Financial Control Through Strategic Planning In Organizations Accounting Essay

Organizations are striving in these days to stay competitive in turbulent business world. Strategic planning become very integral part of all successful organizations. If organizations don’t care about strategic goals then this competitive business world just kick out from the rivals. Finance is life blood of every organization in the world if organization has insufficient finance to run their operations they couldn’t survive long term.

Enterprise resource planning consists of lots of information system within the organization, for instance management information system, human resource information system, accounting and finance information system, the size of ERP depend on the size of the organization which facilitate organization to run their operations effectively and efficiently. But our concern in this essay regarding finance information system and planning. How management of the organization plan to finance their operations and how they make check and balance on the finance function system with other information system.

Financial system is main functioning of the orgainsaitons. This system control billions of regular transaction everyday. The main purpose of financial system within the orgainsation to manage the organisation cash flows. If financial system run properly then organization has confidence its safe and stable.

In the first part of this essay my focus on the explore the relationship between financial system and other system in the organisation, how important and run with each other and well integrated. What are the system of accounts and financial statements organizations used to control its financial system. There are five financial statements for instance income statement, balance sheet, cash flow statement, statement of change in equity and notes to the accounts. These statements show the financial health of organisation.

Second part of this essay is base on the numerical part and explanation for that I construct hypothetical example of budget data regarding pizza company. Compare the actual budget with planned budget and find how we know about the variance. Then how management take corrective actions on these variance and area of conflict in financial control and management steps to minimise these conflicts.

In last part I identify the how organisation finance its operations I discuss some source of finance and how management allocate finance to achieve maximum efficiency and how management can control on financial distribution in organisation.

1.1 Assess the relationship(s) between a financial system or function and other systems or functions in an organisation

Elbanna and Amany (2006) stated that there is a close connection between the finance function on the one hand and production, procurement, marketing, personnel function on the other. approximately all business activities in an organization engage the attainment and use of finances. The purpose of production, procurement and marketing strategies are the privilege of the head of production, purchase and marketing divisions correspondingly, but for implement their decisions funds are necessary. For instance, the production department might decide to swap an old machine with a new to boost the production capacity but it has financial allusions too. likewise, the buy and sales promotion policies are lay down by the purchase and marketing divisions correspondingly, but acquiring of materials, advertising and other sales advertising activities cannot be agreed out without finance. Likewise, the employment and promotion of personnel is the accountability of the personnel department but recruitment and promotion of employees require funds for the payment of wages, salaries and other remuneration.

Many times, it may be difficult to separate where the one function trimmings and other starts. It might, though be noted that although the finance function of lifting and use funds has a important consequence on other functions, it need no boundary or hinder the common functions of the business. It is likely that firm face financial problems might provide more weight age to financial deliberation and plan its own manufacture and marketing policies to outfit the position. If we look other side of the picture a firm with a lot of funds might not have much inflexibility with observe to financial deliberations in relation to other management functions. In such a firm, financial strategies might be attuned to the requirements of the decisions describing to manufacture, procurement, marketing and other functions.

1.2 Describe the systems of accounts and financial statements used to control a financial system

Although the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) put the rules by

which the accounting occupation must stand, the warmth industry also sets actions

and rules for its a variety of sections to make sure comparability, responsibility,

and significant practice of accounting data. For new workers, those systems

yet act as turnkey accounting systems. This way the system has all incorporated

and is prepared to be used in operations. The three most used and renowned

systems in the business are for the accommodation, foodservice, and association areas. There are at present one under progress for the food industry.

Why are such industry-specific systems needed? If every industry follows the

FASB’s rules, couldn’t every then have the right accounting information? In

theory, yes. though, FASB rules are printed for the whole accounting career.

Hospitality has accounts other industries do not, and vice versa. For example, a

restaurant will not contain a reduction account for an oil rig, but a restaurant does need an accretion depreciation account for furniture, fixtures, and equipment.

Even within the hospitality industry there are differences.

A hotel industry is different from a club industry, and a club is different from a theme park. Hotels have room revenues food, country clubs have membership dues, and theme parks have

admissions fees. There are optional procedures to classify convinced charge or identification of accounts. The accounting information give is more helpful not just for the companies

themselves but also for investors, creditors, and even employees (Bratton, 2004).

“The Uniform System of Accounts for Restaurants, first published in 1927, is currently

in its seventh edition. It provides sample statements, analysis blueprints, classification

of accounts, and an expense dictionary. The aim of this publication, like

that of the lodging and club industries, is to assist operators to interpret financial

results in a more meaningful manner.( Weygandt et all, 2005)”

2.1 Construct a budget for an area of management responsibility

2.2 Develop budgetary control systems and compare actual with planned expenditure

Setting standards, the impartiality of the quantity and the person who process and evaluate the performance are significant. Measuring and comparing be able to be proficient by the person performing the job, by the superior, or by a workers person; yet an automatic system can measure and compare. From a behavioural point of view, the most recent method is the slightest popular, followed by measurement by a staff person just.

An employee considers an automatic system, a staff person, or still the manager does not be acquainted with sufficient about the conditions of the job to make a flaxen comparison between real and intended results.

in addition, the employee frequently distrusts the staff person and from time to time even the manager. At the similar, the employee is typically not trustworthy enough by the organisation to carry out the measurement and comparison unaccompanied. The best solution is to have the measurement done by the person most trusted by the employee and to agree to the employee some input.

Domino pizza make baked packed of pizzas which it sells for £60. The standard variable costs of the product are as follows (there are no variable overhead).

3 units of product A category of pizzas @ £ 4 per unit

2 labour [email protected] £11 per hours

The fixed overhead per month are £ 20000

It is budgeted that 1200 units will be produced and sold per month

The actual data for July 2009 were as follows:

Sales and production (units) 1300

Actual sales price £58

Raw materials used were 4000 units bought in at £ 4.20 per units. The labour hours incurred were 2800 hours at £ 11 per hour whilst the fixed overhead incurred were £ 18000.

Items

Budget

Actual

Sales

72000

75400

material

14400

16800

Labour

26400

30800

Fixed overhead

20000

18000

Profit

11200

9800

Budgeted profit

11200

Material usage variance

-400

((1300*3)-4000)*4

Material price variance

-800

((4-4.2)*4000

Labour efficiency variance

-2200

((1300*2)-2800)*11

Labour rate variance

0

(11-11)*5800

Overhead expenditure variance

2000

20000-18000

Sales volume variance

2600

(1300-1200)*(60-12-22)

Sales price variance

-2600

-1400

(58-60)*1300

Actual profit

9800

2.3 Discuss corrective actions to be taken in response to budgetary variations

unfortunate forecasting of field situation; weather and occasion in the future ways thorough and idyllic surveys in the direction of the field condition and foregoing weather data scanty planning in degree of work exactly study the job items, sequence and methods of the job activities adverse material preparation get prepared a detailed materials plan planning in harmony with scope of work.

pitiable judgment and budgeting of materials cost arrange a precise and thorough budgeting support on direct market surveys Poor expansion and function of the standard work procedure assess the obtainable standard method in accord with the scope of work, situation, condition and environment deprived market forecast conduct a pre survey in accordance with market to enable making the right price estimation poor data and information of activity and materials conduct data attainment to make a good and complete data & information.

Shortage of materials in the market use material substitution and correct price so based on the material particular. Alter of materials basis condition to the project location suggest material replacement. divergence of quality materials bought and ordered. All section concerning procurement must clearly describe the responsibilities, rights and fine. impediment of materials payment. Construct an outstanding payment agenda to avoid delay in material delivery.

Modify of the company buying policy develop fixed process. Divergence of preparation,

develop detailed and precise schedule to make easy easy and controlled scheduled implementation. Unfortunate buying strategy in choosing suppliers. Perform complete and cautious selection of suppliers, which believe supplier on a daily basis capacity and material quality (Henstock, 1988).

Impediment of materials consignment to location procurement agenda must be regularly check transform of materials circumstance during shipment process. Must have material continuation procedure during delivery. Shipping cost variance Delivery cost is determined based on budget requirements. Poor accessibility during shipping process Must have proper temporary storage facilities.

Materials quality variance from requirement carry out quality control test to before delivery to make sure material is up to requirement.

for material storing. Poor supervision in warehouses Conduct periodic storage control.

incompetent use of materials in location extend effective material use process and material usage control. High recurrent materials association develop precise material transfer method and sufficient impermanent facilities site regular rework due to error. Clear design with good material plan contents and according to scope of work Lack of understanding towards the characteristic of work location Environmental and site evaluation sequence Lack of transportation Provide accurate estimation for mobile equipment plan and placement schedule Inefficient utilization and cutting of materials Provide bar bending/ cutting schedule

Wrong materials utilization Provide clear work method with available facilities

Incomplete drawing design Develop evaluation during tender explanation meeting Frequent out-of-sequence job flow Provide accurate and detail execution schedule Schedule compression Perform work according to schedule and identify change of order and adjust accordingly to schedule. Owner intervention during process Clear and well defined clauses in contract regarding responsibilities and duties to prevent unnecessary disruption.

Lack of coordination meeting in the field Operation that regulate Coordination meeting

Poor report system Develop procedure and execute the procedure with discipline. Lack of Information System role (MIS-IT) Develop appropriate Information system with proper communication procedure. Poor company’s administration and documentation system Provide Manual and procedure that govern administration and documentation. Poor evaluation and decision making system Conduct coordination meeting for project evaluation to reach effective and accurate decision making. Poor inventory control towards stock of materials Create a procedure and implement the procedure with discipline.

High number of materials and equipment loss/stealing Well Implementation of Safety and security system and discipline in material utilization Frequent changes of economic condition Periodic evaluation of project. Create addendum to minimize losses and impact from planning if needed.

Frequent changes of rules and regulations Make contract changes with binding condition and according to the applicable agreement. High frequent of unpredictable situations during construction (force majeure, natural disaster, politics, etc) Include force majeure clausal in contract to predict and anticipate unexpected conditions. Poor condition of weather and climate Apply accurate construction method High competition Improve effectiveness, efficiency and productivity by implementing SWOT analysis. ( VERONIKA et all, 2006)

2.4 Identify conflicts that can occur with management control systems and how these could be resolved or minimised According to Maciariello et al. (1994), management control is concerned with coordination, resource allocation, motivation, and performance measurement. The practice of management control and the design of management control systems draws upon a number of academic disciplines. Management control involves extensive measurement and it is therefore related to and requires contributions from accounting especially management accounting. Second, it involves resource allocation decisions and is therefore related to and requires contribution from economics especially managerial economics. Third, it involves communication, and motivation which means it is related to and must draw contributions from social psychology especially organizational behaviour.

Management control systems use many techniques such as; Balanced scorecard, Total quality management (TQM), Kaizen (Continuous Improvement), Activity-based costing, Target costing, Benchmarking and Benchtrending, JIT, Budgeting, Capital budgeting, Program management techniques, etc.

3.1 Identify the current and potential sources of finance that support organisational activities

When a corporation is rising rapidly, for example when consider investment in capital equipment or an acquirement, its current financial resources might be insufficient. Few emergent corporations are capable to finance their growth plans from cash flow only. They will consequently require to believe raising finance from other outside sources. In addition, managers who are seem to buy in to a business or buy out a business from its owners, might not have the capital to get the company. They will need to lift finance to attain their objectives.

There are a lot of possible sources of finance to meet the requirements of a emergent business or to finance an MBI or MBO: Existing shareholders and directors funds, Family and friends

Business angels, Clearing banks (overdrafts, short or medium term loans), Factoring and invoice discounting, Hire purchase and leasing, vendor banks (medium to longer term loans), business enterprise capital.

A key deliberation in decide the source of new business finance is to hit a equilibrium between equity and debt to make sure the financial support structure ensemble the business.

The main dissimilarity between borrowed money (debt) and equity are that bankers demand interest outflow and capital repayments, and the hired money is typically tenable on business assets or the private assets of shareholders and directors. A bank also has the authority to put a business into supervision or bankruptcy if it defaulting on debt interest or repayments or its projection turn down. (Quoan, 2002)

In disparity, equity investors get the risk of breakdown like other shareholders, while they will advantage through contribution in rising levels of profits and on the ultimate sale of their wager. However in most situations venture capitalists will also need more composite investments in additional to their equity part.

In general purpose in lifting finance for a company is to keep away from revealing the business to extreme high borrowings, but without gratuitously weaken the share capital. This will make sure that the financial risk of the company is reserved at best possible level

A concise explanation of the main characteristics of the main sources of business finance is provided below, venture capital is a universal term to explain a variety of ordinary and preference shares where the spending organization obtain a share in the business. Venture capital is planned for higher risks such as commence state and development capital for more grown-up investments. Substitute capital carry in an organization in place of one of the unique shareholders of a business that needs to understand their personal equity before the other shareholders. There are over 100 different venture capital funds in the UK and some have geographical or industry inclination. There are also sure large industrial companies which have finance obtainable to spend in rising businesses and this ‘corporate venturing’ is an extra source of equity finance.

Local development organization and the European Union are the major sources of funding and soft loans. contribution are usually made to make easy the buy of assets and also the creation of jobs or the training of employees. Soft loans are usually subsidised by a third party so that the conditions of interest and sanctuary levels are less than the market velocity. There are more than 350 proposals from the department of trade and industry unaccompanied so it is a substance of recognize which sources will be suitable in each case.

Funds can be lift against debts outstanding from customers via invoice discounting or invoice factoring, thus recovering cash flows. Debtors are utilized as the main security for the lender and the borrower might get up to about 80% of endorsed debts. In addition, lot of these sources of finance will at present provide against stock and other assets and might be more appropriate then bank lending. Invoice discounting is usually secret, whereas factoring expand the simple discounting standard by also commerce with the administration of the sales ledger and debtor compilation.

Hire purchase conformity and hire provide finance for the attainment of precise assets such as motor cars, equipment and machinery connecting a deposit and re-payments more, normally, three to ten years. Theoretically, possession of the asset stay with the lessor whereas label to the goods is ultimately relocate to the hirer in a hire purchase contract.

Medium term loans and long term loans are granted for exact reason such as obtain an asset, business or shares. The loan is usually safe on the asset or assets and the interest rate might be changeable or fixed. The small firms loan guarantee scheme could give up to £250,000 of borrowing maintain by a government guarantee where all other sources of funds have been tire out.

This loan finance where there is small or no precautions gone after the leading debt had been protected. To replicate the privileged risk of mezzanine finance, the lender would indict a rate of interest of possibly four to eight % over bank base rate, might get an alternative to obtain some equity and might necessitate repayment over a shorter period.

An overdraft is a decided amount by which a customer could excess withdraw from their current account. It is usually held on current assets, re-payable on stipulate and utilize for short period working capital variation. The interest cost is usually uneven and correlated to bank base rate.

Increasing fund is frequently a intricate process. Business management require to consider numerous choices and then bargain conditions which are suitable to the finance supplier. The major bargaining points are repeatedly as follows: Whether equity investors get a seat on the management board. Votes credited to equity investors, level of guarantees and protection provided by the directors financier’s fees and costs, who tolerate costs of due attentiveness.

Throughout the finance acquiring process, accountants are frequently called to reassess the financial attribute of the arrangement. Their report might be official or unofficial, an indication or an widespread reconsider of the company’s management information system, forecasting means and their exactness, re-examine of most recent management accounts counting working capital, pension funding and employee agreements etc. This due diligence process is utilized to emphasize any primary problems that might exist.

3.3 Discuss the monitoring and control of finance employed in support of organisational actvities

All budgets are owed to budget managers on the endorsement of the Vice-Chancellor, under designation from council. Budget managers must have pass on authority, in accordance with the allocation policy to use their budgets. Budget managers must check, reconsider, and report on a usual basis to their exposure line manager, on the financial presentation for their areas of accountability. Reporting would comprise comments on material budget variances and financial risks telling to the budget allocation. Reporting should also take place via the University’s Performance and Risk reporting tool in accordance with the University’s reporting timeline. Where material variances are envisage the budget manager should get ready a reforecasting budget for the accounting year as soon as possible. Action plans to tackle budget variances need also be ready, as proper. These documents must be self-assured to their line manager and the director finance operations.

According to Messy University, financial monitoring and control published in 2007,Also, either budget monitoring group (BMG) or commercial activities group (CAG) will take on self-governing monitor of budget management and control on behalf of the vice chancellor. Risk Rating reports will be ready by the pertinent accounting advisor and submitted to BMG or CAG, and after that to the University’s Risk Management Committee. Risk Rating reports will have a ‘provisional’ status pending they have been marked off by the related reporting line manager at which time the reports position will change to ‘confirmed’. Only Risk Rating reports with a ‘confirmed’ status will be accepted.

Unbudgeted functioning or capital spending must be permitted by either the budget manager’s level three reporting line manager if inside total yearly budget, or by the director, finance operations if in surplus of total budget. In case where the endorsement of the director, finance operations is required, approval must be acquire by compliance of a request for financial authority. Note that where the endorsement of the director finance operations is to be required, sign off by the suitable level three manager is also necessary.

Budget managers must implement inner control systems that make sure separation of duties in the buying process, and ethical commercial exercise. Budget managers must make sure that all possible clash of interests arise from commercial dealings are recognized and minimised. The director finance operations must testimony the company’s financial performance to the vice-chancellor and council frequently. In order to inclusive this job the director finance operations might need budget centres to give additional information or re forecasts. All external and internal financial reporting have to obey with generally accepted accounting practice as defined in the Financial Reporting Act 1993 and Amendments.

Conclusion:

we can conclude the planning and control of financial system within the organization is very sensitive and crucial part of management information system. Policy makers might take decisions sometimes quickly but that decision should be accurate regarding finance distribution. We found there is direct relationship between finance system and other system in organisation, they are interlinked with each others. Financial statements are used to control and keep check and balance on whole finance function in the organisation.

Budget is planning and control process how organisation allocate their limited resources to gain maximum benefit. It is not always bet with planned budget some variances are exist. Then its management resposbility to identify variances and take some serious steps to avoid that. Sometimes conflicts arises within the departments and its responsibility of management to resolve those conflicts to maximize the output.

We found lots of source of finance utilize by the organisation. Its depend on the management which source of finance is feasible to exploit. When organisation got the finance how to allocate this fund within the organisation to run firm operation efficiently. Continuously feedbac is needed for management to know how operations run in organisation. This feedback should be timely, accurate and authentic to take corrective actions if something going worse. Management in organisation is the most knowledgeable entity to know each and everything in organisation.

The Impact Of Western Imperialism History Essay

It will be argued that the effects of Western imperialism, specifically British, not only impacted on the immediate aftermath of their presence, but also contributed in shaping their future social, economic, and political landscape. This can also be illustrated by Gamal Abd-Al-Nasser’s [2] extended hold of power primarily on the platform of anti-imperialism or be the resilience of Iraq’s social cleavages and tensions that were either created or exploited by the British. It is arguable the state of quasi-independence, characteristic of a British post-imperialist stance, which has left the states in an uncertain location; constrained in certain areas, such as foreign and defence policy, yet lacking the domestic political base to affect real, and often unecessary change. The importance of the Egyptian and Iraqi regimes can be linked to the socio-economic changes the British imposed and their reluctance to accept an alternative to the Western construct of power.

State Formation

An assessment of state formation ‘must attend to the precise matrix from which it was launched’ (Bromley, 1995:45) yet it is evident that the British failed to comprehend this. The Western, Weberian, conception of a state, in which the territoriality and legitimacy of the system are paramount was fundamentally incompatible to the nature of Middle Eastern societies, which had previously comprised of a tributary [3] empire, nomads, and a tribal [4] state (Bromley, 1994:34). Before modernity, there does not exist an institutionally separate realm of production and distribution as Polanyi argued in The Great Transformation, ‘in pre-mordern societies the economy, as a rule, is submerged in…social relationships’ (1957:46). Although both the administrative and coercive capabilities of the bureaucracy and the military, respectively, were fulfilled, their interpretation within the states was not aligned to a conventional Western model. For example, the role of the military in overthrowing successive governments is a feature that appears repeatedly in both Egypt and Iraq. ‘The compulsory model of the nation-state assumes that the societites of Egypt and Iraq are essentially the same as those in Western Europe, limiting possibilities of their own political development’ (Zubaida, 1993:121).

The aftermath of World War I was a pivotal moment for much of the Middel East due to the collapse of the Ottoman Empire in 1923 [5] . Iraq emerged as a result of the peace settlement and was formed of three former Ottoman vilayets [6] : Mosul, Basra, and Bagdad as a modern state under a British mandate in 1920. As such, it was the product of two ‘colonial’ administrations: first the moderizing Ottman state of the Tanzimat and the Young Turks’ Constitution of 1908, then of the British Mandate (Zubaida (2002:205-215). Although Egypt had been occupied, supposedly temporarily, by the British since 1882, it became the ‘cornerstone of British colonial supremacy’ (Ayubi, 1995:88). In order to ‘secure its essential strategic needs without incurring the expenses of directly governing the territories’ (Cleveland, 2004:193), Britain installed monarchs in both states.

The behaviour of the British in these states did not adhere to the traditional imperialist standard however was, in effect, an ’empire by treaty’ (Cleveland, 2004:193). Unlike in African or Asian colonies, neither Egypt or Iraq experienced direct British colonial rule, however they were granted a limited of independence that allowed them the freedom to manage internal issues but had, as a caveat, the continued presence of the British military and the implementation of foreign and defence policy amenable to their imperial masters’ (Cleveland, 2004:193). The conflict that rendered this process problematic can be summarised by Cromer, who states that the colonisers were:

‘Striving to attain two ideals, which are apt to be mutually destructive – the ideal of good government, which connotes the continuance of his [English] supremacy, and the ideal of self-government, which connotes the whole or partial abdication of his supreme position’. (Wilson, 1931:72).

Whilst purporting to be installing a system politically superior to its predecessors, the British fail to cultivate any notion of political freedom, individual rights or mass representation that are traditionally linked with Western democracy (Haj, 1997:81). Therefore, once true indendence is obtained, peoples or Egypt and Iraq are left with an adequate understanding of a democratic political system, which could account for the primacy of the military within government and the erratic allegiance to democracy.

The lasting impact of the physical and artifical formation of Iraq is the key differentiating factor in relation to Egypt. The ‘sheer arbitrariness’ (Bromley, 1994:135) of the geographical delineation has affected the governance and existence of Iraq as a state. Formed due to a desire to protect Britain’s strategic interests within one sphere of influence, the population consisted of one-fifth Sunni Arabs, one half Shi’ite Arabs and one-seventh Kurdish tribes. Therefore:

‘In Iraq there is still…no Iraqi people, but unimaginable masses of human beings, devoid of any patriotic ideal, imbued with religious tradtions and absurdities, connected to no common tie, giving ear to evil, prone to anarchy, and perpetually ready to rise against any government whatsoever’ (Yapp, 1996:70)

In addition to the inevitable conflict between the social groups, Iraq was also subject to great friction between the urban and rural communities, described as ‘two almost separate worlds’ (Batutu, 1993:503). Instead of seeking to resolve this great divide, the British solidified it by implementing a dual justice system that excluded tribal communities from national law, who were instead subject to the Tribal Criminal and Civial Disputes Regulation. This is a concrete example of the British governing principles of classification and differentiation (Haj, 1997:81), perhaps a more sophisticated notion of ‘divide and rule’. By reinforcing old divisions, the imperialists were able to manage smaller groups more effectively and, due to the lack of consensus, prevent the formation of an agreed national identity that would threaten their manipulation of the state. The social tensions have endured and much of the social instability attributed to them.

The nature and creation of class with Egypt and Iraq related to another decisive factor of British imperialism. The process of state building was accelerated via the creation of a new class of large landowners and the existing elites, previously loyal to the Ottoman Empire and there distrusted by the populations. The main focus of Egyptian politics was found in the capital city of Cairo where the main political actors were drawn from a mere 53,000 individuals identified as ‘professionals’. Similarly, the first Iraqi elections results conferred power to tribal shaykhs, aghast, and old notables (Haj, 1997:82, almost exclusively Sunni Arabs, which set a precedent for all preceding elections, where members of the assembly were chosen bi-iltazkiya (unopposed). This contributes to the volatility of the regime due to the minority position, in sectarian terms, of those in power (Tripp, 2007:31).

‘In addition to the “old” aristocracy of officials, the ex-Sharifian officers and the Muslim Merchants, this new landed class had come to form the socio-political backbone of monarchical Iraq. And, as in Egypt, the new bourgeoisie was openly collaborationist with colonial power, leaving the task of national struggle to the intelligentsia and the urban masses, and eventually to the army officers’ (Ayubi, 1995:95).

The fact that the first governments of both Iraq and Egypt displayed a continuity of Ottoman personnel and an inclusion of the new landed class reinforced the lack of legitimacy given to the system as a whole and prepared the climate for repeated military takeovers.

The illegitimacy of the client governments of Iraq and Egypt was reinforced by the choice of a monarchical system preferred by the British. The kings appointed in both states were, previously, respected firgures in the Arab world and possess natural authority, in addition to being predictably amenable to British demands. ‘Within the restricted field imposed by British control, the constitution enabled the king to keep a governments out of, but not in, power’ (Bromley, 1994:130) and there is significant evidence of arbitary dissolution of governments. The Egyptian king Faud (1922-36) repeatedly disbanded popularity elected Wafd governments, despite huge majorities, due to their nationalist platform. ‘The Wafd Party (“Delegation Party”) was a nationalist liberal political party. It was said to be Egypt’s most popular party for a period in the 1920s and 30s. The party was instrumental in the development of the 1923 Constitution and supported moving Egypt from the rule of the king to a constiutional monarchy, where power was wielded by a nationally-elected parliament’ (Osman, 2010:26). The fickleness of the British position is exemplified by their later coersion of King Farouk (1936-52) to appoint a Wafd government due to their need for a neutral Egypt during World War II. This intense irony does not detract from the fact that the monarchs in Egypt and Iraq were very powerful political actors but were ‘so closely associated with the structure of colonization that they did not outlast them’ (Owen, 1992:19). The British imperialists exploited the constitutional power of the king to dimiss elected governments of nationists ‘that threatened to tear up or amend the arrangements…defing Britain’s rights’ (Owen, 1992:19). Hence, once again, diminishing the authority of the regime they installed and creating a lack of respect for lawfully elected governments.

One lasting and significant effect of Western imperialism in Egypt and Iraq is the ideological legacy left behind and the ‘determinant role’ (Halliday, 2005:83) played by nationalism. Substantiation of this can be seen in the proto-nationalist revolts of 1919 and 1920 in Egypt and Iraq respectively. Opposion parties were united in the demands for total independencd and, as ‘ideologies arise in conditions of crisis (Salem 1944:4), nationalism provided an opportunity to ‘adopt many of the patriotic, secular, and progressive outlooks of the West, recast them in nativist form, and then use them as weapons against the domination of the West’ (Salem, 1994:71). When faced with the social ordeal of colonial rule, the populations of these territories search for new identities that can link the past to the future and demonstrate an awareness to creat a strong state. However, therein lies the problem; the self-proclaimed Arab nationalist parties, such as Iraq’s Ba’ath Party, took control of a state whose very legitimacy they challenged, hence undermining the legitimacy of their claim to govern. Despite this, nationalism was the prevailing isological response to imperialism and remained so. For example, Nasser’s longevity rests on the fact that he was everyhting the Arab world aspired to: ‘assertive, independent, and engaged in the construction of a new society freed of the imperial past’ (Cleveland, 2004:301). Therefore, British presence in Iraq and Egypt ‘gave birth the the familiar dialect by which imperial rule cannot help but generate the nationalist forces that will eventually drive it out’ (Owen, 1992:20).

The predominant role of the military n overthrowing government and the use of violent revolt to express discontent with a regime originated in the imperial era, however has persisted well into the 21st century. Initially, the ‘weak consolidation of the stae was shown by the spate on inconclusive military interventions in politics’ (Bromley, 1994:137) but gradually, regimes would only be seen as legitimate for as long as they could stave off a military coup d’etat. The success of a take over was not relevant as its very existence had achieved its aim of creating instability, thus, the army became the ‘arbiter’ (Cleveland, 2004:211) of politics in Irak and Egypt and army officers ‘significant political players’ (Tripp, 2009:78) The prevalence of army-based revolts can be attributed, in part, to the creation of the landowner class and the subsequent repressive charater of the states – the response by a middle-class military is therefore a logical progression (Bromley, 1994:161). The use of public disorder was equally significant as it was related closely to the nationalist opposition and therefore a ‘key element in the vernacular language of the argument against British domination’ (Tripp 1998:112). However, the series of military regimes in Iraq left the country in a position of such political uncertainty that any reforms promised were rarely implemented.

The impact of western imperialism on the process of state formation is multifold and rests on the specific understanding of a stat and whether the Western construct can realistically be applied to the Middle East. For example, despite the formation of Iraq as a ‘state’ following World War I, the components of Western statehood did not emerge initially, if at all. The consequence of the British presence in Iraq’s formative years ‘has been the creatin of the most controlled and repressive society in the Middle East (Bromley, 1994:135). Similarly, the emergence of a landed class and promotion of old elites contributed to the exploitative nature of the states. The installation of a pliable monarch detracted from the benefits of democracy and reinforced the assumed interests, the British embarked on a process of artificial state formation, both in the geographical and institutional sense, which reinforced social cleavages and constrained the natural evolution of both Iraq and Egypt into modern states.

Effect of Euonine on Human Uterine Leiomyoma Cells

Effect of Euonine on the Proliferation and Apoptosis of Human Uterine Leiomyoma Cells

Running title: Role of euonine on uterine leiomyoma

Highlights:

  1. The proliferation rate of uterine leiomyoma cells was determined.
  2. The apoptosis rate of uterine leiomyoma cells was determined.
  3. The phosphorylation levels of EGFR from uterine leiomyoma cells were measured.

Abstract

Objective: To explore the effect of euonine on the proliferation and apoptosis of uterine leiomyoma cells in vitro, and the mechanism of that.

Methods: Human uterine leiomyoma cells were cultured by using collagenase digestion, and were affected by euonine at the levels of 1μg/ml, 3μg/ml, 6μg/ml, then MTT assay was carried out for the proliferation ability of uterine leiomyoma cells, and flow cytometry was used to analyze the apoptosis rate of uterine leiomyoma cells. The phosphorylation levels of ALK, ROS1, EGFR, HER2, FGFR1 and PDGF-alpha from uterine leiomyoma cells were measured by western blot; ELISA assay was performed to detect the expression levels of EGF and TGF-alpha from condition medium of uterine leiomyoma cells. To further identify the mechanism of euonine affecting uterine leiomyoma cells, after affected by euonine for 24h, uterine leiomyoma cells were continued to affect by EGF for 24h. After that, the phosphorylation level of EGFR from uterine leiomyoma cells was examined by western blot.

Result: The proliferation rate was lower and lower and apoptosis rate increased constantly following the rising of dose and affecting time of euonine (P < 0.05). After affected by euonine, only the phosphorylation level of EGFR of uterine leiomyoma cells was downregulated significantly showed by western blot, and the expression level of EGF from condition medium of uterine leiomyoma cells decreased apparently. However, when uterine leiomyoma cells incubated with EGF, the phosphorylation level of EGFR recovered to the previous level.

Conclusion: euonine was workable for the inhibiting of proliferation and the inducing of apoptosis of uterine leiomyoma cells, and whose mechanism may be that euonine downregulated the expression of EGF to decrease the phosphorylation level of EGFR which contribute to this result.

Key words: uterine leiomyoma, euonine, proliferation, apoptosis, EGFR, phosphorylation, EGF

  1. Introduction

Uterine leiomyoma appears to be the most common gynecologic benign tumor of the myometrium, occurring in as many as 20.0ï¼… to 40.0ï¼… of womenduring their reproductive years and 40 to 50 years old women accounts for 52.2% to 60.0% [1, 2]. Uterine leiomyoma arises from a single uterine smooth muscle cell [3] which can be confirmed by cytogenetic studies [4, 5]. The etiological factors are involved in cell proliferation, extracellular matrix degradation deposition, local autocrine or paracrine, growth factors, and many other aspects [6]. Although the nature of the initial event is unclear, some studies found that that leiomyomas growth were dependent on estrogen [7-9]. Researches have shown that some neonatal rodents treated with environmental estrogens, such as industrial byproducts and natural plant compounds, have an increased incidence of uterine leiomyoma later in their lives [10-12]. Therefore, the use of anti-estrogen therapy is a main way for the treatment of uterine leiomyoma, however, the effect is not ideal. West et al. (1987 ) used GnRH agonists which could reduce ovarian hormone production in the treatment of uterine leiomyoma, leading to a decrease in the size of leiomyomas, but re-enlargement of leiomyomas occured after therapy with GnRH agonist was discontinued [13]. As a result, looking for a novel and effective treatment is of great significance.

Tripterygium wilfordii Hook. F. is a traditional Chinese medicinal plant grown in the south of China. The pharmacological properties of T. wilfordii have been studied extensively over recent years and the results obtained found that the extracts have some biological activities, such as immunosuppression, anti-inflammatory and antifertility [14]. T. wilfordii extracts were also found to inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis in lymphocytes and synovial fibroblasts [15]. Therefore it has been widely used to treat various inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, ankylosing spondylitis, and idiopathic IgA nephropathy [14, 16]. Patients treated with the decoction of T. wilfordii seemed to experience therapeutic benefit at first, but frequently developed adverse effects, as well as, severe toxicity occasionally [17, 18]. Subsequently, efforts were made to maximize therapeutic benefit and minimize toxicity.

The main active constituents of T. wilfordii have been reported to be diterpenes, triterpenes and alkaloids [19-21]. The alkaloids have 22 kinds of monomers and some of them have immunosuppression and antitumor effects while haverelatively lesstoxic [22]. For instance, wilforgine, wilfortrine, wilfordine and euonine have been reported to possess obvious humoral immunosuppressive effects [22], whilst wilfortrine can inhibit leukaemia cell growth in mice [23, 24] and shows anti-HIV activity [25].

Nevertheless, there is few report about the antitumor effects of alkaloids. In the present study, we investigated the roles of euonine in human uterine leiomyoma cells proliferation, apoptosis and explored its mechanism in vitro experiments. This study undoubtedlyprovidesnewinsightsinto the treatment of uterine leiomyoma.

  1. Materials and methods

2.1 Preparation and culture of human uterine leiomyoma cells

Uterine leiomyoma tissues were washed 3 times with antibiotic-containing PBS and DMEM then cut into pieces to 1 mm3 and digested in 800 U/mL type I collagenase at 37 ℃ for 6 h. The leiomyoma cells were collected by filtration through a 200 mesh and centrifugation at 13000 rpm/min for 10 min. Then the cells were adjusted itsconcentration to 5 × 105/ml and plated in 24-well tissue culture plates at 1 ml per well.The culture plates were kept in a tissue culture incubator at 37 ℃ and 5% CO2. The uterine leiomyoma cells identification was determined by immunohistochemistry using α- smooth muscle actin monoclonal antibody (Gene Tech, Shanghai) at a dilution of (稀释倍速待反馈). Cells were passaged to 3-6 generation, and the ones growed stably and at thelogarithmicgrowth phase were used in the experiment. The experiments were divided into two groups by random: test group and control group and each group has three repetitions.

2.2 Proliferation assay of uterine leiomyoma cells

MTT assay was used to detect the cell proliferation inhibition rate. The uterine leiomyoma cells were plated in 96-well tissue culture plates at concentration of 3 × 105/ml at 100 μl per well. Cells were treated either with euonine with final concentration of 1 μg/ml, 3 μg/ml and 6 μg/ml (test groups) or without euonine (control groups). The culture plates were kept in a tissue culture incubator at 37 ℃ and 5% CO2 for 24 h, 48 h and 72 h and the cells were collected by centrifugation. Then 20μl 5 mg/ml MTT solution was added to each well and incubated for 4 h at 37 ℃ and 5% CO2. The cells were collected by centrifugation. Then, 150 μl DMSO solution was added to each well and mixed thoroughly. The absorbance was measured in a microplate reader (BioTek, USA) with a test wavelength of 570 nm. The proliferation rate (%) was calculated as follows :

A570T represents the 570 nm absorbance of test groups and A570C represents the 570 nm absorbance of control groups.

2.3 Apoptosis rate assay of uterine leiomyoma cells

Flow cytometry was used to analyze the apoptosis rate of uterine leiomyoma cells. The leiomyoma cells were plated at concentration to 3 × 105/ml in 96-well tissue culture plates at 100 μl per well. In the test groups, euonine with final concentration of 1 μg/ml, 3 μg/ml and 6 μg/ml was added to each well. The culture plates were maintained in culture incubator at 37 ℃ and 5% CO2 for 24 h, 48 h and 72 h and the cells were collected by centrifugation and washed three times with PBS. Cells were then stained with propidium iodide (PI) and incubated at room temperature away from light for 15 min. The cells apoptosis rates were measured by flow cytometry instrument (Elite Esp type).

2.4 Western blot analysis

Phosphorylation levels were determined by western blot. Uterine leiomyoma cells were treated with euonine with final concentration of 3 μg/ml and 6 μg/ml for 24 h, 48 h and 72 h and the control groups were treated without euonine. The lysates were subsequently centrifuged and the cells and supernatants were both collected. Then, the cells collected were treated with RIPA containing protease inhibitors and phosphatase inhibitor, resuspended, shaked in the ice bath for 30 minites and eddied every 10 minites. The supernatants were collected by centrifugation at 13000 rpm/min for 10 min at 4 °C. The protein concentration of uterine leiomyoma cells supernatants was determined by bicinchorinic acid assay (BCA) protein assay. The supernatants of 50 μg were subjected to SDS-PAGE and the proteins band was then excised and electrophoretically transferred from gels to nitrocellulose membranes. Blots were exposed overnight to the ALK, ROS1, EGFR, HER2, FGFR1 and PDGF-alpha phosphorylation antibodies (Life Technologies, USA) at a dilution of ( ) in blocking buffer. After washing, HRP-conjugated goat antimouse secondary antibody that was diluted at ( ) with blocking buffer were added and incubated for 1 h. The antigen-antibody complexes were detected with the chemiluminescence detection system.

2.5 ELISA assay

The supernatants of uterine leiomyoma cells were detected by EGF and TGF-alpha ELISA kits (Raybiotech, USA) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. The 96-well plates coated by primary antibodies were kept at room temperature for 10 min. Seven graded concentrations of protein solution and the supernatants of uterine leiomyoma cells were added into the 96-well plates at 100 μl per well, then incubated at room temperature for 2.5 h. After three washes, the biotin conjugated secondary antibodies at a dilution of ( ) were added at 100 μl per well, then incubated at room temperature for 2 h. After washing, the diluted streptavidin-conjugatedHRP was added at 100 μl per well and incubated at room temperature for 45 min. After washing, TMB was added and incubated for 30 min followed by terminating reaction by adding stop buffer. The OD value of 450 nm was determined by microplate reader.

2.6 EGF affect uterine leiomyoma cells

When the uterine leiomyoma cells were in the logarithmic phase, 3 μg/ml euonine were added to affect cells for 24 h, then 100 ng/ml recombinant EGF proteins (Raybiotech, USA) were added and 24 h later, uterine leiomyoma cells were collected by centrifuging. Then western blot analysis was performed using a standard procedure as described above to assess the phosphorylation levels of EGFR.

2.7 Statistical analysis

The data are presented as the mean ± SD. Statistical analysis was performed using t-test and a probability level of P < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant (SPSS12.0).

  1. Results

3.1 Effect of euonine on proliferation rate of uterine leiomyoma cells

Table 1 shows the proliferation rates of uterine leiomyoma cells as determined by MTT assay. Compared with control groups, treatments with the euonine of 3 μg/ml and 6 μg/ml for 24 h, 48 h and 72 h significantly decreased proliferation rates (P < 0.05). Besides, treatment with the euonine of 6 μg/ml for 24 h, 48 h or 72 h significantly decreased proliferation rates (P < 0.05) compared with treated with euonine of 3 μg/ml.

3.2 Effect of euonine on apoptosis rate of uterine leiomyoma cells

Flow cytometry was used to test the apoptosis rate of uterine leiomyoma cells affected by different doses of euonine for different duration. The apoptosis rates of 48 h and 72 h after the addition of euonine of 3 μg/ml and 6 μg/ml were significantly increased (P < 0.05) compared with the control groups and the apoptosis rates increased significantly (P < 0.05) when treated with the euonine of 6 μg/ml for 48 h and 72 h compared with the treatment with 3μg/ml (Table 2).

3.3 Effect of euonine on phosphorylation level of receptor

After affected by euonine, the phosphorylation levels of ALK, ROS1, EGFR, HER2, FGFR1 and PDGF-alpha was detected by western blot which found that among the six receptors, only the phosphorylation levels of EGFR had significant changes (P < 0.05) and its phosphorylation levels decrease significantly with the increase of doses of euonine after 24 h, 48 h and 72 h (Figure 1).

3.4 Effect of euonine onexpression level of EGF and TGF-alpha

ELISA was used to detect the expression levels of EGF and TGF-alpha after affecting by euonine for further investigate the mechanism of euonine. The result indicated that EGF expression level decreased significantly when treated with euonine of 3 μg/ml and 6 μg/ml for 24 h, 48 h and 72 h (Figure 2).

3.5 Effect of EGF on phosphorylation level of EGFR

The phosphorylation level of EGFR after affected by EGF was shown in figure 3. The result indicated that compared with control groups, the phosphorylation level of EGF groups increased obviously. When treated with euonine, the phosphorylation level of EGRF decreased significantly, but the addition of EGF increase the EGRF phosphorylation level (Figure 3).

  1. Discussion

Uterine leiomyoma is one of the main causes of women hysterectomy and its treatments are primarily based on surgery. However, this treatment method has adverse effects on the fertility of reproductive women and physical and mental health of the majority of patients, so there are increasing attentions on drug treatments. Euonine whose effective components are diterpenes, triterpenes and alkaloids is commonly advocated as useful for the treatment of various inflammations [19]. The occurrence and development of uterine leiomyoma is closely related to the proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis of uterine leiomyoma cells so the intervention on cell proliferation and apoptosis is a new strategy in present tumor treatment. In the present study we demonstrated that euonine exerts growth inhibitory effects on the uterine leiomyoma cells by decreasing their proliferation and increasing apoptosis and shows an obvious antitumor effect and less toxic. Besides, the effects of euonine on the cultured leiomyoma cells were dose and time dependent.

In addition, we reported a mechanism from the receptors phosphorylation levels of multiple signaling pathways which might contribute to the growth inhibition of uterine leiomyoma cells in the presence of euonine. The receptors are anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), c-ros oncogene 1, receptor tyrosine kinase (ROS1), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2), fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) and platelet derived growth factor alpha (PDGF-alpha). All the above cited belong to the well known receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK) and located in the surface membrane of cells [26]. They will be activated and phosphorylated after exposure to the outside stimulation, and then, the intracellular kinase pathways will be activated to involve in some physiological processes, such as, cells growth, proliferation and differentiation. These signaling pathways are closely related to the tumor cells proliferation, angiogenesis, tumor invasion, metastasis and the inhibition of cells apoptosis. All of the afunction of the protein tyrosine kinase, abnormal phosphorylation levels, abnormal activity of the key factors or cellular localization can induce tumor, diabetes, immune deficiency and cardiovascular disease [26]. Our study found that among the six receptors, only the EGFR phosphorylation was inhibited after treated with euonine which suggests that the mechanism of euonine inhibiting uterine leiomyoma cells may be achieved by inhibiting EGFR phosphorylation. EGFR belongs to ErbB family type I receptor tyrosine kinases which play a critical role in mediating gowth factor signaling and its overexpression has been associated with the oncogenic activity such as proliferation, unregulated cell growth, differentiation and survival [27]. As a result, it becomes an attractive target for the design of novel antitumor drugs [27].

In mammals, the EGFR activation involves the binding of peptide growth factors including EGF, TGF-alpha and heparin-binding EGF (HB-EGF) [28]. EGF is mitogenic for leiomyomas and regulates leiomyoma growth [29, 30]. Yeh et al. (1991) found that EGF may be involved in the autocrine or paracrine regulation of the growth of leiomyoma cells [31]. TGF-alpha expresses less in leiomyoma cells [32]. HB-EGF stimulates leiomyoma cells proliferation and inhibits apoptosis [33]. From the expression levels of EGF and TGF-alpha after affecting by euonine, only the EGF expression was inhibited significantly. The results indicate that the antitumor mechanism of euonine is realized by inhibiting the EGF expression of tumor cells to block the activation of EGFR thereby making its mediated pathway can’t signal to promote cell growth, proliferation and differentiation. Moreover, recombinant EGF proteins were added in vitro to confirm our reasoning above. Shushan et al. (2004) found that the selective EGF receptor blocker AG1478 is able to inhibit leiomyoma cell proliferation [34] which is in accordance with our results.

Our results confirm a potential role of the euonine in inhibiting the growth of uterine leiomyoma cells. However, the selection of minimal toxic concentration needs further researches to maximize the benefit of euonine.

  1. Conclutions

Uterine leiomyoma is a extremely common benign tumor, unfortunately, few medical treatments are available for this disease. Our results suggest that certain concentration of euonine exhibits inhibitory effects on the proliferation of uterine leiomyoma cells in vitro. The antitumor mechanism is realized by inhibiting the EGF expression of uterine leiomyoma cells to block the activation of EGFR thereby making its mediated pathway can’t signal to promote cell growth, proliferation and differentiation.

Approaches and Effects of Collective Bargaining

Collective Bargaining

Collective bargaining is a method where negotiation and compromise are resulted in agreements, joint determination and regulation. In other words, the nature of collective bargaining is a process where the interaction talks place between employers and labour collective where liberal collectivist are favoured. Within Human Resource system a process through which an employee and their representative persuade and take part in decision making and collective bargaining is one the most frequently used mechanism.

The purpose of determining terms and conditions of employment and or regulating relations between them for workers organisation and employers or employer’s organisation are all negotiated and this is defined by the International Labour Office Convictions. The relationship between the parties to terms and conditions of employment and regulations are limited to subject matter by International Labour Office Convention. Collective bargaining is the dominant employee participation process which is arguable.

There are two types of rules where collective bargaining which tends to reach an agreement. First is substantive rule, here the terms and conditions are determined for employment, for example the pay scale or the annual holidays or the basic working hours in a week. This rule also includes which work to give according to grade of staff and called as Demarcation rule. Second is Procedural rule, here the method and procedures are determined, for example an example an issue discussion at particular in national level or company level. Normal negotiation cannot resolve any disagreements or disputes and to refer disputes at plant level to regional or national level arrangements possibly is there and this rule determines the arbitration arrangements for example probably a rule that disputes should refer to ACAS ( the Advisory Conciliation and Arbitration services).

Over the past years, the evolution of collective bargaining was in different stages. Collective bargaining was established for skilled labour at the local level. The joint negotiations were encouraged at the industry level due to the influence of corporate system and this lead to the establishment of collective bargaining. “John Goodman (1984) has defined collective bargaining as a Process through which representatives of employers and of employee organizations act as the joint creators of the substantive and procedural rules regulating employment. In addition they frequently accept the main responsibility for interpreting, applying and enforcing the rules”

There are various types of functions in collective bargaining. First, market or economic function. In this function the price of the labour are decided by the employer and the employee will work as per the terms and conditions. Second decision-making function. In this function the collective bargaining allow the employees the opportunity to participate in taking decision about the policies of the organization. Third, governmental function. In this function the collective bargaining establishes the rule that governs the employment relationship. It is also called as the political process. It is like a constitution where both the parties have the power to ‘veto’ to control the actions of each other.

The agreement is made between the employer and the employee with the two types of the rules. Those are substantive rules and procedural rules. Substantive rules are the rule that regulates the terms and conditions of employment. Procedural rules are rules under which the negotiation over the terms and conditions are made. These rules help in improving and maintaining the employment relationship between the employer and the employee. There are also some strategies like avoiding problems, using kind words, compromising used for maintaining the employment relationship.

Ref: John Leopold, 2002, Human Resources in Organizations’, Financial Times/ Prentice Hall, England.

There are two approaches of collective bargaining which plays an important role in maintaining the employment relationship. First approach, distributive bargaining. In this type one party enjoys the benefit, profits, and gains with the expenses of the other party. Here the opposite parties can use the power to achieve their tasks. So, it becomes a problem when one side refuses to accept the compromise or the benefits given to them. The second approach, integrative bargaining. It seeks in mutual gains in areas of the common interest with the problem solving approach. For the success of integrative bargaining both the parties should share the information between each other and they should trust each other. So, compromise and problem solving plays an important role in maintaining employment relationship.

Collective bargaining is useful in many ways in the organization. It helps in the downward communication where the communication takes place from the managers to employees. It takes place in formal written reports such as employee reports, house journals etc. It helps in the upward problem solving where the greater opportunities are given to the employee to contribute to the discussions relating to their work. It also helps in task participation and team working where the employees are expected to extend their tasks at their work. It also helps in financial involvement where the success of the enterprise is linked to the individual rewards.

There are also some strategies used in the collective bargaining and they are by ignoring the conflict, many problems can be avoided. By using kind and soft words, the problem or the conflict can be smoothed. By compromising also many problems can be solved. So, these are some of the ways through which the employment relationship can be controlled through collective bargaining.

The controlling of the employment relation can be done by introducing the new rules in the enterprise such as like giving standard rate of pay for the employees who will benefit them. Employment relationship can also be controlled by modifying the goals such as to avoid the conflict between the employer and the employee.

The person on behalf of the management and a person on behalf of the trade union conduct the meeting at different level to negotiate the problem. Those levels are national or industry wide level and company level or local level. The negotiations which are conducted at national level are known as centralized bargaining and the negotiations which are conducted at the company level are known as decentralized bargaining. Centralized bargaining is found in most of the large public sector companies and multi site private companies, with the help of this approach the company lay down nationally applicable rule of conduct for the employee relations and also payment conditions. Decentralized bargaining helps in improving the local requirements, demands and terms and conditions.

Collective bargaining plays an important role in solving the conflicts or the problem that is arising. Collective bargaining has got the power to bring the change in the enterprise independently even though both the parties have power to influence each other. Collective bargaining brings about the trust in the relationship with each other. It also helps in following the rules and regulations. Conflicts arising can also be solved by following these rules. Collective bargaining plays a very important role in managing the employer-employee relationship. It helps in forming the trade unions and also in involving the negotiation process incase of any disputes.

There has been a recent developments in collective bargaining and they are single union deals and single table bargaining. Single union deal is like an agreement where the management allows only one trade union to represent the employees. Single union agreements may also have other agreements and those agreements are pendulum arbitration, no strike agreements and flexibility agreements. Pendulum arbitration is also called as final offer arbitration. It is a method where the third party involves when there is an disagreement between two parties and this bargaining is done in good faith to settle the conflicts between each other. Single table bargaining also gives similar benefits to the employer as single union deals while marinating a multi-union site. Here the negotiation process takes place between the unions. Flexible agreements are agreements that are done to modify the traditional working practices and also the flexibility in the function that are to be carried out in the working place.

There are lot of benefits from collective bargaining, and there are many reasons for the decline of collective bargaining in recent days. It is because the power and the control of the trade union are in the hands of governments and also because of Act of employment legislation to control the power of trade unions. It is also because the focus is now a day shown on each individual at the work. It is also because of the growth of new managerial statistics. It is mainly because of the failure of the trade unions to develop effective strategies in developing the employer employee relationship. It is also because some privatised companies do not adopt collective bargaining and thus it is completely abandoned in major companies. It is because of these reasons the collective bargaining has fallen down to a greater extent in past years. But, Human resource management plays an important role in encouraging flexible working arrangements and in development of the human resource and in paying to the employee for their performance.

Similarities in the Film ‘The Hour’ and ‘Mrs Dalloway’

 

The similarities in the themes of the film The Hour and the novel Mrs. Dalloway.

The Hours is a 2002 movie directed by Stephen Daldry and Virginia Woolf’s Mrs. Dalloway has the similarities in the theme of homosexuality. Both the film and the novel depict all its action in one single day. Clarissa Dalloway in the novel and Clarissa Vaughn in the film wonder if they have the right decision to choose the right person to spend their lives with. Both the film The Hour and the novel Mrs. Dalloway  are absolute masterpieces.

Virginia Woolf’s Mrs. Dalloway tells the story of an entire day in the eyes of Clarissa Dalloway. It is confined to one single day, Wednesday in mid-June 1923, culminating in a party given by Clarissa Dalloway at the end of the day. It’s also limited to one place, London, and emotionally to the relationship of Mrs. Dalloway with her husband Richard Dalloway, Peter Walsh, Sally Seton, and Septimus Warren Smith.

Clarissa Dalloway’s character is developed through the thoughts which pass through her mind in one single day at different times. Whenever the big bang chimes or the backfiring of the motor engine, the point of view shifts regularly from one character to another and sometimes happens within one single sentence. At each shift, the author provides an indirect look into the character’s thoughts and emotions. The narrator just reports the character’s thoughts. For example, Clarissa sleeps in her own room and her isolation is a sexual failure to connect with her husband Richard. She imagines herself as a virgin nun in a white dress: “Mrs. Dalloway raised her hand to her eyes, and, as the maid shut the door, she heard the swish of Lucy’s skirt, she felt like a nun who has left the world and feels fold round her familiar veils and responses to old devotions.” (Woolf 29) The verb “felt” and “feel” shows that the narrator’s knowledge of the interior of the main character. Such a radical narrative technique causes a great confusion to readers, yet at the same time enlightens the meaning of her story. From the beginning to the end of Mrs. Dalloway, there are no parts or chapters. The structure of this novel is very compact, which is concentrated in one single day on purpose. All the incidents happen in the novel is connected with each other very well. The technique that Woolf uses is the stream of consciousness which also enriches her writing.

Stephen Daldry’s The Hours has the same path of Virginia Woolf’s Mrs. Dalloway by depicting all its action in a single day, where events take place in three different years. The first event captures Virginia Woolf in 1923, preparing to write the novel, “Mrs. Dalloway,” in her home, Richmond, London (Daldry, The Hour). The other year 1951, depicts the troubled, homemaker Laura Brown moves from her marriage or life to read the novel, “Mrs. Dalloway” (Daldry, The Hour). The third year shows the New Yorker, Clarissa Vaughan, in 2001, dedicating her entire day preparing a party for her college day’s friend and lover Richard. The party is in honor of Richard, an HIV-positive poet, and author about to receive a prestigious award that he finds little meaning in it (Daldry, The Hour). Clarissa Dalloway in the novel and Clarissa Vaughn in the film are throwing parties in Richards’ honor and both chose the same flowers. The film The Hour and the novel Mrs. Dalloway have a close correlation in terms of both the story arrangement and unfolding of the characters in the film closely captures the characters in the novel.

In Virginia Woolf’s Mrs. Dalloway, the theme of homosexuality takes a major part, where Mrs. Dalloway herself as the main character of the novel, does not enjoy her marriage because of poor communication and lacking of connection. Clarissa’s husband, Richard Dalloway, comes home with a bunch of flowers meant for his wife. However, he fails to tell Clarissa that he loves her because “he could not bring himself to say he loved her; not in so many words.” (118) On the other hand, Clarissa gets distracted by the memories of Sally Seton, her childhood friend and love’s interest, with whom she shared a kiss, which she defines as: “The most exquisite moment of her whole life…and she felt that she had been given a present, wrapped up, and told just to keep it, not to look at it- a diamond, something infinitely precious.” (35) Mrs. Dalloway has never forgotten about Seton, who is now married to Lord Rosseter and has five boys. Clarissa Dalloway aspires to be like Sally, but she fears judgment from society about her potential homosexuality, which is one of the reasons behind her marriage does not flourish.

On the contrary, in Stephen Daldry’s The Hours, the theme of homosexuality is developed and portrayed in the form of the ten-year intimate relationship between Clarissa Vaughn and Sally Lester. Ten years is a long time for Clarissa and Sally to live together in the same apartment sharing everything that a husband and wife shares. Clarissa Vaughn in The Hour differs from Clarissa Dalloway in Mrs. Dalloway because she chose to not to be with Richard and ended up with Sally. Also, in the film The Hour, the interesting parts are the women in each era of the film shared a kiss with another woman. For example, Laura’s neighbor Kitty drops in to ask her if she can take care of Laura’s dog while Laura is in the hospital for a procedure. Kitty pretends to be cheerful; however, Laura feels Kitty’s fear and boldly kisses Kitty on the lips (Daldry, The Hour).

Both Stephen Daldry’s The Hours and Virginia Woolf’s Mrs. Dalloway present a unique way of constructing stories. The idea of developing the story depicts all its action in one single day, demonstrates the creative nature of both the author Virginia Woolf and the director Stephen Daldry. The story revolves on a single day, yet, they are able to deliver the significant message with the similarities in the theme of homosexuality to the reader as a novel and film, that could have considered different writing angles. Director Stephen Daldry has done a fantastic job of delivering Virginia Woolf’s Mrs. Dalloway into his own modern retelling, The Hours.

Works Cited

The Hours. Dir. Stephen Daldry. Paramount Pictures. 2002. Film  
Woolf, Virginia. Mrs. Dalloway. New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1925. Print.

Communication Development Plan

Abstract

This paper describes how the communication can be developed by using some strategic plans or tools. It contains graphical representation and the content will be in my point of view. The development plan is clearly explained in the document. It defines the goals and strategies of communication development.

Communication Development Plan

The purpose of the communication plan is to develop my communication skills and to be experienced for attending a job interview. By effectively communicating I can easily work with the co-employees and accomplish the given tasks.

The communication plan gives a system to oversee and facilitate the wide assortment of interchanges that occur amid the venture. The communication plan covers who will get the interchanges, how the interchanges will be conveyed, what data will be imported, who imparts and the recurrence of the interchanges.

Communication development exercises distinguish the proper level of communication for each venture partner, what data ought to be conveyed, and the recurrence of interchanges. This arrangement ought to likewise incorporate the vehicle of communication (email, up close and personal gatherings, and so forth). The danger of deficient planning could bring about the inability to finish key venture destinations, duplication of exertion, and diminished partner certainty.

Current Assessment of Communication

My current communication assessment is developed by scoring each category through assessing on my own knowledge:

Table 1Self-Assessment Scoring table (Deborah J. Barret. 2014. P.21)

Score

Capability Area

4

Ethos/image

3

Audience analysis and strategy

3

Social media and other written communication

2

Oral communication

3

Visual communication

4

El: Dealing with own feeling

3

El: Dealing with others

4

Cultural communication competence

3

Group and team communication and dynamics

3

Organizational communication

3

Internal communication

2

External communication

1=

Need lots of work in this area

2=

Need some work in this area

3=

Acceptable, but could be stronger

4=

Very good abilities, close to leadership communication level

5=

Excellent abilities, leadership communication level achieved

The above table shows in which categories I need to develop and which one is strong. By this assessment, I can easily know what the areas need to develop and work on it.

Communication Improvement Goals

“You can have brilliant ideas, but if you can’t get them across, your ideas won’t get you anywhere.” (Lee Lacocca)

The communication skills that need to be improve are Listening skills and Oral communication. I generally wondered: What is it that makes a few people exceptionally powerful communicators while a couple gets to be tongue-tied at the possibility of tending to a gathering of outsiders? I used to know somebody who was particularly splendid, conferred and remain in his employment yet he generally used to get disregarded when the time sought the yearly progression or raise.

For all intents and purposes, each part of the life force you to speak with others in some frame or mold. If you need to set objectives to enhance relational abilities, first, consider how you identify with others and after that solicit you what undesirable examples from conduct may hinder communication achievement. Indeed, even a snapshot of expectation may go far toward enhancing individual and business relationships.

Similarly, as with whatever another aptitude, you must point on your capacity to speak with others obviously and viable. A few people are conceived with it. Yet, there is a large portion of us, I included, who have needed to take a shot at it to get to where we are today. Have patience. Try not to anticipate that yourself will bloom into a sure public speaker overnight. Set sensible objectives and compliment yourself at whatever point you effectively explore through a saddling discussion or discourse.

Actions to achieve goals

Listening Skills: –

To become a good listener, we need to follow the requirements below:

Focus Fully on the Speaker his or her non-verbal communication, the manner of speaking, and other nonverbal signs. The manner of speaking passes on feeling, so in case you’re considering different things, checking instant messages or doodling, you’re practically sure to miss the nonverbal prompts and the enthusiastic substance behind the words being talked. Furthermore, if the individual talking is comparatively diverted, you’ll have the capacity to rapidly get on it. If you think that it’s difficult to focus on a few speakers, take a stab at rehashing their words over in your mind until it fortifies their message and help you to remain centered.

Favor your right ear the left half of the mind contains the essential preparing places for both dialogue appreciation and feelings. Since the left half of the mind is associated with the right side of the body, supporting your right ear can help you better understand the enthusiastic distinction of what somebody is stating. Have a go at keeping your stance straight, your button down, and tilting your right ear towards the speaker this will make it less demanding to get on the higher frequencies of human talk that contain the enthusiastic substance of what’s being said.

Avoid interrupting or trying to redirect the conversation to your concerns, by saying something like, “On the off chance that you feel that is terrible, given me a chance to disclose to you what occur.” Listening is not the same as sitting tight for your swing to talk. You can’t focus on what somebody’s expression in case you’re framing what will state next. Frequently, the speaker can read your outward appearances and realize that your mind is not here.

Show your interest in what beings said. Nod your head incidentally, grin at the individual, and ensure your posture is open and welcoming. Urge the speaker to proceed with little verbal remarks like “yes” or “uh-huh.”

Try to set aside judgement. Keeping in mind the top goal to discuss successfully with somebody, you don’t need to like them or accord with their views, qualities, or conclusions. In any case, you do not need the judgment and keep fault and keeping feedback in mind the end goal to completely understand a man. The most disturbing communication, when effectively executed, can prompt to the most improbable and significant association with somebody.

Provide feedback. If there is by all accounts a difference, reflect what has been said by rewarding. “What I’m hearing is,” or “Seems like you are stating,” are incredible approaches to reflect. Don’t just repeat what the speaker has said literally, however-you’ll sound devious or unintelligent. Rather, express what the speaker’s words intend to you. Make inquiries to clear up specific focuses: “What do you mean when you say…” or “Is this what you mean?”

Individuals frequently concentrate on what they ought to state, however viable correspondence is less about speaking and more about tuning in. Listening admirably implies not simply understanding the words or the data being imported, additionally understanding the feelings the speaker is attempting to convey. (Robinson, Segal, Smith. 2016. p.3-4).

Oral Communication.

An important part of supervision is the capacity to speak with other parties. A successful approach to rapidly enhance the capacity to impart orally and in composing is to see each correspondence open door as making an oral proposition to someone else. The oral proposition can be made orally, or it can be in a composed report. The accompanying dialog of making an oral proposition is more expanding than a boss would typically do in imparting assignments or data to a subordinate, yet the ideas are appropriate to all oral communication. (CSTE Common Body of Knowledge, V6.1)

The following guidelines need to be followed when giving a presentation:

  • Underline that you are introducing the best answer for the client’s issues.
  • Emphasize that your venture group is all around prepared to complete this arrangement.
  • Sell the corporate experience of your enterprise staff and yourself.
  • Sell your own administration capacities.
  • trade the specialized mastery of the venture staff and yourself.
  • Sell your eagerness to do this venture sufficiently, effectively, and financially.

Oral Communication is the process of verbally transmitting data and thoughts starting with one individual or gathering then onto the next. Oral correspondence can be either formal or casual. Cases of casual oral communication include:

  • Face-to-Face discussions
  • Phone discussions
  • Talks that happen at conferences

Strategic planning/Communication

The strategic plan used for finding my goals to achieve is self-assessment as shown above in the table. The below is the plan for achieving my goals:

Communication Development Process:

The above figure explains how to achieve communication by following the cycle.

Define Success: Firstly, identify the needs that are need to be developed for the organization that you are interested to apply for a job.

Self-Awareness: Understanding the strengths and weaknesses by assessing on your own knowledge and by checking with the organization.

Self-Management: Setting the goal is more important which leads to a great leader. Then focus on implementing the goal by several strategies and finally develop the skills that are required through practicing daily by some activities.

Evaluate progress: At last measure, the goals whether you have reached or not. If you find any remarks while improving stats, then plan to refine the goals and continue the process until it done. “Improving does not end”. (Sir Winston Churchill)

SMART Goals:

It is used to measure the goals and maintain a time table which helps to achieve your goals.

The above briefly shows that what are the SMART goals responsible and what can be achieved from it. When you have arranged your venture, turn your regard for building up a few objectives that will empower you to be effective. Objectives ought to be SMART – Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Realistic and time-based. (Haughey. 2014)

Specific:

What needs to be accomplished and why?

  • Oral Communication

It is the important means of communication which is used for academic and business meetings.

  • Time management

It helps you to make right choices, so you can spend more time on the things that are more valuable to you.

Measurable:

How will I know it will be accomplished?

  • When I was in undergrad, I couldn’t give speeches in front of class. But, now I have improved a little and gaining experience by taking feedback from professor’s.

Achievable:

 

Time Management: 

Oral Communication:

  • Know your subject clearly and practice
  • Do not speak too fast
  • It is better to say little than too much
  • Make face-to-face conversation effective
  • Improving presentation skills
  • Record a video for yourself and verify

Relevant:

  • Is this worth time?

Yes, I am student and have free time.

  • Is this the right time?

Yes, while being a student is the right time to learn.

  • Am I right person to reach the goal?

Yes, I want to become a project leader.

Time Bound:

  • When?

I have 9 months of time from now.

  • What can I do from now?

I can learn many things while being a student and take feedback of lecturers.

I can gain more experience from the collage.

Conclusion

I conclude this report that communication development plan is very helpful for those who want to become a good leader and achieve their goals. I have briefly explained how to achieve goals using SMART analysis and given the table format. Self-assessment is also given to identify your goals that need to be improved.

References

Robinson.L, Segal.J, and Smith.M. Effective Communication. Last updated: December 2016. p.3-4.

https://www.helpguide.org/articles/relationships/effective-communication.htm?pdf=true

CSTE Common Body Of Knowledge, V6.1.

http://msqaa.org/Best_Practices/Management/MakingProposal.pdf

Deborah J. Barret. (2014). Leadership Communication. Mc Graw Hill Education: New York.

p.21.

Social Learning Theory: Outline and Evaluate

  • Ellie Thomas

Criminology

Outline what is meant by the term identification in relation to the social learning theory approach. [2 marks]

Identification is a psychological process whereby someone identifies with something from another person, typically a model of theirs, and then uses this in order to change their personality. For example, a little boy may identify with his older brother because they are both male, and so when he sees him stealing from a shop, he copies.

Explain one limitation of the social learning theory approach. [3 marks]

This approach is less determinist than the behaviourist approach. Reciprocal determination, introduced by Bandura, is the idea that we are not just influenced by environmental factors, however but merely influences and directs us to behave a certain way. This suggests that we have a sense of free will in our behaviour, and doesn’t just stick to one theory as to why we behave the way that we do.

Outline and evaluate the social learning theory approach. Refer to the behaviourist approach as part of your evaluation.

Even though the social learning theory (SLT) does agree with the behaviourist theory – that most of our behaviour is learned through experience – Bandura also propose the idea that people can learn through different way, e.g. observation and imitation. Learning does occur through classical and operant conditioning; however, we can also learn indirectly – through watching others and learning from mistakes.

Another word for this is vicarious reinforcement; learning through observing and imitating; indirectly. An individual observes the behaviour of someone and if the behaviour is received positively, they would learn that they can do that, and if it is received negatively, they will know to never do it. So, if someone is punished we learn not to copy the behaviour, and if someone is rewarded we know that we should or could repeat that behaviour!

A huge idea throughout the SLT approach is the role of mediational processes. This is the concept that mental processes effect our behaviour. These mental factors, or mediational processes, created by Bandura, are: attention – the extent to which we notice certain behaviours; retention – how well the behaviour is remembered; motor reproduction – the ability to perform the behaviour; and motivation – the will to perform the behaviour.

Identification is also a key concept in SLT. This is when people are more likely to imitate the behaviour of people we identify with. These are known as models. We can find models in people we find attractive, family, friends, and peers, and people of high status. If we see our model behaving in a certain way, we are more lily to copy it (imitate it).

One strength of the social learning theory is that it is less determinist than the behaviourist approach. Reciprocal determination, introduced by Bandura, is the idea that we are not just influenced by environmental factors, however but merely influences and directs us to behave a certain way. This suggests that we have a sense of free will in our behaviour, and doesn’t just stick to one theory as to why we behave the way that we do.

Another strength of this approach is that it explains cultural differences in behaviour. This theory can explain how people living in Nigeria behave differently to people living in England, for example, because it says our behaviour is through learning from those around us and the societies in which we live. This has been a useful concept in understanding why children from different countries act differently, for example how they come to understand their gender role.

A final strength of the social learning theory approach is that it shows the importance of cognitive factors in learning. Conditioning alone, whether it operant, classical, or both, cannot provide a good enough explanation for behaviour. Humans and animals alike learn and remember behaviours which they should do. For example, from a young child children learn from their older sibling’s mistakes and therefore avoid doing that punished behaviour. Bandura observed a similar thing with his bobo doll, as when children were shown an adult hitting a bobo doll and getting away with it, they repeated the behaviour, however when they saw an adult getting in trouble for it, they didn’t. Therefore, this is a strength because it provides a more comprehensive and detailed explanation of behaviour.

However, a weakness of the SLT approach is that it over-relies on evidence from lab studies. Many of the ideas that Bandura developed were all tested through lab studies, and not real life situations. Studies done in labs can often not be a true reflection of what the researcher is investigating because of this. For example, the children in Bandura’s bobo doll experiment may have understood that as they were not in a real-life situation – being shown a video of an aggressive adult, for example – they were supposed to copy the behaviours of the adult or they may have acted the way they thought they were supposed to. Therefore, the research may tell us little about how the children truly would have behaved.

A final evaluation point of this approach is the weakness that the SLT underestimates the influence of biological factors. Little reference to biological factors are mentioned by Bandura in this approach. However, we can see from his studies that biology does take a toll. For example, boys were found to be more aggressive towards the bobo doll, however we know that testosterone is a hormone found naturally in males, that makes them more aggressive by nature. Therefore, we cannot put down their behaviour entirely to learning, as biology must play a role in it.

Professional development of Royal Garden Hotel

This report covers the topic and information which are required to build and firm report on continuous professional development of Royal Garden Hotel.

This Report gives a clear picture of the medium term plan of the organisation, recent changes in hospitality business, CPD plan implemented in the organisation, skill audit, include an explanation of what , who, when, how, why the training programme is carried, influence of staff development on productivity, measurement used for the success of staff development, leadership skill and way of improvement.

An analysis of these finding has led to the following key recommendation.

Evaluation of existing skill set and based on that designing tha tailor made finding programme.

Monitoring and tracking the flow of training designed.

Approaching the higher management for recommending desired skill by the employee so that the training team can develop the training programme based on their guidlines.

Introduction

Royal Garden London is well known as one of the London most desirable hotel. It situated near fashionable Kensington high street. This offers superb shopping, dining and nightlife. It provides superb service with wonderful views from the top floors and from the both restaurant (Park Terrace and Min Jing).

Vision Statement of Royal Garden Hotel

”To be internationally recognised as London’s most flexible 5 star hotel offering value for money where excellence in service comes naturally”.

Conferencing and Banqueting mission Statement

‘To be respected and recognised as a dynamic and effective department ,through teamwork, communication and organisation .working together to exceed our clients expectations while offering great value for money.

Objective and Aim of Royal Garden Hotel

Aim: To be a bench mark in the hospitality management.

Objective: To be a chain hotel in the unexpected area with in few years time.

Medium Term goal of RGH

Providing the intensive training and development programme for the hotel staff , to motivating the work force for achieving minimum 40% of staff retention.

Planning and scheduling the monthly promotional activities.

Hotel has medium term goal is to be achieving 60% of customer satisfaction and good will through excellent product and service.

Source: Human Resource Manager Miss Refa Marry Royal Garden Hotel (15/11/09)

Changes in hospitality business

Information Key to servicing the demanding customer: Royal Garden always takes initiative in tackling the modern customer’s demands with respect to service or providing the technology .Royal Garden strives hard to maintain high standards and meeting expectations of today’s customers who expect to have experience built around their personal needs.

Continuous Professional Development

Continuous Professional Development can be termed as an on going ,planned ,learning process that aids to personal and professional development and can be applied against competences and organisational performance.

The Chartered Management Institute (CMI),which has members from all sectors ,describes CPD as

‘A planned self-development,which embraces professional aims and in many cases is intended to impact on performance .The ‘P’ could stand for ‘personal’ or ‘performance’ as well as ‘professional’ depending on the application or interpretation

Source:skillforce(2006)skillforce organisation [online] available at:www.skillsforce.org/skill force (accessed on 15 Nov 2009)

Skills and Knowledge required

Communication Skills

Communication is two way process which is to and fro .Thus it takes communication to exchange information to right person at right time at right place whether it is verbal or non verbal communication .Skill gap in this skill will lead to deterioration in service quality .

Up selling product

It is an art through which employees can be more productive for the business to the organisation by conversing the customer who come to the organisation about the product and service offered by the organisation.

Handling complaints and guest relations

This is the skill which is developed with time and experience It is good to have this skill in every employee to increase their guest satisfaction level of an organisation ;this makes an individual an all rounder in handling situation and decision making .

Time management

It is said’ A stitch in time saves nine’ .This skill will result in the smooth functioning of operation of any organisation ; this will also help the individual to multitask efficiently.

Training techniques

Existence of this skill is very essential in every management employee in order to be effective and efficient in productivity.

Leadership Skill

Leadership skill developed not only by corporate level but also by the staff who can play a measure role to motivate team.

Pressure handling

In simple way it can be said that pressure handling is very essential in today’s stressful working environment .eg:Service staff giving personalised service to the guest at the busy shift without getting panic and stressed .

Multitasking

Multitasking is a skill which inculcates in the people allowing them to perform several tasks at the same time .They are more confident as they can think ahead one step when performing the other.

Knowledge

Technical knowledge : With rapidly changing technology trend it is important to train the staff with appropriate skills in order to save time and run the operation smoothly .Royal Garden hotel has implemented some new technology like :

Product Knowledge

‘Knowledge is power’ a very old saying can be interpreted as if you have power of knowledge u can achieve a lot .Thus Product knowledge makes the staff feel known to the product and confident enough to sell their product and thus result in profitability of the organisation.

Source: Banqueting manager Mr Martin Myre (15/11/09)

Impact of the skill gap

Productivity of staff decreases.

Lack of skills and efficiency declines in the sales of the organisation

Miscommunication can dissatisfy the customers due to insufficient information provided to the staff and restrict the staff from providing excellent service.

There can be potential fall in the standard of operating .

Due to limited resource of time not necessarily the organisation will be able to achieve the set aims and objectives.

Areas of skills /Expertise required

Skills

Yes/No

Skills at a satisfactory level

Rate(1=least,

5=highest)

Rating required to achieve

Action to Achieve required level

Target date of completion

Responsibilities

Communication skills

yes

Yes

3

5

Cross training in different work area

Day to day briefings

Training with the help of HR

3 month

1.Senior management are responsible to brief staff regarding effective communication

2.Service staff must observe and adapt communication skill

3.Be knowledgeable about hotel facility and current facts.

Upselling of products

Moderate level

No

3

4

1.Briefing about updated product knowledge

2.Food and beverage selling target should be shared with the service staff to act upon.

3 month

1.Senior Level management are responsible for briefing staff member about selling target .

2.Other service must be upsale with the help of other division staff such as dinner promotions

Handling complaints and guest relations

Moderate level

No

4

5

1.training and evaluation should be conducted.

2.Guest satisfaction survey should be used as a source to review and analyze the complaints

2 months

The supervisors should consider the complaints forwarded by the staff and guidance should be given to do so and should be trained on optimising customer satisfaction.

The management should always take immediate action over the complaints .

Leadership skills

Moderate level

No

3

5

1.on job training

2.Providing a sense of responsibility to the staff for running the operation smooth

4 month

Staff must be trained in such a fashion that they feel free to handle challenging job and responsibility offered to them .

Time management

Moderate level

No

3

5

Delegating of task as per capability and shift

2 month

The daily work should be distributed among the staff which will make the operation go hand in hand

2.Senior staff should set a time plan which makes the staff to perform their work by giving 100% toward s their work

Training of staff

Yes

No

4

5

1.Training schedules with HR

6 month

Periodic training should be carried out with the help of human resource department .

Multitasking

Yes

No

3

4

Cross training

Responsible for completing more than one task ,from one or more department

1 year

Supervisors must give cross training to line staff such as shifting commie chef to al a carte kitchen from banqueting

STAFF DEVELOPMENT PLANING

Business objective of dept

Fundamental

result area

Fundamental

performance indicator

Fundamental

Training programmes

Cost

Level

Expected

Result from training

Actual

Result

Gaps to be addressed

Increase product quality 80% within 6months

Up selling of product

Monthly food and beverage cost sheet and monthly SALT

Brand service standard course, SALT(satisfaction and loyalty tracking system) programme, intermediate kitchen management

Moderate level 3

GBP 130 0/-

High level 5

4

Communication gap, knowledge gap

To achieve an targeted room sales percent .i.e.83% within 3 month(front office)

UP selling of product and training techniques.

Monthly review of room sales sheet and on Q training sheet

Faculty of operations

Room business

On Q property management

Foundation front office management

Low level 2

GBP 1000/

Hjgh level 5

3

Knowledge gap, service delivery gap

To achieve the goal of increase in GSTS up to 89% on monthly review(food and beverage)

Multitasking complaint handling and guest relation

Monthly GSTS result sheet

Personal development course, foundation service management, Train the trainee, essential training skill.

Low level 2

GBP 1500/-

High level 3

3

Rating gap

Performance measurement

Service delivery gap

Signature of HOD

Signature of manager

Signature of Supervisor

1

2

3

4

Training

Programme

Aim

Outcomes

Duration

Methodologies

Location

Trainers

Facilities

Cost

Benefits expected

Evaluation and review

Technical

TO improve the technical skill of the employee

Technical staff would be aware and trained on technical aswpect involved in the organisation

1-2 week

Practical traning room based, on job traning

In house

OR

Out door

Internal resource(seniors employee) or Hiring the training from outside resources

Training rooms, Projectors, trining material, demo articles.

Trainer and training material cost

All level of the technical staff will be available to serve the specific technical purpose and increase the higher level of efficiency within the technical group

Direct feed back demonstration

Functional

Improvement of various function involving in each division

The respective team would be prepared to handle various assignment based on the same

1week

On job training, training room based, online training

In house or outdoor institutions

Internal resource (senior employee) or hiring the external resources

Training rooms, Projector, training material

Trainer and training material cost

All the functioanal aspect and terms will be clear and hence the better working pattern can be expected from the staff

Employee feedback return on investment, performance appraisal

Process

Familiarising the processes involving in each process functions

Each employee would be aware of the processes involved and to be followed during any assignment.

3-4 days

On job training , training room based, online training

Inhouse

Internal resource(senio employee`s)

Training room, Projector training material

Trainer and training material cost

Based on the process training the RGH staff will be prepared to deliver the product and services in the standard manner

SALT

Satisfaction review ,

Staff feedback, Higher management review feedback

Behavioural

To improve the inter personal skill of the staff

Improving and developing the interpersonal skill and mutual bonding within the division as well as with the customers.

1-2 week

On job training, training room based, online training

In house

OR

Out door institutions

Internal resource(senior resource)

OR

External Resource

Training room, projectors, training material

Trainer and training material cost

Post behavioural training individuals short comings with the respect to the interpersonal skill are expected to increase .

Senior staff feedback. Customer feedback

Generic

To providing supplementry training for improvising the capability

Giving the add-on skills and knowledge for improving the productivity of the employee

1-3days

On job training, training room based, online training

In house OR out door

Internal resource(senior resource) OR external resource

Training room, projector, training material

Trainer and training material cost

Some additional skill improvements can be introduce to the staff for improving capabilities of each employee

Rgh College on Q training result sheet a salt

Influence of staff development on productivity

Staff related practice to improve productivity Perceived impact of staff related practice

All employers surveyed were read a list of staff related practices and asked to identify those they thought would have a positive impact on productivity in their workplace. Based on the survey between 67% and 97% of employers tentatively identified all of the practices as having either a positive or very positive impact:

Providing training skills to increase staff productivity (97% positive/very positive).

Developing a work place culture where people work together better (95%).

Encouraging workers to be innovative (93%)

Developing and training for better managers (92%)

Encouraging usage of new technology (89%)

Conducting team building activities (80%)

Rise in workers’ pay rates (85%)

Post staff development, following improvement was noticed:

To achieve the set aim and goal the employees work together as a team as the abbreviation T.E.A.M stands for Together Everyone Achieves Much

The communication channel is improved within the teams .

The staff has positive approach towards their work

Since the process and skill were high-lighted, the work / assignment were handled go more efficiently.

Through the team building activities and programme , the team bonding and the understanding level within the team members has been better and a sense of responsibility for team is seen more.

Management and employee feedback

Management employee feedback acts as a vital performance appraisal tool by which the forms can draw a picture of employee’s development.

The employee feedback brings of a firm brings to its notice of the short coming based on the following.

Difficulty face in improvement of skills

Employee retention can also be decided on the basis of feedback concern employees require training and development programme .

Satisfied or dissatisfied level in the job .

Royal garden hotel employee feedback analysis

Question

Percentage (%)

Is banqueting bar is well equipped

65%

Is First time done work is always right

70%

Does Royal garden hotel follow training and development programme

90%

Do you receive a appropriate training for the job

90%

How is the overall working environment

Excellent (because staff turnover is 20%)

Profit analysis

The main aim of profit analysis is to get familiar with the actual cost involved for department against the actual sell which leads to improvisation in the firm.

The profit analysis can be calculated for the food and beverage department for the year 2008-2009 and can be predicted for the following year according to the data availability

Cost benefit analysis

It is the information available in the form of chart with differences in cost individually for food and beverage costing for the food and beverage department

The plant food cost sell for the year 2008 was 30% overplanned net revenue of great Britain pounds 2656649 the actual cost of sell percentage for that year turn out to be 3465% over the actual net revenue of GBP is 2172788.07 thus taking in to consideration the cost benefit only for food it is approximately 0.75% for the year 2008.

In order to gain extra profit external strategy such as strategic alliance niche marketing, bench marking etc can be used and finally get increased revenue in the out come

Return on investment

Return on investment is method that takes into consideration the investment and the average annual profit from the project.

Return on investment = Gain from Investment-Cost of investment/Cost of Investment

The ROI table mentioned below is an example which is carried out in Royal Garden Hotel for calculation of return on investment-

ROI(Return on Investment) Calculation

METHOD

DESCRIPTION AND CALCULATION

Net Benefit(NB)

Compares benefits to cost of the initiative.

NB= Benefit – Cost

Benefit Cost ratio(BCR)

Ratio for benefit returned for each dollar invested.

BCR=Benefit/Cost

ROI%

Percent in net benefits for every dollar invested.

ROI%= (NB/Cost)x100

How plan fits with local and national workforce development aims and objective?

Local Objective:

Offering existing offers such as tariff rate according to the tourism season by initialising the quarterly trading plan, change in the service industry style with objective of increasing the business in volume 35%

National work force objective: Productivity-raising growing of productivity to full fill the government and new marketing strategy.

Local objective:

Change is constant, in order to obtain 35% of customers service satisfaction and fame. Change is required traditional and formal style are swooped and made more specific, target, more relaxed.

LEADERSHIP SKILLS EVALUATION

Leadership is a management skill having a ability to motivate a group of people towards a organisation goal.

Using leadership characteristics list belowmto determine leadership skills in an organisation. It can be use to know about leadership skill and how to be improve it.

Rating (1-5)

1 is need to improve or develop this characteristic and 5 is applies to me.

Leadership character

Rating

How to improve

Self motivation

3

Attend practical training room

Innovative and creative towards work

5

——————————-

Effecting working relationships

4

On Job Training

Time Management

5

—————————-

Decision Making

5

——————————

Risk Taking

3

Demonstrative Training

RISK EVALUATION

Affect on budget:-

High risk is forecasted in terms of financial loss as the hotel investment in huge amount for the training and development of the employees which leads to implementation of CPD plan and strategies. The similar loss applies to the new strategies brought in action with the help of guest satisfaction level and on the failure of meeting the planned goals.

Process-engagement risk:-

CPD plan is a continuous process in achieving the best result for product quality and service quality. It can lead to a stage of high risk if the process of CPD lack in any of its elements.

Change trends of the market:

Kurt lewin developed a model for change. In which she introduced it as a process of unfreeze, change and refreeze. Thus change in a market trend produces a level of risk of firm which results in downfall in productivity of service and product.

RISK REDUCTION

The firms face lots of risk at every stage of PLC (Introduction, Growth, Maturity, and Decline). The firms should take some steps in order to prevent risk. The form should set up specific aim and objective which can be achieved in targeted financial period.

The training and development staff should set up appropriate strategies to minimise the cost incurred in training e.g. (online training)

The organisation should conduct market survey to have a better understanding of the current trend or fashion in the market , on the implementation which would create a competitive edge for the organisation.

CONCLUSION

Analysis Of The Ontological Argument Philosophy Essay

The father of Ontological arguments is often considered to be Anselm of Canterbury who was a monk and abbot of Bec in Normandy, and Archbishop of Canterbury from 1093 to 1109. Anselm when discussing topics with his pupils mainly focused on the nature and the existence of God. Throughout history there have been many disagreements over whether Anselm’s argument is sound and actually valid. Perhaps one of the more famous counter arguments against Anselm’s famous Proslogion II is that of Gaunilo. However his counter argument against Anselm has been refuted to the point where Anselm is still regarded to have been correct. Centuries later a man by the name of Immanuel Kant arises to challenge Anselm’s theory as to the existence of God. Perhaps Immanuel Kant’s most famous theory is the Critique of Pure Reason in which Kant is said to have finally brought down Anselm’s argument. However just like any other argument, Kant has many people that are against his argument as well. The battle to prove the existence of God has gone on practically since the birth of man and in order to truly prove the existence of God it must be done through logic and reasoning in order to convince the masses, this was what Anselm was the first to due. In order to be able to determine whether Anselm’s argument is in fact sound and valid it must be compared to other ontological arguments and of course compared to counter arguments. A deep understanding of Anselm’s Proslogion II is needed in order to better understand where the flaws can be found. After examining his argument it will be compared to any followers of the ontological argument to check for validity and finally contrasted against Kant’s argument to check for soundness. With the compare and contrast it should become clear as to whether Anselm’s argument is sound and valid, and not just based on emotions.

The Proslogion was written as a response to Gaunilo’s Lost Island argument in which he preceded to debunk Anselm’s argument particularly his reasoning as to why God has to exist. Anselm replies and at a glance it appears as though Anselm ignores Gaunilo’s argument however, upon close inspection Anselm does respond to the criticisms of Gaunilo. Anselm’s main argument in the Proslogion is thought to be the Proslogion II titled That God Truly Exists. Many philosophers treat the Proslogion II as a standalone argument. At the beginning of Anselm’s argument he begins with “you who grant understanding to faith” and asks God to help him with the understanding “you are, as we believe you are and that you are what we believe you to be”. This would indicate that Anselm’s argument will begin from faith. Anselm goes on to say “that you are something than which nothing greater can be thought” . This will serve as the premise for Anselm’s first argument that is God is something than which nothing greater can be thought. Which would make sense seeing as how God is suppose to be the ultimate being so there can be nothing greater than God. Of course if God does not exist however than his reasoning is flawed for if God does not exist than there is something greater that can be thought to exist. Thus the premise makes it hard to prove that God does exist however, when Anselm says ” something than which nothing greater can be thought” he already has a concept as to what that something is , thus it is safe to assume that which nothing greater can be thought exists in the understanding of the individual. Thus Anselm believes that if something exists in the understanding it must also exist in reality. Even if it were not to exist in reality it can still be thought to exist in reality. When humans believe that something in the understanding can exist in reality, than that thought alone is greater than believing God can only exist in the understanding therefore, God exists in reality. This is where Gaunilo’s argument comes into play. Gaunilo uses the idea of a lost island filled with riches and greater than any island previously found by humans. He goes on to prove the existence of this great island through the same manner as Anselm proves the existence of God. Gaunilo responds to Anselm “For you do not doubt that this island exists in your understanding; and since it is more excellent to exist not merely in the understanding, but also in reality, this island must also exist in reality. For if it did not, any land that exists in reality would be greater than it”. Gaunilo is thus arguing for the existence of the island in much the same way Anselm argued for the existence of God. If there is no doubt in the mind about existence of this great island however if the island does not exist that would mean that something greater does exist which would prove the statement wrong, which would in turn prove Anselm wrong. This does not only apply to the island but can apply to anything such as an apple an animal and so on. There has to be solid proof in order to believe that something is there, arguing saying that God has to exist because in order to understand something, the object has to exist for understanding to be possible is false. There are many things in our world that cannot be proven to exist, yet we understand them. An example of this could be ghosts, ghosts are understood to be spirits of departed ones we understand this concept however that does not mean they exist. Perhaps another example of the success Gaunilo had at disproving Anselm was that in his reply to Gaunilo, Anselm fails to reply to Gaunilo’s argument. This could mean that either Anselm did not feel the need to reply to Gaunilo, or that Anselm knew that Gaunilo had disproved his theory for the existence of God and did not know how to reply.

When closely examining Anselm’s reply to Gaunilo it becomes clear that Anselm actually does reply to Gaunilo. However he does not reply directly to Gaunilo or his Lost Island argument which could throw some readers off and give off a false idea of what Anselm’s intentions truly were. At the beginning of his reply Anselm identifies two issues that he thinks are the most important in his response to Gaunilo. Anselm interprets that Gaunilo has raised two objections against his claims. Gaunilo’s first argument is “That than which nothing greater can be thought cannot be thought “and his second argument “It does not follow that if that than which nothing greater can be thought can be thought, it exists in reality”. Anselm than responds to both of these claims indirectly, as such his first response is “That than which nothing greater can be thought can be thought” and “If that than which nothing greater can be thought can be thought, it exists in reality”. This entails that “That than which nothing greater can be thought exists in reality”. Anselm is able to successfully defend his arguments and as such he is able to prove he has a sounds argument. In his first argument Anselm clarifies what he means by thinking or understanding. The kind of issue that Anselm believes is at fault in understanding his arguments is mental conception. In mental conception “things themselves, whether they already exist or are yet to exist, are examined within the mind by the gaze of thought”. This means that we have the potential to examine things that do not yet exist. That also means we can have mental conceptions of things that are imaginary. But it is not possible to think of something that is impossible. This is probably the most important part as Anselm than has to prove whether nothing greater can be thought is possible. Anselm’s theory suggests that the thought process or thoughts in general can go wrong. It is possible to think that you are thinking of something when in reality you are not. This would occur if I failed in getting my mind the thing that I intended to “examine with the gaze of thought”. So if anyone has that than which nothing greater can be thought in his mind sees that that being must exist. This would mean that that than which nothing greater can be thought “cannot be thought not to exist”. In Anselm’s view to think and to believe are the same thing. This would mean that if someone believed that god did not exist he would have also thought that god did not exist. However to fix this obvious counterclaim Anselm goes on to say ” there must be more than one way in which something is said in one’s heart or thought” therefore the thing is thought of when the word that represents that thing is thought. It would than make sense to say that no one who understands what God is can think that God does not exist. Although the individual might believe this to be true that is not the case. Thus his words would mean nothing at all. Anybody who truly thinks that than which nothing greater can be thought “understands that this being exists in such a way that he cannot, even in thought, fail to exist”. When Gaunilo denies that God can be thought at all he is then suggesting that the ordinary person cannot have any notion at all of God. Gaunilo believes that if we do not have firsthand knowledge of something, it is still possible for humans to “form an idea of it on the basis of something like it”. However he believes that is not the case with God, “Since you yourself claim that it is so great that nothing else could be like it”. Since God does not belong to any species that we know of it becomes impossible to form an idea of an unknown entity. Thus in God’s case it than only becomes possible to think of him based solely on the basis of the word. However it is impossible to base truth just on the basis of a word and that would lead it to have little to no validity.

Patient Satisfaction in Chamber Setting

Patient Satisfaction in Chamber Setting in Bangladesh measured by Patient-Doctor Relationship Questionnaire (PDRQ-9 Bangla)

Abstract

Background: Assessment of patient satisfaction is crucial but there is significant lagging in this sector. Patient satisfaction is an important indicator of health care quality as well as a predictor of treatment adherence. The Good patient-doctor relationship is considered as an integral part of the patient satisfaction. In Bangladesh, this domain is yet to be explored in a large scale.

Aim: It was aimed to look into the patient satisfaction level in chamber setting in Bangladesh measured using the patient-doctor relationship questionnaire (PDRQ-9 Bangla).

Methods: PDRQ-9 is a short yet excellent tool for assessing the patient-doctor relationship. The data collection was done in private chamber setting by the PDRQ-9 and analyzed.

Results: Though the result was not completely in line with the existing literature, the PDRQ-9 was found to a useful and brief measurement tool in the context of the patient-doctor relationship.

Conclusion: Large-scale research in this particular aspect of patient satisfaction in future may provide a more succinct result.

Keywords: PDRQ-9 Bangla, Patient Satisfaction, Chamber Practice, Doctor-Patient, Bangladesh.

Introduction

Being as old as the civilization the field of medicine is evolving rapidly [1] but there is a significant lagging in the assessment of patient satisfaction which is considered as equally important as other health measures and a significant indicator of efficiency of health care delivery [2]. As stated by Lender et al. patient satisfaction may be defined as “positive evaluations of distinct dimensions of health care” [3]. A parallel interaction is present in between patient satisfaction, continuity of care, accessibility of treatment and physician, as patient prefer the availability and accessibility of the same physician. The measurement of patient satisfaction is thus useful is assessing the quality of care and also subsequent health-related behaviors and adherence to treatment, at the same time knowing the patient priorities would facilitate the improvement of patient experience [4,5]. Thus patient satisfaction might be considered as an indicator of institutional performance as well as patient`s wish to become more compliance and recommendation for others, which are all related to the socio-demographic condition, the health status of community and more over Patient-Doctor Relationship [6,7,8].

Patient-Doctor Relationship, a dynamic, vital yet complex interpersonal relationship which has been put under the microscope for quite a long over the century and this mutual relationship is intermingled with the idea of patient satisfaction, compliance with treatment and eventually driving the treatment outcome [9]. Over the time the concept of patient-doctor relationship has evolved a lot and currently, patient-centeredness is the most preferred by the patients hence the health care provider focuses of patient autonomy and more emphasis over patient satisfaction [10, 11, 12]. Despite being widely advocated, the practicality of patient-centered model is yet under consideration on the basis of time constraint in consultation as the physician has to perform the daunting task of providing comprehensive, coordinated yet satisfactory to the patient and above all make sure the accessibility of the care [13, 14]. Whether being psychiatric or non-psychiatric patient it is reported that successful and both way, a perfect relationship between patient and physician is crucial for the adherence and better outcome of treatment [15].

For assessing the patient-doctor relationship, a brief, concise yet having excellent psychometric characteristics scale has been developed and validated known as the 9-item patient -doctor relationship questionnaire (PDRQ-9) [14,15,16, 17,18] which essentially evaluates the therapeutic aspect of the patient-doctor relationship based on the perspective of the patient in the primary health care setting [14,15]. PDRQ-9 gives the opportunity to quantify the communication, level of satisfaction and availability in dealing with the physician in regard to patient`s point of view [18]. Initially validated by Van der Feltz-Cornelis et al. this is to be reported that there is internal consistency among the items of the scale [17] and later was to validated by multiple researchers [14,15,16,18].

Bangladesh, a developing country having about 160 million people and achieving the health-related goal of MDG but lacking significantly in regard to conceptual similarity in health services between physician and patients, hence there exists violence against the doctor and lack of compliance with treatment and eventually patient satisfaction [1,9,19-20]. But unfortunately, there is little to be found in terms of literature regarding the patient satisfaction and patient-doctor relationship. So the authors aimed to look into the patient satisfaction level in public hospital and private chamber setting in Bangladesh measured using the patient-doctor relationship questionnaire (PDRQ-9 Bangla).

Methods

Setting: The data collection procedure was carried out in 3 different hospitals by 3 different physicians.

Instrument: The Bangla version of 9 item based Patient-Doctor Relationship Questionnaire (PDRQ-9) was used as the tool for questioning patients which have 5 points Likert-type scale from 1: not at all appropriate, to 5: totally appropriate.

Design and Subject: The study was carried out in the outpatient department of Dhaka Medical College and some private chambers in the city of Dhaka over the period of January 2016 to December 2016 from 214 patients with the Bangla version of Patient-Doctor Relationship Questionnaire (PDRQ-9) with purposive sampling. The filling out of the questionnaire was totally voluntary and completed by the participant themselves and assistance weas provided to respondents who were not able to understand any question. Patients who were willing to participate and able to understand Bangla were included in the study and patients who were not willing were excluded. After proper collection of data, the analysis was done by SPSS 16 and Microsoft Excel 2010.

Data Collection Method: Self-reporting PDRQ-9 Bangla questionnaire and providing assistance when the patient could not understand the questionnaire.

Results

Table 1 [VM1]

Demographic Picture of the Respondents. In this study, authors considered age, gender, religion, residence, educational qualification, monthly income, marital status, occupation and family type as demographic variables. Age of the respondents was found Mean ± SD (Range): 37± 9.92 (14-65) years; 40.2 % respondents were male and 59.8% female; 57.8% resided in urban area where as 14.3% in suburb and 28 % in village; 78.7% were married and 19.9% were unmarried; 52.8% belonged to nuclear family and 45.8% were from joint family (Table 1).

Table 2: Level of satisfaction in regards to item wise responses (n=214)

Demographic Variables

Age

Completed years

Percent

Gender

Gender

Percent

14-25

29.3

Male

40.2

26-35

26.9

Female

59.8

36-45

20.7

Religion

Religion

Percent

46-55

10.7

Islam

93

56-65

11.7

Sanatan

7

Mean ± SD (Range)

37± 9.92

Marital Situation

Status

Percent

Residence

Area

Percent

Unmarried

19.9

Urbane

57.8

Married

78.7

Suburban

14.3

Widow

0.5

Village

28

Divorced

0.5

Educational Qualification

Status

Percent

Occupation

Status

Percent

Below SSC

40.9

Student

32.2

SSC

16.2

Service Holder

16.4

HSC

18.8

Business

7.5

Graduation/ Equivalents

12.3

Housewife

23.8

Post graduation

11.7

Others

7.9

Monthly Family Income

Taka

Percent

Family

Family Type

Percent

<5000

1.73

Nuclear

52.8

5000-10000

10.98

Joint Family

45.8

10000-15000

15.03

15000-20000

12.14

20000-25000

13.29

25000-30000

24.28

>30000

21.97

Statistics

Q-1

Q- 2

Q- 3

Q- 4

Q-5

Q- 6

Q- 7

Q- 8

Q-9

Mean

4.29

4.35

4.50

4.17

4.44

4.23

4.31

4.28

3.86

Median

5

5

5

4

4

4.5

5

5

4

Mode

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

Std. Deviation

0.99

0.99

0.85

0.97

3.53

0.91

1.02

1.06

1.17

Minimum

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

Maximum

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

The level of satisfaction among the Respondents. Among the 9-items of the PDRQ-9, there was a general trend of the mean being about 4.17 to 4.50. The lowest mean was found in the 9th question “I find my physician easily accessible” which was 3.86. “I trust my physician” the 3rd item had the highest mean of 4.50. The Standard deviation for the items was around 0.99 to 3.53. 5th question “My physician is dedicated to help me” had the highest standard deviation of 3.53 (Table 2).

Table 3: Distribution of responses of PDRQ-9 Bangla items

not at all appropriate

somewhat appropriate

appropriate

mostly appropriate

totally appropriate

Total

Item

F (%)

F (%)

F (%)

F (%)

F (%)

F (%)

Q 1

4 (1.87)

11 (5.14)

26 (12.15)

51 (23.83)

122 (57.01)

214 (100)

Q 2

2 (.93)

16 (7.48)

20 (9.35)

43 (20.09)

133 (62.15)

214 (100)

Q 3

3 (1.40)

3 (1.40)

24 (11.21)

37 (17.29)

147 (68.69)

214 (100)

Q 4

4 (1.87)

10 (4.76)

30 (14.02)

71 (33.18)

99 (46.26)

214 (100)

Q 5

2 (.93)

15 (7.01)

22 (10.28)

71 (33.18)

103 (48.13)

214 (100)

Q 6

2 (.93)

6 (2.80)

40 (18.69)

59 (27.57)

107 (50)

214 (100)

Q 7

3 (1.40)

17 (7.96)

19 (8.88)

47 (21.96)

128 (59.81)

214 (100)

Q 8

6 (2.80)

14 (6.54)

20 (9.35)

49 (22.90)

125 (58.41)

214 (100)

Q 9

8 (3.74)

19 (8.88)

58 (27.10)

39 (18.22)

90 (42.06)

214 (100)

Distribution of responses. Among all the 9 items and 5 responses, there was an overall tendency of answering the 5th option “totally appropriate” by the respondents as evident by the frequency ranging from 42.06% to 68.69% which were the highest for all the 9-items. “Not at all appropriate” had the lowest frequency ranging around 0.93% to 3.74%. Other three options had all most equal distribution though a greater tendency for the “mostly appropriate” was observed (Table 3).

Discussion

Patient-Doctor Relationship is a strong indicator of patient satisfaction as well as the predictor of treatment adherence and quality of health care. Patient satisfaction, on the other hand, depends largely on the availability of care and caregiver. Patient-Doctor Relationship Questionnaire-9 (PDRQ-9) is a brief and excellent tool for assessing the quality of patient-doctor relationship on the regards of patient`s experience and therefore a useful instrument for measuring patient satisfaction. Originally developed by Van Der Feltz-Cornelis et al. in 2004 it was based on Helping Alliance Questionnaire of Luborsky (HAQ), a scale that measures the therapeutic alliance in psychotherapy [17]. Later, numerous attempts were taken to validate PDRQ-9 in different languages. In Ad´an et al. validated the Spanish version and Mergen et al. in 2012 validated the Turkish version, in 2014 Zenger et al. validated the German version of PDRQ-9 and in 2016 Arafat validated the Bangla version which was the tool for this particular study [16, 17, 18, 21, 22].

On demographic basis Age of the respondents was found Mean ± SD (Range): 37± 9.92 (14-65) years which was close enough to the Bangla validation study where Age of the respondents was found as mean ± SD (range): 35.6 ± 10.71 and also with Nigerian version where mean age was 40.12 but not consistent with the German validation where Mean age was 50.58 for men and 50.87 for women and also in this particular study 52.8% respondents belonged to nuclear family and 45.8% were from joint family which also aligned with the Bangla validation study where 52% had nuclear family and 48% belonged to joint family environment [16, 18]. 40.2 % respondents were male and 59.8% female which was not in line with the Bangla version where 62% were male and 38% were female but was close to the Nigerian validation where male sex frequency was 47.6% and the female was 52.4%[15, 18].The origin of the respondents which in this study was 57.8% from an urban area where as 14.3% from suburb and 28 % from the village, but in the Bangla Validation version 64% lived in town, 16% in mini town, and 20% in the village [18].

On the 9-items the Mean was found 4.29, 4.35, 4.50, 4.17, 4.44, 4.23, 4.31, 4.28 and 3.86 respectively which were not consistence with either the original Dutch or later validated Spanish, Turkish, Nigerian or Bangla version [15,17, 18, 22] but the German Validation study showed means of the 9-items which were almost similar to this study[16]. It was seemed to be found that the respondents chose to answer “mostly appropriate” in this particular study.

However, as observed by Arafat SMY most of the people in Bangladesh has the perception that, the role of the physicians here are motivated by financial gain only and thus not fully justified which often lead to violence against doctor as well as the health services providers which do not completely fit with the result of this particular study [9]. Also, the doctor leads a hectic life in this country and the overwhelming number of patients per physician also make it difficult to provide quality and patient-centered care [1]. The overall result of the study might not reflect the picture on basis of the currently available literature in this context.

Limitations of the Study

The majority of the data was collected from private chamber setting which might have been the cause of a result not in line with the other articles. Moreover, in some respondents assistance was provided to fill out the questionnaire.

Conclusion

The result from the analysis indicated a better level of satisfaction among the patients which was not quite in line with the premeditated concept of the authors as it did not fall in line with the available data. Despite this fact, the Bangla validated the version of PDRQ-9 was found as a very helpful as an instrument for assessing the relationship between patient and doctor in a very short time and both in public and private health care facility. As the scale bears only patients perspective it was very proficient for measuring patient satisfaction. In a developing country like Bangladesh, future large-scale studies to substantiate the findings of this particular study and further evaluate the patient satisfaction on the basis of patient-doctor relationship may provide a clearer picture.

References

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14. Porcerelli JH, Murdoch W, Morris P, Fowler S. The Patient-Doctor relationship questionnaire (PDRQ-9) in primary care: A validity study. Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings. 2014 Aug 9;21(3):291-6.

15. Aloba O, Esan O, Alimi T. Psychometric qualities of the 9 item patient doctor relationship questionnaire in stable Nigerian patients with schizophrenia. Journal of Behavioral Health. 2015;4(4):112.

16. Zenger M, Schaefert R, van der Feltz-Cornelis C, Brähler E, Häuser W. Validation of the patient-doctor-relationship questionnaire (PDRQ-9) in a representative cross-sectional German Population survey. PLoS ONE. 2014 Mar 17;9(3):e91964.

17. Van der Feltz-Cornelis CM, Van Oppen P, Van Marwijk HWJ, De Beurs E, Van Dyck R. A patient-doctor relationship questionnaire (PDRQ-9) in primary care: Development and psychometric evaluation. General Hospital Psychiatry. 2004 Mar;26(2):115-20.

18. Arafat SMY. Psychometric validation of the Bangla version of the patient-doctor relationship questionnaire. Psychiatry Journal. 2016;2016:4.

19. Uddin MS, Ahmed MSR, Arafat SMY. Does mind exist in physician’s mind? A brief phone survey in Bangladesh. International Journal of Neurorehabilitation. 2016;03(06):234

20. Arafat SMY, Uddin MS, Chowdhury EZ, Huq N, Chouudhury SR, Chowdhury MHR. Demography and Diagnosis of Patients Received Emergency Medical Service from Two Private Psychiatric Hospital in Dhaka City. Int J Neurorehabilitation. 2016;3(6):240.

21. Mergen H, Van der Feltz-Cornelis CM, KaraoÄŸlu N, Ongel K. Validity of the Turkish patient-doctor relationship questionnaire (PDRQ-Turkish) in comparison with the Europe instrument in a family medicine center. Healthmed. 2012 Feb;6(5):1763-70.

22. J. C. Mingote A, B. Moreno J, R. Rodríguez C, M. Gálvez H, P. Ruiz L. Psychometric validation of the Spanish version of the Patient-Doctor Relationship Questionnaire (PDRQ). Actas Esp Psiquiatr. 2009;37(2):94-100.

[VM1]Please enter the title of the Table 1. Also tables should be below the mentioned text. Copy the text of table 1 before the table. It goes for every table subsequently.

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