Economics Paper- 7 PAGES

 7 PAGES DUE FEB. 9TH, at 9 AM EST. Please read the following attachments and ask me if you need any clarification No Plagiarism and must attached the Turnintin Report

Topic: Can School Finance Reforms improve long term earnings?

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• School finance reforms increase school spending in low income

school districts.

  How will your final paper be graded? The rubric below — which will be used for the first draft as well as for the final paper — gives a more formal answer to that question. But here basically is what we are looking for.

· Researching the topic: Did you find and master relevant scholarly reference materials? We will talk in class about what “scholarly” means. Briefly: it means professional books and journal articles. I recommend 
Google Scholar
 as a good starting point. “Scholarly” specifically excludes the kind of unmonitored websites that turn up in ordinary web searches. “Joe’s website about economics” is not a scholarly source, even if Joe is a professor of economics somewhere. You get precisely one Wikipedia citation for the entire paper. Watch the “Citing Sources
” video lecture.

· Documentation and Citation: Did you document and cite all sources appropriately? You are responsible for providing proper citation for all direct quotations, paraphrased ideas, and statistical and other information coming from other sources. (Note that you have to cite an idea even if you paraphrase it rather than quote an author directly; and, in general, you ought to paraphrase not quote.) Make sure to include at the end of each paper a list of works cited. You must format properly both your in-text citations and list of works cited. Watch the ”
Citing Sources
” video lecture.

· Argument: Is there a central idea, a thesis that you sustain consistently throughout the paper? How clear, sophisticated, and original is the idea? Does it convey a clear knowledge of the material and a recognition of alternative perspectives?

· Support: How well do you support your argument? Are your sources clearly and consistently relevant to the thesis? Do you use examples, quotations, statistical and other information skillfully to support the argument(s)?

· Organization: Is the paper well-organized? Make sure that your objective is clear at the beginning, that each section has a clear role in meeting the objective, and that ideas flow logically from one paragraph or section to the next.

· Paragraphs: Are the paragraphs coherent and well-organized? Is there one clear idea per paragraph, introduced by a clear topic sentence and developed consistently by other well-connected sentences?

· Sentences: Are the sentences efficient and well-constructed? Work on constructing clear, concise sentences by avoiding words and phrases that do not fit well. Use vague pronouns and passive voice only when absolutely necessary.

· Mechanics: Are the mechanical elements of writing (grammar, spelling, punctuation, etc.) free of errors? Using your word processor to check spelling and grammar before printing the paper can go a long way. But be careful: your word processor does not know if you meant “there” or “their.” In the end, there is no substitute for human proofreading.

· Data: Your paper MUST include some form of data presentation — either a table, a graph, or both — and you must present those data in a way that is professional and understandable to the reader.

Grading Rubric

                                                                                                                   You will be graded according to this rubric. A grade of 3 is average and is equivalent to a score of 80 out of 100 (5=100, 4=90, 3=80, 2=70, 1=60, 0=0).

CLEAR THESIS: Identifies and addresses a clear central thesis, expressed early in the paper, either directly in a topic paragraph or indirectly through an appropriate rhetorical device (like an anecdote). Argument clearly expressed and sustained throughout paper.

DEPTH OF ARGUMENT:Body of paper supports central thesis; brings to bear appropriate and persuasive evidence. Conceptual sophistication and engagement with topic; recognition of limitations and counterarguments; thoughtfulness; originality of ideas; appropriate number of pages. Explicit use of economic theories, models, and data.

USE OF SCHOLARLY SOURCES: Marshals sources that are scholarly and reliable by the standards of the Economics profession (like journals, working papers, scholarly books, government and NGO websites); sources are adequate in number and appropriate for the paper’s argument. Sources are integrated into the flow of the argument and used appropriately in the context of the argument.

STRUCTURE OF PAPER: Presentation is well organized: clear topic sentences; good transition between ideas; all sections of paper tie together.

STYLE: Style is direct, concise, and lively; avoids excessive and unexplained jargon and acronyms; refrains from clichés and bureaucratic formulations.

LANGUAGE: Tone, terminology, and other language choices appropriate to professional economics, to intended audience, and to type of writing.

PRESENTATION: Grammar, mechanics, diction, spelling, punctuation, proofreading, and formatting. Consistent and appropriate verb tense; crisp pronoun and clause references; correct parallel structure.

DATA: Where appropriate, presentation and analysis of data (including econometric results) in conformance with the style and norms of writing in Economics. Tables and graphs clearly labeled and attributed.

CITATIONS: Appropriate, accurate, and consistent in-text citations and list of works cited. Command of name-date style of citation used in Economics.

HOLISTIC RATING: Assessment of the paper as a whole, including the soundness and sophistication of its arguments and its fit with the rhetoric of discourse in Economics.

ECON2500W Writing in Economics

Why do we cite sources?

• To give proper credit to those who have created ideas and
generated research results.

And avoid plagiarism

Plagiarized words: copying how something is written, either
word-for-word or too-close paraphrase.

Plagiarized ideas: claiming ownership of a unique idea that is
not yours.

Unintentional: Plagiarism that occurs by mistake

– Usually as a result of not learning the art of citation.
Intentional: plagiarism done on purpose

– Copying words from a text or the web out of laziness or

• To demonstrate your command of the literature.
• To provide factual and rhetorical support for your own


What should you cite?

• Not the direct results of your own research and analysis.

This can include both background facts (what the federal
funds rate was in the first quarter of 2007) and analytical
claims (that the policies of the Federal Reserve contributed
to the financial crisis 2008)

• Not self-evident or widely known and agreed upon.
Example: economist use supply and demand analysis.

How should you cite?

• The right way:

“Duplicating the problem-solving and information-handling
capabilities of the brain is not far off; it would the

surprising if it were not accomplished within the next
decade” (Simon 1960, p. 32).

• The wrong way:

“Duplicating the problem-solving and information-handling
capabilities of the brain is not far off; it would the
surprising if it were not accomplished within the next
decade” (footnote).

What should you cite?

• When you are using the exact words of yours source- a
direct quotation.

• Even when you are not using the exact words of your
source- a paraphrase.

A paraphrase is always better.

Don’t quote things that are so unoriginal as to be ovious.

Ways to paraphrase:

In the 1960s, some computer scientist began to believe that
machines would quickly catch up to humans in the ability to
solve problems and handle information (Simon 1960, p. 32).

Herbert Simon (1960, p. 32) boldly predicted that within ten
years computers would catch up to humans in the ability to
solve problems and handle information.

Alchian and Demsetz (1972) argue that ….

Halper et al. (1999) state that

Et al means and others.

References: …


ECON 2500W Writing in Economics
Key Points

• Cite Sources
• Analyze, Don’t Summarize

– Clear, principle argument
– Good logical argument

• Write actively
– Write in Anglo Saxon
– Avoid the passive voice
– Avoid weak verbs and nominalizations

• Edit, Edit, Edit
• Coherence and Flow

Paper Structure

1. Introduction
1.1. Introduction – open the paper and introduce the topic
1.2. Overview – in a few sentences describe the overall problem and cause, potential

solutions and how they work

1.3. Thesis – state your case for which solution is best & why in 1-2 clear sentences

2. Problem
2.1. Describe problem & argue why it is a problem
2.2. Explain why this problem exists, how it came to be, and why it doesn’t resolve
2.3. Detail who is involved and especially who suffers from this problem
2.4. Show some evidence (data, tables, graphs)

3. Potential Solution #1
3.1. Describe solution & how it would work (How would it resolve the problem?)
3.2. Advantages of this solution?
3.3. Disadvantages of this solution?
3.4. Who is involved with and who is affected by this solution?

4. Potential Solution #2 (& #3)
4.1. …

5. Comparison
5.1. Compare solutions against each other
5.2. What type of considerations would lead to choosing one solution or another?

6. Preferred Solution
6.1. Say which solution you prefer and argue why it is the most beneficial overall
6.2. Describe why you prioritize the advantages/disadvantages of your solution over others
6.3. Discuss any reluctance you have about your solution & how you might address it?

7. Summarize & Conclude

7.1. Remind readers of scope of problem and possible solutions
7.2. Recap which factors are most important in making a decision about the solution to


7.3. Connect those factors to your chosen solution and summarize why it is the best option

First Paper:
Can School Finance Reforms improve long term earnings?

• School finance reforms increase school spending in low income
school districts.

Reference List?


Jackson et al., (2016, p.200) argue that school Finance reforms (SFRs) have been associated with a positive impact on the long-term earnings, even although not all people support such an argument. The SFRs began back in the 1970s, and1970s and have been highly influenced by the dramatic changes occurring in the K-12 education spending, within the United States. The paper will address the topic of School Finance reforms and their impact on improving long term earnings. The school finance reforms comprise of different types. There are the adequacy-based court-ordered reforms, which focuses on increasing the overall spending in schools. Equity-based court-ordered reforms aim at lowering the spending variance between schools in low-income districts, and those in high-income districts, but have got a little effect on the overall spending levels. There are other reforms based on tax. High tax prices reforms have the effect of reducing the long-run spending in schools within all districts. The districts are required to raise a certain amount of money, so that can increase their spending by a single dollar. Low tax prices reforms are usually applied in low-income school districts and have been associated with increased spending growth. The SFRs have been associated with increased spending in low-income school districts, hence arising the questions as to whether they will increase their long-term earnings.  Comment by Asker, Erdal: Please check APA style citation! Comment by Asker, Erdal: Very good start. Comment by Asker, Erdal: Avoid using passive voice! Comment by Asker, Erdal: Complicated sentence.

It is firmly believed that education is crucial in promoting term earnings in the future. However, the quality of education acquired by the learners matters a lot. Individuals who undergo through high-quality education in their early lives end up having better long-term earnings than those who did not access education or who accessed low-quality education. School finance reforms have been formulated with the aim of ensuring that learners have got access to equal and quality education, which will lead to improved long-term earnings. Education enhances human intellectual capital, which is essential in mobilizing economic resources and factors of production, hence establishing a base of increasing long term earnings (Brunner et al., 2016, p. 40). To achieve the economic benefits associated with education, finance reforms have been made to ensure quality education to all, SFRs have been formulated to eliminate the inequity in schools spending, whether located in poor or wealthy districts. Comment by Asker, Erdal: Wonderful.

The problem, in this case, is whether schools from poor districts should have high spending on education, considering that public education has to be funded by taxpayers, within those poor districts. The districts spent so high in education, hence lacking resources to invest in productive economic activities such as infrastructure, and industrialization. With high spending in education, the districts will forever remain poor, and will not even offer employment opportunities for their learned people. 

Some of the possible solutions that can be used to solve the problem include; receiving financing support from the federal government, hence having share of the proceeds generated by the wealthy districts; refusing to conform to the reforms, thus making sure that their education spending does not increase; and spending on school education based on adequacy, by determining the education goals and the necessary resources per learner.  Comment by Asker, Erdal: Very long sentence.

 Education spending based on adequacy will be ideal in ensuring that there is reasonable school spending within low-income school districts. Reasonable and rational spending will be essential in improving long term earnings, as the learners will develop the necessary human intellectual capital and save money for infrastructural development, and other economic activities, which are ideal for improved long-term earnings. 

School finance reforms increase school spending in low-income school districts, hence lowering their long-term earnings. The problem is critical, considering that the districts are already poor, indicating limited resources. It is not logical for poor districts to spend highly in education when there are other pressurizing factors to be attended, such as social welfare, health issues and economic development. Rationality on the allocation and utilization of the limited resources is required to establish an effective base for long term earnings. It is not ideal to invest highly in education, then the learners lack an enabling environment to support their economic ideas, or get employed. 

The problem exists because there is a need for standardizing public K-12 education across the United States. The problem started arising back in 1968 (the case of San Antonio Independent School District v. Rodriguez). Ogletree Jr et al., (2017, p. 75) Rodriguez wanted the schools to be effectively funded, to offer quality education to learners. School Finance reforms (SFRs) were introduced, and focused on increasing the spending in the schools, under the believes that the large amounts of money spend will enhance the quality of education, and improve long term earnings. The federal government requires all districts to embrace the reforms. There are two key reasons as to why the problem doesn’t resolve. First, the federal government supports the reforms to reduce variance in school spending. Secondly, there is string believe that education serves as a critical factor in promoting economic growth, and long-term earnings and the results depend on the quality of education offered. High-quality education demand for much spending, to avail all necessary resources to the learners. 

Key stakeholders here are the federal government, the districts (taxpayers) and the learners. Leaners will benefit more from quality education following increased spending. Lowering the amount of money spent in the school will lead to low-quality services, following a shortage of some essential study requirements. The federal government is after ensuring quality education through increased spending, by supporting the reforms, and reducing school spending variance across the districts, hence no suffering. The burden lies on the taxpayers, within the poor districts. They will be required to pay higher taxes to cater for the increased education spending. High taxes on poor people is a way of organizing early burials for them. 

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