Posted: November 23rd, 2022

homy nutr

Week 1 Homework Assignment

50 points

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Part 1-After reading through the Zimmerman and Snow textbook on pages 101-105, define the following terms. You need to both explain what the acronym stands for and write a definition of what each one represents in your own words. (worth up to 10 pts)-

· DRI

· EAR

· RDA

· AI

· UL

Part 2-Using the DRI nutrient chart I provided you, complete this table for your specific age and sex displaying your DRIs for the following nutrients. Make sure you label the amount of each nutrient (mg/d, g/d, and micrograms/d). (worth 10 pts)

Nutrient

Place the amount of each nutrient needed for your age and sex here in this space

Carbohydrates

Fiber

Water

Protein

Vitamin A

Vitamin D

Vitamin E

Calcium

Iron

Sodium

Part 3-First read the Week 1 Learning Resource titled “How to Understand and Use the Nutrition Facts Label” and in the Zimmerman and Snow textbook pages 108-111. Then complete this chart to analyze three of your favorite foods found in your kitchen. Fill in the chart for the three foods. Don’t forget to label your numbers. (worth up to 15 pts).

Name of Product

Serving size

Total Calories

Calories from Fat

Total Fat (g)

Total Carbohydrates (g)

Dietary Fiber (g)

Protein (g)

Sodium (mg)

SAMPLE

Kashi Cereal Bar

1 bar (35g)

110

25

3g (5%)

21g (7%)

3g (10%)

2g

200 mg (8%)

Part 4-Please answer EACH of the following questions in a written paragraph below. Each question should be answered in one or two sentences to properly and fully complete the question. (worth up to 15 pts).

· Provide a brief explanation on if you think you do or do not meet these nutritional DRI requirements.

· Where do you think you fall the shortest on and how could you improve your daily diet? Be specific, which nutrient do you feel you lack the most? Why?

· How could you improve your nutritional intake on a daily basis? Don’t just say “I can eat better!” Make some specific suggestions as to what specific foods you could eat or habits you could implement to meet these nutritional needs.

· What did you learn about the food you are eating by filling in the food label chart? Were there any surprises for you?

· What healthier alternatives could you add to your kitchen to improve the nutritional value of some of your favorite foods? List some specific foods you could add to your pantry to help you eat healthier.

PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS

Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs): Estimated Average Requirements

Food and Nutrition Board, National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine

Life-Stage
Group

Calcium
(mg/d)

CHO
(g/d)

Protein
(g/kg/d)

Vit A
(g/d)a

Vit C
(mg/d)

Vit D
(g/d)

Vit E
(mg/d)b

Thiamin
(mg/d)

Ribo-
flavin

(mg/d)

Niacin
(mg/d)c

Vit B6
(mg/d)

Folate
(g/d)d

Vit
B12
(g/d)

Copper
(g/d)

Iodine
(g/d)

Iron
(mg/d)

Magnes-
ium
(mg/d)

Molyb-
denum
(g/d)

Phos-
phorus
(mg/d)

Sele-
nium
(g/d)

Zinc
(mg/d)

Infants

0–6 mo

7–12 mo 1.0 6.9 2.5
Children

1–3 y 500 100 0.87 210 13 10 5 0.4 0.4 5 0.4 120 0.7 260 65 3.0 65 13 380 17 2.5
4–8 y 800 100 0.76 275 22 10 6 0.5 0.5 6 0.5 160 1.0 340 65 4.1 110 17 405 23 4.0

Males
9–13 y 1,100 100 0.76 445 39 10 9 0.7 0.8 9 0.8 250 1.5 540 73 5.9 200 26 1,055 35 7.0

14–18 y 1,100 100 0.73 630 63 10 12 1.0 1.1 12 1.1 330 2.0 685 95 7.7 340 33 1,055 45 8.5
19–30 y 800 100 0.66 625 75 10 12 1.0 1.1 12 1.1 320 2.0 700 95 6 330 34 580 45 9.4
31–50 y 800 100 0.66 625 75 10 12 1.0 1.1 12 1.1 320 2.0 700 95 6 350 34 580 45 9.4
51–70 y 800 100 0.66 625 75 10 12 1.0 1.1 12 1.4 320 2.0 700 95 6 350 34 580 45 9.4
> 70 y 1,000 100 0.66 625 75 10 12 1.0 1.1 12 1.4 320 2.0 700 95 6 350 34 580 45 9.4
Females

9–13 y 1,100 100 0.76 420 39 10 9 0.7 0.8 9 0.8 250 1.5 540 73 5.7 200 26 1,055 35 7.0
14–18 y 1,100 100 0.71 485 56 10 12 0.9 0.9 11 1.0 330 2.0 685 95 7.9 300 33 1,055 45 7.3
19–30 y 800 100 0.66 500 60 10 12 0.9 0.9 11 1.1 320 2.0 700 95 8.1 255 34 580 45 6.8
31–50 y 800 100 0.66 500 60 10 12 0.9 0.9 11 1.1 320 2.0 700 95 8.1 265 34 580 45 6.8
51–70 y 1,000 100 0.66 500 60 10 12 0.9 0.9 11 1.3 320 2.0 700 95 5 265 34 580 45 6.8
> 70 y 1,000 100 0.66 500 60 10 12 0.9 0.9 11 1.3 320 2.0 700 95 5 265 34 580 45 6.8

Pregnancy
14–18 y 1,000 135 0.88 530 66 10 12 1.2 1.2 14 1.6 520 2.2 785 160 23 335 40 1,055 49 10.5
19–30 y 800 135 0.88 550 70 10 12 1.2 1.2 14 1.6 520 2.2 800 160 22 290 40 580 49 9.5
31–50 y 800 135 0.88 550 70 10 12 1.2 1.2 14 1.6 520 2.2 800 160 22 300 40 580 49 9.5

Lactation
14–18 y 1,000 160 1.05 885 96 10 16 1.2 1.3 13 1.7 450 2.4 985 209 7 300 35 1,055 59 10.9
19–30 y 800 160 1.05 900 100 10 16 1.2 1.3 13 1.7 450 2.4 1,000 209 6.5 255 36 580 59 10.4
31–50 y 800 160 1.05 900 100 10 16 1.2 1.3 13 1.7 450 2.4 1,000 209 6.5 265 36 580 59 10.4

NOTE: An Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) is the average daily nutrient intake level estimated to meet the requirements of half of the healthy individuals in a group. EARs have not been established for vitamin K,
pantothenic acid, biotin, choline, chromium, fluoride, manganese, potassium, sodium, chloride, or other nutrients not yet evaluated via the DRI process.

aAs retinol activity equivalents (RAEs). 1 RAE = 1 g retinol, 12 g -carotene, 24 g -carotene, or 24 g -cryptoxanthin. The RAE for dietary provitamin A carotenoids is two-fold greater than retinol equivalents (RE),
whereas the RAE for preformed vitamin A is the same as RE.
bAs -tocopherol. -Tocopherol includes RRR--tocopherol, the only form of -tocopherol that occurs naturally in foods, and the 2R-stereoisomeric forms of -tocopherol (RRR-, RSR-, RRS-, and RSS--tocopherol) that
occur in fortified foods and supplements. It does not include the 2S-stereoisomeric forms of -tocopherol (SRR-, SSR-, SRS-, and SSS--tocopherol), also found in fortified foods and supplements.
cAs niacin equivalents (NE). 1 mg of niacin = 60 mg of tryptophan.
dAs dietary folate equivalents (DFE). 1 DFE = 1 µg food folate = 0.6 µg of folic acid from fortified food or as a supplement consumed with food = 0.5 µg of a supplement taken on an empty stomach.

SOURCES: Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorous, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride (1997); Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid,
Biotin, and Choline (1998); Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids (2000); Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron,
Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc (2001); Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids (2002/2005); and Dietary Reference
Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D (2011). These reports may be accessed via www.nap.edu.

PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS

Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs): Recommended Dietary Allowances and Adequate Intakes, Vitamins

Food and Nutrition Board, National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
Life-Stage Vitamin A Vitamin C Vitamin D Vitamin E Vitamin K Thiamin Riboflavin Niacin Vitamin B6 Folate Vitamin B12 Pantothenic Biotin Choline
Group (µg/d)a (mg/d) (µg/d)b,c (mg/d) d (µg/d) (mg/d) (mg/d) (mg/d)e (mg/d) (µg/d)f (µg/d) Acid (mg/d) (µg/d) (mg/d)g

Infants
0–6 mo

400*

40*

10h

4*

2.0*

0.2*

0.3*

2*

0.1*

65*

0.4*

1.7*

5*

125*

7–12 mo 500* 50* 10h 5* 2.5* 0.3* 0.4* 4* 0.3* 80* 0.5* 1.8* 6* 150*
Children

1–3 y

300

15

15

6

30*

0.5

0.5

6

0.5

150

0.9

2*

8*

200*

4–8 y 400 25 15 7 55* 0.6 0.6 8 0.6 200 1.2 3* 12* 250*
Males

9–13 y

600

45

15

11

60*

0.9

0.9

12

1.0

300

1.8

4*

20*

375*

14–18 y 900 75 15 15 75* 1.2 1.3 16 1.3 400 2.4 5* 25* 550*
19–30 y 900 90 15 15 120* 1.2 1.3 16 1.3 400 2.4 5* 30* 550*
31–50 y 900 90 15 15 120* 1.2 1.3 16 1.3 400 2.4 5* 30* 550*
51–70 y 900 90 15 15 120* 1.2 1.3 16 1.7 400 2.4i 5* 30* 550*

> 70 y 900 90 20 15 120* 1.2 1.3 16 1.7 400 2.4i 5* 30* 550*
Females

9–13 y

600

45

15

11

60*

0.9

0.9

12

1.0

300

1.8

4*

20*

375*

14–18 y 700 65 15 15 75* 1.0 1.0 14 1.2 400j 2.4 5* 25* 400*
19–30 y 700 75 15 15 90* 1.1 1.1 14 1.3 400j 2.4 5* 30* 425*
31–50 y 700 75 15 15 90* 1.1 1.1 14 1.3 400j 2.4 5* 30* 425*
51–70 y 700 75 15 15 90* 1.1 1.1 14 1.5 400 2.4i 5* 30* 425*

> 70 y 700 75 20 15 90* 1.1 1.1 14 1.5 400 2.4i 5* 30* 425*
Pregnancy

14–18 y 750 80 15 15 75* 1.4 1.4 18 1.9 600k 2.6 6* 30* 450*
19–30 y 770 85 15 15 90* 1.4 1.4 18 1.9 600k 2.6 6* 30* 450*
31–50 y 770 85 15 15 90* 1.4 1.4 18 1.9 600k 2.6 6* 30* 450*

Lactation
14–18 y 1,200 115 15 19 75* 1.4 1.6 17 2.0 500 2.8 7* 35* 550*
19–30 y 1,300 120 15 19 90* 1.4 1.6 17 2.0 500 2.8 7* 35* 550*
31–50 y 1,300 120 15 19 90* 1.4 1.6 17 2.0 500 2.8 7* 35* 550*

NOTE: This table (taken from the DRI reports, see www.nap.edu) presents Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) in bold type and Adequate Intakes (AIs) in ordinary type followed by an asterisk (*).
An RDA is the average daily dietary intake level sufficient to meet the nutrient requirements of nearly all (97–98 percent) healthy individuals in a group. It is calculated from an Estimated Average
Requirement (EAR). If sufficient scientific evidence is not available to establish an EAR, and thus calculate an RDA, an AI is usually developed. For healthy breastfed infants, an AI is the mean intake. The AI
for other life-stage and gender groups is believed to cover the needs of all healthy individuals in the groups, but lack of data or uncertainty in the data prevent being able to specify with confidence the
percentage of individuals covered by this intake.

aAs retinol activity equivalents (RAEs). 1 RAE = 1 g retinol, 12 g -carotene, 24 g -carotene, or 24 g -cryptoxanthin. The RAE for dietary provitamin A carotenoids is two-fold greater than retinol
equivalents (RE), whereas the RAE for preformed vitamin A is the same as RE.
bAs cholecalciferol. 1 µg cholecalciferol = 40 IU vitamin D.
cUnder the assumption of minimal sunlight.
dAs -tocopherol. -Tocopherol includes RRR--tocopherol, the only form of -tocopherol that occurs naturally in foods, and the 2R-stereoisomeric forms of -tocopherol (RRR-, RSR-, RRS-, and RSS--
tocopherol) that occur in fortified foods and supplements. It does not include the 2S-stereoisomeric forms of -tocopherol (SRR-, SSR-, SRS-, and SSS--tocopherol), also found in fortified foods and
supplements.
eAs niacin equivalents (NE). 1 mg of niacin = 60 mg of tryptophan; 0–6 months = preformed niacin (not NE).

PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS

fAs dietary folate equivalents (DFE). 1 DFE = 1 µg food folate = 0.6 µg of folic acid from fortified food or as a supplement consumed with food = 0.5 µg of a supplement taken on an empty stomach.
gAlthough AIs have been set for choline, there are few data to assess whether a dietary supply of choline is needed at all stages of the life cycle, and it may be that the choline requirement can be met by
endogenous synthesis at some of these stages.
hLife-stage groups for infants were 0–5.9 and 6–11.9 months.
iBecause 10 to 30 percent of older people may malabsorb food-bound B12, it is advisable for those older than 50 years to meet their RDA mainly by consuming foods fortified with B12 or a supplement
containing B12.
jIn view of evidence linking folate intake with neural tube defects in the fetus, it is recommended that all women capable of becoming pregnant consume 400 µg from supplements or fortified foods in
addition to intake of food folate from a varied diet
kIt is assumed that women will continue consuming 400 µg from supplements or fortified food until their pregnancy is confirmed and they enter prenatal care, which ordinarily occurs after the end of the
periconceptional period—the critical time for formation of the neural tube.

SOURCES: Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorous, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride (1997); Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12,
Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline (1998); Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids (2000); Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron,
Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc (2001); Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate (2005); and Dietary
Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D (2011). These reports may be accessed via www.nap.edu.

PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS

Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs): Recommended Dietary Allowances and Adequate Intakes, Elements

Food and Nutrition Board, National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
Life-Stage Calcium Chromium Copper Fluoride Iodine Iron Magnesium Manganese Molybdenum Phosphorus Selenium Zinc Potassium Sodium Chloride
Group (mg/d) (µg/d) (µg/d) (mg/d) (µg/d) (mg/d) (mg/d) (mg/d) (µg/d) (mg/d) (µg/d) (mg/d) (mg/d) (mg/d) (g/d)

Infants
0–6 mo

200*a

0.2*

200*

0.01*

110*

0.27*

30*

0.003*

2*

100*

15*

2*

400*

110*

0.18*

7–12 mo 260*a 5.5* 220* 0.5* 130* 11 75* 0.6* 3* 275* 20* 3 860* 370* 0.57*
Children

1–3 y

700

11*

340

0.7*

90

7

80

1.2*

17

460

20

3

2,000*

800*

1.5*

4–8 y 1,000 15* 440 1* 90 10 130 1.5* 22 500 30 5 2,300* 1,000* 1.9*
Males

9–13 y

1,300

25*

700

2*

120

8

240

1.9*

34

1,250

40

8

2,500*

1,200*

2.3*

14–18 y 1,300 35* 890 3* 150 11 410 2.2* 43 1,250 55 11 3,000* 1,500* 2.3*
19–30 y 1,000 35* 900 4* 150 8 400 2.3* 45 700 55 11 3,400* 1,500* 2.3*
31–50 y 1,000 35* 900 4* 150 8 420 2.3* 45 700 55 11 3,400* 1,500* 2.3*
51–70 y 1,000 30* 900 4* 150 8 420 2.3* 45 700 55 11 3,400* 1,500* 2.0*

> 70 y 1,200 30* 900 4* 150 8 420 2.3* 45 700 55 11 3,400* 1,500* 1.8*
Females

9–13 y

1,300

21*

700

2*

120

8

240

1.6*

34

1,250

40

8

2,300*

1,200*

2.3*

14–18 y 1,300 24* 890 3* 150 15 360 1.6* 43 1,250 55 9 2,300* 1,500* 2.3*
19–30 y 1,000 25* 900 3* 150 18 310 1.8* 45 700 55 8 2,600* 1,500* 2.3*
31–50 y 1,000 25* 900 3* 150 18 320 1.8* 45 700 55 8 2,600* 1,500* 2.3*
51–70 y 1,200 20* 900 3* 150 8 320 1.8* 45 700 55 8 2,600* 1,500* 2.0*

> 70 y 1,200 20* 900 3* 150 8 320 1.8* 45 700 55 8 2,600* 1,500* 1.8*
Pregnancy

14–18 y 1,300 29* 1,000 3* 220 27 400 2.0* 50 1,250 60 12 2,600* 1,500* 2.3*
19–30 y 1,000 30* 1,000 3* 220 27 350 2.0* 50 700 60 11 2,900* 1,500* 2.3*
31–50 y 1,000 30* 1,000 3* 220 27 360 2.0* 50 700 60 11 2,900* 1,500* 2.3*

Lactation
14–18 y 1,300 44* 1,300 3* 290 10 360 2.6* 50 1,250 70 13 2,500* 1,500* 2.3*
19–30 y 1,000 45* 1,300 3* 290 9 310 2.6* 50 700 70 12 2,800* 1,500* 2.3*
31–50 y 1,000 45* 1,300 3* 290 9 320 2.6* 50 700 70 12 2,800* 1,500* 2.3*

NOTE: This table (taken from the DRI reports, see www.nap.edu) presents Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) in bold type and Adequate Intakes (AIs) in ordinary type followed by an asterisk
(*). An RDA is the average daily dietary intake level sufficient to meet the nutrient requirements of nearly all (97–98 percent) healthy individuals in a group. It is calculated from an Estimated Average
Requirement (EAR). If sufficient scientific evidence is not available to establish an EAR, and thus calculate an RDA, an AI is usually developed. For healthy breastfed infants, an AI is the mean intake.
The AI for other life-stage and gender groups is believed to cover the needs of all healthy individuals in the groups, but lack of data or uncertainty in the data prevent being able to specify with
confidence the percentage of individuals covered by this intake.

aLife-stage groups for infants were 0–5.9 and 6–11.9 months.

SOURCES: Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorous, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride (1997); Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin
B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline (1998); Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids (2000); and Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K,
Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc (2001); Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate
(2005); Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D (2011); and Dietary Reference Intakes for Sodium and Potassium (2019). These reports may be accessed via www.nap.edu.

PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS

Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs): Recommended Dietary Allowances and Adequate
Intakes, Total Water and Macronutrients

Food and Nutrition Board, National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine

Life-Stage

Total
Watera

Carbohydrate

Total
Fiber

Fat

Linoleic
Acid

-Linolenic
Acid

Proteinb

Group (L/d) (g/d) (g/d) (g/d) (g/d) (g/d) (g/d)
Infants

0–6 mo

0.7*

60*

ND

31*

4.4*

0.5*

9.1*

7–12 mo 0.8* 95* ND 30* 4.6* 0.5* 11.0
Children

1–3 y

1.3*

130

19*

NDc

7*

0.7*

13

4–8 y 1.7* 130 25* ND 10* 0.9* 19
Males

9–13 y

2.4*

130

31*

ND

12*

1.2*

34

14–18 y 3.3* 130 38* ND 16* 1.6* 52
19–30 y 3.7* 130 38* ND 17* 1.6* 56
31–50 y 3.7* 130 38* ND 17* 1.6* 56
51–70 y 3.7* 130 30* ND 14* 1.6* 56

> 70 y 3.7* 130 30* ND 14* 1.6* 56
Females

9–13 y

2.1*

130

26*

ND

10*

1.0*

34

14–18 y 2.3* 130 26* ND 11* 1.1* 46
19–30 y 2.7* 130 25* ND 12* 1.1* 46
31–50 y 2.7* 130 25* ND 12* 1.1* 46
51–70 y 2.7* 130 21* ND 11* 1.1* 46

> 70 y 2.7* 130 21* ND 11* 1.1* 46
Pregnancy

14–18 y 3.0* 175 28* ND 13* 1.4* 71
19–30 y 3.0* 175 28* ND 13* 1.4* 71
31–50 y 3.0* 175 28* ND 13* 1.4* 71

Lactation
14–18 y 3.8* 210 29* ND 13* 1.3* 71
19–30 y 3.8* 210 29* ND 13* 1.3* 71
31–50 y 3.8* 210 29* ND 13* 1.3* 71

NOTE: This table (taken from the DRI reports, see www.nap.edu) presents Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA)
in bold type and Adequate Intakes (AI) in ordinary type followed by an asterisk (*). An RDA is the average daily
dietary intake level sufficient to meet the nutrient requirements of nearly all (97–98 percent) healthy individuals in a
group. It is calculated from an Estimated Average Requirement (EAR). If sufficient scientific evidence is not available
to establish an EAR, and thus calculate an RDA, an AI is usually developed. For healthy breastfed infants, an AI is the
mean intake. The AI for other life-stage and gender groups is believed to cover the needs of all healthy individuals in the
groups, but lack of data or uncertainty in the data prevent being able to specify with confidence the percentage of
individuals covered by this intake.

aTotal water includes all water contained in food, beverages, and drinking water.
bBased on g protein per kg of body weight for the reference body weight (e.g., for adults 0.8 g/kg body weight for
the reference body weight).
cNot determined.

SOURCE: Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and
Amino Acids (2002/2005) and Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate (2005).
These reports may be accessed via www.nap.edu.

PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS

Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs): Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges

Food and Nutrition Board, National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
Range (percent of energy)
Macronutrient Children, 1–3 y Children, 4–18 y Adults
Fat 30–40 25–35 20–35

n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids a (linoleic acid) 5–10 5–10 5–10
n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acidsa (-linolenic

acid)
0.6–1.2 0.6–1.2 0.6–1.2

Carbohydrate 45–65 45–65 45–65
Protein 5–20 10–30 10–35

aApproximately 10 percent of the total can come from longer-chain n-3 or n-6 fatty acids.
SOURCE: Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids (2002/2005). The report may be accessed via
www.nap.edu.

Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs): Additional Macronutrient Recommendations

Food and Nutrition Board, National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
Macronutrient Recommendation
Dietary cholesterol As low as possible while consuming a nutritionally adequate diet
Trans fatty acids As low as possible while consuming a nutritionally adequate diet
Saturated fatty acids As low as possible while consuming a nutritionally adequate diet
Added sugarsa Limit to no more than 25% of total energy

aNot a recommended intake. A daily intake of added sugars that individuals should aim for to achieve a healthful diet was not set.
SOURCE: Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids (2002/2005). The report may be accessed via
www.nap.edu.

Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs): Chronic Disease Risk Reduction Intakes

Food and Nutrition Board, National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
Nutrient Population Group Recommendation
Sodium Children, 1–3 y Reduce intakes if above 1,200 mg/daya
Children, 4–8 y Reduce intakes if above 1,500 mg/daya
Children, 9–13 y Reduce intakes if above 1,800 mg/daya
Children, 14–18 y Reduce intakes if above 2,300 mg/daya
Adults, 19+ y Reduce intakes if above 2,300 mg/day

aExtrapolated from the adult Chronic Disease Risk Reduction Intake (CDRR) based on sedentary Estimated Energy Requirements (EER).
SOURCE: Dietary Reference Intakes for Sodium and Potassium (2019). The report may be accessed via www.nap.edu.

PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS

Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs): Tolerable Upper Intake Levels, Vitamins

Food and Nutrition Board, National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine

Life-Stage
Group

Vitamin A
(µg/d)a

Vitamin C
(mg/d)

Vitamin D
(g/d)

Vitamin E
(mg/d)b,c

Vitamin K

Thia-
min

Ribo-
flavin
Niacin
(mg/d)c

Vitamin B6
(mg/d)

Folate
(g/d)c

Vitamin B12

Panto-
thenic Acid

Bio-
tin

Cho-
line
(g/d) Carotenoidsd

Infants
06 mo 600 NDe 25f ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND
712 mo 600 ND 38f ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND

Children
13 y 600 400 63 200 ND ND ND 10 30 300 ND ND ND 1.0 ND
48 y 900 650 75 300 ND ND ND 15 40 400 ND ND ND 1.0 ND

Males
913 y 1,700 1,200 100 600 ND ND ND 20 60 600 ND ND ND 2.0 ND

1418 y 2,800 1,800 100 800 ND ND ND 30 80 800 ND ND ND 3.0 ND
1930 y 3,000 2,000 100 1,000 ND ND ND 35 100 1,000 ND ND ND 3.5 ND
3150 y 3,000 2,000 100 1,000 ND ND ND 35 100 1,000 ND ND ND 3.5 ND
5170 y 3,000 2,000 100 1,000 ND ND ND 35 100 1,000 ND ND ND 3.5 ND

> 70 y 3,000 2,000 100 1,000 ND ND ND 35 100 1,000 ND ND ND 3.5 ND
Females

913 y 1,700 1,200 100 600 ND ND ND 20 60 600 ND ND ND 2.0 ND
1418 y 2,800 1,800 100 800 ND ND ND 30 80 800 ND ND ND 3.0 ND
1930 y 3,000 2,000 100 1,000 ND ND ND 35 100 1,000 ND ND ND 3.5 ND
3150 y 3,000 2,000 100 1,000 ND ND ND 35 100 1,000 ND ND ND 3.5 ND
5170 y 3,000 2,000 100 1,000 ND ND ND 35 100 1,000 ND ND ND 3.5 ND

> 70 y 3,000 2,000 100 1,000 ND ND ND 35 100 1,000 ND ND ND 3.5 ND
Pregnancy

1418 y 2,800 1,800 100 800 ND ND ND 30 80 800 ND ND ND 3.0 ND
1930 y 3,000 2,000 100 1,000 ND ND ND 35 100 1,000 ND ND ND 3.5 ND
3150 y 3,000 2,000 100 1,000 ND ND ND 35 100 1,000 ND ND ND 3.5 ND

Lactation
1418 y 2,800 1,800 100 800 ND ND ND 30 80 800 ND ND ND 3.0 ND
1930 y 3,000 2,000 100 1,000 ND ND ND 35 100 1,000 ND ND ND 3.5 ND
3150 y 3,000 2,000 100 1,000 ND ND ND 35 100 1,000 ND ND ND 3.5 ND

NOTE: A Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) is the highest level of daily nutrient intake that is likely to pose no risk of adverse health effects to almost all individuals in the general population. Unless otherwise
specified, the UL represents total intake from food, water, and supplements. Because of a lack of suitable data, ULs could not be established for vitamin K, thiamin, riboflavin, vitamin B12, pantothenic acid, biotin,
and carotenoids. In the absence of a UL, extra caution may be warranted in consuming levels above recommended intakes. Members of the general population should be advised not to routinely exceed the UL.
The UL is not meant to apply to individuals who are treated with the nutrient under medical supervision or to individuals with predisposing conditions that modify their sensitivity to the nutrient.

aAs preformed vitamin A only.

PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS

bAs -tocopherol; applies to any form of supplemental -tocopherol.
cThe ULs for vitamin E, niacin, and folate apply to synthetic forms obtained from supplements, fortified foods, or a combination of the two.
d-Carotene supplements are advised only to serve as a provitamin A source for individuals at risk of vitamin A deficiency.
eND = Not determinable owing to lack of data of adverse effects in this age group and concern with regard to lack of ability to handle excess amounts. Source of intake should be from food only to prevent high
levels of intake.
fLife-stage groups for infants were 0–5.9 and 6–11.9 months.

SOURCES: Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorous, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride (1997); Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12,
Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline (1998); Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids (2000); Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron,
Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc (2001); and Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D (2011). These reports may be accessed via
www.nap.edu.

PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS

Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs): Tolerable Upper Intake Levels, Elements

Food and Nutrition Board, National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine

Life-Stage
Group

Arsenica

Boron
(mg/d)

Calcium
(mg/d)

Chrom-
ium

Copper
(µg/d)

Fluoride
(mg/d)

Iodine
(µg/d)

Iron
(mg/d)

Magnes-
ium
(mg/d)b

Man-
ganese
(mg/d)

Molyb-
denum
(µg/d)

Nickel
(mg/d)

Phos-
phorus
(g/d)

Potas-
sium

Selenium
(µg/d)

Siliconc

Sul-
fate

Vana-
dium
(mg/d)d

Zinc
(mg/d)

Sod-
iume

Chlo-
ride
(g/d)

Infants
06 mo NDf ND 1,000g ND ND 0.7 ND 40 ND ND ND ND ND NDh 45 ND ND ND 4 NDh ND

712 mo ND ND 1,500g ND ND 0.9 ND 40 ND ND ND ND ND NDh 60 ND ND ND 5 NDh ND
Children

13 y ND 3 2,500 ND 1,000 1.3 200 40 65 2 300 0.2 3 NDh 90 ND ND ND 7 NDh 2.3
48 y ND 6 2,500 ND 3,000 2.2 300 40 110 3 600 0.3 3 NDh 150 ND ND ND 12 NDh 2.9

Males
913 y ND 11 3,000 ND 5,000 10 600 40 350 6 1,100 0.6 4 NDh 280 ND ND ND 23 NDh 3.4

1418 y ND 17 3,000 ND 8,000 10 900 45 350 9 1,700 1.0 4 NDh 400 ND ND ND 34 NDh 3.6
1930 y ND 20 2,500 ND 10,000 10 1,100 45 350 11 2,000 1.0 4 NDh 400 ND ND 1.8 40 NDh 3.6
3150 y ND 20 2,500 ND 10,000 10 1,100 45 350 11 2,000 1.0 4 NDh 400 ND ND 1.8 40 NDh 3.6
5170 y ND 20 2,000 ND 10,000 10 1,100 45 350 11 2,000 1.0 4 NDh 400 ND ND 1.8 40 NDh 3.6

> 70 y ND 20 2,000 ND 10,000 10 1,100 45 350 11 2,000 1.0 3 NDh 400 ND ND 1.8 40 NDh 3.6
Females

913 y ND 11 3,000 ND 5,000 10 600 40 350 6 1,100 0.6 4 NDh 280 ND ND ND 23 NDh 3.4
1418 y ND 17 3,000 ND 8,000 10 900 45 350 9 1,700 1.0 4 NDh 400 ND ND ND 34 NDh 3.6
1930 y ND 20 2,500 ND 10,000 10 1,100 45 350 11 2,000 1.0 4 NDh 400 ND ND 1.8 40 NDh 3.6
3150 y ND 20 2,500 ND 10,000 10 1,100 45 350 11 2,000 1.0 4 NDh 400 ND ND 1.8 40 NDh 3.6
5170 y ND 20 2,000 ND 10,000 10 1,100 45 350 11 2,000 1.0 4 NDh 400 ND ND 1.8 40 NDh 3.6

> 70 y ND 20 2,000 ND 10,000 10 1,100 45 350 11 2,000 1.0 3 NDh 400 ND ND 1.8 40 NDh 3.6
Pregnancy

1418 y ND 17 3,000 ND 8,000 10 900 45 350 9 1,700 1.0 3.5 NDh 400 ND ND ND 34 NDh 3.6
1930 y ND 20 2,500 ND 10,000 10 1,100 45 350 11 2,000 1.0 3.5 NDh 400 ND ND ND 40 NDh 3.6
3150 y ND 20 2,500 ND 10,000 10 1,100 45 350 11 2,000 1.0 3.5 NDh 400 ND ND ND 40 NDh 3.6

Lactation
1418 y ND 17 3,000 ND 8,000 10 900 45 350 9 1,700 1.0 4 NDh 400 ND ND ND 34 NDh 3.6
1930 y ND 20 2,500 ND 10,000 10 1,100 45 350 11 2,000 1.0 4 NDh 400 ND ND ND 40 NDh 3.6
3150 y ND 20 2,500 ND 10,000 10 1,100 45 350 11 2,000 1.0 4 NDh 400 ND ND ND 40 NDh 3.6

NOTE: A Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) is the highest level of daily nutrient intake that is likely to pose no risk of adverse health effects to almost all individuals in the general population. Unless otherwise specified,
the UL represents total intake from food, water, and supplements. Because of a lack of suitable data, ULs could not be established for arsenic, chromium, potassium, silicon, sulfate, or sodium. In the absence of a UL,
extra caution may be warranted in consuming levels above recommended intakes. Members of the general population should be advised not to routinely exceed the UL. The UL is not meant to apply to individuals who
are treated with the nutrient under medical supervision or to individuals with predisposing conditions that modify their sensitivity to the nutrient.

aAlthough the UL was not determined for arsenic, there is no justification for adding arsenic to food or supplements.
b The ULs for magnesium represent intake from a pharmacological agent only and do not include intake from food and water.

PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS

cAlthough silicon has not been shown to cause adverse effects in humans, there is no justification for adding silicon to supplements.
dAlthough vanadium in food has not been shown to cause adverse effects in humans, there is no justification for adding vanadium to food and vanadium supplements should be used with caution. The UL is based on
adverse effects in laboratory animals, and this data could be used to set a UL for adults but not children and adolescents.
eThe lowest level of intake for which there was sufficient strength of evidence to characterize a chronic disease risk reduction was used to derive the sodium Chronic Disease Risk Reduction Intake (CDRR) values.
fND = Not determinable owing to lack of data of adverse effects in this age group and concern with regard to lack of ability to handle excess amounts. Source of intake should be from food only to prevent high levels
of intake.
gLife-stage groups for infants were 0–5.9 and 6–11.9 months.
hND = Not determinable owing to a lack of a specific toxicological effect.

SOURCES: Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorous, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride (1997); Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic
Acid, Biotin, and Choline (1998); Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids (2000); Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine,
Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc (2001); Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate (2005); Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D
(2011); and Dietary Reference Intakes for Sodium and Potassium (2019). These reports may be accessed via www.nap.edu

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