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Final Written Self-Reflection (10 points). At the end of the quarter, you’ll submit via Blackboard an approximately 500-word essay outlining the concepts from the course which you have found most meaningful and describing how you anticipate incorporating these new concepts into your professional, academic or personal life. Please submit this paper in either Microsoft Word or format only. The grading criteria will be based on: 

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▪ Explanation of how you’ll incorporate course concepts in the future, citing specific examples 40% 

▪ Evidence of understanding of general OB course topics 30% 

▪ Quality of writing 30%  100% 

I give you the example 

Jason Sheets

MGMT 302-05

Professor Habich

June 10, 2017

Organizational Behavior Final Self-Reflection

I was fascinated by the course content in Organizational Behavior this spring. I learned that I still have a lot of growing to do if I want to be a good leader and a fulfilled employee. The key topics for my growth were “Theory X” versus “Theory Y,” empowerment, and sources of motivation at work.

Our “Theory X” and “Theory Y” discussion of management styles showed me early in the quarter that I need to evolve if I want to be an effective manager. In the past, I was a manager at a customer-support call center, leading a team of people that were all poorly trained and under immense pressure from the CEO to finish as many calls as quickly as possible. He mostly took a “Theory X” approach and that trickled down to me and the other managers. We were constantly pushing our teams harder and harder. Morale was terrible. I was distrusting of the people on my team and assumed they would be a lazy as I would allow them to be.

If from day one there was a “Theory Y” approach at the call center, I think the organization would have been very different. The low interest I perceived in my team was partly a result of the way they had been treated. “Theory Y” says that people will work hard if they are appropriately trained, and that they have an innate desire to find achievement through their work. I saw glimpses of this in my time there. In the future, I would want my team to learn how to properly complete the tasks their customers needed, so they could get some satisfaction through their accomplishments.

I can see now that my call-center experience was also a lesson in empowerment. Because I did not trust my team, I gave them very specific guidelines for how to do their work. They had little freedom. Learning this quarter that people thrive on empowerment, I would like to give people more autonomy and freedom to decide how to accomplish their tasks.

The other important lesson for me this quarter came from our discussion on motivation. I would have imagined my ideal job involving the completion of a series of easy tasks each day and hopefully necessitating minimal interaction with other coworkers. This could have been a recipe for an unsatisfying career. I have now learned that people thrive when challenged and when part of a supportive team. I need to be considering these variables when I start my job search. I need look for opportunities to push myself and be proactive about working together with my fellows.

I am grateful for my experience in Organizational Behavior. I am walking away with several new insights. If I want to be a good team leader I need to ensure my team is thoroughly trained and that they feel sufficiently rewarded. People want to be empowered. I need to get out of my comfort zone to find real satisfaction at work. That means taking on challenges and finding motivation through the support of a team.

Chapter 10

Are most decisions today made at the top of the organization (by managers) or by lower-level employees? Do you think this has changed over time?
What are some of the benefits of having groups make decisions? What are some of the potential problems?
What does the term “groupthink” mean to you?
What are some way that biases might enter into individual decision-making?
When are groups better at making decisions than individuals? When are individuals better?

 Top-Down and Empowered Decisions: What is the difference between these two approaches? Page Ref: 341
Potential Benefits and Problems of Decision-Making Groups: What are they? Page Ref: 345-346
Groupthink: What is it and how does it affect decision-making? Page Ref: 346
Biased Nature of Individual Decisions: What are the primary biases in individual decision-making? What do they mean? Page Ref: 356-359
When are Groups Superior to Individuals? When are group decisions superior to individual decisions? Page Ref: 361
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General Model of Decision-Making
Types of Organizational Decisions
Factors Affecting Decisions in Organizations
How Individual Decisions are Made
Imperfect Decisions
Group Decisions vs. Individual Decisions

Definition: the process of making choices from among several alternatives
Decision making is one of the most important – if not the most important – of all managerial activities.

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General Model of Decision-Making
Types of Organizational Decisions
Factors Affecting Decisions in Organizations
How Individual Decisions are Made
Imperfect Decisions
Group Decisions vs. Individual Decisions

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General Model of Decision-Making
Types of Organizational Decisions
Factors Affecting Decisions in Organizations
How Individual Decisions are Made
Imperfect Decisions
Group Decisions vs. Individual Decisions

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Exercise on Page 370-371 in text

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Potential benefits
Pooling of resources
Specialization of labor
Greater acceptance
Potential problems
Wasted time
Disruptive conflict
Intimidation by group leaders

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The tendency for members of highly cohesive groups to so strongly conform to group pressures regarding a certain decision that they fail to think critically, rejecting the potentially correcting influences of outsiders

Bay of Pigs video

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Invasion plan initiated by Eisenhower administration, but Kennedy White House “uncritically accepted” CIA’s plan.
When advisors, such as Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr. and Senator J. William Fulbright, attempted to present objections to the plan, Kennedy team ignored objections
Eventually Schlesinger minimized his own doubts, performing self-censorship.
Kennedy team stereotyped Castro and the Cubans by failing to question the CIA about its many false assumptions, including the ineffectiveness of Castro’s air force, the weakness of Castro’s army, and the inability of Castro to quell internal uprisings.

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General Model of Decision-Making
Types of Organizational Decisions
Factors Affecting Decisions in Organizations
How Individual Decisions are Made
Imperfect Decisions
Group Decisions vs. Individual Decisions

IMPERFECT DECISIONS

Sure gain of $240
25% chance to gain $1,000 and 75% chance to gain nothing

Sure loss of $740
75% chance to lose $1,000 and 25% chance to lose nothing

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Sure gain of $240
25% chance to gain $1,000 and 75% chance to gain nothing
$240 Gain
$250 Gain
“Better!”
Expected Return

Sure loss of $740
75% chance to lose $1,000 and 25% chance to lose nothing
Expected Return
$740 Loss
$750 Loss
“Better!”

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In general, individuals tend to:
be risk averse when offered a gain
but be risk-taking when faced with a loss.

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The tendency for people to make different decisions based on how a problem is presented to them.

Framing Effects

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Implicit favorite
Confirmation Candidates
Hindsight
Hindsight is 20-20

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Person Sensitivity: Tendency to give too little credit to others when things are going poorly and too much credit when things are going well

Remember the Fundamental Attribution Error?

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Escalation of Commitment: Continuing to support unsuccessful courses of action – “Sunk Costs”

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General Model of Decision-Making
Types of Organizational Decisions
Factors Affecting Decisions in Organizations
How Individual Decisions are Made
Imperfect Decisions
Group Decisions vs. Individual Decisions

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Top-Down and Empowered Decisions: What is the difference between these two approaches? Page Ref: 341
Potential Benefits and Problems of Decision-Making Groups: What are they? Page Ref: 345-346
Groupthink: What is it and how does it affect decision-making? Page Ref: 346
Biased Nature of Individual Decisions: What are the primary biases in individual decision-making? What do they mean? Page Ref: 356-359
When are group decisions superior to individual decisions? Page Ref: 361

 Top-Down and Empowered Decisions: What is the difference between these two approaches? Page Ref: 341
Potential Benefits and Problems of Decision-Making Groups: What are they? Page Ref: 345-346
Groupthink: What is it and how does it affect decision-making? Page Ref: 346
Biased Nature of Individual Decisions: What are the primary biases in individual decision-making? What do they mean? Page Ref: 356-359
When are Groups Superior to Individuals? When are group decisions superior to individual decisions? Page Ref: 361
Copyright

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ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE, CREATIVITY, AND INNOVATION
Chapter 14

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Organizational Culture: What does the term “organizational culture” mean to you?
In what ways can organizational cultures be different?
How do think that organization culture is established or changed?
How would you define innovation?
What is necessary for someone to be creative?

The Competing Values Framework: What are the four quadrants of the competing values framework and what do they mean? Page Ref: 486-487
Organizational Culture: What is the definition of organizational culture? How is organizational culture created? Page Ref: 481 and 488-489
Innovation: What is the definition of innovation? Page Ref: 504
Creativity: What are the three basic components of creativity? Page Ref: 496-498
Copyright

Define organizational culture, and identify its core characteristics and the various functions it serves in organizations.
Describe the four forms of organizational culture specified by the competing values framework.
Explain the factors responsible for creating and transmitting organizational culture, as well as those for making it change.

Define creativity and describe the basic components of individual and team creativity.
Identify the basic forms and targets of innovation and the stages of the innovation process.

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TODAY’S AGENDA
Organizational Culture
Creating, Transmitting & Changing Culture
Creativity
Innovation

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TODAY’S AGENDA
Organizational Culture
Creating, Transmitting & Changing Culture
Creativity
Innovation

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A cognitive framework consisting of attitudes, values, behavioral norms, and expectations shared by organization members.
A set of basic assumptions shared by members of an organization.

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Sensitivity to Others
Interest in New Ideas
Willingness to Take Risks
The Value Placed on People
Openness of Communication
Friendliness and Congeniality

Sensitivity to others – Many branches of the government have traditionally been seen as closed / arrogant. This is changing somewhat.
Interest in new ideas – My experience at Siemens with hiring plant manager.
Openness of Communication – my example of Intel vs. Unisys.
Friendliness and Congeniality – my experience at CSUSB. The culture at Amazon is generally seen as more competitive.
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ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE
Does CSUSB have a culture?
Do different colleges or different classrooms have different subcultures?
14-3
14-3

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Inside Amazon: Wrestling Big Ideas in a Bruising Workplace

What are the most pronounced characteristics of Amazon’s culture?
How do you believe the culture originated?
Do you believe that the culture has served the company in achieving its goals?
Would you fit in well in Amazon’s culture?

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TODAY’S AGENDA
Organizational Culture
Creating, Transmitting & Changing Culture
Creativity
Innovation

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Company Founders

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Experiences with the External Environment
Sony Betamax vs. JHV VHS (1975-1988)
Sony Blu-ray vs. Toshiba HD DVD (2006-2008)

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Symbols
Slogans
Stories
Jargon
Ceremonies
Statements of principle

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Just do it.
The Few, The Proud, The…
The happiest place on earth.
Eat Fresh.
Taste the Rainbow
American by Birth. Rebel by Choice.
Think Different.
I’m Lovin’ It
Nike
Marines
Disneyland
Subway
Skittles
Harley Davidson
Apple
McDonalds

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Composition of workforce
Mergers and acquisitions
Strategic cultural change
Responding to the Internet

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TODAY’S AGENDA
Organizational Culture
Creating, Transmitting & Changing Culture
Creativity
Innovation

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GROUP CREATIVITY

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The process by which individuals or teams produce novel and useful ideas.

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TODAY’S AGENDA
Organizational Culture
Creating, Transmitting & Changing Culture
Creativity
Innovation

The successful implementation of creative ideas within an organization

https://www.forbes.com/innovative-companies/list/#tab:rank

Product
Service
Process
Marketing
Supply chain
Business model
Organizational

TODAY’S AGENDA – RECAP
Organizational Culture
Creating, Transmitting & Changing Culture
Creativity
Innovation

Questions?

Motivation in Organizations

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Motivation in Organizations
Chapter 7

Chapter 7 Preview:
Motivation in Organizations
What do individuals need to do to meet a personal goal?
What are the most important sources of work motivation (e.g., money? recognition? other?)
What do you think makes for effective goal-setting?
What happens when people feel that they are underpaid compared to their peers?
What do people need to believe about a possible reward, in order for it to be motivating?

Components of motivation: What are the basic components of motivation? Page Ref: 214
Motivation: What motivates people to work? What are the most important sources of work motivation? Page Ref: 215
Guidelines for setting effective performance goals: What are they? Page Ref: 220-223
Equity Theory: What are some possible reactions to inequity? Page Ref: 226-227
Expectancy Theory: What are the three types of beliefs that people have, and what do they mean? Page Ref: 230
Copyright

Learning Objectives
Define motivation and explain its importance in the field of organizational behavior.
Identify and explain the conditions through which goal setting can be used to improve job performance.

Learning Objectives
Describe equity theory and how it may be applied to motivating people in organizations.
Describe expectancy theory and how it may be applied in organizations.

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Today’s Agenda
Motivation
Goal Setting
Equity Theory
Expectancy Theory

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Today’s Agenda
Motivation
Goal Setting
Equity Theory
Expectancy Theory

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The set of processes that
arouse
direct, and
maintain
human behavior toward attaining some goal
Motivation

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Motivation Components

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Motivation
Key Points
Motivation and job performance are not synonymous
Motivation is multifaceted
People are motivated by more than just money

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What Motivates You to Work?

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What Motivates People to Work?

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Today’s Agenda
Motivation
Goal Setting
Equity Theory
Expectancy Theory

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Goal Setting

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Goal Setting
Do you have goals?
Have you been successful in meeting them?
What do you think are important characteristics of attainable goals?
How does it make you feel to achieve goals?

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Goal Setting Guidelines
For Managers
Assign specific goals
Assign difficult, but acceptable, performance goals
stretch goals
Provide feedback on goal attainment

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Today’s Agenda
Motivation
Goal Setting
Equity Theory
Expectancy Theory

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Equity Theory
People strive to maintain ratios of their own outcomes (rewards) to their own inputs (contributions) that are equal to the outcome / input ratios of others with whom they compare themselves

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Equity Theory
Possible Reactions to Inequity

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Equity Theory
Managerial Implications
Avoid underpayment
Avoid overpayment
Be honest and open with employees

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Equity Theory
Pay Practices in the News

Pay Practices at Reddit, Google and Gravity Payments

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Equity Theory
Pay Practices in the News
Questions to consider:
What do you think about the idea of banning salary negotiations at Reddit?
Google’s “unfair on purpose” policy?
Specific Gravity’s “equal pay” policy?
What about Equity Theory and Distributive Justice?

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Today’s Agenda
Motivation
Goal Setting
Equity Theory
Expectancy Theory

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Expectancy Theory
Definitions
Expectancy: Will my efforts lead to performance?
Instrumentality: Will I be rewarded for good performance?
Valence: Do I value the potential reward?

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Expectancy Theory

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Other Job Performance Determinants
Skills and abilities
Role perceptions
Opportunities to perform

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Managerial Implications
Help ensure that effort will lead to performance
Training
Eliminate obstacles
Clearly link performance and valued rewards
Pay-for-performance plans
Incentive stock option
Provide rewards that are valued by employees

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Chapter 7 Review:
Motivation in Organizations
Components of motivation: What are the basic components of motivation?
Motivation: What motivates people to work? What are the most important sources of work motivation?
What are the guidelines for setting effective performance goals?
Equity Theory: What are some possible reactions to inequity?
Expectancy Theory: What are the three types of beliefs that people have, and what do they mean?

Components of motivation: What are the basic components of motivation? Page Ref: 214
Motivation: What motivates people to work? What are the most important sources of work motivation? Page Ref: 215
Guidelines for setting effective performance goals: What are they? Page Ref: 220-223
Equity Theory: What are some possible reactions to inequity? Page Ref: 226-227
Expectancy Theory: What are the three types of beliefs that people have, and what do they mean? Page Ref: 230
Copyright

Questions / Comments?

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