Posted: October 27th, 2022

Discussion

  

(PRESENTATION 1 DISCUSSION-BIRTH PREFERENCE G1 ) —–Do you think it is worth going through all the trouble of IVF , knowing that there is a very high risk of stillbirth ,preterm delivery, and birth defects, just to risk the life of the baby at birth? (100-120 words)

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  (PRESENTATION 2 DISCUSSION-BIRTH PREFERENCE G2 ) —–Why do you think a majority of the respondents chose the hospital to be the best place to give birth? (100-120 words)

Birth Preference 

Introduction: 
The birth of a baby is a perfect work of nature. Many factors are involved for this work to be
carried out to completion. For this process, the physical and psychological health of the mother
must be kept in an optimal state throughout the development of the baby’s gestation. Today, the
statistics show an increase in the anticipated birth of a baby. Researchers are still in the process
of looking for possible causes of the increase. For now, the majority of research shows that the
low weight of the baby induces him/her to anticipate their birth. The question today, more than
at all times is; if mothers wish to bring their baby into the world, in a hospital, under professional
care, or if they prefer to do it in the comfort of their home, where they are exposed to all kinds of
risk? With this group work, we show the results of this particular scenario and discuss other
questions related to this matter in different demographic groups.

Method: 
8 students conducted 5 surveys each asking the following questions regarding birth preference:

● Which of the following do you think is the best place to give birth?
● Who do you think should be present at birth?
● Which medical personnel should be present at birth?
● Should pain killing medication be given to the women at birth?
● How far should doctors go to save the life of a newborn child who is at high risk for

severe physical or mental disabilities?

Participants were also asked their age, sex, education level, and marital status in order identify
the demographic. It is important to note that all participants gave consent and were given a brief
explanation of the survey being conducted prior.

 
 
Demographics: 
There were 40 survey participants recorded, with varying demographics.

Sex 

72.5% were female, 25% were male, while 2.5% didn’t specify.

Age 

35% in their teens, 32.5% in their 20s, 12.5 % in their 40s and even some of the elderly with
20% above 50 years of age.

Highest Level of Education Completed 

47.5% of our participants held a college degree while the remaining 52.5% were either in high
school or attended college.

Marital Status:  

Our participants were mostly single (60%), while 25% were married, 10% dating and the other
5% preferred not to say.

Results:  
Question 1.​ Which of the following do you think is the best place to give birth?

Our participants were evenly split between the birthing center attached to hospital and a hospital
as the best place to give birth (47.5% each) while the remaining 2% went with home and
birthing center separate from hospital.

Question 2.​ Who do you think should be present at birth?

Most of our participants (92.5%) thought that the husband/father of the child should be present,
while the remaining 7.5 % were between parents, friends and child coach.

Question 3. ​Which medical personnel should be present at birth?

77.5% believed a medical doctor and obstetrician should be present while 17.5% and 5%
believed a midwife and a registered nurse should be present.

Question 4.​ Should pain killing medication be given to the women at birth?

When it came to analgesics, 72.5% believed it was up to the mother, while 22.5% believed it
should be given and the remaining 5% were against it.

Question 5.​ How far should doctors go to save the life of a newborn child who is at high risk for
severe physical or mental disabilities?

When it came to the length doctors should go to save a newborn’s life, 52.5% believed it’s up to
the mother; 30% believed they should go as far as they could without harming the parent; 10%
believed as far as the medical staff can and the remaining 7.5% went between risking the
birthing parent’s life and as far as both parents feel necessary.

Interpretation: 
This survey was conducted of 40 surveys of various age groups and demographics. The first
graph shows that the majority of the participants were female, which could heavily impact the
choices. Continuing on in the second graph, it shows that a large percentage of the respondents
were teens and young adults. Participants that were 19 years of age had the highest percentage
according to the survey data. The highest level of education most participants had was college,
which weighed at 17.5%, and 60% of the participants were single. Now with the survey
questions, it came out to be that 47.5% of the respondents believed the birth should be at a
birthing center connected to a hospital. Also, a large portion of participants believe the
husband/father of child should be present, which was 92.5%. 77.5% voted that a medical
doctor/Obstetrician should be the medical personnel. With the topic of painkillers, 72.5% believe
it should be up to the mother. The question regarding if the doctors should save the life of the
child became a topic of controversy. This question had many different answers, but the majority
stated that however far the parent consents to, which weighed in at 52.5%. These results,
however, are not based on the entire population.

Conclusion:  

This study took the thoughts/opinions of 40 different individuals of varying demographics,
whether it was age, sex, education, or marital statuses, in order to determine a consensus on
birth preferences. So, the results merely reflected our sample of 40 individuals and their
particular preferences regarding how the process of birthing a child should be carried out. In
terms of their demographics, a majority of these individuals were female and single but we saw
a wide variation in age and education. However, despite such a variety in demographics, there
were certain consistencies found within our results.

The first major details to be taken into consideration is that from 95% of our participants, their
preferences were equally split between giving birth in a hospital and giving birth in a birthing
center attached to a hospital, specifically 47.5% for each. Meanwhile, the rest of our results had
clear majorities. The majority of the participants decided that the father should be present at the
birth alongside medical personnel (Doctors/Obstetricians). Furthermore, most of our participants
decided that when it came to birth, the mother holds the decision over pain medication and how
far doctors should go to save a baby at high risk.

Overall, it can be concluded that despite the range in demographics from our sample, there
were clear majorities to be determined regarding birth preferences. Nowadays, a general
consensus can be met in regards to the fact that technology advancements may hold reasons to
the desire to have birth at or near a hospital. Along with this, the modern ideals that birth is
mother-centered can hold relation to plenty of our results.

Questions: 
1. In chapter four of “Developmental Psychology ​Stories in Context​“ written by Chrysalis
Wright, “Presently, almost 12% of all births in the United States are to ​preterm infants ​(National
Center for Health Statistics, 2012a). These are infants born before 38 weeks gestation. These
babies are at an increased risk for a variety of health problems. Many of the complications that
arise from preterm delivery are directly related to the infants’ birth weight. ​Low birthweight
infants​ are those that weigh about 5.5 pounds and constitute a total of 8.15% of all births
(National Center for Health Statistics, 2012a).” That being said, if your baby was born
prematurely, would you rather give birth in the hospital with the supervision of doctors and
nurses and any medical equipment you may need or would you rather give birth in the comfort
of your home although there is a chance that your baby will be born with some medical
complications?

2. In chapter 3 of “Developmental Psychology ​Stories in Context”​, written by Chrysalis
Wright, it states that women over the age of 40 can conceive through ART although the baby
will be at very high risk of stillbirth, preterm delivery, and birth defects (Wright, 59). Do you think
it is worth going through all the trouble of IVF, for instance, just to risk the life of the baby at
birth?

3. In chapter 3 of “Developmental Psychology ​Stories in Context​”, written by Chrysalis
Wright, it states that a cesarean section (C-section) should only be performed if the delivery is
expected or becomes a risk to the mother and/or baby. However it does state that some doctors
and mothers choose to deliver this way despite no medical need for it (Wright, 54). Should
mothers and doctors be able to choose this method of delivery without needing a reason?

4. Chapter 3 of “Developmental Psychology Stories in Context”​ written by Chrysalis
Wright​, it discusses plenty of content regarding the trials and tribulations of pregnancy
and giving birth. To focus more on the aftermath of delivery, it states that approximately
75% of new mothers experience maternity blues, and in extreme cases, postpartum
depression (Wright, 54). Knowing this information, should women also be offered
mental health assistance accompanied with the physical medical assistance that is
naturally provided with birth?

Birth Preferences

Kevin Drai 6060801

Ricardo Palacios 543872

5

Laiba Mahammad 626477

8

Hannah Pastor 61739

10

Alejandra Fernandez 5199891

Pedro Roman 6189725

DEP 2000 RVC 12

11

Dr. Maria L. Reid

1/29/21

Table of Contents

Introduction pg.

3

Method pg.

4

Results/Demographics pg. 5-

9

Interpretation/Conclusion pg. 10-13

Appendix (Raw Data) pg. 14-1

7

References pg.

18

Questions pg.

19

2

Introduction

Many mothers or soon-to-be-mothers have several different choices on how they choose

to deliver their baby along with the decision of where to give birth. According to the textbook

“Developmental Psychology: Stories in Context” written by Chrysalis Wright, the mother can

choose where to deliver her baby, such as a hospital, birthing center outside of a hospital, or even

at home. She can choose who could stay in the room with her such as the husband/father of the

child, family members, or even close friends. There are even different options for pain

management, such as the use of anesthesia or may opt for a natural birth by sitting in different

positions during labor and delivery. Lastly, the mother could choose who delivers the baby, the

doctor, or the nurse-midwife (Wright, 2017).

Women have a variety of options that fit their level of comfort during childbirth. However, as

of recently, research has shown that giving birth from home has higher safety rates as opposed to

giving birth in a hospital or birthing facility. Furthermore, home births have shown a decrease in

the number of inductions, augmentations, episiotomies, operative vaginal births, and

cesarean-sections (Boucher, et.al., 2009).

The expansion of the field in obstetrics provides many women the opportunity to choose how

and where to deliver their child. Many people have different opinions in the matter and each

contain their own share of advantages and disadvantages in regard to their control, comfort,

freedom to move, and the likelihood of fewer interventions (Boucher, et.al., 2009). This survey

was conducted in order to view which birthing preference would be most favorable to women.

3

Method

Each of the

6

group members chose 5 individuals, using convenience/opportunity sampling,

to answer the short birth preference survey, for a total of 30 respondents. Group members

selected the respondents based on how easily they are available to answer the survey questions as

well as a level of familiarity. The respondents were each interviewed in person where the group

members were able to record their answer to the questions on paper or on phone. They were all

given a brief overview for the purpose of this research study beforehand and each of the

members received verbal consent to participate.

For the topic chosen (Activity B; Birth Preference), the 30 respondents were asked to answer

5 questions:

1.) Which of the following do you think is the best place to give birth?

2.) Who do you think should be present at birth?

3.) Which medical personnel should be present at birth?

4.) Should pain killing medications be given to the woman giving birth?

5.) How far should doctors go to save the life of a newborn child who is at high risk for

severe physical or mental disabilities?

Once the survey questions have been answered, the results were uploaded to the group file on

Canvas where it was compiled into a single excel sheet. With this, a table of the general

demographic was made. In addition, pie charts were made to show the percentage between the

genders, age range, level of education, and occupation of the participants. A bar graph was made

to differentiate between employed and unemployed participants. Lastly, a mix of bar graph and

pie charts were used to display the results of the questions answered by each respondent

4

Results/Demographics

This survey studied 30 respondents which were chosen by all of our group members. This

survey was conducted to view the most favorable birthing preferences for women.

Figure 1: Surveyed respondent’s gender ratio

Among the 30 respondents, 18 of them are females, which is 60% of the sample, whereas the

remaining

12

consisted of males, which accounts for 40% of the sample, as shown in Figure 1.

Since convenience/opportunity sampling was performed, meaning we selected people who were

able to easily answer our research questions on the spot, we had a variety of respondents of

various age groups, levels of

education, and employment

status. From the 30 people

surveyed, 10 of them (33.3%) fell

within the range of ages 17 to 21,

6 of them (20%) fell within the

range of ages 22 to 26, 4 of them

Figure 2: Surveyed respondent’s age range

5

(13.3%) fell within the age range of 27 to 31, 2 of them (6.7%) fell within the age range of 36 to

40, 5 of them (20%) fell within the age range of 46 to 50, only one person fell within the range of

55 to 59 years of age, and lastly, one other person fell within the range of 60 to 65 years of age.

The age range of the participants in the

study can be viewed in Figure 2.

Among the difference in age and

genders displayed, the participants also

have different levels of education: 10

(33.3%) of the 30 people surveyed had

a highschool education, graduating

Figure 3: Survey respondent’s level of education

with either a highschool diploma or GED. Only one participant (3.3%) did not graduate with a

diploma or GED as of yet, since they are currently enrolled as a senior at a high school. 6 (20%)

of the participants are either still in

college or did not receive a degree,

whereas 8 (26.7%) received an

associate’s degree, 4 (13.3%)

received a bachelor’s degree, and

lastly, only one person (3.3%) of

the participants surveyed received

Figure 4: Surveyed respondent’s employment status

an MD degree. The level of education of the participants can be seen in Figure 3. Of the 30

6

participants, only 8 (26.7%) of them are not employed and the remaining 22 people (73.3%) are

employed. This can be seen in Figure 4.

When participants filled out the

survey, the first question asked “Which

of the following do you think is the

best place to give birth?”, with the

answer choices of hospital, birthing

center attached to a hospital, birthing

center separate from a hospital or

Figure 5: Respondents’ Answers to Question 1

home. 25 (83.3%) of the respondents answered hospital, which was what the majority of them

chose. 4 (13.3%) of the respondents answered to give birth at a birthing center attached to a

hospital, and lastly 1 person

(3.3%), chose to give birth at

home. None of the participants

have chosen to give birth in a

birthing center separate from a

hospital. The results of these

questions can be seen in Figure

5. Question 2 of the survey

Figure 6: Respondents’ Answers to Question 2

asked participants “Who do you think should be present at birth?”, with the answer choices of

husband/father of child, parents/family of mother, childbirth coach, friends of mother, other

7

children, or other (in case they wanted to choose a specific answer choice) where the majority of

the respondents, 27 of the 30

participants (90%), answered to have

their husband/father of their child

present. The remaining 3 participants

(10%) chose to have the mother’s

family present. None of the

participants chose the remaining

answer choices (childbirth

Figure 7: Respondents’ Answers to Question 3

coach, friends of mother, other children, or other). The answers chosen by each of the

respondents can be seen in Figure 6. Question 3 of the survey asked the participants “Which

medical personnel should be

present at birth?”, the answer

choices included a medical

doctor/obstetrician or a registered

nurse/midwife. 27 (90%) of the

participants chose to have a

medical doctor/obstetrician

present, where the remaining 3

Figure 8: Respondents’ Answers to Question 4

(10%) would rather have a registered nurse/midwife. The results for this question can be seen in

Figure 7. Question 4 of the survey asked the participants “Should pain killing medications be

8

given to the woman giving birth?”. This was a free-response type question where the respondents

voiced their opinion on the subject. A majority of them, 22 of the 30 participants (73.3%), said

yes to give pain killing medication to the woman giving birth, whereas the remaining 8

participants (26.7%) only said yes if it was necessary to the mother to carry on without

complication. The respondent’s answers to this question can be seen in Figure 8. The fifth and

last question of the survey asked “How far should doctors go to save the life of a newborn child

who is at high risk for severe physical or mental disabilities?”. All 30 of the participants (100%)

have chosen for doctors to save the child, using every resource available in order to accomplish

that. The results of this question can be seen in Figure 9 and the responses from each individual

participant can be seen in the appendix section.

Figure 9: Respondents’ Answers to Question 5

9

Interpretation/Conclusion

Soon-to-be mothers have many choices to make when it comes to birth preferences. The

focal point of this survey was to investigate these choices that participants will be making in

regard to their childbirth preferences. Some of these choices included place of birth, who should

be present at birth, whether or not medications should be used to ease the pain of the mother, and

how far medical personnel and the parents should go in order to save the life of a newborn child

at high risk for physical or mental disabilities.

We conducted a survey on 30 people from different backgrounds who were asked

questions based on these childbirth preferences. The survey was conducted by level of

convenience, meaning we did not go out looking for an equal amount of male and female or all

female or male. We used this method in order to see how the people we mainly interact with feel

about these choices. This method has many pros and cons; the main pro being that they are

cheap, efficient, and simple to conduct. Therefore, through the use of this method the data can be

easily obtained from the people close to us. One of the main disadvantages of convenience

sampling is that there can be possible bias in data gathering, meaning that the results may not be

from an entire population. Also, the results of convenience samples are hard to replicate because

there will be dramatic differences in answers from different participant lists.

As part of the survey, we obtained the participant’s gender, age, level of education,

marital status, and occupation. This was done to give us an idea of the type of people we

surveyed and help us interpret why they chose their responses. We surveyed 18 females and 12

males with ages ranging from 17 to 60, and education levels from high school to a master’s

degree. We examined each of their views on childbirth preferences and created pie charts to

interpret this data as seen in our results/demographics section.

10

The results indicated that the majority of participants preferred to give birth at a hospital

followed by birthing centers. The majority preferred this place of birth because they feel safer

and know that there are medical personnel available in case of emergency. This is also shown by

the results where participants were asked what personnel they would want present at the birth,

90% chose to have a medical doctor or obstetrician present, while 10% chose to have a registered

nurse or midwife present. However, pregnant mothers who intend to give birth at home suffer

from less birth interventions than mothers who intended on giving birth within a hospital

(Retisima, et al. 2020). In a study consisting of approximately 500,000 pregnant women

intending to give birth at home, none of them died and this group was less likely to have an

emergency caesarean section or other birth-related issues when compared to the group of low

risk women who intended giving birth at a hospital (Retisima, et al. 2020).

The data recorded shows how most participants believe that giving birth at a hospital is

the more desirable location, however in terms of health and safety for the mother, at-home births

provide greater odds of avoiding any harm or damage being done to the mother. In terms of

health repercussions for the child, the data shows that regardless of whether or not the mother

decides to give birth at a hospital or at home, the rates of ​stillbirth, neonatal mortality, or

morbidity rates do not differ (Retisima, et al. 2020)​. This information shows that the perception

of safety is not necessarily accurate regardless of what educational level any of the participants

might have.

Following the results in the data, 90% of participants answered that they would prefer the

father of the child being present during the birth according to. A father’s presence is beneficial to

the child and the mother, as both the child and the mother are likely to be healthier. However, if

the father is not present, the odds of the child and mother being unhealthy or ill during the

11

birthing process increases (Mollie Bloudoff-Indelicato, 2020). Therefore, given this knowledge,

it is reasonable to understand why most participants would want the father present at birth.

Following these results 90% of participants stated that they would want to have a

medical doctor or obstetrician present while 10% of the respondents stated they would prefer a

registered nurse or midwife. According to a study conducted in 2009, data was gathered on the

impacts midwives and physicians had on mothers giving birth. Within this study the rate of

perinatal death per 1000 births was 0.35 in mothers who had pre planned at home births versus a

perinatal death rate of 0.64 per 1000 births in mothers who were accompanied by physicians in

pre-planned hospital birth (Janssen, et al. 2009). This data demonstrates how almost double the

prenatal deaths occurred when in the presence of a physician and within a hospital.

Furthermore, women about to give birth have the option to decide if they want pain

killers at birth to help ease the pain. In 2015, a study was done where about 73 percent of women

in the U.S. chose to give birth with some type of pain killer (Mollie Bloudoff-Indelicato, 2020).

This high percentage likely shows that the pain of labor is so unbearable, that easing them with

medication is quite common. This information also shows us that our participants’ responses to

this question is along the same lines with 73.3 percent saying yes to applying the painkillers and

26.7 saying yes, if needed.

As concerning as it may be, many parents and families are faced with tough decisions

regarding the survival of their newborn who might be at high risk of suffering from severe

physical or mental disabilities. According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention, birth

defects affect one in every 33 babies born in the U.S. each year (CDC, 2008). Just like our

participants who all responded that all necessary means should be taken in order to help the baby

survive, we also believe that all the necessary action should be taken.

12

In conclusion, this study was conducted in order to view which birthing

preference is most favorable to everyone based on a sample of people surveyed.

According to the study, the most common preference is for birth in a hospital with the

husband/father of the child present. In addition to this, the participants found medical

doctors/obstetricians to be much more favorable over registered nurses/midwives.

Furthermore, none of the participants were opposed to using medicated pain killers for

labor, and some preferred it to be used when needed. When it came down to saving the

life of a child at risk for physical and mental disabilities, all of the participants agreed to

use every resource at their disposal and all medical personnel efforts to save the child’s

life. Hopefully this study can be used as a reference for future mothers or soon-to-be

parents in order to view different options available and the ones preferred by the

majority. Based on each one’s perspective, an informed final decision can be made.

13

Appendix

14

Sex Age Highest
Level of
Education

Marital
Status

Occupation Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q5

Female 55 Some college Married Visual
Merchandiser

Hospital

Husband/
Father of
Child

Medical
Doctor/

Obstetri
cian

Yes The Doctors should
save the child at all
costs regardless of
these risks. A mother
loves their child
regardless of possible
disabilities.

Male 49 Some college Married Store Manager Hospital Husband/
Father of
Child

Medical
Doctor/
Obstetri
cian

Yes Yes the doctors
should attempt to save
the life of any unborn
child despite
disabilities.

Male 17 Senior in
High school

Single Bagger Hospital Husband/
Father of
Child

Medical
Doctor/
Obstetri
cian

Yes Yes they should go all
the way.

Female 27 High school Single POS
Coordinator

Hospital Husband/
Father of
Child

Register
ed
Nurse/
Midwife

Yes You should always try
to save the life of a
newborn.

Female 21 Junior in
college

Single Customer
Service
Manager

Hospital Husband/
Father of
Child
Medical
Doctor/
Obstetri
cian

Yes Of course, everything
should be done to
save the baby
regardless of the risks,
but the best efforts
should be taken to try
to minimize it.

Female 20 Associate’s
degree

Single Unemployed Hospital Husband/
Father of
Child

Medical
Doctor/
Obstetri
cian

yes,
if
need
ed

Do everything we
possibly can

Male 24 GED Single Teacher Hospital Husband/
Father of
Child

Medical
Doctor/

yes Do everything
possible.

15

Obstetri
cian

Female 21 Bachelor’s
degree

Single Unemployed Hospital Husband/
Father of
Child
Medical
Doctor/
Obstetri
cian

yes Whatever it takes.

Female 36 High school Married Unemployed Hospital Husband/
Father of
Child

Medical
Doctor/
Obstetri
cian
yes,
if
need
ed

Doctors should do
whatever they can to
save the child.

Female 20 Associate’s
degree
Single Unemployed Hospital Husband/
Father of
Child
Medical
Doctor/
Obstetri
cian

yes Whatever possible to
save the child should
be done.

Female 48 Some college Single Vehicle
Inspector

Hospital Husband/
Father of
Child
Medical
Doctor/
Obstetri
cian

yes Yes, 100%.

Female 20 Some college Relations
hip

Tutor Hospital Husband/
Father of
Child

Medical
Doctor/
Obstetri
cian

yes Make the most effort
to save.

Female 64 High school Single Unemployed Hospital Husband/
Father of
Child

Medical
Doctor/
Obstetri
cian

yes All the way/Try their
best.

Male 18 Some college Relations
hip

Unemployed Home Husband/
Father of
Child

registere
d
Nurse/
Midwife

yes,
if
need
ed

As far as they can
without hurting the
mother.

Male 49 Bachelor’s
degree

Married Police Officer Hospital Parents of
mother

Medical
Doctor/
Obstetri
cian
yes,
if
need
ed

100% give their best.

Female 22 Associate’s
degree

Single Front desk
worker at PT
office

Hospital Husband/
Father of
Child
Medical
Doctor/
Obstetri
cian

yes Everything possible.

16

Male 22 Associate’s
degree

Single Physical
Therapist
Assistant

Hospital Husband/
Father of
Child
Medical
Doctor/
Obstetri
cian

yes 100% do everything.

Female 50 Associate’s
degree

Married UM health
insurance
Verifier

Hospital Husband/
Father of
Child
Medical
Doctor/
Obstetri
cian

yes Anything that
wouldn’t hurt the baby
or mom.

Female 23 High school Married Army/Human
Resources

Hospital Husband/
Father of
Child
Medical
Doctor/
Obstetri
cian

yes Everything possible.

Male 23 High school Married Army Hospital Husband/
Father of
Child

Medical
Doctor/
Obstetri
cian

yes Make every effort
possible to save them.

Male 28 Bachelor’s
degree

Married Journalist/Car
Consultant

Hospital Husband/
Father of
Child
Medical
Doctor/
Obstetri
cian

yes All the way to help
the child survive.

Female 26 High school Married Patient Service
Representative

Hospital Husband/
Father of
Child
Medical
Doctor/
Obstetri
cian
yes,
if
need
ed

Use all available
resources.

Female 40 High school Married Office
Manager

Hospital Husband/
Father of
Child
Medical
Doctor/
Obstetri
cian
yes,
if
need
ed

As far as the parents
permit.

Male 28 GED Single Relationship
Associate

Hospital Husband/
Father of
Child
Medical
Doctor/
Obstetri
cian
yes,
if
need
ed

As much as the
mother feels is
necessary.

17

Female 28 Associate’s
degree

Single Pharmacy
Technician

Hospital Husband/
Father of
Child
Medical
Doctor/
Obstetri
cian
yes,
if
need
ed

To the best of their
abilities.

Male 19 Associate’s
degree

Single Associate Birthing
Center
attached to
hospital

Husband/
Father of
Child
Register
ed
Nurse/
Midwife

yes Yes, until the child is
deceased

Male 19 Associate’s
degree

Single Unemployed Hospital Parents of
mother

Medical
Doctor/
Obstetri
cian
yes Yes, until the child is
deceased

Female 19 High school Single Unemployed Birthing
Center
attached to
hospital

Husband/
Father of
Child
Medical
Doctor/
Obstetri
cian

yes As far as they can

Female 46 MD degree Married Psychiatrist Birthing
Center
attached to
hospital

Husband/
Father of
Child
Medical
Doctor/
Obstetri
cian

yes yes, until the baby
dies

Male 50 Bachelor’s
degree

Married Nurse Birthing
Center
attached to
hospital

Family of
mother

Medical
Doctor/
Obstetri
cian
yes yes, until the baby
dies

References

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Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/article/unmedicated-birth.html

Boucher, D., Bennett, C., McFarlan, B., Freeze, R. (2009). Staying Home to Give Birth: Why

Women in the United States Choose Home Birth. Journal of Midwifery & Women’s
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(​http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1526952308003383​)

Janssen, P. A., Saxell, L., Page, L. A., Klein, M. C., Liston, R. M., & Lee, S. K. (2009).

Outcomes of planned home birth with registered midwife versus planned hospital birth
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Miller, B. (2016, Sep 12). 7 Pros and Cons of Convenience Sampling. Retrieved from

https://greengarageblog.org/7-pros-and-cons-of-convenience-sampling

Reitsma, A., Simioni, J., Brunton, G., Kaufman, K., & Hutton, E. K. (2020). Maternal outcomes

and birth interventions among women who begin labour intending to give birth at home
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Wright, C. (2017). Developmental Psychology: Stories in Context 3rd edition. Kendall Hunt.

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http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1526952308003383

Questions

1.) Why do you think a majority of the respondents chose the hospital to be the best place to
give birth at?

2.) Does the level of education of each participant surveyed affect their chosen responses to
the questions?

3.) How did the male respondents’ answers differ from the female respondents’ answers in
regards to childbirth preferences?

4.) Does the participant’s employment status affect the way they respond to childbirth
preferences?

5.) If you were a participant in our study, what would you answer for each of the questions
given?

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