar motive as self-actualization (Maslow,
    1 954).

    Goal internalization is different from the
    previous four sources of motivation because it is
    clearly marked by the absence of self-interest
    (Barbuto & Scholl, 1998). Motivation from this
    source occurs when individuals believe in the
    cause. By contrast, individuals motivated by

    intrinsic process need to enjoy the work being
    performed. Those with high levels of
    instrumental motivation are driven to perform
    the work because of an incentive or contingent
    reward. Individuals with high levels of self-
    concept-external motivation desire to enhance
    their reputation or image, while those with high
    levels of self-concept-internal motivation are
    stimulated by personal challenge and self-
    regulation. All of these reflect some degree of
    self-interest; on the other hand, those with high
    levels of goal internalization motivation are
    driven solely by a belief that the goals of the
    organization are both worthwhile and

    Transformational leader behaviors are most
    typically seen in persons who trust and believe
    in the goal of the organization (Bass, 1985; Katz
    & Kahn, 1978), naturally expanding to belief in
    the organization’s cause. Barbuto and Scholl
    (1 999) examined motivation’s predictive value
    for influence tactics and found significant
    correlations between goal internalization
    motivation and both inspirational appeals and
    rational persuasion. From a transformational
    leadership perspective, it is expected that goal
    internalization will relate to inspirational
    leadership and charismatic behaviors. Barbuto
    et al. (2000) found significant relationships
    between leaders’ goal internalization and use of
    transformational leadership behaviors. We
    expect similar findings in this study.

    Hypothesis 5: Leaders’ goal internalization
    motivation will be positively related to leaders’
    use of transformational leadership behaviors.

    Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation
    For the purpose of this study, we further

    divided the five sources of motivation into two
    categories: intrinsiclinternal (Deci, 1975; Staw,
    1976)’ comprised of intrinsic process, self-
    concept-internal and goal internalization; and
    extrinsiclexternal (Deci, 1975; Staw, 1976),
    comprised of instrumental and self-concept-
    external. Intrinsiclinternal motivation embodies
    the person and his or her emotions,
    encompassing h, trust, and self-worth, all of
    which are derived from internal influences.
    These qualities are similar to those needed for
    transformational behaviors (Bass, 1985; Burns,

    32 Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies Barbuto, Jr.

    1978; Bass, 1990). An extrinsiclexternal Hypothesis 6: Leaders’ intrinsiclinternal
    combined process really derives from the motivation will be positively related to
    surroundings of the person (Barbuto & Scholl, charismatic and transformational leadership
    1998). People influenced by an behaviors.
    intrinsiclexternal process are motivated by Hypothesis 7: Leaders’ extrinsic/external
    prestige, rewards and status, perhaps more motivation will be positively related to
    suitable to transactional and charismatic transactional leadership behaviors.
    leadership (Hater & Bass, 1988; Bass, 1990).

    Figure 1 Summary of Hypotheses

    Motivation Sources Direction of Influence Leadership Behaviors
    Intrinsic Process Positive Charismatic Leadership
    Instrumental Motivation
    Self-concept External
    Self-concept Internal
    Goal Internalization



    Data from 186 leaders and their 759 raters

    were collected. Leaders were employed in a
    variety of industries, governmental agencies, and
    educational settings and in both rural and urban
    areas. All leaders had participated in an
    extensive twelve-month leadership-training
    program. Raters were not provided any formal
    training. Fifty-seven percent of the leaders were
    female, with an average age of 44 years.
    Leaders had an average tenure of 7.9 years with
    their companies and many had either a
    bachelor’s (6 1 %) or master’s (1 5%) degree.
    Fifty-one percent of the raters were female, with
    an average age of 39 years. Raters had an
    average tenure of 5.8 years with their companies
    and were generally as well educated as their
    leaders (57% had earned a bachelor’s degree;
    12% had earned a master’s degree).


    Transformational Leadership
    Transactional Leadership
    Transactional Leadership
    Charismatic Leadership
    Charismatic Leadership
    Transformational Leadership
    Transformational Leadership
    Charismatic Leadership
    Transformational Leadership
    Transactional Leadership
    Charismatic Leadership

    passive and active), charismatic (idealized
    influence, behavior, and attributed), and
    transformational behaviors (inspirational
    motivation, individualized consideration, and
    intellectual stimulation) were measured using
    the Multi-factor Leadership Questionnaire
    (MLQ-short form) (Bass, 1985). These
    behaviors were assessed by both leaders (self-
    report) and raters (rater form). Sample items
    and coefficient alphas for the items measured for
    the h l l range of leadership were (leader self-
    report alpha appears first): laissez-faire (“Avoids
    getting involved when important issues arise,” a
    = .89 & .76); contingent reward (“Provides me
    with assistance in exchange for my efforts,” a =
    .77 & .77); management by exception – passive
    (“Fails to interfere until problems become
    serious,” a = .73 & .72); management by
    exception – active (“Focuses attention on
    irregularities, mistakes, exceptions, and
    deviations from standards,” a = .70 & .71),
    charismatic – behavior (“Talks about their most
    important values and beliefs,” a = .78 & .71);
    attributed charisma (“Instills pride in me for

    Leaders’ Behavior being associated with himlher,” a = .73 & .79);
    Leaders’ laissez-faire, transactional inspirational motivation (“Talks optimistically

    (contingent reward, management by exception – about the hture,” a = .72 & .82); individualized

    A Test of Antecedents Volume 1 1, Number 4,2005 33

    consideration (Spends time teaching and
    coaching,” a = .69 & .73); and intellectual
    stimulation (“Seeks differing perspectives when
    solving problems,” a = .76 & .7 1).

    Leaders’ Motivation
    Leaders’ sources of motivation were

    measured using the Motivation Sources
    Inventory (MSI) (Barbuto & Scholl, 1998). The
    Inventory contains 30 items, six for each
    subscale, measured on a six point Likert-type
    scale. Motivation scores were obtained by
    calculating the mean response for each subscale.
    Sample items and coefficient alphas for the five
    sources of motivation were: intrinsic process (“I
    would prefer to do things that are fun” a = .71);
    instrumental (“I like to be rewarded when I take
    on additional responsibilities” a = .78); self-
    concept external (“It is important to me that
    others appreciate the work I do” a = 35); self-
    concept internal (“Decisions I make reflect
    standards I’ve set for myself’ a = 32); and goal
    internalization (“I work hard for a company if I
    agree with its mission” a = .73).


    Leaders completed and returned by mail to
    the researchers the Motivation Sources
    Inventory (MSI) and the Multi-factor Leadership
    Questionnaire (MLQ) four weeks prior to the
    workshop. Each leader also was provided the
    rater version of the Multi-factor Leadership
    Questionnaire (MLQ) to distribute to six
    employees. These instruments were coded and
    returned by mail directly to the researchers
    between six and three weeks prior to the
    respective workshops.

    All leaders participating in this study were
    engaged in leadership development workshops
    being offered through university extension
    efforts. Leaders participating in the research
    project and workshop were provided with a two-
    day training session on both work motivation
    and full range leadership. The intact groups (+I-
    15 leaders) met for monthly follow-up sessions
    in cohort support teams to address issues and
    challenges they faced in the leadership
    development process.

    Participation was optional and both leaders
    and raters were given the opportunity to
    withdraw from the study at any time, even after
    the workshop(s). To date, nobody has requested
    to be removed from the study. However, not all
    leaders had six raters return the forms, so full
    participation was not achieved. Leaders had
    been instructed to distribute the forms to those
    individuals most capable of assessing behaviors,
    but also were urged to select a wide variety of
    individuals, to avoid selecting favorable
    employees. An average of 4.1 usable rater forms
    per leader was returned to the researchers.


    Results of the study were analyzed using
    the computer program SPSS. Analysis of the
    Multi-factor Leadership Questionnaire of both
    raters’ reports and leaders’ self-reports began by
    calculating subscales of the full range leadership
    behaviors. Several subscales also were
    combined into broader categories of
    transformational leadership (inspirational
    motivation, individualized consideration, and
    intellectual stimulation), transactional leadership
    (contingent reward, management by exception –
    active and management by exception – passive),
    charismatic leadership (idealized influence,
    attributed, and behavior) and laissez-faire

    Analysis of the Motivation Sources
    Inventory included parceling the 30 motivation
    items into five individual subscales and two
    additional subscales. The two additional
    subscales combined individual motivations for a
    generic intrinsic (intrinsic process, self-concept-
    internal, and goal internalization) and extrinsic
    (self-concept -external and instrumental)
    classification to allow for emergence of broad
    trends between internally driven and externally
    driven motivation patterns (Deci, 1975). Simple
    statistics and correlation analysis were used to
    interpret the data and test the hypothesized
    relationships among leaders’ motivations and
    transformational, charismatic, transactional and
    laissez-faire leadership.

    34 Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies Barbuto, Jr.


    Several significant findings emerged from
    the analysis of the relationship between the
    Motivation Sources Inventory subscales
    (intrinsic, extrinsic, intrinsic process,
    instrumental, self-concept-external, self-
    concept-internal, and goal internalization) and
    leaders’ transformational behavior subscales
    (individualized consideration, inspirational and

    intellectual stimulation), charismatic leadership
    (idealized influence attributed and behavior),
    transactional leadership (contingent reward,
    management by exception – active and passive)
    and laissez-faire leadership. Simple statistics,
    reliability estimates, and Pearson (2-tailed)
    correlations were computed for the hypothesized
    variables (See Tables 1 , 2 and 3).

    Table 1
    Motivation Subscales Inter-Correlations


    Meta-Theory of
    Motivation Sources

    – – – – —

    Motivation M SD Intrinsic Extrinsic 1nt.Proc Instrum SCE SCI GI

    Intrinsic/Internal 67.30 9.64 .91
    ExtrinsicIExternal 33.16 10.38 .43** .87
    Intrinsic Process 15.96 3.18 .20** .04 .71
    Instrumental 16.71 5.68 . .37** .89** .03 .78

    Self-concept External 16.46 6.05 .4 1 ** .90** .04 .60** .85
    Self-concept Internal 29.47 3.98 .67** .08 .18** .O 1 .13* .82
    Goal Internalization 23.23 5.16 .81** .23** .13* .19** .23** .40** .73

    Note: N = 186, ** p < .O1 (two-tailed), * p < .05 (two-tailed). 1nt.Proc = Intrinsic Process), Insrum = Instrumental, SCE =Self-Concept External, SCI =Self-Concept Internal, GI=Goal Internalization. Coefficient alphas (a ) on diagonals.

    Table 2
    Motivation Subscales and Leaders’ Self-Reported Full Range Leadership


    – – – – –

    Meta-Theory of
    Motivation Sources

    Leader MLQ
    Transformational 2.9 1
    Inspir. Motivation
    Indiv. Consideration
    Intellect. Stimulation
    Attributed Charisma
    Charismatic Behavior
    Contingent Rewards
    MBE Passive
    MBE Active

    M SD a Intrinsic Extrinsic
    0.41 .88 .18** -.08
    2.90 0.61 .72 .17** .05
    3.14 0.48 .69 .07 -.16**
    2.83 0.51 -76 .23** -.OO
    2.82 0.49 .76 .15* -.17**
    2.80 0.53 .73 .16** -.09
    2.84 0.62 .78 . l l -.20**
    1.84 033 .68 .01 .18**
    2.84 0.53 .77 .12 -.02
    1.31 0.48 .71 -.05 .19**
    1.22 0.59 .73 -.07 .16**
    1.39 0.66 .70 -.05 .12*
    0.78 0.46 .89 .O1 .16**

    1nt.Proc. Instrum SCE
    .29** -.I1 -.05
    .29** -.01 .09
    .26** -.16** -.13*
    .lo* .01 -.01
    .24** -.19** -.I2
    .18** -.I2 -.05
    .24** -.20** -.17**
    .08 .14* .17**
    .31** -.01 .04
    -.07 .15* .19**
    -.03 .13* .16**
    -.08 .10 . l l
    -.07 .13* .16**

    -. 18**

    Note: N = 731, ** p < .O1 (two-tailed), * p < .05 (two-tailed). MBE=Management-by-Exception, MBE Passive= Management-by- Exception Passive, MBE Active=Management-by-Exception Active, Int.Proc.= Intrinsic Process, Instrum = Instrumental, SCE = Self- Concept External, SCI = Self-concept Internal, GI = Goal Internalization

    A Test of Antecedents Volume 1 1, Number 4,2005 35

    Table 3
    Motivation Subscales and Raters’ Reported Full Range Leadership


    Meta-Theory of

    Rater MLQ M SD a Intrinsic Extrinsic 1nt.Proc Instrum SCE SCI GI
    Transformational 2.95 0.60 .85 .06 -.I2 .16 -.09 -.I2 .04 -.04
    Inspir. Motivation
    Indiv. Consideration
    Intellect. Stimulation
    Attributed Charisma
    Charismatic Behavior
    Contingent Rewards
    MBE P assive
    MBE Active

    Note:N = 594, ** p < .O1 (two-tailed), * p < .05 (two-tailed). MBE= Management-by-Exception, MBE Passive= Management-by- Exception Passive, MBE Active=Management-by-Exception Active, Int-Proc = Intrinsic Process, Instrum = Instrumental, SCE =Self Concept External, SCI =Self Concept Internal, GI = Goal Internalization

    Motivation as an Antecedent of
    Transformational Leadership

    Leaders’ intrinsic process motivation
    significantly correlated with their self-reported
    transformational behaviors (r = .29; p < .01), inspirational motivation (r = .29; p< .01), individualized consideration (r = .26; p < .01), and intellectual stimulation (r = .lo; p< .05) (HI). Leaders' intrinsic process motivation also demonstrated several significant relationships with raters' perceptions of leader behaviors. Leaders' intrinsic process motivation also proved to be significantly related to inspirational motivation (r = .18; p < .05). Taken together, these results demonstrate several significant relationships between leaders' intrinsic process motivation and their use of transformational leadership (H 1).

    Leaders’ instrumental motivation shared a
    negative relationship with their self-reported
    individualized consideration (r = -. 16; p < .05).

    Leaders’ self-concept external motivation
    was negatively related to their self-reported
    individualized consideration (r = -.13; p < .05 and to raters' perceptions of leaders' individualized consideration (r = -.19; p < .01). There was no significant relationship between

    self-concept-external motivation and charismatic
    leadership behaviors (H3).

    Leaders’ self-concept-internal motivation
    significantly correlated with their self-reported
    transformational behaviors (r = .32, p < .01), inspirational motivation (r = .27, p < .01), individualized consideration (r = .23, p < .01), and intellectual stimulation (r = .27, p < .01) (H4). However, there were no significant relationships between self-concept-internal motivation and raters' perceptions of transformational leadership.

    Goal internalization significantly correlated
    with leaders’ self-reported intellectual
    stimulation (r = .15, p < .01) (H5). Leaders' combined intrinsic motivation significantly correlated with their self-reported transformational behaviors (r = .18, p < .01), inspirational motivation (r = .17, p < .01), and intellectual stimulation (r = .23, p < .01) (H6). Leader's combined extrinsic motivation was negatively related to their self-reported individualized consideration (r = -. 16; p < .01) and rater-reported individualized consideration (r = -.19; p < .01).

    3 6 Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies Barbuto, Jr.

    Motivation as an Antecedent to
    Charismatic Leadership

    Relationships also were found between
    leaders’ intrinsic process motivation and their
    self-reports of each of the charismatic subscales:
    charisma (r = .24; p < .01), attributed charisma (r = .18; p < .01), and charismatic behavior (r = .24; p < .01) (HI). Intrinsic process motivation also significantly correlated with attributed charisma (r=. 16; p<.05).

    Leaders’ instrumental motivation
    negatively related to two of the three self-
    reported charismatic subscales: charisma (r = –
    .19; p < .01) and charismatic behavior (r = -.20; p < .01).

    Leaders’ self-concept-external motivation
    negatively related to their self-reported
    charismatic behavior (r = -.17, p < .01) (H3). Leaders' self-concept-internal motivation significantly related to three of their self- reported charismatic subscales: charisma (r = .26, p < .01), attributed charisma (r = .27, p < .01), and charismatic behavior (r = .18, p < .01) (H4)-

    As expected, goal internalization shared no
    significant variance with any of the charismatic
    leadership subscales.

    Leaders’ combined intrinsic group
    significantly correlated with two of the leaders’
    self-reported charismatic behaviors: charismatic
    behavior (r = .15, p< .05) and attributed charisma (r = .16, p < .01) (H6). Leaders' extrinsic combined group was negatively related to their self-reported charisma (r = -. 17; p < .01) and charismatic behavior (r = -.20; p < .01) 037).

    Motivation as an Antecedent to
    Transactional Leadership

    Leaders’ intrinsic process motivation
    positively related to their self-reported use of
    contingent rewards (r = .31; p < .01) and to rater-reported transactional leadership (r = .30; p < .01), management by exception (r = .25; p < .0 I), passive management by exception (r = .16; p < .05), and active management by exception (r = .23; p < .01).

    Leaders ‘ instrumental motivation
    significantly correlated with leaders’ self-
    reported transactional behaviors (r = .14, p <

    .01), passive management by exception (r = .13,
    p < .0 I), and laissez-faire leadership(r = .13, p < .0 1). Leaders' instrumental motivation also demonstrated significant relationships with raters' perceptions of transactional leadership (r = .25, p < .01), management by exception (r = .26, p < .01), and active management by exception (r = .24, p < .01).

    Leaders’ self-concept-external motivation
    showed significant relationships with three of
    their self-reported transactional behaviors:
    transactional leadership (r = .17, p < .01), management by exception (r = .19, p < .01), passive management by exception (r = .16, p < .01), and laissez-faire leadership (r = .16, p < .0 1). Leaders' self-concept-external motivation also demonstrated significant relationships with raters' perceptions of transactional leader behaviors: transactional leadership (r = .26, p < .01), management by exception (r = .23, p < .01), and active management by exception (r = .23, p < .01).

    Leaders’ self-concept-internal motivation
    showed negative relationships with their self-
    reported use of contingent rewards (r = -.28; p < .01), management by exception (r = -.18; p < .01), and passive management by exception (r = -.23; p < .01). Goal internalization shared no significant variance with any of the transactional leadership subscales.

    The leaders’ combined intrinsic group
    significantly related to rater perceptions of
    transactional leadership (r = -23; p < .01), management by exception (r = .18; p < .05), and passive management by exception (r = .17; p < .05).

    The leaders’ combined extrinsic group
    significantly correlated with leaders’ self-
    reported transactional behaviors: transactional r
    = .18, p < .01), management by exception (r = .19, p < .01), passive management by exception (r = .16, p < .01), active management by exception (r = .12, p < .05), and laissez-faire leadership (r = .16, p < .01) (H7). Leaders' combined extrinsic motivation was significantly related with transactional leadership (r = .29, p < .01), management by exception (r = .27, p < .01), active management by exception (r = .27, p < .01), and laissez-faire leadership (r = .18, p < .05).

    .01), management by exception (r = .15, p <

    A Test of Antecedents Volume 1 1, Number 4,2005 37


    The leaders ‘ self-reports of
    transformational leadership had a higher
    correlation to the five sources of motivation than
    did the raters’ reports of full range leadership.
    Leaders’ work motivation demonstrated some
    correlations with leadership behaviors, but the
    relationships generally accounted for less than
    5% variance. Other general trends noted were
    that self-concept-internal motivation related to
    transformational behaviors, while self-concept-
    external motivation related more closely to
    transactional behaviors.

    This study distinguished charismatic
    behaviors fiom transformational ones as
    criterion variables, but, in most cases, those
    behaviors that were significantly correlated with
    transformational subscales also were
    significantly correlated with charismatic
    subscales. This result may be explained by the
    nature of the measure itself, which was not
    designed to distinguish between inspirational
    and charismatic influences. It may also reflect
    the operational definitions used for charismatic
    leadership (idealized influence) in the original
    development of the subscale (Bass, 1985). Bass
    (1990) reported that no empirical distinction had
    yet been between inspirational and charismatic
    leadership subscales, which remain true in light
    of this study.

    Intrinsic process motivation correlated with
    transformational behaviors, indicating that
    leaders motivated by fun at work are more likely
    to self-report an ideology consistent with
    transformational and charismatic leadership.
    Intrinsic process motivation was related to rater
    perceptions of transactional leadership,
    indicating that those high in intrinsic process
    tend to view selves as more transformational,
    while those around them tend to view them as
    more transactional.

    Instrumental motivation correlated with
    transactional behaviors, contingent rewards,
    management by exception, management by
    exception – active and laissez-faire leadership.
    This correlation may have been expected since
    prior work reported a similar result (Barbuto,
    Fritz & Mam, 2000). However, this same result
    indicates that instrumental motivation shares

    little variance with transformational leadership
    behaviors, consistent with propositions
    developed in the ego constructive development
    literature (Kuhnert & Lewis, 1987). Self-
    concept-external motivation correlated with
    some charismatic behavior and transactional
    behavior, but didn’t share significant variance
    with transformational behaviors in the study.
    This result may have been expected, given the
    social rewards and interpersonal or referent
    nature of charismatic leadership behaviors and
    the focus on interpersonal feedback attributed to
    self-concept external motivation. This result
    also moderately supports the premise that
    charismatic and transformational leadership may
    be distinct constructs and necessitate different
    motives from leaders (See Barbuto, 1997).
    Since individuals with high self-concept-
    external motivation appear to exhibit more
    charismatic behaviors, some support for Kegan’s
    (1982) lens perspective is found, by which
    leaders may naturally assume the extent to
    which followers require self-concept external
    motives to be satisfied will be similar to their

    Overall, motivation has provided some
    evidence for promise as an antecedent to full
    range leadership. Most relationships proved to
    move in the expected directions and the effect
    sizes compared favorably to previous antecedent
    research conducted in the area of
    transformational leadership (Atwater &
    Yammarino, 1993; Avolio, 1994; Barbuto et al.,
    2000; Bass, 1985; Howard & Bray, 1988). Still,
    the relationships leave the field open to many
    more questions of how to identify the best
    antecedents of transformational leadership.
    Because motivation explains a small amount of
    variance in full range leadership, continued
    search for other salient variables is necessary.

    Implications for Practice
    The results of this study have some

    selection and leadership development
    implications. If specific leadership styles (i.e.,
    transformational) are sought in organizations,
    some motivation profiling may prove conducive
    to selecting individuals who have a greater
    likelihood of displaying these behaviors.
    However, we caution practitioners to be leery of

    3 8 Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies Barbuto, Jr.

    overestimating the relevance of leaders’ sources
    of motivation to their leadership style, as the
    results of this study showed a relatively small
    effect. The source of motivation may provide
    one of many pieces of information to consider
    when making recruiting and leadership
    development decisions. Other important factors,
    such as academic preparation, job fit,
    experiences, and work philosophies – which
    were not tested in this study – may play a large
    role in determining behaviors and likely will
    have a role in recruiting leaders.

    The result of this study is consistent with
    Kegan’s (1 982) constructive developmental
    view of human motivation and its role in
    leadership formation and development. The lens
    perspective offers a guideline for understanding
    limitations of leaders, essentially that leaders see
    the world through their own paradigm or “lens”
    and assume others share a similar lens. Kuhnert
    and Lewis (1987) advocate a similar perspective
    in their conceptual work linking Kegan’s (1982)
    levels of ego development with transactional and
    transformational behaviors. However, stronger
    effect sizes would be necessary to generalize
    Kegan’s work to this study.

    Opportunities for Future Research
    The results of this study provide several

    opportunities for future research. The
    relationships between motivation and full range
    leadership were consistent, but also produced
    generally small effects. Studying human
    motivation in combination with other salient
    variables may be necessary to glean the best
    antecedents of full range leadership. It appears
    that motivation explains some variance in the
    construct, but greater explanation is possible.
    Greater attention is needed in testing other
    dispositional variables and their relations to
    transformational leadership. Alternative
    measurement strategies for capturing
    charismatic leadership may be developed to
    discover charismatic effects distinct from
    transformational ones.

    More rigorous procedures will also improve
    research in this area. The common data
    collection method for antecedent research of
    transformational leadership has been to use
    leaders and designated raters, chosen by leaders.
    This snowball effect produces a non-random

    sample, which likely impacts response bias and
    confounds results. More random rater selection
    will address this concern, as will the inclusion of
    social desirability in the research design. By
    controlling for and assessing response bias,
    antecedent research will have more functional
    credibility. Additionally, in instances where
    research participation is part of a leadership
    development initiative, the impact of such
    training on the data collection processes and
    responses needs to be planned and assessed.

    Other antecedents of full range leadership
    behavior need to be tested to better understand
    the construct. To date, early childhood
    experiences, locus of control, early career
    challenges, personality, and motivation all have
    been explored as dispositional antecedents of
    full range leadership with relatively small effect
    sizes. To explain greater variance, future
    research may test other salient variables, such as
    political skills, mental boundaries or flexibility,
    self-presentation, and other attitudinal constructs
    that may provide valuable exploration into the
    field of leadership antecedents. Additionally,
    other leadership frameworks need to be
    examined to ascertain the dispositional role that
    work motivation plays as an antecedent to
    leadership. Motivation links with other
    leadership perspectives, such as leader-member
    exchange quality, servant leadership, authentic
    leadership, ideological leadership, political
    leadership, and others, may provide a rich test
    and contribution to the antecedent field. We
    believe that greater attention to the antecedents
    of leadership will prove valuable to field.


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      Motivation and Transactional, Charismatic, and Transformational Leadership: A Test of Antecedents
      John E. Barbuto Jr.

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