Posted: November 25th, 2022

Literature Review

Literature Review 

While the implementation plan prepares students to apply their research to the problem or issue they have identified for their capstone change proposal project, the literature review enables students to map out and move into the active planning and development stages of the project.

A literature review analyzes how current research supports the PICOT, as well as identifies what is known and what is not known in the evidence. Students will use the information from the earlier PICOT Statement Paper and Literature Evaluation Table assignments to develop a 750-1,000 word review that includes the following sections:

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  1. Title page
  2. Introduction section
  3. A comparison of research questions
  4. A comparison of sample populations
  5. A comparison of the limitations of the study
  6. A conclusion section, incorporating recommendations for further research

Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.

This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.

You are required to submit this assignment to LopesWrite. Please refer to the directions in the Student Success Center.

Literature Review – Rubric

No of Criteria: 10 Achievement Levels: 5CriteriaAchievement LevelsDescriptionPercentageUnsatisfactory0.00 %Less than Satisfactory75.00 %Satisfactory79.00 %Good89.00 %Excellent100.00 %Content80.0     Introduction10.0An introduction is not present.An introduction is present, but it does not relate to the body of the paper.An introduction is present, and it relates to the body of the paper. There is nothing in the introduction to entice the reader to continue reading.An introduction is present, and it relates to the body of the paper. Information presented in the introduction provides incentive for the reader to continue reading.An introduction is present, and it relates to the body of the paper. Information presented in the introduction is intriguing and encourages the reader to continue reading.Comparison of Research Questions20.0No comparison of research questions is presented.A comparison of research questions is presented, but it is not valid.A cursory though valid comparison of research questions is presented.A moderately thorough and valid comparison of research questions is presented.A reflective and insightful comparison of research questions is presented.Comparison of Sample Populations20.0No comparison of sample populations is presented.A comparison of sample populations is presented, but it is not valid.A cursory though valid comparison of sample populations is presented.A moderately thorough and valid comparison of sample populations is presented.A reflective and insightful comparison of sample populations is presented. Comparison of the Limitations of the Study20.0No comparison of the limitations of the study is presented.A comparison of the limitations of the study is presented, but it is not valid.A cursory though valid comparison of the limitations of the study is presented.A moderately thorough and valid comparison of the limitations of the study is presented.A reflective and insightful comparison of the limitations of the study is presented. Conclusion and Recommendations for Further Research10.0No conclusion and recommendations for further research are presented.A conclusion and recommendations for further research are presented, but they are not valid.A conclusion and recommendations for further research are valid, but they are cursory. A conclusion and recommendations for further research are valid and moderately thorough. A conclusion and recommendations for further research are reflective and insightful.Organization and Effectiveness15.0     Thesis Development and Purpose5.0Paper lacks any discernible overall purpose or organizing claim.Thesis is insufficiently developed or vague. Purpose is not clear.Thesis is apparent and appropriate to purpose.Thesis is clear and forecasts the development of the paper. Thesis is descriptive and reflective of the arguments and appropriate to the purpose.Thesis is comprehensive and contains the essence of the paper. Thesis statement makes the purpose of the paper clear.Argument Logic and Construction5.0Statement of purpose is not justified by the conclusion. The conclusion does not support the claim made. Argument is incoherent and uses noncredible sources.Sufficient justification of claims is lacking. Argument lacks consistent unity. There are obvious flaws in the logic. Some sources have questionable credibility.Argument is orderly, but may have a few inconsistencies. The argument presents minimal justification of claims. Argument logically, but not thoroughly, supports the purpose. Sources used are credible. Introduction and conclusion bracket the thesis. Argument shows logical progressions. Techniques of argumentation are evident. There is a smooth progression of claims from introduction to conclusion. Most sources are authoritative.Clear and convincing argument that presents a persuasive claim in a distinctive and compelling manner. All sources are authoritative.Mechanics of Writing (includes spelling, punctuation, grammar, language use)5.0Surface errors are pervasive enough that they impede communication of meaning. Inappropriate word choice or sentence construction is used.Frequent and repetitive mechanical errors distract the reader. Inconsistencies in language choice (register), sentence structure, or word choice are present.Some mechanical errors or typos are present, but they are not overly distracting to the reader. Correct sentence structure and audience-appropriate language are used. Prose is largely free of mechanical errors, although a few may be present. A variety of sentence structures and effective figures of speech are used. Writer is clearly in command of standard, written, academic English.Format5.0     Paper Format (use of appropriate style for the major and assignment)2.0Template is not used appropriately or documentation format is rarely followed correctly.Template is used, but some elements are missing or mistaken; lack of control with formatting is apparent.Template is used, and formatting is correct, although some minor errors may be present. Template is fully used; There are virtually no errors in formatting style.All format elements are correct. Documentation of Sources (citations, footnotes, references, bibliography, etc., as appropriate to assignment and style)3.0Sources are not documented.Documentation of sources is inconsistent or incorrect, as appropriate to assignment and style, with numerous formatting errors.Sources are documented, as appropriate to assignment and style, although some formatting errors may be present.Sources are documented, as appropriate to assignment and style, and format is mostly correct. Sources are completely and correctly documented, as appropriate to assignment and style, and format is free of error.Total Percentage  100

Running head: CAPSTONE PROJECT TOPIC 1

Obesity Among African American Children

2

Obesity Among African American Children

Avery Bryan

Professor Tammy Gray

NRS-490

December 8th, 2019

The project will focus on reducing the prevalence of obesity among African American children. There have been an increasing number of African American children with obesity over the past few years. Obesity is a major health concern. This is because children who have obesity, compared to those with normal weight are at high risk of getting many serious health complications. These health complications include high blood pressure, type 2 diabetes, low quality of life and stroke and low. Generally, obesity is a growing health concern in the US not only among the African American children but also among the adults and adolescents of all races. Individuals in the low income bracket are mostly affected. The project will therefore focus on educating families on practicing healthy lifestyle in order to reduce the prevalence of obesity among the African American children. Comment by Tammy Gray: When you state facts in academic papers you must use a reference Comment by Tammy Gray: Spacing must be consistently double spaced through the entire paper

APA papers require the use of headings. Use the assignment requirements as headings

Obesity is prevalent among the African American children. Most of the African American families are low income earners. This results to them not to be able to purchase healthy foods. There is a perception that healthy foods are expensive. Their food consumption to a large extent consists of proteins from genetically modified organisms (GMOs), larger amounts of refined grains and sugars and high level of fructose corn syrup. They consume junky foods that are cheaper to buy. The African American children who consume these foods end up becoming obese.

Obesity is not a disease in itself. However, it leads to an increased risk of individuals to develop other illnesses that are chronic. These chronic diseases include some types of cancer, coronary heart disease, stroke, osteoarthritis, type 2 diabetes and other complicated health conditions. A myriad of social and physical negative consequences are associated with obesity. The conditions associated with obesity carry both short term and long term negative consequences that are extremely expensive to treat both at individual and societal level. It is less expensive to prevent obesity than to cure it. It is therefore important to address the problem of obesity by implementing effective preventive measures.

Obesity has several impacts on the work environment, the quality of care provided by the staff and patient outcomes. Obesity has a negative impact on work environment and the quality of care offered by the staff in that obese staff may not be able to undertake their duties as required. This can lead undesired patient outcomes.

Addressing the issue of obesity among is significant. This is because it will lead to a reduction in prevalence of illnesses and conditions associated with childhood obesity. It will also contribute to improved quality of life among the African American children. The issue of addressing the prevalence of obesity has implications on nursing in that it will lead to implementation of new EBP practices that are going to prevent the prevalence of obesity.

The proposed solution to addressing the prevalence of obesity is to educate the African American families on the importance of consuming healthy foods and practicing healthy living. This can go a long way in reducing the prevalence of obesity among the African Americans. The proposed EBP project aims at reducing the prevalence of childhood obesity among the African Americans by 10%.

References Comment by Tammy Gray: Start references on separate page

Andrews, K. R., Silk, K. S., & Eneli, I. U. (2010). Parents as health promoters: A theory of planned behavior perspective on the prevention of childhood obesity. Journal of health communication, 15(1), 95-107. Comment by Tammy Gray: Journal titles are iltalized

Brown, C. L., Halvorson, E. E., Cohen, G. M., Lazorick, S., & Skelton, J. A. (2015). Addressing childhood obesity: opportunities for prevention. Pediatric Clinics, 62(5), 1241-1261.

Gunnarsdottir, T., Njardvik, U., Olafsdottir, A. S., Craighead, L. W., & Bjarnason, R. (2011). The Role of parental motivation in family‐based treatment for childhood obesity. Obesity, 19(8), 1654-1662.

Hesketh, K., Waters, E., Green, J., Salmon, L., & Williams, J. (2005). Healthy eating, activity and obesity prevention: a qualitative study of parent and child perceptions in Australia. Health promotion international, 20(1), 19-26. Comment by Tammy Gray: Capitalize all words except prepositions in journal titles

A minimum of 8 articles is required

Lindsay, A. C., Sussner, K. M., Kim, J., & Gortmaker, S. L. (2006). The role of parents in preventing childhood obesity. The Future of children, 16(1), 169-186.

Natale, R. A., Messiah, S. E., Asfour, L., Uhlhorn, S. B., Delamater, A., & Arheart, K. L. (2014). Role modeling as an early childhood obesity prevention strategy: effect of parents and teachers on preschool children’s healthy lifestyle habits. Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics, 35(6), 378-387.

Skouteris, H., McCabe, M., Swinburn, B., Newgreen, V., Sacher, P., & Chadwick, P. (2011). Parental influence and obesity prevention in pre‐schoolers: a systematic review of interventions. Obesity reviews, 12(5), 315-328.

LiteratureEvaluation Table

Student Name: Avery Bryan

Change Topic (2-3 sentences): Childhood obesity is a world-wide health problem and development of interventions to prevent or control it is a priority. Obesity is prevalent and on the increase among school going African American children in the US. Physical activity and healthy eating are the key interventions that are used to tackle the problem of obesity.

Criteria

Article 1

Article 2

Article 3

Article 4

Author, Journal (Peer-Reviewed), and

Permalink or Working Link to Access Article

Amini et al., International Journal of Preventive Medicine, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4258668/

Chircop et al., Health Promotion International, https://doi.org/10.1093/heapro/dat056

Danford et al., Child: Care, Health & Development, https://doi.org/10.1111/cch.12256

Ranucci et al., BioMed Research International, https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/8573725

Article Title and Year Published

Children with Obesity Prioritize Social Support against Stigma: A

Qualitative

Study for Development of an Obesity Prevention Intervention. 2014.

Privileging physical activity over healthy eating: ‘Time’ to Choose? 2015.

Perceptions of low-income mothers about the causes and ways to prevent Overweight in children. 2015.

Effects of an Intensive Lifestyle Intervention to Treat Overweight/Obese Children and Adolescents. 2017.

Research Questions (Qualitative)/Hypothesis (

Quantitative

), and Purposes/Aim of Study

The aim of the research was to complete the understanding of ideas, attitudes, beliefs, and preferences of obese primary school children.

The purpose of the research was to examine environmental influences on youth obesity.

The aim of the research was to examine what low-income mothers perceive to be the causes of and the ways to prevent children from becoming overweight.

The aim of the study was to examine the effects of a multidisciplinary lifestyle intervention to treat overweight/obese children and adolescents.

Design (Type of Quantitative, or Type of Qualitative)

Qualitative study

Mixed methods study

Qualitative Quantitative

Setting/Sample

Twenty-seven obese/overweight primary school-students

Forty seven families

286 Low‐income mothers with children aged 4–8 years

Seventy four overweight/obese children or adolescents

Methods: Intervention/Instruments

Focused Group Discussions

Interviews

Semi‐structured interviews

Multidisciplinary interventions

Analysis

All FGD notes were analyzed to find the main themes.

Interviews were transcribed verbatim and imported into NVIVO qualitative data analysis software version 8 (2008) to organize and code the data and initial codes were further analyzed into emerging concepts and major themes by an interdisciplinary team.

The semi structured interviews were first transcribed verbatim and imported into qualitative data analysis software.

Analysis of cardio metabolic risk based on the waist-to-height ratio (WHTR) measurement.

Key Findings

Children mentioned nutrition and physical improvement, social support, and education as the main elements of an effective intervention.

A perceived lack of time to meet the demands of youth’ scheduled physical activities was the dominant theme across interviews from all neighborhoods

The majority of mothers (77.1%) reported that they carried out their suggestions to prevent their children from becoming overweight.

Both children and adolescents showed a significant reduction in body weight, BMI, waist circumference, fat mass, and WHTR index and an improvement of fat-free mass, adherence to the Mediterranean diet, and physical fitness performance.

Recommendations

Obese children need to be supported against different barriers of losing weight, mainly social barriers, especially humiliation by the community.

Healthy eating should receive the same priority that was exacerbated in suburban and rural environments.

Increased physical activity should be encouraged as a way to prevent children from becoming overweight.

A family-based multidisciplinary approach should be encouraged since it is effective in ameliorating the health status, the nutrition habits, and physical performance in children and adolescents.

Explanation of How the Article Supports EBP/Capstone Project

The article supports the EBP/Capstone Project since it highlights ways in which children with obesity prioritize social support against stigma.

The article supports the EBP/Capstone Project in that it lays emphasis on physical activity and healthy eating as strategies to tackle childhood obesity.

The article supports the EBP/Capstone Project in that it examines the perceptions of low-income mothers about the causes and ways to prevent obesity in children.

The article supports the EBP/Capstone Project in that it examines the impacts of an intensive lifestyle intervention to treat overweight/obese children.

Criteria

Author, Journal (Peer-Reviewed), and

Permalink or Working Link to Access Article

Article Title and Year Published

Research Questions (Qualitative)/Hypothesis (Quantitative), and Purposes/Aim of Study

Design (Type of Quantitative, or Type of Qualitative)

Quantitative

Qualitative

Quantitative

Setting/Sample

Methods: Intervention/Instruments

Focused Group Discussions

Analysis

Key Findings

Recommendations

Article 5

Article 6

Article 7

Article 8

Sylvetsky et al., Journal of Obesity, https://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/670295

Xu et al., Journal of Obesity, https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/2746595

Lutfiyya et al., Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine, https://doi.org/10.3122/jabfm.2008.03.070207

LaShun, ABNF Journal, https://search.proquest.com/openview/9790b951685f186cffb071e9099c2cc8/1?pq-origsite=gscholar&cbl=32975

Youth Understanding of Healthy Eating and Obesity: A Focus Group Study. 2014.

A Community-Based Nutrition and Physical Activity Intervention

for Children Who Are Overweight or Obese and Their Caregivers. 2017.

Overweight and obese prevalence rates in African American and Hispanic children. 2014.

Parental depression, family functioning, and obesity among African American children. 2015.

The aim of the study was to investigate youth’s understanding of obesity and to investigate gaps between their nutritional knowledge, dietary habits, and perceived susceptibly to obesity and its co-morbidities.

The purpose of the research was to find out whether collaborative community-based programs designed for children and their caregivers are effective in reducing obesity rates.

The purpose of the study was to examine the prevalence of overweight and obesity in African-American and Hispanic children compared with white children.

The research aimed at examining issues concerning Parental depression, family functioning, and obesity among African American children.

Qualitative

Sample ads for the development of an obesity awareness campaign

Collaborative community-based setting

Obese African American children

African American setting: 44 parent-child dyads

A Community-Based Nutrition and Physical Activity Intervention

Examining the prevalence of overweight and obesity in African-American and Hispanic children compared with white children

Demographic questionnaire and instruments that measured family functioning, parental psychopathology, child behavior and cardiovascular risks

Inductive thematic coding to identify key themes related to youth reports of family eating habits, perceived facilitators and barriers of healthy diet, and knowledge about obesity and its complications.

Analysis of the 16-week intervention including weekly group nutrition and physical activity sessions.

Multivariate analyses were performed on cross-sectional data from the National Survey of Children’s Health collected in 2003 to 2004.

The collected data were statistically analyzed using the relevant software.

Mixed attitudes about healthy eating, low perceived risk of being or becoming obese, and limited knowledge about the health consequences of obesity may contribute to the rising prevalence of obesity among youth in Georgia.

Participants decreased their fat, carbohydrate, saturated fat, and sodium intake and increased core body strength and endurance from baseline to the end of the intervention.

Overweight children were more likely to be African American and Hispanic than white.

Parental factors such as depression play a significant role in childhood obesity.

There should be a need for education to connect lifestyle behaviors to development of obesity.

South County Food, Fitness and Fun (SCFFF) program is recommended since it is effective in reducing relative weight and improving diet and core muscle strength and endurance in children who are overweight or obese.

Policymakers concerned with issues of childhood obesity should pursue the creation of school-based health clinics in schools where at least 50% of the student body live in households with incomes less than 150% of the Federal poverty level.

Effective parenting is essential for controlling childhood obesity.

Explanation of How the Article Supports EBP/Capstone

The article supports the EBP/Capstone Project in that analyze the youth’s understanding of obesity.

The article supports the EBP/Capstone Project in that it determines the effectiveness collaborative community-based programs designed in reducing obesity rates.

The article supports the EBP/Capstone Project in that it examines the prevalence of overweight and obesity in African-American.

The article supports the EBP/Capstone Project in that it examines how parental factors such as depression influences obesity among children.

© 2015. Grand Canyon University. All Rights Reserved.

© 2017. Grand Canyon University. All Rights Reserved.

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