Posted: October 27th, 2022

lifespan/discussion lesson 5

 

Respond to the following This assignment is worth 5 points. Make sure  that you use complete sentences, college-level grammar and that you  have completely thought about your response.

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  1. Define and describe Learning Disability and Intellectual  Disability. List the characteristics of each of these disabilities.  How  are they different from one another?
  2. Victoria is in the third grade and knows that she needs to have a  quiet place to study, that she can solve math problems better if she  draws a picture of the components, and comprehends her reading  assignments better if she reads out loud. She understands that she can  recall shorter lists better than long lists.  Victoria is exhibiting  ________________.
  3. According to Robert Sternberg most intelligence tests such as the  WISC focus on which of the three types of intelligence in the triarchic  theory? 
  4. At what age is it best to learn a second language?  Why?

 

Respond to the following. This assignment is worth 5 points. Make  sure that you use complete sentences, college-level grammar and that you  have completely thought about your response.

  1. How are self-esteem and self-concept different? What is the origin  of these characteristics? What are the characteristics of children and  adults with low self-esteem?
  2. Consider Erik Erikson’s theory. Why is it important for children  in middle childhood to learn to do something and to do something well?
  3. Suzy wants to follow the moral code established by her parents and  teacher. She wants them to view her as obedient, cooperative, and  productive. According to Kohlberg Suzy is functioning at the __________  stage of moral development.
  4. How does the aggression of girls and boys differ?  Why is it important for a child to learn self-regulation?

LIFE-SPAN DEVELOPMENT 17e

John W. Santrock

©McGraw-Hill Education.

All rights reserved. Authorized only for instructor use in the classroom.  No reproduction or further distribution permitted without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

Chapter 9

Physical and Cognitive Development in Middle and Late Childhood

©McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. Authorized only for instructor use in the classroom.  No reproduction or further distribution permitted without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

Chapter Outline

Physical Changes and Health

Children with Disabilities

Cognitive Changes

Language Development

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3

Physical Changes and Health
Body growth and change
The brain
Motor development
Exercise
Health, illness, and disease
©Chris Windsor/Digital Vision/Getty Images

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Body Growth and Change
Growth averages 2–3 inches/year
Weight gain averages 5–7 pounds/year
Head circumference and waist circumference decrease in relation to body height in middle and late childhood.
Bones continue to ossify during middle and late childhood but yield to pressure and pull more than mature bones.

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The Brain
Brain volume stabilizes.
Significant changes in structures and regions occur, especially in the prefrontal cortex.
Cortical thickness increases.
Activation of some brain areas increases while others decrease.
Brain pathways and circuitry involving the prefrontal cortex, the highest level in the brain, continue to increase

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Motor Development
Motor skills become smoother and more coordinated.
Girls outperform boys in their use of fine motor skills.
Improvement of fine motor skills during middle and late childhood results from increased myelination of central nervous system.

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Exercise (1 of 2)
Higher level of physical activity is linked to lower level of metabolic disease risk based on the following measures:
Cholesterol, waist circumference, and insulin levels.
Aerobic exercise benefits
Lower incidence of obesity
Children’s attention and memory, cognitive inhibitory control
Effortful and goal-directed thinking and behavior
Creativity

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8

Exercise (2 of 2)
Ways to get children to exercise
Offer physical activity programs at school facilities
Improve physical fitness activities in schools
Have children plan community and school activities
Encourage families to focus more on physical activity
©Randy Pench/Zuma Press/Newscom

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Health, Illness, and Disease (1 of 3)
Middle and late childhood is a time of excellent health.
Accidents and injuries
Motor vehicle accidents are most common cause of severe injury.
Overweight children
Causes: heredity and environmental contexts
Irregular mealtimes, too much family screen time
Consequences: diabetes, hypertension, elevated blood cholesterol levels, low self-esteem

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Health, Illness, and Disease (2 of 3)
Intervention programs
Emphasize getting parents to engage in healthier lifestyles themselves
Feed children healthier food and get them to exercise more
Cardiovascular disease
Uncommon in children but risk factors are present
Adult coronary disease linked to childhood elevated blood pressure and high body fat levels

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Health, Illness, and Disease (3 of 3)
Cancer
Second leading cause of death in children 5–14 years old
Most common child cancer is leukemia.
Children with cancer are surviving longer because of advancements in cancer treatment.

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Types of Cancer in Children

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Children with Disabilities
The scope of disabilities
Educational issues

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The Scope of Disabilities (1 of 6)
12.9 percent of 3- to 21-year-olds in the United States receive special education-related services in 2012–2013, an increase of 3 percent from 1980 to 1981.
The U.S. Department of Education includes students with a learning disability and students with ADHD in the category of “Learning Disability.”

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The Scope of Disabilities (2 of 6)
Learning disability: difficulty in learning involving understanding or using spoken or written language. The difficulty can appear in listening, thinking, reading, writing, or spelling.
Dyslexia: severe impairment in the ability to read and spell
Dysgraphia: difficulty in handwriting
Dyscalculia: developmental arithmetic disorder

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The Scope of Disabilities (3 of 6)
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): characterized by inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity
Boys are twice as likely to receive ADHD diagnosis
Possible causes
Genetics
Brain damage during prenatal or postnatal development
Cigarette and alcohol exposure during prenatal development
High maternal stress during prenatal development
Low birth weight

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The Scope of Disabilities (4 of 6)
Challenges for children with ADHD
Adjustment and optimal development
Increased risk of lower academic achievement
Problematic peer relations
School dropout
Becoming parents as adolescents
Substance use problems, mental health issues
Antisocial behavior
Additional challenges for girls with ADHD
Friendship
Peer interaction
Social skills
Peer victimization
Pregnancy
Long-term challenges
Underachievement in math and reading, criminal activity, and unemployment

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The Scope of Disabilities (5 of 6)
Emotional and behavioral disorders: serious, persistent problems that involve
Relationships, aggression, depression, and fears associated with personal or school matters
Inappropriate socioemotional characteristics
Boys three times as likely as girls to have these disorders

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The Scope of Disabilities (6 of 6)
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD): range from autistic disorder to Asperger syndrome and may have genetic basis
Autistic disorder: onset in the first 3 years of life
Deficiencies in social relationships, abnormalities in communication, and restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped patterns of behavior
Have deficits in cognitive processing of information
Is identified five times more often in boys than girls
Asperger syndrome: good verbal language skills
Milder nonverbal language problems
Restricted range of interests and relationships
Engage in obsessive, repetitive routines and preoccupations with a particular subject

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U.S. Children with a Disability Receiving Special Education Services: 2012–2013 School Year

Disability
Percentage of All Children in Public Schools
Learning disabilities 4.6
Speech or hearing impairments 2.7
Autism 1.0
Intellectual disabilities 0.9
Emotional disturbance 0.7

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Regions of the Brain in Which Children with ADHD Had a Delayed Peak in the Thickness of the Cerebral Cortex

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Educational Issues
Individualized education plan (IEP): written statement specifically tailored for the disabled student
Least restrictive environment (LRE): setting as similar as possible to the one in which nondisabled children are educated
Inclusion: educating a child with special education needs full-time in the regular classroom

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Cognitive Changes
Piaget’s cognitive developmental theory
Information processing
Intelligence
Extremes of intelligence

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Piaget’s Cognitive Developmental Theory
(1 of 3)
Concrete operational stage
Ages 7–11
Children can perform concrete operations and reason logically and are able to classify things into different sets.
Seriation: ability to order stimuli along a quantitative dimension
Transitivity: ability to logically combine relations to understand certain conclusions

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Piaget’s Cognitive Developmental Theory
(2 of 3)
Evaluating Piaget’s concrete operational stage
Concrete operational abilities do not appear in synchrony.
Education and culture exert strong influences on children’s development.

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Piaget’s Cognitive Developmental Theory
(3 of 3)
Neo-Piagetians: argue Piaget was partially correct but his theory needs considerable revision
Elaborated on Piaget’s theory, increasing emphasis to
Information processing, strategies, and precise cognitive steps

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Information Processing (1 of 7)
During during middle and late childhood, most children dramatically improve ability to sustain and control attention.
Pay more attention to task-relevant stimuli
Changes in memory, thinking, metacognition, executive function

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Information Processing (2 of 7)
Long-term memory: increases with age during middle and late childhood
Knowledge and expertise
Experts have acquired extensive knowledge about a particular content area.
For example, 10- and 11-year-olds expert chess players remember more about location of chess pieces on a board than either college students who were not chess players or novices

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Information Processing (3 of 7)
Working memory is a passive storehouse to keep information until moved to long-term memory.
Considered to be a mental workbench
Key component is the central executive.
Children’s verbal working memory linked to morphology, syntax, and grammar.

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Information Processing (4 of 7)
Autobiographical memory: memory of significant events and experiences in one’s life
Strategies: deliberate mental activities that improve processing of information
Elaboration: involves engaging in more extensive processing of information; child forms personal associations to increase meaningfulness
Engage in mental imagery
Understanding material, rather than just repeating it
Repeat with variation on materials to increase number of associations
Embed memory-relevant language

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31

Information Processing (5 of 7)
Fuzzy trace theory: memory is best understood by considering verbatim memory trace and gist
Thinking
Executive functioning: dimensions of executive function are the most important for cognitive development and school success
Self-control/inhibition
Working memory
Flexibility

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32

Information Processing (6 of 7)
Critical thinking: thinking reflectively and productively, and evaluating evidence
Mindfulness: being alert, mentally present, and cognitively flexible
Mindfulness training improves children’s attention self-regulation.
Creative thinking: ability to think in novel and unusual ways
Come up with unique solutions to problems
Convergent thinking: produces one correct answer and is characteristic of kind of thinking tested by standardized intelligence tests
Divergent thinking: produces many answers to the same question and is characteristic of creativity

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Information Processing (7 of 7)
Metacognition: cognition about cognition
Metamemory: knowledge about memory
Brainstorming: individuals come up with creative ideas in a group and play off each other’s ideas

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Working Memory

Access the text alternative for this image.

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Intelligence (1 of 6)
Ability to solve problems and to adapt and learn from experiences
Individual differences: stable, consistent ways in which people differ from each other
Binet tests
Mental age (MA): individual’s level of mental development relative to others, obtains general composite score
Stanford-Binet 5 test
Revisions to original test to analyze five content areas
Fluid reasoning
Knowledge
Quantitative reasoning,
Visual-spatial reasoning
Working memory

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36

Intelligence (2 of 6)
William Stern Intelligence Quotient (IQ): person’s mental age divided by chronological age, multiplied by 100
Normal distribution: symmetrical distribution
Most scores fall in middle of possible range of scores
Few scores appear toward the extremes of the range
Wechsler Scales (WISC-V) for ages 6–16 provide an overall IQ score and yields five composite scores
Verbal Comprehension Index
Working Memory Index
Processing Speed Index
Fluid Reasoning
Visual Spatial

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Intelligence (3 of 6)
Types of intelligence
Sternberg’s Triarchic theory of intelligence: intelligence comes in following forms:
Analytical intelligence: evaluate, compare, and contrast
Creative intelligence: invent, originate, and imagine
Practical intelligence: ability to implement, and put ideas into practice

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Intelligence (4 of 6)
Gardner’s eight frames of mind
Verbal
Mathematical
Spatial
Bodily-Kinesthetic
Musical
Interpersonal
Intrapersonal
Naturalist
Everyone has all of these intelligences to varying degrees.

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39

Intelligence (5 of 6)
Evaluating multiple-intelligence approaches
Has broadened concepts of intelligence, teaching, and how children learn
Some feel multiple-intelligence views have taken concept too far.
Interpreting differences in IQ scores
Influences of genetics: comparing identical and fraternal twin IQs
Environmental influences: communicative, middle-SES parents
Group differences: children deprived of formal education
Culture-fair tests: designed to be free of cultural bias
The Flynn Effect: rapid increase in IQ scores worldwide
May be due to
Higher levels of education attained by larger percent of world’s population.
Explosion of information now available

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Intelligence (6 of 6)
Using intelligence tests
Avoid stereotyping and expectations
Know IQ is not the sole indicator of competence
Use caution when interpreting an overall IQ score

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Culture and Culture-Fair Tests 
What is viewed as intelligence varies from culture to culture.
Culture-fair tests are intended to be free of cultural bias.
Two types of tests
Include items familiar to children from all socioeconomic and ethnic backgrounds
Test without verbal questions
Culture-fair tests hard to create
Tests reflect what the dominant culture values.
There are no culture-fair tests, only culture-reduced tests.
What is measured as important is too vastly varied around the world.

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Ethnic Variations
Standardized Intelligence Test Scores
African American and Latino children score lower than white children, but gap is narrowing.
Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales
Recently found no differences in overall intellectual ability between non-Latino white and African American preschool children
Societal Impact on Ethnic Variations
Fewer African Americans in science, technology, engineering, and math because practitioners’ expect they have less innate talent.
African Americans experience stereotype threat and fear of evaluation during standardized tests.
Negative influence on performance, increase anxiety, produce worry that results may confirm a negative stereotype.

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The Normal Curve and Stanford-Binet IQ Scores

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Sample Subscales of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV)
(1 of 2)
Verbal Subscales
Similarities
Child must think logically and abstractly to answer questions about how objects might be similar. For example, “In what way are a lion and a tiger alike?”
Comprehension
Subscale designed to measure an individual’s judgment and common sense. For example, “What is the advantage of keeping money in a bank?”
Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Fifth Edition (WISC-V), Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc., 2014.

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Sample Subscales of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV)
(2 of 2)
Nonverbal Subscales
Block design: child must assemble set of multicolored blocks to match designs shown by examiner. Visual-motor coordination, perceptual organization, and ability to visualize spatially assessed. For example, “Use the four blocks on the left to make the pattern on the right.”
Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Fifth Edition (WISC-V), Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc., 2014.

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Correlation between Intelligence Test Scores and Twin Status

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Increasing IQ Scores from 1932 to 1997
Copyright by The Estate of Ulric Neisser. All rights reserved. Used with permission.

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Extremes of Intelligence (1 of 2)
Intellectual disability: limited mental ability in which individual has low IQ and difficulty adapting to everyday life
Organic intellectual disability: caused by genetic disorder or brain damage
Cultural–familial retardation: no evidence of organic brain damage
IQ is generally between 50 and 70

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Extremes of Intelligence (2 of 2)
Gifted: above-average intelligence (IQ of 130 or higher) and/or superior talent or aptitude
Three criteria
Precocity
Marching to their own drummer
A passion to master
Nature-nurture
Domain-specific giftedness and development: self-directed
Education of children who are gifted: can be underchallenged, smarter than teachers, encouraged to take higher-level classes
African American, Latino, and Native American children are underrepresented in gifted programs.

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Language Development
Vocabulary, grammar, and metalinguistic awareness
Reading
Writing
Bilingualism and second-language learning
©Elizabeth Crews

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Vocabulary, Grammar, and Metalinguistic Awareness
Middle and late childhood
Changes occur in the way children’s mental vocabulary is organized.
Similar advances in grammar skills
Metalinguistic awareness: knowledge about language
Understanding what a preposition is
Being able to discuss the sounds of a language

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Reading
Whole-language approach: reading instruction should parallel children’s natural language learning
Phonics approach: reading instruction should teach basic rules for translating written symbols into sounds
©Gideon Mendel/Corbis/Getty Images

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Writing
Parents and teachers should encourage children’s early writing.
Do not be concerned with letter formation or spelling.
Give children writing opportunities.
Writing skills improve with as language and cognitive skills improve.
Writing uses organization and logical reasoning.
Being a competent writer is linked to being a competent reader.
Children learn planning, drafting, revising, and editing as metacognitive awareness and writing competence improves.

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Second-Language Learning and Bilingual Education
Second-language learning
Bilingualism has a positive effect on children’s cognitive development (e.g., attention control, concept formation, analytical reasoning, inhibition, and cognitive flexibility, complexity, and monitoring).
Subtractive bilingualism: when immigrant children speak their native language at home, become bilingual at school, then speak only English, their bilingualism has a negative effect.
Bilingual education
Research supports bilingual education for academic achievement.

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Accessibility Content: Text Alternatives for Images

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Working Memory Text Alternative
In Baddeley’s working memory model, working memory is like a mental workbench where a great deal of information processing is carried out. Working memory consists of three main components, with the phonological loop and visuospatial working memory helping the central executive do its work. Input from sensory memory goes to the phonological loop, where information about speech is stored and rehearsal takes place, and visuospatial working memory, where visual and spatial information, including imagery, are stored. Working memory is a limited-capacity system, and information is stored there for only a brief time. Working memory interacts with long-term memory, using information from long-term memory in its work and transmitting information to long-term memory for longer storage.
Return to slide containing original image.

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LIFE-SPAN DEVELOPMENT 17e

John W. Santrock

©McGraw-Hill Education.

All rights reserved. Authorized only for instructor use in the classroom.  No reproduction or further distribution permitted without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

Chapter 10

Socioemotional Development
in Middle and Late Childhood

©McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. Authorized only for instructor use in the classroom.  No reproduction or further distribution permitted without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

Chapter Outline

Emotional and Personality Development

Families

Peers

Schools

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3

Emotional and Personality Development
The self
Emotional development
Moral development
Gender
©Kevin Dodge/Corbis/Getty Images

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4

The Self (1 of 3)
Development of self-understanding
During middle and late childhood
Children 8–11 describe themselves in terms of psychological characteristics and traits.
Children recognize social characteristics of the self.
Self-description increasingly involves social comparison.
Understanding others
Perspective taking: social cognitive process involved in assuming the perspective of others and understanding their thoughts and feelings
Children become skeptical of others’ claims.
Without good perspective taking skills, more likely to be oppositional, have difficultly with relationships

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The Self (2 of 3)
Self-esteem and self-concept: foundations start with quality parent-child interactions
Self-esteem: global evaluations of the self
Referred to as self-worth or self-image
Self-concept: domain-specific evaluations of the self
Children with high self-esteem
May not do better in school; inflated self-esteem can distort ability
Have greater initiative
Can be positive or negative
Children with low self-esteem
Linked to obesity, anxiety, depression, suicide, and delinquency
Can be either accurate or distorted self-perception

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The Self (3 of 3)
Self-efficacy: belief that one can master a situation and produce favorable outcomes
Self-regulation
Characterized by deliberate efforts to manage one’s behavior, emotions, and thoughts
Leads to increased social competence and achievement
Industry versus inferiority
Industry: children become interested in how things are made and work, receive parental encouragement
Parents who see children’s efforts as mischief or making a mess encourage inferiority.

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7

Emotional Development (1 of 5)
Developmental changes
Improved emotional understanding
Increased understanding that more than one emotion can be experienced in a particular situation
Increased awareness of the events leading to emotional reactions

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8

Emotional Development (2 of 5)
Ability to suppress or conceal negative emotional reactions
Use of self-initiated strategies for redirecting feelings
Capacity for genuine empathy
©Elizabeth D. Herman/The New York Times/Redux

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Emotional Development (3 of 5)
Social-Emotional Education Programs
Committee for Children and the Collaborative for Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning (CASEL)
Developed programs to improve children’s lives
Second Step: teaches social, cognitive and emotional skills
Pre-K through eighth grade, specialized for each developmental stage
CASEL: Targets core social and emotional learning domains
Self-awareness
Self-management
Social awareness
Relationship skills
Responsible decision making

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Emotional Development (4 of 5)
Coping with stress
Older children generate more coping alternatives to stressful situations.
Outcomes for children who experience disasters
Acute stress reactions
Depression
Panic disorder
Post-traumatic stress disorder

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Emotional Development (5 of 5)
Child and adolescent psychiatrists help youth cope with stress and trauma, such as witnessing school shootings.

©Stephanie Keith/Polaris/Newscom

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Moral Development (1 of 8)
Kohlberg’s Level 1: Preconventional Reasoning
Morality not internalized
Stage 1: Heteronomous Morality
Moral decisions are based on fear of punishment.
Children obey because adults tell them to.
Stage 2: Individuals, Instrumental Purpose, and Exchange
Individuals pursue their own interests but let others do the same. What is right involves equal exchange.

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Moral Development (2 of 8)
Kohlberg’s Level 2: Conventional Reasoning
Individuals abide by internal and external standards (e.g., parents, law)
Stage 3: Mutual Interpersonal Expectations, Relationships, and Interpersonal Conformity
Trust, caring, and loyalty to others valued as a basis for moral judgments
Stage 4: Social System Morality
Moral judgments based on understanding, social order, law, justice, duty
Kohlberg’s Level 3: Postconventional Reasoning 
Morality is more internal
Stage 5: Social Contract or Utility and Individual Rights
Stage 6: Universal Ethical Principles

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Moral Development (3 of 8)
Influences on Kohlberg’s stages
Cognitive development
Experiences dealing with moral questions and moral conflicts
Peer interaction and perspective taking

Harvard University Archives, UAV 605.295.8, Box 7, Kohlberg

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Moral Development (4 of 8)
Kohlberg’s critics
Moral thought and behavior
Too much emphasis on thought and not enough emphasis on behavior
Conscious/Deliberate Versus Unconscious/ Automatic
Moral behavior can be automatic.
Culture and moral reasoning
Theory is culturally biased.
Need to address issues including decline of postconventional moral reasoning to lowest level, or personal interests
Some researchers emphasize the need to deal with increasing possible temptations and wrongdoings in increasingly complex social world.

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Moral Development (5 of 8)
Kohlberg’s critics
The Role of Emotion
Emotion strongly influences morality, intuitive feelings of right and wrong
Families and moral development
Argued that parents’ moral values and actions influence children’s development of moral reasoning

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Moral Development (6 of 8)
Gender and the care perspective
Justice perspective: focuses on rights of individual and on which individuals independently make moral decisions
Care perspective: views people in terms of connectedness with others
Emphasizes interpersonal communication, relationships with others, concern for others

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Moral Development (7 of 8)
Domain theory: moral, social conventional, personal reasoning
Domain theory of moral development: different domains of social knowledge and reasoning
Moral, social conventional, and personal domains
Social conventional reasoning: focuses on conventional rules established by social consensus in order to control behavior and maintain the social system

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Moral Development (8 of 8)
Prosocial behavior
Studies behavioral aspects of moral development
Moral personality: components include
Moral identity
Moral character
Moral exemplars
Gender and the Care Perspective
Moral perspective viewing people in terms of connectedness with others
Emphasis on
Interpersonal communication
Relationships, and concern for others

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Gender (1 of 3)
Gender stereotypes: broad categories that reflect general impressions and beliefs about males and females
Gender similarities and differences
Physical development
Cognitive development
Socioemotional development

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Gender (2 of 3)
Cognitive Development
Gender differences
Verbal skills—girls better
No difference in math
Visuospatial skills—some girls better
Writing skills—girls better
Achievement—girls better, but complex issue

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Gender (3 of 3)
Socioemotional Development
Aggression: boys physically, girls verbally
Emotion: overall small differences
Girls can recognize nonverbal emotions.
Girls show more sympathy, internalize emotions, self-regulate
Prosocial behavior: girls more prosocial, empathic
Gender in context
Traits people display may vary with the situation.

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Families (1 of 5)
Developmental changes in parent-child relationships
Parents as managers
Attachment in families
Stepfamilies

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Families (2 of 5)
Developmental changes in parent-child relationships
Parents spend less time with children during middle and late childhood.
Parents support and stimulate children’s academic achievement.
Parents use less physical forms of punishment as children age.
Coregulation starts as some control is transferred from parent to child.
Children engage in moment-to-moment self-regulation.
Children move toward autonomy starting around age 12.

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Families (3 of 5)
Parents as managers
Parents manage children’s opportunities, monitor behavior, and initiate social contact; more mother’s role than father’s
Important to maintain a structured and organized family environment
Positively related to students’ grades and self-responsibility, and negatively to school-related problems

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Families (4 of 5)
Attachment in families
Becomes more sophisticated
Children spend less time with parents.
Social worlds expand.
Secure attachment
Associated with lower levels of
Internalized symptoms
Anxiety
Depression
Associated with higher levels of
Emotional regulation
Recognizing emotions

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Families (5 of 5)
Stepfamilies
Remarriages involving children has grown in recent years.
Types of stepfamily structure
Stepfather
Stepmother
Blended or complex
©Todd Wright/Blend Images/Getty Images

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Peers (1 of 6)
Developmental changes
Peer status
Social cognition
Bullying
Friends
©Design Pics/Don Hammond

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Peers (2 of 6)
Developmental changes
Reciprocity becomes important in peer interchanges.
Size of peer group increases.
Peer interaction is less closely supervised by adults.
Children’s preference for same-sex peer groups increases.
Sociometric status: extent to which children are liked/disliked by peer group

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Peers (3 of 6)
Peer statuses
Popular children: frequently nominated as a best friend and rarely disliked by peers
Average children: receive an average number of both positive and negative peer nominations
Neglected children: infrequently nominated as a best friend but not disliked by peers
Rejected children: infrequently nominated as a best friend and actively disliked by peers
Controversial children: frequently nominated both as someone’s best friend and also disliked by peers

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Peers (4 of 6)
Social cognition: thoughts about social matters
Important for understanding peer relationships
Steps children go through in processing social information
Attend to social cues
Attribute intent through interpretation
Establish social goals
Access behavioral scripts from memory
Generate problem-solving strategies
Evaluate the effectiveness of strategies
Make decisions and enact behavior

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Peers (5 of 6)
Bullying
Verbal or physical behavior intended to disturb someone less powerful
Most likely to be bullied: boys, anxious, awkward, withdrawn, and younger middle school students
Bullied children report loneliness, difficulty making friends
Cause of concern: peer bullying and cyberbullying
Outcomes of bullying
Low self-esteem, depression, suicidal ideation, and attempted suicide
As adults, anxiety, depression, agoraphobia, and mental health services
Social contexts
Poverty, family support or lack thereof, school, and peer groups

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Peers (6 of 6)
Friendship: plays important role in emotional well-being and academic success
Friends
Typically characterized by similarity
Functions of Friendships
Companionship
Stimulation
Physical support
Ego support
Social comparison
Affection and intimacy
Intimacy in friendships: self-disclosure and the sharing of private thoughts

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Bullying Behaviors among U.S. Youth

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Schools (1 of 7)
Contemporary approaches to student learning
Socioeconomic status, ethnicity, and culture

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Schools (2 of 7)
Contemporary approaches to student learning
Constructivist and direct instruction approaches
Constructivist approach: learner-centered approach emphasizes the importance of individuals actively constructing their own knowledge and understanding with guidance from a teacher
Direct instruction approach: structured, teacher-centered approach characterized by
Teacher direction and control
Mastery of academic skills
High expectations for students’ progress
Maximum time spent on learning tasks
Efforts to keep negative effects to a minimum

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Schools (3 of 7)
Accountability
No Child Left Behind (NCLB) legislation being replaced
Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) implemented during the 2017–2018 school year
Statewide standardized testing laws changing, as are measurements for tracking success
States can opt out of Common Core standards

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Schools (4 of 7)
Socioeconomic status, ethnicity, and culture
Students from low-income, ethnic minority backgrounds have more difficulties in school and are not overcoming barriers to achievement.
U.S. students have lower achievement in math and science than a number of other countries.
©Michael Conroy/AP Images

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Schools (5 of 7)
Socioeconomic status, ethnicity, and culture
Education of students from low-income backgrounds
Face more barriers to learning
Schools in low-income area tend to have
More students with low achievement test scores
Low graduation rates
Smaller percentages of students going to college
Young teachers with less experience
Fewer resources, including decent buildings

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Schools (6 of 7)
Socioeconomic status, ethnicity, and culture
Ethnicity in schools
Strategies for improving relationships among ethnically diverse students
Turn the class into a jigsaw classroom
Encourage students to have positive personal contact with diverse other students
Reduce bias
View school and community as a team
Be a competent cultural mediator

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Schools (7 of 7)
Cross-cultural comparisons of achievement
2015 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMMS) study found that out of 48 countries, American children placed
11th in fourth-grade math
8th in fourth-grade science
Asian teachers spend more time teaching math than American teachers
Asian children spend more days/year in school than American children
Mindset: cognitive view individuals develop for themselves
Fixed mindset
Growth mindset

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Mothers’ Beliefs About the Factors Responsible for Children’s Math Achievement in Three Countries

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Bullying Behaviors among U.S. Youth Text Alternative
Among U.S. young males and females, 8 percent of males and 9 percent of females are bullied about religion and race; 20 percent of both males and females are belittled about looks or speech; 18 percent of boys and 10 percent of girls are hit, slapped, or pushed; 17 percent of boys and 18% of girls are subjects of rumors; and 17 percent of males and 20 percent of females are subject to sexual comments or gestures. Boys are hit more frequently, but girls experience sexual harassment more frequently.
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Mothers’ Beliefs About the Factors Responsible for Children’s Math Achievement in Three Countries Text Alternative
Japanese and Taiwanese mothers were more likely to believe that their child’s math achievement was due to effort over innate ability. U.S. mothers believed their child’s math achievement was due to innate ability, implying that they are less likely to think their children will benefit from putting forth more effort.
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