Posted: October 27th, 2022

Exceptional Learners

Exceptional Learners. Identify factors they would need to consider in mainstreaming the following students: (any 5) 2 pages.

  1. A moderately retarded 11-year-old
  2. A learning disabled 9-year-old who cannot read  but has high intelligence
  3. A hyperactive 5-year-old with attention deficit disorder
  4. A blind 17-year-old with average intelligence
  5. A 6-year-old in a wheelchair
  6. A blind, deaf, autistic, 15-year-old
  7. A 7-year-old who speaks five languages and has serious hobbies in physics and astronomy
  8. A 12-year-old with high intelligence but limited proficiency in English

It may be helpful to review the Individuals with Disabilities in Education Act [IDEA] before setting up the mainstreaming situation. Considering the nature of items to be included in IEPs for some of the students indicated above

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Our Amazing Exceptional Students

  Working with exceptional students is an often a great benefit for teachers who are able to perceive their children in many different ways which work best for students’ needs. It Is beneficial because our students are very honest and outright with their emotional/social relationship with teachers as not every other students do. These relationship between teachers and students are the base in their education process, because that much the students follow teachers as much they feel “comfortable with them”. The word “comfortable “ means that the student feel accepted by teachers exactly how they are and that they feel that teachers understand them and support them in many different ways. This relationship are a key for special education, and even this field often is very challenged for teachers, could be also the “dream job” which give the teachers many opportunities to understand children with special needs and learn from them about personal determination, motivation and humanity.

Students with multiple disorders need to be in supervision and special teachers attention considered on the students’ needs and abilities. This extraordinary relationship between student and his educator, required blind, deaf, autistic child has limited communication options because of his disability therefore it is necessary to increase his communication skills by using hand on hand signing, sensory therapy, massage, Paul Denisson and Veronica Sherborne methods. All this sensory-communication methods support the child cognitive/emotional/social development, understanding about the world in which this child is living and also reduces a lot of his anxieties. Senses make a huge difference in Autistic / blind / deaf child life therefore the Sense Day Services are very important for these children. These services use the basic methods reach with many senses such as massage and art, which are a base of these students development. Arts and crafts use to help to development students senses of touch to have confidence in exploration. The massage is often use to support deaf/blind autistic child and his sense of touch to explore, to receive touch from another person. Using massage to accept touch tolerance is not just a form of relaxation. It can take a client down many other avenues like communication. They also teach them sign language and other simple or more complex form of communication, depends of student cognitive/emotional skills and physical condition. Using a sign language as a blind/deaf / autistic child required very much hands on, so the therapists and teachers have to get round tactile defensiveness. There is not really explicit rules for working with autistic children especially if they have additional disorders. Most schools in United States , especially in New Jersey , work with autistic children using an ABA Method. However; not every teachers preferred it or believed that this method is really effective for autistic children. The controversy is in base of the form of that method ,which doesn’t look “natural” and often brings an effects only in the beginning of the in the educational process. Autistic children often have a very good memory and they are feel comfortable in their daily routine which eliminate “natural” surrounding perception, reaction and flexibility which are important for social skills. Therefore; teachers who want to support their students with Autism Disorder, especially students with additional dysfunction such as blindness or deafness, should use many different kinds of method which give most benefit for every student and help them to “find them their right place in society”.

Difficulty paying attention to details, difficulty sustaining attention, often unable to follow through on tasks, trouble with organization, avoiding tasks requiring sustained mental effort, losing things, easily distracted, forgetful in daily activities; all these are only some of the symptoms of a hyperactive 5-year-old with attention deficit disorder –ADHD. In case with students with ADHD, some methods are the same or similar as in methods which are often using with autistic children. These students need a lot of sensory therapy, working on a task by using any methods which help them with concentration and following teacher’s instructions. Similar to the autistic children, students with ADHD are need a supervision and behavioral therapy which help them better control themselves and increase their skills of communication with their closest family members, teachers, friends, classmates. However all these forms of therapy really depends of the every student’s abilities, dysfunctions and motivation. It is also very important and beneficial for students if his parents and other family members follow the teachers commends, instructions and suggestions about this student. Many students with ADHD are have better opportunities for their future than autistic children, because they can be on a medical treatment which with the nutrition diet often brings an positive effects on their attention and psycho/emotional balance. All these positive factors give the students with ADHD chance for a “normal” life and their independent social interaction in closest society.

Other group of students with special needs are a children with learning difficulties . Of course; in this case, the process of special education will be different for every student, depends of his/her weakness and straightness. Therefore; the teachers are will use different methods for a moderately retarded 11-year-old and different for a learning disabled 9-year-old who cannot read but has high intelligence. Often it is a big difference between the students with mental retardation and students with some learning difficulties. The moderately retarded 11-year-old will learn slower and much less than a ( years old child with learning disability. However in both cases the cognitive development is affected and they both need to look for a re- compensation from the brain, by using the other strong skills and senses which will “ fill up” the gap of their weakness. This re-compensation process is necessary for students with special needs. Children with mental retardation Depends of the developmental level)work often on a basic program which includes all fundamental knowledge from almost every school subject such as Math, Language, Biology, History itp. They need to be treated on daily duties and life/ social skills. They need often speech therapy for more effective communication with other people, their families, siblings, peers. They also need to be trained for basic job position or home duties and responsibilities in their future. The teachers should motivated them verbally and also by rewards, for staying on a task, good behavior and any other positive respond on teachers commends or requests. Some of these students are able to achieve some independence skills ; however they need to be on supervision by teachers, family members or other guardians who keep the eyes on their cognitive/ emotional /social development.

This situation looks different in the case of 9-year-old who cannot read but has high intelligence who has much better and wider future opportunity for getting job or being independent in the society. In this student case will be very helpful sign language with continuing language skills, Glenn Doman Method of “global learning reading skills” and Gail and Paul Denisson for brain stimulation. Both these methods are often use in Europe for children with learning difficulties and they are both very effective. Furthermore; the speech therapy will be a base for impove and increase this students language skills.

Other situation has a 6-year-old in a wheelchair, who is unable to walk and the physical skills are really challenged for him. This child need a lot of physical therapy and occupational therapy for increasing his physical skills or just for “keeping them on the same level” instead a regress. Every school and public institution should be prepared for the the children on a wheel chairs. Also these children require often a 1/1 guardian(family member or from the school district) for safety and support with functioning in society. All these factors in of these students physical disability could be very challenged for them. However; these students with physical dysfunctions often are much more independent than the children with mental disorders.

In conclusion, all these kinds of students with multiple disorders should be able to increase and improve their skills, by using methods which focused on their string skills and abilities in process of cognitive/ physical re compensation. All these students can be successful “on their own” level and abilities, by being supporting by teachers with their enthusiasm and determination.

CHAPTER
TEACHERS, SCHOOLS, AND SOCIETY
TENTH EDITION
DAVID MILLER SADKER
KAREN R. ZITTLEMAN
Sadker/Zittleman, Teachers, Schools, and Society, Tenth Edition. © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

Different Ways
of Learning
2
McGraw-Hill
© 2013 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved.

Sadker/Zittleman, Teachers, Schools, and Society, Tenth Edition. © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

2-*
GARDNER’S THEORY OF MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES
2.1

1. Logical-mathematical
2. Linguistic
3. Bodily-kinesthetic
4. Musical
5. Spatial
6. Interpersonal
7. Intrapersonal
8. Naturalist

Sadker/Zittleman, Teachers, Schools, and Society, Tenth Edition. © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

2-*
FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO
LEARNING STYLES
Figure 2.1
2.2

Sadker/Zittleman, Teachers, Schools, and Society, Tenth Edition. © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

2-*
TEACHING TIPS FOR INCORPORATING A VARIETY OF LEARNING STYLES
Visual Learners
Use guided imagery and illustrations.
Create graphs or charts of important information.
Student-generated responses…

Auditory Learners
Encourage students to study with a friend, so they can talk through
important concepts.
Create a safe classroom community where students feel welcome to
ask questions.
Student-generated responses…

Kinesthetic/Tactile Learners
Use role-plays to bring important concepts to life.
Encourage students to underline or color-code reading materials to help
focus their attention.
Student-generated responses…
2.3

Sadker/Zittleman, Teachers, Schools, and Society, Tenth Edition. © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

2-*
CHARACTERISTICS OF GIFTEDNESS
Figure 2.2
2.4

Sadker/Zittleman, Teachers, Schools, and Society, Tenth Edition. © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

2-*
CRITICAL PRINCIPLES OF SPECIAL EDUCATION

Zero reject
Nondiscriminatory education
Appropriate education
Least-restrictive environment
Procedural due process
Individualized education program (IEP)

2.6

Sadker/Zittleman, Teachers, Schools, and Society, Tenth Edition. © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

2-*
APPROPRIATE EDUCATION IN THE LEAST RESTRICTIVE ENVIRONMENT
2.7
Figure 2.3
SOURCE: Adapted from: William Heward, Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special Education, 10th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Macmillan/Prentice-Hall, 2012, p. 78.

Sadker/Zittleman, Teachers, Schools, and Society, Tenth Edition. © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

2-*
DISTRIBUTION OF STUDENTS SERVED
UNDER IDEA
Figure 2.4
2.8
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, Condition of Education: Children and Youth with Disabilities (2011).

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