You need to write 1 paper according to the following requirements. The topic of the papers are in the second document. (each paper 350-500 words). You need to hand in 1 paper.
No plagiarism! No plagiarism! No plagiarism!
YOUR POINTS WILL BE TAKEN AWAY IF IT IS LATER FOUND THAT SOMEONE COPIED YOUR PAPER
Extra credit paper directions:
– You write the paper only on the articles that are on Blackboard for this class.
– If you write more than one paper, you cannot reuse any concepts from prior paper/s.
– 300 – 350 words
– double spaced
– in a 12 point non serif font (Arial, Tahoma, Calibri, Candara, Verdana are some examples)
This paper is not a formal essay or term paper. This paper is not a summary, an opinion or a simple response. The objective of this paper is to allow students to show they have an understanding of course concepts and can apply them to current social conditions. It will include the following conditions:
– After reading one of the articles on Blackboard, students will consider 2 concepts from this course that can be applied to the article. These concepts will be defined according to the definitions in this class. No dictionary, encyclopedia or other source definitions are acceptable.
– Papers will NOT have:
– Each paper must include 3 quotes from the article.
– Your paper will be written on a computer, saved to a computer or portable device such as a flash drive, then up-loaded to Blackboard. The title of each paper MUST include some aspect of the title given on Blackboard (example: for a paper on an article about Rosa Parks, the title of the paper might be ‘RosaParksExtraCredit.’)
-The format described below must be followed. Do NOT show references as I’m already very familiar with the course concepts and articles. Do not follow APA, MLA or another academic format.
– PAPERS MUST BE SAVED AS doc, docx, or pdf.
Format of the paper:
– Paragraph 1: Identify and define the first of the two concepts you will be applying.
— note: The definitions MUST come from either our textbook or class notes. Papers using dictionary, Wikipedia, etc definitions will not be read.
– Paragraph 2: Identify and define the second of the two concepts you will be applying.
— note: The definitions MUST come from either our textbook or class notes. Papers using dictionary, Wikipedia, etc definitions will not be read.
– Paragraphs 3 and 4: Show how each of these concepts can be applied to the article you’ve read.
possible concepts for extra credit
— the following concepts are from
chapters 1 and 2 of the text book.
They are in no particular order. There
could still be some concepts in
chapters 1 and 2. There are most
definitely more concepts in the rest of
the book. This list is meant only as a
– socioeconomic status (SES)
– definition of minority group
– definition of majority group
– characteristics of a minority group
– racial minority group
– ethnic minority group
– race as a social construction
– markers of group membership
– theories of Karl Marx (proletariat,
bourgeoisie, means of production,
importance of the economy, conflict
– living wage
– theoretical perspective proposed by
– theoretical perspective proposed by
– subsistence technology (foraging,
agriculture, industrial, post-industrial)
– intersectionality (Patricia Hill Collins);
matrix of domination
– relationship between power,
– ideological racism
– institutional discrimination
– Anglo conformity
– social structure
– human capital theory
– ethnic enclaves
– separatism, forced migration,
– industrial revolution
– any of the different immigrant groups
discussed in class
– chains of immigration
– push factors; pull factors
– three generation model
– quota system
– ethnic succession
– labor unions
– structural mobility
– degree of similarity
– ethnic revival
How anti-Muslim sentiment plays out in classrooms across the US
Words are the most common weapon of bullies, but in the past month harassment in schools is
increasingly manifesting in physical attacks and incidents are taking a psychological toll on some
Monday 21 December 2015 07.00 ESTLast modified on Tuesday 5 January 2016 07.27 EST
While watching a TV news report on the Paris attacks with her seventh-grade class, Farah
Darvesh became acutely aware that she was suddenly the center of her classmates’ attention.
“When they said Muslim terrorists did it, everyone’s heads turned and all eyes in the room
were on me,” says 12-year-old Farah, one of only three Muslims at her middle school in
A few weeks later, a classmate asked Farah point blank: “Why did your people kill those people
in Paris and San Bernardino?”
Farah, a highly confident and self-described popular girl among her peers and teachers, had
“gotten used to people joking” that she was a terrorist. But even so, she said: “Before the
attacks I was mostly treated like everyone else. But now I’m having to answer questions about
my religion and the actions of people I don’t even know. It’s a lot of pressure. I mean, I’m only
She waited for her anger to cool down before retorting to her classmate: “Don’t ask me, ask
them. Do I ask you why your people are shooting up schools?”
“That shut him up,” Farah said. She concedes that she may not have the best answer, but
she’s doing her best considering the circumstances. “I’m feeling the same way everybody else is
– I’m mad at Isis too. They’re killing innocent Muslims everywhere too. The shooting in San
Bernardino happened 9 miles from my cousin’s school. It’s very scary that she was so close to
danger. But exactly because I’m a good Muslim, I’m not going to take my anger out on
Muslim American students, many of whom weren’t even born until after September 11, are
coming of age in an era of a protracted “war on terror” abroad, and broad surveillance and
profiling of their community at home. In the month since attacks in Paris and San Bernardino
have spurred escalating rhetoric from Donald Trump and other politicians, the long-
simmering Islamophobia in America has reached a boiling point with a litany of threats,
vandalism, and violence against Muslims.
Versions of this anti-Muslim sentiment have also been playing out in the classroom setting.
Muhammad Rahman, a 15-year-old at a Chicago high school, says he gets asked “Is that a
clock or a bomb?” at least once a day since the international outcry over the arrest of 14-year-
old Ahmed Mohamed. That the uproar was over teachers and police wrongfully assuming
Ahmed’s homemade clock to be a bomb – when in fact it was a clock – doesn’t matter to
Muhammad Rahman is a 15-year-old Chicago high school student. Photograph: Ghazala Irshad
“Even the nicest people, who you wouldn’t expect to be mean, say stuff,” Muhammad says. “I
know my friends aren’t racist of course, but the jokes aren’t funny when they’re disrespectful.
“Every day, they make sure to let me know that I’m different from everyone else.”
In Georgia, a school principal apologized last week after a teacher asked a Muslim student if
she had a bomb in her backpack.
Words are the most common weapon of school bullies, but in the past month, anti-Muslim
sentiment in schools is increasingly manifesting in physical attacks, particularly against girls who
wear the hijab. On 19 November, three boys allegedly beat up a sixth-grade girl wearing a
hijab, calling her “Isis”. A 2014 study by Council on American Islamic Relations (CAIR) study
found 29% of students who wore hijab experienced offensive touching or pulling of their
Fear of ‘being judged as either oppressed or radicalized’
Lana Alshahrour is a blonde-haired, blue-eyed 12-year-old Syrian Muslim at a Chicago middle
school. Because she does not wear the hijab and has Caucasian features, when Lana was a new
student she was privy to Islamophobic gossip about a classmate who wore the hijab.
Lana risked her social standing to defend the girl. “Instead of making fun of her, why don’t you
get to know her?” she told the bullies. “But that’s what terrorists wear,” they replied. “No, that’s
what Muslims wear. It’s just a piece of cloth,” Lana countered.
Lana appears to be clearing the path for her own future, too – she is conflicted by her desire to
wear the hijab out of devotion to God, her fear of “being judged as either oppressed or
radicalized,” and the “pressure to represent the hijab for all Muslims without letting it define
Fifty-five percent of Muslim students surveyed by the Council on American Islamic Relations
(CAIR) last year reported that they were bullied at school in some form because of their Islamic
faith. That’s twice the national percentage of bullying reported by all students, regardless of
their religion. According to the CAIR survey, verbal harassment is the most common, with non-
Muslims calling Muslim students terrorists or referencing bombs. But physical assaults also
These incidents are taking a psychological toll on Muslim youth. “At a crucial time in their
identity development, they’re suffering from chronic trauma,” says Dr Halim Naeem, a
psychotherapist and president of The Institute of Muslim Mental Health. Dr Naeem says that in
the past few months alone, he has seen increased cases of depression, anxiety, image issues,
paranoia, and substance abuse among Muslim American youth. In the short term, the constant
stress wreaks havoc on students’ immune systems and destroys their focus, disrupting learning
The role of teachers
Most kids don’t report any Islamophobic harassment to their teachers. “I don’t think they’d do
anything that would make a difference, because they probably wouldn’t take it seriously,” says
Farah. Her fear may not be unfounded, as she reports that even some of her teachers recently
asked her questions about Islam“in a way that wasn’t just curious.”
Lana Alshahrour worries that if she wears her hijab, she’ll be “judged as either oppressed or
radicalized”. Photograph: Ghazala Irshad
The CAIR survey found that the sentiment that teachers don’t take Islamophobia seriously is
shared by a majority of Muslim American students, and it goes beyond the typical adolescent
fear of being labeled a tattle-tale. “I was afraid they [teachers and administration] would have
their own opinions and give priority to the others,” reported one California student when asked
about reporting Islamophobic bullying to teachers.
One in five Muslim students reported being discriminated against by school staff. Recently,
a California teacher asked her class “Who thinks Muslims should die?” and called a Muslim
student in class a terrorist. The school board disciplined the teacher, but he is still teaching.
Students discriminated against by teachers often transfer classes or schools in order to feel
more comfortable, as Ahmed Mohamed ended up doing.
How parents respond
Muslim parents are grappling with how to respond appropriately to protect their children while
maintaining a sense of normalcy. Some have reluctantly kept their children home from school,
fearing reprisals after the Paris and California attacks.
Many are sitting down to give them “The Talk,” much like African American parents do with
their children, about how to avoid raising suspicion and avoid physical harm or arrest. “I told
Farah that it’s not wrong to be Muslim, but it might not be a good idea to be vocal about it right
now,” says Mrs Darvesh. “It’s sad because I want my kids to be proud of who they are, and
that’s what this country is about.”
Others, such as St Louis Post-Dispatch columnist Aisha Sultan, call for engaging kids instead.
“Part of raising your child when you’re a minority is showing them and modeling through your
own confidence and advocating for them non-confrontationally without shame, and without
Experts say addressing the problem requires the cooperation of non-Muslim parents and
teachers to educate their kids.
“This is where teachers and parents of all faiths need to come up with a plan together to talk to
kids about Islam and current events both at home and at school,” says Naeem, the
psychotherapist. “When you teach racism and incite hatred in a developing brain, you actually
alter its structure.”
Shaheen Pasha, a professor of journalism at the University of Massachusetts-Amherst and
mother of two, says that she sees too many students come into her classroom unaware of
what’s going on in the world. “Non-Muslim student awareness and allyship can play a big part in
resolving this issue.”
Islam in the curriculum
On Friday, tensions boiled over in Augusta County, Virginia, when schools were closed after a
lesson in Arabic calligraphy elicited an uproar from the community. Students in the world
geography class were presented with an Islamic Statement of faith written in Arabic to
demonstrate the artistry of the calligraphy, but a community forum that night blasted it as an
“indoctrination” of faith.
The incident sparked a fiery social media debate that reinforced the fears many students have
about expressing their religion at school.
But while Lana ponders the consequences of appearing visibly Muslim through the hijab, she
can’t help herself from using her own background for reference when the subjects of Islam,
terrorism, and Arab refugees come up in her eighth-grade classes. In a recent debate about
refugees, her classmates argued that Middle Eastern refugees should not be allowed into the
US “because they could be Isis”.
Lana laughs. “They think if we don’t let anyone in here, then the terrorism stays overseas. But
Isis doesn’t need to send fighters to America – they can recruit from the internet. Besides, Isis
is not the root of the refugee problem.”
When someone suggested bombing the entire country of Syria to eliminate all threat of terror,
Lana realized that her classmates didn’t see them as individual humans. “They think all Muslims
and Arabs are scary. So I shared my family’s story: My uncle was a student in Syria but he is
now a refugee living with us in Chicago after he had to escape being captured by Bashar al-
Assad’s forces. The root of the problem is Assad, not Isis.”
Here's the full statement from #Augusta County Public Schools on why they cancelled school activities. pic.twitter.com/FmcHVmtWBy
— NBC29 (@NBC29) December 17, 2015
October 22, 2015, 2:40 PM
Elaborate drug tunnel discovered between California and Mexico
This Wednesday, Oct. 21, 2015 photo released by Mexico’s Federal Police shows an
underground tunnel that police say was built to smuggle drugs from Tijuana, Mexico to San
Diego in the United States. Mexican federal police said the tunnel extends about 2,600 feet (800
meters) and is lit, ventilated, equipped with a rail car system, and lined with metal beams to
AP/ MEXICO FEDERAL POLICE
SAN DIEGO — Mexican authorities said Thursday they seized about 10 tons of marijuana in an
elaborate tunnel with a rail car system that extended well into San Diego and was designed to
smuggle drugs into the U.S. from Tijuana.
The discovery on Wednesday marks one of the longest and more sophisticated clandestine
tunnels found on the U.S.-Mexico border.
The passage was 9 feet deep and about 2,600 feet long – about three-quarters of that distance
in Tijuana and the rest in San Diego. It was lit, ventilated and built with metal beams to prevent
It was unclear whether any drugs got through the tunnel or if it had an exit yet in the U.S.
Lauren Mack, a spokeswoman for U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement, declined to
It was also unclear which drug trafficking organization began the engineering feat.
The region is largely controlled by Mexico’s Sinaloa cartel, whose leader Joaquin “El Chapo”
Guzman escaped from a maximum-security prison in Mexico in July .
Guzman is known to be highly skilled in tunnel building. He escaped from prison through an
elaborate, ventilated tunnel over a mile long with a motorcycle mounted on rails.
Mexican police said in a press release about the drug tunnel that 16 people were detained on
suspicion of drug trafficking and had told authorities that they had ties to a criminal group that
operates in the state of Jalisco – an apparent reference to the Jalisco New Generation cartel,
which controls that part of western Mexico.
The people were caught off-guard when Mexican authorities arrived at a Tijuana warehouse
with a search warrant, police said. No shots were fired.
The drugs were wrapped in 873 packages covered with plastic and tape, police said.
Dozens of tunnels have been found along the U.S.-Mexico border in recent years – the most
sophisticated equipped with hydraulic lifts and electric rail cars.
The San Diego-Tijuana region is popular because its clay-like soil is easy to dig with shovels
and pneumatic tools, and both sides of the border have warehouses that provide cover for
trucks and heavy equipment.
Hatewatch Exclusive: Alaska Serial Killer Exposed to Christian Identity
By Bill Morlin on December 4, 2012 – 12:58 pm, Posted in Christian Identity, Extremist Crime
A confessed serial killer and bank robber who took his own life in an Alaska jail cell on Sunday
was exposed to the racist and anti-Semitic beliefs of Christian Identity theology during his
childhood in a rural corner of Washington state, Hatewatch has learned.
Israel Keyes, 34, now linked to at least eight murders throughout the United States in the past
11 years, was a childhood friend and neighbor in Stevens County, Wash., of terrorists Chevie
and Cheyne Kehoe — two racist brothers now serving lengthy prison sentences for murder and
“The two families, the Keyeses and the Kehoes, were neighbors and friends and lived about a
half mile apart off Aladdin Road north of Colville” in Stevens County, Wash., a source with direct
knowledge of the situation said. “The kids in both families were home-schooled and they
sometimes attended aChristian Identity church called The Ark, just up the road from their
homes,” the source said.
The Ark, headed by 83-year-old Pastor Dan Henry, preaches that white people are the
superior, chosen race and that the Bible is their story. Identity followers generally believe
that modern-day Jews are not the real descendants of the Hebrews of the Bible, and many say
that Jews are biologically descended from Satan. Identity believers often describe themselves
as the true “Israel,” suggesting that Keyes’ first name is a reference to his family’s beliefs.
Israel Keyes, who apparently wasn’t given a middle name, was born in Utah to Mormon parents
who purchased rural property in Stevens County, near the U.S.-Canadian border, when he was
a child. On a website for the general contracting business he owned, Keyes listed Colville,
Wash., as his hometown and said he built his first log cabin in Stevens County when he was 16.
“He could have attended here, but I don’t specifically remember,” Henry, the Christian Identity
pastor, told Hatewatch today when contacted at his church, Our Place Fellowship, located about
a mile south of the U.S.-Canadian border. Henry said his church, which he founded in 1975
after moving from Nevada, doesn’t keep a membership roster. “We’ve had hundreds of people
attend our fellowship over the years, and I certainly don’t know them all.”
Henry said he had heard news reports about Israel Keyes and his crimes. While he said he
didn’t recall meeting Keyes, “I know his family lived her for a time. I don’t remember seeing him
here at our church, but he could have been.”
Israel Keyes is believed to have been one of two teenage boys in the Keyes family who showed
up along with Chevie and Cheyne Kehoe at a 1992 rally at Ft. Colville Grange, where human
rights activists where attempting to organize and counter a growing number of racists and neo-
Nazis in Stevens County, the source told Hatewatch.
The FBI is now actively putting together a timeline of Keyes’ past, including times he spent in
Stevens County. It’s not clear if any of the four murders Keyes confessed to committing in
Washington state occurred in Stevens County, but there is interest in his possible connection to
the 1996 murder there of a 12-year-old girl who had prosthetic legs.
Stevens County Undersheriff LaVonne Webb told Hatewatch that while her office is piecing
together a timeline of Keyes’ activities in Stevens County, he has not been definitively linked to
any unsolved homicides there. “He is not tied at this point to any case that we have in Stevens
County,” the undersheriff said.
Keyes was arrested in March in Texas and later indicted in Alaska on three federal charges
related to the kidnapping-murder in February of 18-year-old Anchorage barista Samantha
Koenig. Keyes was charged with kidnapping resulting in death, receipt and possession of
ransom money, and fraud with access device.
The FBI now says Keyes’ nationwide killing spree may date back at least a decade, to when he
was 24 or even younger. He has been linked to four murders in Washington state, one in New
York and two in Vermont — a couple named Bill and Loraine Currier who were killed in 2011.
Before committing suicide early Sunday, Keyes, a self-employed carpenter, general contractor
and U.S. Army veteran, admitted responsibility for robbing several banks, Mary Rook, the FBI
special agent in charge in Alaska, said Monday.
Keyes was in the U.S. Army from 1998-2000, stationed at Fort Lewis, Wash., Fort Hood, Texas,
and Egypt before being honorably discharged in June 2000, his records show.
Investigators were cautiously interviewing Keyes, attempting to develop a relationship so he
would open up and possibly implicate himself in other crimes, and he was cooperating, at least
to some extent. Now all investigators can do is work with what he told them and develop a
timeline detailing his extensive, almost impulsive travels throughout the United States. They
suspect he may be behind more than the eight killings he already had accepted responsibility
“Keyes used proceeds from his bank robberies to pay for his travel, along with money he made
as a general contractor,” Rook, the FBI official, said in a statement. “Keyes also admitted
traveling to various locations to leave supplies he planned to use in future crimes,” Rook said.
“Keyes buried caches throughout the United States.”
“The FBI has recovered two caches buried by Keyes – one in Eagle River, Alaska, and one
near Blakes Falls Reservoir in New York. The caches contained weapons and other items used
to dispose of bodies. Keyes indicated the other caches he buried throughout the U.S. contain
weapons, money, and items used to dispose of victims,” Rook said.
In a series of interviews with law enforcement officials, Keyes described “significant planning
and preparation for his murders, reflecting a meticulous and organized approach to his crimes,”
“It was not unusual for Keyes to fly into an airport, rent a car, and drive hundreds of miles to his
final destination,” the FBI official said. “This was the case in the murder of Bill and Loraine
Currier, where Keyes flew into Chicago, rented a car, and drove across several states before
arriving in Essex, Vt. After the murder of the Curriers, Keyes continued his travels on the east
coast before returning to Chicago and then to Alaska.”
The FBI official said Keyes “admitted to murdering four people in Washington State. “He killed
two people, independent of each other, sometime during 2005 and 2006, and murdered a
couple in Washington between 2001 and 2000,” Rook said.
“It is unknown if these victims were residents of Washington or if they were vacationing in
Washington but resided in another state. It is also possible Keyes abducted them from a nearby
state and transported them to Washington.
“Additionally, Keyes admitted to investigators that in 2009 he murdered a victim on the East
Coast and disposed of the body in New York State. Based on Keyes’ statements, investigators
believe Keyes abducted the victim from a surrounding state and transported him/her to New
After murdering the young woman barista in Alaska earlier this year, Keyes dumped her body in
icy Matanuska Lake near Anchorage, and flew from Alaska to Houston, Texas, authorities say.
He returned to Alaska on Feb. 17, investigators say, and used Koenig’s phone and debit card to
demand and collect ransom money that was contributed by the public.
The federal indictment says Koenig subsequently withdrew ransom money in subsequent trips
he made from Alaska to Las Vegas on March 6 and later in Arizona, New Mexico and Texas.
After Keyes’ arrest, he provided details that led investigators to cut a hole in the ice in
Matanuska Lake and recover Koenig’s body on April 2.
Law enforcement officials are still working feverishly to see if Keyes may be linked to other
unsolved murders around the country over the last decade.
KoreansSlap Bill Gates for ‘Rude’
By Joohee Cho
Follow on Twitter
Apr 23, 2013 7:35am
SEOUL, South Korea – The buzz in town today is this photograph of Microsoft founder Bill Gates’
shaking hands with South Korea President Park Geun-hye.
Gates, 57, might have not realized it Monday, but a one-hand shake in Korean culture – and also in
Asia – is notably casual, done only when the other party is a good friend, of the same or younger age.
Using one hand with the other tucked in the pants pocket is considered rude here, done when one is
expressing superiority to the other.
“Perhaps it was his all-American style but an open jacket with hand in pocket? That was way too
casual. It was very regretful,” said Chung Jin-suk, secretary general at the Korean National
President Park’s office has said nothing publicly about the incident and a spokesperson for Gates
declined to comment.
But Internet chat rooms and social network sites are filled with views debating cultural differences
and analyses of Gates’ laid-back style.
“I don’t know if that was ignorance or just plain disrespect,” Cho Park, a Korean student studying in
New York, said. “It was pretty rude of him. The thing is I’m not sure if it is rude in Western culture.”
The controversy doesn’t end there. Gates had met with two other previous South Korean presidents:
Kim Dae-jung and Lee Myung-Bak. He apparently gave the proper handshake with both hands to the
late Kim in 2002 but was spotted giving an improper shake to President Lee in 2008. That also
became a subject of debate.
Some South Korean media have been speculating that perhaps it was intentional, showing his
political preference; respect for the opposition leader Kim but disrespect for the ruling party leaders
Lee and Park, 61.
“Cultural difference or bad manners?” the Joongang Ilbo newspaper wrote.
“A disrespectful handshake or a casual friendly handshake?” DongAh Ilbo newspaper said in its
“It’s a head of state we’re talking about,” said Rick Yoon, a brand retailer in Seoul. “And she’s a lady.
This is not just a Korean thing. It’s an international protocol.
“Maybe it was intentional. Otherwise, he has a very strange habit.”
Gates was in South Korea on a three-day visit to promote his start-up TerraPower, which is
developing next-generation nuclear reactors.
ABC News’ Joanne Kim contributed to this report.