Posted: October 27th, 2022

lifespan 7-8 discussion

 

Respond to the following questions. This assignment is worth 5  points. Make sure that you use complete sentences, college-level grammar  and that you have completely thought about your response.

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  1. What is myelination? What is the role of myelin in physical development?
  2. What are centration and conservation according to Piaget? How are centration and conservation related?
  3. Tisha is talking to her grandmother on the phone when she sees a  beautiful cardinal light on the tree branch just outside the window. She  says, “Look, Grammy, look at the bird!” What would Piaget call this  error?

    Rowen has two teddy bears. He talks to them and they talk to each  other. They all eat lunch together and have fine conversations. What  would Piaget call this behavior?
    Three-year-old Johnny is crying. His mother gave both he and his  one-year-old brother a cookie, but she broke his baby brother’s cookie  into two pieces which Johnny believes gave him more. What would Piaget  call this error?

  4. According to Vygotsky, how should you teach a young child to ride a two-wheeled bicycle?

 

Respond to the following. This assignment is worth 5 points. Make  sure that you use complete sentences, college-level grammar and that you  have completely thought about your response.

  1. When do children understand that different people can feel differently about an event?
  2. Mom is in a hurry. It is always a rule that she and Les say  goodbye to the puppy before leaving the house, but there is no time  today. Les whines, complains and cries concerning the rule that was  broken. According to Piaget Les is exhibiting _________________ moral  reasoning.
  3. At what age are boys more liking to play with larger groups of  boys while girls still tend to prefer to play with one or two friends?
  4. Give an example, not the definition, of authoritarian parenting,  authoritative parenting, neglectful parenting, and indulgent parenting.  Describe the children of each type of parent.

LIFE-SPAN DEVELOPMENT 17e

John W. Santrock

©McGraw-Hill Education.

All rights reserved. Authorized only for instructor use in the classroom.  No reproduction or further distribution permitted without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

Chapter 7

Physical and Cognitive Development in Early Childhood

©McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. Authorized only for instructor use in the classroom.  No reproduction or further distribution permitted without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

Chapter Outline

Physical Changes

Cognitive Changes

Language Development

Early Childhood Education

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Physical Changes
Body growth and change
Motor development
Sleep
Nutrition and exercise
Illness and death

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Body Growth and Change (1 of 2)
Height and weight
Average growth is 2.5 inches and 5–10 pounds per year during early childhood.
Growth patterns vary individually.
Two most important contributors to height differences
Ethnic origin
Nutrition
Growth hormone deficiency: absence of growth hormone produced by the pituitary gland to stimulate the body to grow

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Body Growth and Change (2 of 2)
The brain
Brain growth slows during early childhood.
Brain reaches 95 percent of adult volume by 6 years.
Changes in child’s brain structure
Myelination: nerve cells are covered and insulated with a layer of fat cells
Increases speed at which information travels through nervous system
Rapid, distinct spurts of growth, especially in the frontal lobes

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A Myelinated Nerve Fiber

©Steve Gschmeissner/Science Source

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Motor Development (1 of 3)
Most preschool children are more active than they will ever be at any later period in the life span.
Gross motor skills
Simple movements at age 3
More adventurous at age 4
Hair-raising risks at age 5

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Motor Development (2 of 3)
Fine motor skills
Still clumsy at 3 years
Improved fine motor coordination at 4 years
Body coordination by 5 years

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Motor Development (3 of 3)
Perceptual development
Age 3–4 years: detection of boundaries between colors
Age 4–5 years: children can focus eyes and sustain attention effectively on close-up objects

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Sleep
Recommended sleep: 11–13 hours each night without interruption
Disorders: narcolepsy, insomnia, nightmares
Sleep problems and negative outcomes
Attention problems
Worse school readiness
more so with increased screen time
Being overweight
Social problems

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Nutrition and Exercise (1 of 2)
Overweight young children
Serious health problems in early childhood
Strongly influenced by caregivers’ behavior
Categories for obesity, overweight, and at risk for being overweight
Determined by body mass index (BMI)
United States has second highest rate of childhood obesity.

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Nutrition and Exercise (2 of 2)
Malnutrition in young children from low-income families
11 million preschool children are experiencing malnutrition.
Biggest problem is iron deficiency anemia
Exercise should occur daily.

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Illness and Death (1 of 2)
The United States
Leading causes of death in U.S. children are
Accidents (unintentional injuries)
Congenital malformations
Deformities
Chromosomal abnormalities
Children’s safety
Environmental tobacco smoke

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Illness and Death (2 of 2)
State of illness and health of the world’s children
Devastating effects of health occur in countries with high poverty rates.
Dramatic increase in deaths due to HIV/AIDS, especially in poor countries.

©Kent Page/AP Images

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Cognitive Changes
Piaget’s preoperational stage
Vygotsky’s theory
Information processing

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Piaget’s Preoperational Stage (1 of 3)
Preoperational stage
Piaget’s second stage
Ages 2–7 years
Children represent the world with words, images, and drawings.
Form stable concepts and begin to reason
Cognitions are dominated by egocentrism and magical beliefs

“The Symbolic Drawings of Young Children,” Courtesy of D. Wolf and J. Nove. Copyright Dennie Palmer Wolf, Annenberg Institute, Brown University. All rights reserved. Used with permission.

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A 3 year old draws a symbolic pelican and an 11 year old draws a realistic tree.
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Piaget’s Preoperational Stage (2 of 3)
Operations: reversible mental actions that allow children to do mentally what they formerly did physically
Symbolic function substage: child gains the ability to mentally represent an object that is not present
Egocentrism: inability to distinguish one’s own perspective from someone else’s
Animism: belief that inanimate objects have lifelike qualities and are capable of action

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Piaget’s Preoperational Stage (3 of 3)
Intuitive thought substage: children use primitive reasoning and want to know the answers to questions.
Ages 4–7 years
Centration and the limits of preoperational thought
Centration: centering attention on one characteristic to the exclusion of all others
Conservation: altering a substance’s appearance does not change its basic properties

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The Three Mountains Task

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Piaget’s Conservation Task

Access the text alternative for this image.

©Tony Freeman/PhotoEdit

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Some Dimensions of Conservation: Number, Matter, and Length (1 of 4)
Type of Conservation: number
Initial Presentation: two identical rows of objects are shown to the child, who agrees they have same number
Manipulation: one row is lengthened, and child is asked whether one row now has more objects.
Preoperational Child’s Answer: “Yes, the longer row”

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Some Dimensions of Conservation: Number, Matter, and Length (2 of 4)
Type of Conservation: matter
Initial Presentation: two identical balls of clay are shown to the child. The child agrees they are equal.
Manipulation: experimenter changes the shape of one ball and asks child whether they still contain equal amounts of clay
Preoperational Child’s Answer: “No, the longer one has more”

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Some Dimensions of Conservation: Number, Matter, and Length (3 of 4)
Type of Conservation: length
Initial Presentation: two sticks are aligned in front of the child. Child agrees they are the same length.
Manipulation: experimenter moves one stick to the right, then asks child if they are equal in length
Preoperational Child’s Answer: “No, the one on the top is longer”

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Some Dimensions of Conservation: Number, Matter, and Length (4 of 4)

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Vygotsky’s Zone of Proximal Development
(1 of 2)
Children think and understand primarily through social interaction.
Zone of proximal development (ZPD): range of tasks too difficult for the child alone but that can be learned with guidance
Scaffolding: changing the level of support

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Vygotsky’s Zone of Proximal Development
(2 of 2)

©Ariel Skelley/Blend Images

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Vygotsky’s Theory (1 of 3)
Language and thought
Children use speech to communicate socially and to help them solve tasks.
Private speech: use of language for self-regulation
Inner speech becomes their thoughts
More private speech = more social competence

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Vygotsky’s Theory (2 of 3)
Teaching strategies: Vygotsky’s theory can be applied to education
Assess child’s ZPD
Use the child’s ZPD in teaching
Use more-skilled peers as teachers
Place instruction in meaningful context
Transform classroom with Vygotskian ideas

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Vygotsky’s Theory (3 of 3)
Evaluating Vygotsky’s theory
Social constructivist approach: emphasizes social contexts of learning and asserts that knowledge is mutually built and constructed through social interaction
Criticism
Not specific enough about age-related changes
Does not describe how changes in socioemotional capabilities contribute to cognitive development
Overemphasized the role of language in thinking

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Comparison of Vygotsky’s and Piaget’s Theories

Sociocultural Context
Strong Emphasis
Little Emphasis

Constructivism
Social constructivist
Cognitive constructivist

Stages
No general stages of development proposed
Strong emphasis on stages (sensorimotor,
preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operational)

Key Processes
Zone of proximal development, language, dialogue, tools of the culture
Schema, assimilation, accommodation, operations, conservation, classification

Role of Language
A major role; language plays a powerful role in shaping thought
Language has a minimal role; cognition primarily directs language

View on Education
Education plays a central role, helping children learn the tools of the culture
Education merely refines the child’s cognitive skills that have already emerged

Teaching Implications
Many opportunities for children to learn with the teacher and more-skilled peers
Also views teacher as a facilitator and guide, not a director; provide support for children to explore their world and discover knowledge

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Information Processing (1 of 3)
Attention: focusing of mental resources on select information
Executive attention
Action planning
Allocating attention to goals
Error detection and compensation
Monitoring progress on tasks
Dealing with difficult circumstances

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Information Processing (2 of 3)
Sustained attention: focused and extended engagement with object, task, event, or other aspect of the environment
Deficiencies in attention
Salient versus relevant dimensions
Planfulness of attention
Six-year-olds have fragmentary planfulness of attention
Older children are more detailed and accurate.

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Information Processing (3 of 3)
Memory: retention of information over time
Short term: individuals can retain information up to 30 seconds with no rehearsal
Assessing short-term memory
Memory-span task

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Developmental Changes in Memory Span

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Information Processing (1 of 4)
How accurate are young children’s long-term memories?
There are age differences in children’s susceptibility to suggestion.
There are individual differences in susceptibility.
Interviewing techniques can produce substantial distortions in children’s reports about highly salient events.
Accuracy of testimony is dependent on type, number, and intensity of suggestive techniques experienced

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Information Processing (2 of 4)
Autobiographical memory
Involves memory of significant events and experiences in one’s life
In some areas (remembering a story, a song, or interesting event or experience), young children have been shown to have reasonably good memories.

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Information Processing (3 of 4)
Executive functioning: higher-level cognitive processes linked to the development of the brain’s prefrontal cortex
Children manage thoughts to engage in goal-directed behavior and self-control.
“The Marshmallow Experiment”
Using self-distraction to delay gratification for the purpose of receiving two marshmallows on a researcher’s return linked to later success in life

©Amy Kiley Photography

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Information Processing (4 of 4)
Theory of mind: awareness of one’s own mental process and the mental processes of others
Developmental changes
Age 18 months to 3 years: children begin to understand three mental states
Perceptions, desires, and emotions
Age 3–5 years: children understand false beliefs
Age 5–9 years: deepening appreciation of the mind
Age 7+ years: understand the beliefs and thoughts of others
Individual differences and factors influencing Theory of Mind 
Executive function and advances in prefrontal cortex functioning
Language development
Higher socioeconomic status family
Children with autism have difficulty developing a theory of mind.

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Developmental Changes in False-Belief Performance

Access the text alternative for this image.

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Language Development
Understanding phonology and morphology
Changes in syntax and semantics
Advances in pragmatics
Young children’s literacy

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Understanding Phonology and Morphology
During preschool years, children
Become sensitive to the sounds of spoken words
Produce all the sounds of their language
Demonstrate a knowledge of morphology rules
Use plurals, possessives, prepositions, articles, and verb forms

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Stimuli in Berko’s Study of Young Children’s Understanding of Morphological Rules

Young children can intuit morphological rules.
Children were shown pictures of a bird-like “wug.”
When asked what two of them were, children responded, “Wugs.”

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Changes in Syntax and Semantics (1 of 2)
Fast mapping: process in which young children learn the connection between a word and its referent quickly
Learn and apply rules of syntax

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Changes in Syntax and Semantics (2 of 2)
Six key principles in young children’s vocabulary development
Children learn the words
They hear most often
For things and events that interest them
Better in responsive and interactive contexts than in passive contexts
Best in contexts that are meaningful
Best when they access clear information about word meaning
Best when grammar and vocabulary are considered

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Advances in Pragmatics
Adapt their speech in different settings
Young children’s literacy
Positive orientation toward reading and writing must be developed.
Importance of early language skills
Phonological awareness
Readiness for school
Reading achievement in high school

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Young Children’s Literacy
Books can be valuable tool
Use books to initiate conversation
Use “what” and “why” questions
Encourage children to ask questions about stories
Include books that play with language

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Early Childhood Education (1 of 2)
Variations in early childhood education

Education for young children who are disadvantaged

Controversies in early childhood education

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Early Childhood Education (2 of 2)
Education for young children who are disadvantaged
Project Head Start: compensatory program designed to provide children from low-income families
Opportunity to acquire the skills and experiences important for success in school
Controversies in early childhood education
Curriculum controversy
Academic approaches pressure young children to achieve, don’t provide chances to actively construct knowledge, and don’t focus on cognitive and socioemotional development.
Universal preschool education
Critics: more important to improve preschool education for disadvantaged children.
Controversy continues around implementing universal preschool education.

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Variations in Early Childhood Education (1 of 2)
Child-centered kindergarten: education of the whole child and concern for his or her physical, cognitive, and socioemotional development
Kindergartens focused on developmental status of 4 and 5 year olds emphasize experimenting, exploring, discovering, trying out, restructuring, speaking, and listening.
Montessori approach: child is given freedom and spontaneity in choosing activities and develops cognitive skills
Criticisms: it deemphasizes verbal interactions, restricts imaginative play, and may not allow for creativity and a variety of learning styles

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Variations in Early Childhood Education (2 of 2)
Developmentally appropriate and inappropriate education
Developmentally appropriate practice (DAP): typical developmental patterns of children and the uniqueness of each child
Generalizing about developmentally appropriate education is challenging.
Developmentally appropriate education is an evolving concept.
Sociocultural factors are taking on more importance.
Consideration about teacher’s involvement

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Accessibility Content: Text Alternatives for Images

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Piaget’s Conservation Task Text Alternative
Piaget’s conservation task tests a child’s ability to think operationally or mentally reverse actions and understand the concept of conservation. A child watches liquid poured from a short beaker into a taller, thinner one. When asked which has more liquid, the child points to the taller and thinner one, demonstrating a lack of conservation. The child doesn’t yet understand that the amount of liquid doesn’t change because of the beaker’s shape.

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Developmental Changes in False-Belief Performance Text Alternative
By age 5, most children realize that people can have false beliefs contradicting reality. Two-and-a-half-year-olds gave incorrect responses about 80 percent of the time. At almost 4, they were correct about 50 percent of the time, and after that responses were increasingly correct.

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LIFE-SPAN DEVELOPMENT 17e

John W. Santrock

©McGraw-Hill Education.

All rights reserved. Authorized only for instructor use in the classroom.  No reproduction or further distribution permitted without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

Chapter 8

Socioemotional Development in Early Childhood

©McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. Authorized only for instructor use in the classroom.  No reproduction or further distribution permitted without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

Chapter Outline

Emotional and Personality Development

Families

Peer Relations, Play, and Media/Screen Time

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Emotional and Personality Development
Children’s developing minds and social experiences produce remarkable advances in the development of
the self
emotional development
moral development
gender
©Kevin Dodge/Corbis/Getty Images

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The Self (1 of 3)
Erikson’s psychosocial stages associated with early childhood
Initiative versus guilt
Children use perceptual, motor, cognitive, and language skills to make things happen.
Children exuberantly move out into wider social world on their own initiative.
The great governor of initiative is conscience.
Initiative and enthusiasm may bring guilt, which lowers self-esteem.

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The Self (2 of 3)
Self-understanding and understanding others
Increased awareness reflects young children’s expanding psychological sophistication.
Self-understanding: substance and content of self-conceptions
Physical activities: central component of the self in early childhood
Tend to confuse ability and effort
Unrealistically positive self descriptions, which are self-protective
Better basic understanding of emotions in early childhood enabled children to develop more advanced understanding of others’ perspectives.

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The Self (3 of 3)
Understanding others
Children start perceiving others in terms of psychological traits.
Children begin to develop an understanding for joint commitments.
Young children are not as egocentric as depicted in Piaget’s theory.

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Emotional Development (1 of 4)
Growing self-awareness is linked to feeling.
Growing self-awareness is linked to expanding and expressing a range of emotions
Young children experience many emotions during the day.
Emotional development allows for ability to make sense of other people’s emotional reactions and control their own.

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Emotional Development (2 of 4)
Expressing emotions
Pride, shame, embarrassment, and guilt are examples of self-conscious emotions.
During the early childhood years, pride and guilt become more common.
Influenced by parents’ responses to children’s behavior, for example, “ You should feel bad about biting your sister.”

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Emotional Development (3 of 4)
Understanding emotions
Children’s understanding of emotion linked to increase in prosocial behavior
Children begin to understand that same event can elicit different feelings in different people.
By age 5, most children show more ability to reflect on emotions and growing awareness of the need to manage emotions according to social standards.

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Emotional Development (4 of 4)
Regulating emotions
Plays a key role in children’s ability to manage the demands and conflicts they face in interacting with others
Parents can be described as taking an emotion-coaching or an emotion-dismissing approach to help children regulate emotions.
Ability to modulate emotions benefits children in their relationships with peers.
©Jamie Grill/Getty Images

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Moral Development (1 of 5)
Involves thoughts, feelings, and behavior regarding rules and conventions about what people should do in their interactions with other people
Moral feelings
Feelings of anxiety and guilt are central to the account of moral development.
Emotions and guilt can motivate behavior.

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Moral Development (2 of 5)
Moral reasoning
Heteronomous morality: the first stage of moral development in Piaget’s theory, occurring from approximately 4–7 years of age
Justice and rules are conceived of as unchangeable properties of the world, removed from the control of people.
Autonomous morality: in Piaget’s theory, older children (~10 years of age and older) become aware that rules and laws are created by people
When judging an action, one should consider the actor’s intentions as well as the consequences.

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Moral Development (3 of 5)
Immanent justice: concept that if a rule is broken, punishment will be meted out immediately
Parent–child relations in which parents have the power and children do not are less likely to advance moral reasoning.
Rules are handed down in an authoritarian manner.
©Fuse/Getty Images

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Moral Development (4 of 5)
Moral behavior
Processes of reinforcement, punishment, and imitation explain the development of moral behavior.
Situation influences behavior.
Cognitive factors are important in the child’s development of self-control.
Conscience: internal regulation of standards of right and wrong that involves integrating moral thought, feeling, and behavior

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Moral Development (5 of 5)
Parenting and young children’s moral development
Aspects of parent and child relationships contributing to children’s moral development
Relational quality
Parental discipline
Proactive strategies
Conversational dialogue

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Gender (1 of 3)
Gender identity: the sense of being male or female, which most children acquire by 2½ years
Gender role: a cultural set of expectations that prescribes how females or males should think, act, feel
Gender typing: acquisition of a traditional masculine or feminine role
(Left) ©altrendo images/Getty Images; (right) ©Cindy Charles/PhotoEdit

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Gender (2 of 3)
Biological influences
Chromosomes
Hormones
Evolution
Social influences
Social theories of gender
Social role theory: gender differences result from contrasting roles of women and men
Psychoanalytic theory of gender: preschool child develops a sexual attraction to opposite-sex parent
Social cognitive theory: children’s gender development occurs through observation and imitation of others’ words and actions

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Gender (3 of 3)
Parental influences
Mothers’ socialization strategies for daughters to be obedient restrict autonomy
Fathers’ socialization strategies for sons to engage in activities promote intellectual development
Peer influences
Preschoolers prefer socializing with same gender.
Group size: boys tend to create larger clusters
Interaction in same-sex groups: boys tend to competitively play; girls tend to have conversations
Cognitive influences
Gender schema theory: children gradually develop gender schemas of what is gender-appropriate and gender-inappropriate in their culture

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Families
Parenting
Child maltreatment
Sibling relationships and other birth order
The changing family in a changing society

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Parenting (1 of 5)
Parents as compared to nonparents
are typically more satisfied with their lives
feel relatively better on a daily basis
have more positive feelings toward children and daily activities
Recent study: 1/2 of fathers and 1/4 of mothers report feeling they are not spending enough time with their children

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Parenting (2 of 5)
Baumrind’s parenting styles
Authoritarian parenting
Parents exhort child to follow directions and respect their work and effort
Allows little verbal exchange
Associated with children’s social incompetence
Linked to child’s higher level of aggression
Authoritative parenting
Encourages children to be independent but still places limits and controls on their actions
Extensive verbal give-and-take is allowed
Associated with children’s social competence
Children are more prosocial

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Parenting (3 of 5)
Neglectful parenting
Parent is uninvolved in the child’s life
Associated with children’s social incompetence and lack of self-control
Children externalize problems
Indulgent parenting
Parents are highly involved with their children but place few demands or controls on them
Associated with children’s social incompetence and lack of self-control
Associated with children not respecting others
Children may be domineering, egocentric, noncompliant, and have difficulties in peer relations

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Parenting (4 of 5)
Parenting styles in context
Authoritative parenting conveys the most benefits to the child and to the family as a whole.
Parenting is reciprocal socialization and synchrony: children socialize parents, and parents socialize children
Consistent parenting is recommended; however, flexibility in style is warranted depending on the situation.
Research about parenting styles mostly on mothers, not fathers, who often are authoritarian in comparison
Consistent parenting styles are most beneficial.

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Parenting (5 of 5)
Punishment
Corporal punishment is linked to
Higher level of child’s behavioral problems
Higher levels of aggression as children and adolescents
Higher incidence of intimate partner violence as adults
Fear of parent
Best to handle misbehavior by reasoning with child and explaining consequences of child’s actions for others
Coparenting: support that parents give each other in raising a child

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Classification of Parenting Styles

Parenting Styles Accepting,
Responsive Rejecting, Unresponsive

Demanding, controlling
Authoritative
Authoritarian

Undemanding, uncontrolling
Indulgent
Neglectful

©Steve Debenport/Getty Images

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© Ariel Skelley/Corbis
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Child Maltreatment (1 of 2)
Types of child maltreatment
Physical abuse
Child neglect
Sexual abuse
Emotional abuse
Context of abuse
Among the family and family-associated characteristics that may contribute to child maltreatment are parenting stress, substance abuse, social isolation, single parenting, and socioeconomic difficulties.
About 1/3 of parents who were abused themselves when they were young go on to abuse their own children.

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Child Maltreatment (2 of 2)

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Developmental Consequences of Abuse 
Poor emotion regulation, attachment problems, poor peer relations, difficulty in adapting to school, depression
Physical abuse linked to diminished cognitive development and school participation
Engaging in violent behavior and substance abuse
Engaging in violent romantic relationships, delinquency, sexual risk taking, substance abuse
Increase in 13- to 18-year-olds’ suicide ideation, plans, attempts

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Sibling Relationships and Birth Order
Sibling relationships
Important characteristics
Emotional quality of the relationship
Familiarity and intimacy of the relationship
Variation in sibling relationships
Birth order
Compared with later-born children, firstborn children have been described as more adult-oriented, helpful, conforming, and self-controlled.
Only children often are achievement-oriented.

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Changing Family in a Changing Society (1 of 7)
Working parents
More than one of every two U.S. mothers with a child under the age of 5 is in the workforce.
Children of working mothers engage in less gender stereotyping and have more egalitarian views of gender than do children of nonworking mothers.
More recent study found negative associations with father’s employment but not mother’s employment.

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Changing Family in a Changing Society (2 of 7)

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Changing Family in a Changing Society (3 of 7)
Children in divorced families
show poorer adjustment than their counterparts in never-divorced families
New research indicates that experiencing divorce during childhood was linked to worse cohabitating/material relationships from 16 to 30.
Also influenced by SES at birth
Also influenced by experiences of childhood sexual abuse
Parental divorce and child maltreatment linked to midlife suicidal ideation

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Changing Family in a Changing Society (4 of 7)
Many problems children experience after parents divorce date to before the divorce.
Frequent noncustodial parent visits benefit children.
Children with difficult temperament have problems coping with divorce. The opposite is also true.
Coparenting after divorce helps children adjust, reduces anxiety and depression, and increases self-esteem and academic performance.
Divorced mothers often lose income and experience increased workloads, high rates of job instability, and high rates of moving.

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Changing Family in a Changing Society (5 of 7)
Gay and lesbian parents compared to heterosexual parents
Few differences between children growing up in homosexual families
No differences in peer relationships, mental health adjustment
Cultural, ethnic, and socioeconomic variations
Trends toward greater family mobility, migration to urban areas
Minority parents tend to have less education and may live in low-income circumstances. 

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Changing Family in a Changing Society (6 of 7)
Lower-SES parents
More concerned that their children conform to society’s expectations
Create a home atmosphere in which it is clear that parents have authority over children, among others
Use more physical punishment
Are more directive and less conversational
©Jens Kalaene/picture-alliance/dpa/AP Images

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Changing Family in a Changing Society (7 of 7)
Higher-SES parents
More concerned with developing children’s initiative and delay of gratification
Less likely to use physical punishment
Create a home atmosphere in which children are more nearly equal participants and in which rules are discussed
Are less directive and more conversational
©Andres Rodriguez/Getty Images

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Peer Relation, Play, and Media/Screen Time
(1 of 8)
Peer relations
Give children information and comparison about the world outside their family.
Good peer relations are necessary for normal socioemotional development.
Developmentally, children start spending time with same gender.
Children make friends of all ethnic groups.
Parents’ lifestyle decisions determine their children’s friend choices.

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Peer Relation, Play, and Media/Screen Time
(2 of 8)
Play
Play therapy is used to allow the child to work off frustrations and to analyze the child’s conflicts and ways of coping with them.
Provides important context for development of language and communication skills.
Children have less unconstructed play time and need more time for play for development.
©Dann Tardif/Corbis/Getty Images

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Peer Relation, Play, and Media/Screen Time
(3 of 8)
Connected Worlds of Parent–Child and Peer Relationships
Parents influence children’s peer relationships directly and indirectly
Basic life decisions
Attachment and security
Play’s Function
Important aspect of development
Play therapy: allows children to work off frustrations and analyze children’s conflicts and ways of coping
Important context for cognitive development, exploration, and language development

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40

Peer Relation, Play, and Media/Screen Time
(4 of 8)
Types of Play
Sensorimotor: infants derive pleasure from exercising their existing sensorimotor schemas
Practice: involves repetition of behavior when new skills are being learned
Pretense/symbolic: transforming physical environment into symbols
Social: involves interaction with peers
Constructive: combines sensorimotor/practice play with symbolic representation
Games: activities are engaged in for pleasure and have rules

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Peer Relation, Play, and Media/Screen Time
(5 of 8)
Television strongly influences children’s development
Children also use other media
Screen time: includes how much time individual spends with television, DVDs, computers, video games, and mobile devices
Young children’s use of mobile devices dramatically increased 2011–2013
playing games using apps
watching videos
watching TV/movies

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Peer Relation, Play, and Media/Screen Time
(6 of 8)
Playful learning and cognitive development
Creativity
Abstract thinking
Imagination, attention
Concentration and persistence
Problem-solving, social cognition
Empathy and perspective taking
Language
Mastery of new concepts

Playful learning and socioemotional development
Enjoyment
Relaxation
Self-expression
Cooperation
Sharing and turn-taking
Anxiety reduction
Self-confidence

©McGraw-Hill Education.
Peer Relation, Play, and Media/Screen Time
(7 of 8)
Many 2- to 4-year-olds spend 2–4 hours/day watching TV, more time than they spend with parents
Children and Television: American Academy of Pediatrics
2- to 5-years olds should watch maximum of 1 hour of TV per day, watching high-quality programs, for example, Sesame Street and PBS shows.
Can teach children positive, prosocial behavior
Linked to higher obesity rates in children and adolescents
Linked to violent and aggressive behavior

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Peer Relation, Play, and Media/Screen Time
(8 of 8)
Media/Screen Time
Best types of educational apps parents can purchase for children
Active involvement
Engagement
Meaningfulness
Social interaction
©Miguel Sanz/Getty Images

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