In this project, you will need to find, review, and summarize four different reputable sources concerning a topic related to the last 400 years in Western civilization.


In this project, you will need to find, review, and summarize four different reputable sources concerning a topic related to the last 400 years in Western civilization. You may choose any topic related to the coursework that you like, but be careful that your selection is neither too large nor too focused in order to ensure that your summaries can effectively discuss the topic. If the topic is too narrow, you may be unable to find four qualified sources. In that case, broaden the topic. 

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Your four sources are required to come from the CSU Online Library and fit the following criteria: 

  • One primary source: A document, object, or other      material directly related to the topic and time. This should be a document      that provides a first-hand account of your topic without previous      knowledge of the event. Examples may include newspapers, diaries, letters,      film, records, or speeches. 
  • One current, relevant article: An article published in      a reputable periodical within the last five years. 
  • One peer-reviewed article: An article from a respected      publication put out by universities, historical societies, or another      academic entity that has clearly identified the credentials of the author,      reviewer, and publisher. 
  • One published book: This can be in electronic or print      form and from any time. Be sure to research the publisher, author, and      year as that may influence bias. 

Do not submit more than four sources; only the first four sources listed will be considered. 

If you have questions, please email your professor for assistance. It is also suggested you seek out the guidance of the CSU Writing Center; the writing specialists can assist you with your writing and comprehension of the assignment. To submit a Writing Center Request form, log in to the myCSU Student Portal. On your page, you will see My Courses. Next to your active course, click on Actions. A drop down will appear, and you can select Writing Center Request. 

The purpose of the annotated bibliography example is to help you with the formatting of the annotated bibliography, which can be confusing. Use the document formatting as a guide. If further assistance is needed, contact the Writing Center or your professor. 

The following conventions are expected to be followed throughout your project. Click


to view the Writing Center’s annotated bibliography example for guidance: 

  • Four selected reputable sources should be formatted in      6th edition APA style. 
  • Annotation paragraphs should be written after each of      the four sources (as outlined below). 
  • The entries should be ordered alphabetically. 
  • The entire annotated bibliography should be      double-spaced with no additional spaces between entries. 
  • No reference list should be included with the annotated      bibliography as the entries themselves will contain the reference list      citation information. 

If you are having trouble finding resources or distinguishing between what are and are not allowable publications, consult your professor or the CSU Online Library (

) for help or suggestions. 

The annotation paragraphs begin on the line following the end of the reference. See the Writing Center example to see how this should look. 

Each of the four entries should begin with a reference list citation in APA style and be followed by a 100- to 150-word summary of the source’s information. Your annotated bibliography should be at least two pages in length. An annotated bibliography summary should include the most important information from the text. Sometimes, this means that you will broadly summarize larger portions of text (i.e., main ideas); at other times, this means that you will focus on summarizing one paragraph out of an entire source. Whenever you quote information, use APA in-text citations.      



American after the Civil War:



Bensel, R. F. (2000). The political economy of American industrialization, 1877-1900. Cambridge [England: Cambridge University Press.

The author narrates the potential in the America as a nation. This was one of the reasons that contributed to its industrialization. It is richly endowed regarding mineral and other natural resources. These included coal that was necessary for burning in the locomotive engines and iron that was key in the manufacture of the machines. Availability of raw materials played a major role in the industrialization. There was an increase in competition among the western countries. Each country wanted to maintain its national prestige by leading in the industrialization. These lead to heightened tension. The governments invested heavily in the industrialization of their countries. America did not want to be outmatched by the European nations in the battle for supremacy. Therefore, America increased its exploitation of the available resources to maintain a steady source of raw materials and labor thus fostering the industrialization.

Meyer, D. R., & Centre for American Places. (2003). The roots of American industrialization. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

The author is bonafide historian and well versed in American history. One of the factors that author attributes to as causing the American industrialization was the population had increased significantly; therefore, labor was easily available in the American nation. The population was a mix of learned and not so learned folks. The highly learned folks helped champion the movement while the rest worked in the industries. Availability of cheap labor to run the machines and work in the industries greatly spurred the industrialization. Also, this was taking place during the time when slavery was rampant hence; slaves were a key source of cheap labor for the industries and cargo ships. The merchants in America at the time had the needed resources to sponsor in the building of the machines. The banks were available, especially in America and England. These financial institutions offered loan services for use as capital at good interest rates. Other Financial entities like insurance companies also played a key role in financing the acquisition and insurance of the machines

Rees, J. (2015). Industrialization and the Transformation of American life: a brief introduction. Routledge.

The book touches on the most crucial changes that resulted in the Industrialization Era that included; the use of steam, the discovery of machinery to perform the tasks of hand tools, mass usage of electric power and the adoption of the factory system. These inventions replaced the reliance on human muscles and animals. It is impossible to imagine the American society without machines to help out in the performance of work. The effects of the Industrialization are so deeply ingrained in the structure of the daily American routine that life without it would be impossible. The world without electricity for power, automobiles, and airplanes for quick transportation, telephones for communication. The industrialization occurred over a long period. This is about the time that people had worked entirely by hand. By the year1867, many inventions were being used in both manufacture and transportation. These instant changes in the way people’s lives were run deserve to be called a revolution. It is different from a political revolution, which in contrast, would have come to an end at a particular time in history, but this one keeps going on. Also, it differs in the greater effect it has had on the lives of people globally. Industrialization in the American society has grown in impact as new machines are continually discovered. Indeed, since the civil war the mechanization of the industry has increased so enormously that another phase of industrialization in production is taking place. There are many factors that collectively, played a role in causing the industrialization to take place at that time in history.

Scranton, P. (2000). Endless novelty: specialty production and American industrialization, 1865-1925. Princeton University Press.

The author mentions the increase in trade in America and globally as the major reason for the industrialization. The increase in commerce strained the manufacturers, thus had to innovate new methods of meeting the increased demand, so as to maximize their profits. Trade and industry have always been intertwined. They are always in competition and move in tandem. During the period after the civil war, world commerce grew sporadically thereby, leading to the term commercial revolution being coined for that era. Many factors led to increasing trade in America and the world, which in turn led to increased demand for faster and more efficient modes of manufacture. During the 19thn century, large quantities of goods were being exchanged between America and its neighbors prompting an increased demand. England was at the time a world leader in commerce, and the manufacture of cloth was its leading industry. There was in existence, systems of manufacturing goods before the Industrialization. Families in County districts produced their food, clothing and other items for consumption. In the cities, production was in the shops, like those of the medieval craftsmen. Good produced were limited in number, variety and were too costly. The merchants needed larger quantities at a cheaper price, thus leading to the industrialization.

Wallmeier, F.-J. (2011). Industrialization. Stuttgart: Klett.

The author discusses that factors that resulted in the industrialization included the technological advancement made during the post-civil war era. This era saw the discovery of new items of technology in the textile, communication, transport and processing industries. These resulted in cheaper means of production that was efficient and cost effective. There was a great thirst for knowledge in the 19th century. This period saw the opening of many institutions of learning that specialized in engineering and other technological fields. America had invested in many universities that taught and inspired many young investors to take up physics and engineering. These institutions nurtured scholars and great thinkers, who helped the actualization of the industrialization (Meyer & Centre for American Places, 2003).


The running
head is a
version of the
paper’s full title,
and it is used to
help readers
identify the
titles for
articles (even if
your paper is
not intended for
publication, your
paper should
still have a
running head).

Title of the Paper

Student Name

Columbia Southern University

The title
the paper’s
main idea and
identify the
and the

The author’s
name and
should be
and centered.

The title
should be
centered on
the page,
typed in 12-
point Times
New Roman
Font. It
should not be
underlined, or

Blue boxes contain
directions for writing
and citing in APA style.
Since this is a Review
of Literature with the
reference listed above
the summary, only
page numbers are
needed for quoted
material. Please check
with professors for
preferences on using
direct quotes.

Green text boxes
contain explanations
of APA style guidelines.


Title of the Paper

Etherington, M. (2008). E-Learning pedagogy in the primary school classroom: The

McDonaldization of education, Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 33(5), 3, 1-48.

Etherington describes the dehumanization of primary students as a direct result of online

pedagogy. He goes on to illustrate the potential problems that will stem from this:

“isolation, lack of community and decreased socialization of its learners….repetitive

stress injuries, eyestrain, obesity, and social isolation” (p. 43). His research also notes that

human advancement led them to create better technology. This technology led humans to

become reliant on machines solely, which in its brilliance demands social isolation.

“When a child gets on their computer….there is no sense of a physical connection – there

is only a mask that lies on top of a set of computer instructions” (p. 34). Further research

indicated that if a teacher were absent from the classroom, but were elsewhere conducting

an interactive activity, the children would not only leave the computer, but would have no

interest in the computer during this activity.

Lahey, B. B. (2007). Psychology: An introduction (9th ed.). Chicago, IL: McGraw-Hill


In this book, psychology is defined as “the science of behavior and mental processes” (p.

5). Further, it breaks down the terms that define psychology, and how they are used to

accomplish the goals of psychology. Science is the act of “psychologists attempt[ing] to

understand people through careful, controlled observation” (p. 5). Behavior is considered

any direct action that can be observed. Mental processes are any “private thoughts,

emotions, feelings, and motives that others cannot directly observe” (p. 5). Additionally,

this book goes into detail regarding the “nature versus nurture” debate, in which two

Notice the header and page numbers on this
page. The actual words Running head are not
on any other pages after the first page.

The full title of the
paper is repeated
here and centered.

Notice the header and page numbers on this
page. The actual words Running head are not
on any other pages after the first page.

In the
references are
listed in
order with the
following. The
references are
with a
indent. The
summary will
be formatted
with a block

Notice the
only in-text
needed is
page #s for
direct quotes.


This is how you cite a secondary source. It shows that Mead was quoted in a book by Macionis.
This is how to use Mead’s quote and still give credit to Macionis, who is the author of the book.
Notice the placement of the author and year and the page number after the quote.

researchers studied the effects of early social deprivation on monkeys by taking a group

of infant monkeys and raising them for the first few months of life in isolation. The

monkeys were then introduced to other monkeys, and later placed in breeding cages. “It

was then that the Harlows noticed that the social, sexual, and emotional behavior of these

monkeys was distinctly abnormal” (p. 319). Their research was further proven by the

birthing of baby monkeys.

Macionis, J. J. (2009). Society the basics (10th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice


This book defines socialization from an industry perspective: “sociologists use the term

socialization to refer to the lifelong social experience by which people develop their

human potential and learn culture” (p. 72). Further, this book states that “humans need

social experience to learn their culture and to survive” (p. 72). According to Mead (as

cited in Macionis, 2008), who developed social behaviorism and the central concept of

self, “the self develops only with social experience” (p. 77). Socialization is also critically

enhanced by children attending school. In school, they begin to recognize cultural, racial,

social, and gender differences. During this time, children also begin to form peer groups,

which permit “escape [from] direct supervision of adults” (p. 81) and they first begin to

learn to establish relationships outside the family. Also, this book illustrates the physical

manifestations that can result from a lack of socialization: become “more passive, less

physically fit, less likely to use imagination” (p. 82).

Nevid, J. S., Rathus, S. A., & Greene, B. (2009). Abnormal psychology in a changing world

(Custom ed.). New York, NY: Pearson Prentice Hall.


Avoidant personality disorder (similarly, social phobias), increased proneness to phobias:

terrified of rejection and criticism that they are generally unwilling to enter relationships.

As a result, they do not often have close relationships outside their family. Separation-

individuation: a process by which children learn to “differentiate their own identities

from their mothers” (p. 456). This can create a personality disorder in an adult who has

not been socialized outside the home and lead to separation anxiety. This type of anxiety

could lead to a borderline personality disorder in which people are not overly confident

about their personal characteristics, leading to feelings of emptiness and boredom.

Additionally, there are several communication disorders that can develop in children who

are not taught how to properly enunciate and articulate different letters, from expressive

language disorder, mixed receptive/expressive language disorder, and phonological

disorder, to stuttering.

Ross, W. E. (2000). The promise and perils of E-learning: A critical look at the new technology.

Theory and Research in Social Education, 28(4), 482-492.

To put into perspective the current popularity of online learning, Ross indicates that “over

85% of Fortune 500 companies use remote training” (p. 482). Additionally, Ross’s

research has found that while some high schools have already converted to the online

format, in Pennsylvania, there is “currently a proposal for a cyber-school that would

enroll children as young as 5 years old” (p. 482). Adults might be able to see how

destructive that is, but in Toronto, the Wired Culture Forum was hosted in which more

than 400 high school students expressed concern regarding technology taking over their

lives – an increasing reliance on machines, the internet isolating them individually, and

“how technology threatens their privacy and ability to relate to others” (p. 483). This is


especially disconcerting because, adults might be expected to notice an effect like this,

but as humanity continues to evolve, the younger generation (high school students) is

beginning to notice the possibility of the dangerous effects of primary children being left

to teach themselves in a fully online environment.

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