Posted: October 27th, 2022

Discussion 3

– Reading and videos in file upload

– Discussion 3 questions in file upload 

Don't use plagiarized sources. Get Your Custom Essay on
Discussion 3
Just from $13/Page
Order Essay

Readings & Videos for Disussion #3

Module 4:  Managing Public Organizations

Welcome to Module 4.

In module 3, we have learned the process of how policy decisions are made. After the decisions are made, we need to implement them. Who is going to implement the policy decisions? Public Organizations. This module deals with efforts to improve public organization management, addressing related subjects of organization theory and the evolution of U.S. civil service administration.

This overview page provides a step-by-step guide on how to successfully finish this module.

1. Review the following module objectives. Use it as a tool to guide your learning experience.
2. Read the 

Lecture note. 

3. Read all the required materials and watch the videos indicated in the lecture note. 

Objectives

Upon completion of this module, you will be able to:

1. Define Weberian bureaucracy

2. Discuss the challenges to bureaucracy

3. Define public organizations with examples

4. Describe the major themes of U.S. civil service reforms

5. Understand the content of Public Service Values

Readings and Videos

Required Materials:

Lecture Note (Review First!)

Minimize File Preview

1.

Mayer. (2014). Selected Characteristics of Private and Public Sector Workers

2. Required Video: 

Max Weber Bureaucracy (Links to an external site.)

It is required to integrate this source for Discussion 3. You can cite this video in-text by (Weber, 1946).

3. Meier, K. J., & Hill, G. C. (2009). 

Bureaucracy in the Twenty-First Century

. In The Oxford Handbook of Public Management. It is required to integrate this source for Discussion 3.

4. Molina, A. D., & Mckeown, C. L. (2012). 

The Heart of the Profession: Understanding Public Service Values.

 Journal of Public Affairs Education, 18(2), 375–396. It is required to integrate this source for Assignment 2.

Recommended Materials: 

· Benzine. (2015). 

Bureaucracy Basics (Links to an external site.)

· Hogue (2013) 

Government Organization Summary Report

· Census Bureau. (2011). 

Exploring the Intricate Layers of State and Local Governments: Florida

· Miami-Dade County Human Resources Department. (2019). 

Know your county government: A county employee’s guide to Miami-Dade County Government.

·

ASPA (2013) Code of Ethics

Module 4 Managing
Public Organizations

Yanbing Han (yahan@fiu.edu)

PAD 3003 Introduction to Public Policy and Service

Summer B 2020

Florida International University

Note: Please do NOT share any part of this lecture note with any third party without a consent of the author.

http://fiu.edu

Let’s recall
what you have
learned from
Module 3 and
link them to
this new
Module.

In module 3, we have learned the
process of how policy decisions are
made.

After the decisions are made, we
need to implement them. Who is
going to implement the policy
decisions? Public Organizations.

This module deals with efforts to
improve public organization
management, addressing related
subjects of organization theory and
the evolution of U.S. civil service
administration

Upon
completion
of this
module, you
will be able
to:

Define Weberian bureaucracy

Discuss the challenges to bureaucracy

Define public organizations with examples

Describe the major themes of U.S. civil service
reforms

Understand the content of Public Service Values

Theory:
Bureaucracy

Define Public Organizations
(Required Reading 1)
• An “organization” is a group of people who jointly work

to achieve at least one common goal (Shafritz et al.,
2016).

• When the term comes with an adjective “public”, it
means the organization has to achieve societal public
goals, not private goals.

• We have learned the public-private distinction in module
1. If you forget, you must reread Pesch’s (2008) article.

• Remember, what is “public interest” and what is “public
good”.

• Required Reading 1: Mayer (2014) Selected
Characteristics of Private and Public Sector Workers

This chart shows the structure of Miami-
Dade County Government organizations

Miami-Dade County Human Resources Department. (2019).
Know your county government: A county employee’s guide to
Miami-Dade County Government.
https://www.miamidade.gov/humanresources/library/know-
your-county-government

Shafritz, J. M., Russell, E. W., Borick, C. P., & Hyde, A. C. (2016). Introducing Public Administration. Routledge.

Pesch, U. (2008). The Publicness of Public Administration. Administration & Society, 40(2), 170–193.

https://www.miamidade.gov/humanresources/library/know-your-county-government

Public Organization Theory

• Public organization theory is a set of propositions that
seeks to explain or predict how public employees
and organizations behave in differing
organizational arrangements.

• Generic Organizational theory is also a core course
for business management. But it has given little
attention to nonmarket and political factors in the
policy process.

• One of the most prominent organizational theories is
Max Weber’s Bureaucratic Model.

Weber’s ideal type of
bureaucracy
(Required Video)

• The video explains the Bureaucracy Theory as defined by Max
Weber. https://youtu.be/zp554tcdWO8

• You may need to pause and take notes when you watch the video.
Pay special attention to:

• The six characteristics of the ideal type of bureaucracy
• Red Tape and Iron Cage

• It is required to use this source for Discussion 3.

• You can cite this video in-text by (Weber, 1946)

Weber, M. (1946), From Max Weber: Essays in Sociology, tr. H. H. Gerth and C. Wright Mills, New York: Oxford
University Press.

Controversial Bureaucracy

• While Weber’s identification of bureaucratic organization is perhaps
the most comprehensive statement on the subject, it is not always
considered satisfactory as an intellectual and practicable construct.

• One side of this prolonged discussion praises this administrative form
as the ‘rational’ way to run an organization. It provides needed
guidance and clarifies responsibilities, which enables employees to
become more efficient.
• However, the opposition claims that in a non-linear world, such an

organizational form stifles creativity, fosters red tapes, and causes
pressure on employees.

Yüksel, A. H. (2014). Visiting the Iron Cage: Bureaucracy and the Contemporary Workplace (pp. 277–289). Springer

Pros: Weberian bureaucracy and its legacy for
public administration

• The theory of Weberian bureaucracy significantly affects how our
governments are structured. American public administration has
emulated many elements of Weber’s model.

• In a nutshell, Weberian bureaucracy consists of a hierarchically
structured, professional, rule-bound, impersonal, meritocratic,
appointed, and disciplined body of public servants with a specific set
of competencies (Sager & Rosser, 2009).

• Nowadays, most public organizations are based on written rules, an
impersonal order, and a division of labor.

Sager, F., & Rosser, C. (2009). Weber, Wilson, and Hegel: Theories of Modern Bureaucracy. Public Administration Review, 69(6), 1136–1147.

Cons: A Bad Reputation of the Bureaucracies
(Recommended Video)

• Bureaucracies tend to be associated with a bad reputation.
• Red tape: official routine or procedure marked by excessive complexity which

results in delay or inaction
• Conflict: the goals of various bureaucratic agencies just don’t match up, and

they end up working at cross purposes.
• Duplication: Sometimes government agencies seem to be doing the very same

thing. Both the Drug Enforcement Administration and the Customs Service, for
example, try to prevent illegal drug smuggling.

• Iron Cage: People were trapped in calculated systems that threatened individual
freedom and innovation.

• (Benzine, 2015) https://youtu.be/I8EQAnKntLs

Challenges to Bureaucracy
(Required Reading 2)

• Weber was constructing an ideal type, and we should expect bureaucracy to vary from the ideal type in practice.

• Meier & Hill (2005) discussed six challenges to the Weberian bureaucracy.

• Some of the challenges are intellectual; others are practical and take place in the political debates that shape the direction of
governments and governance. For this introductory class, it is required to understand the practical challenges. The intellectual
challenges are recommended for those students who want to pursue graduate studies in this field.

• It is required to understand the following practical challenges to bureaucracy. Please pay special attention to those sections in the
chapter:

• Political—bureaucratic relationship (Sec. 3.2)
• New Public Management (Sec. 3.3)

• replace bureaucracy with liberated contract managers
• liberate bureaucratic managers by freeing them from the rules and restrictions

• Network vs hierarchical bureaucracy (Sec. 3.6)

• The authors link Weberian bureaucracy with those challenges in Sec. 3.7 and 3.8. Please read them carefully and try to answer:
Why do the authors believe that the bureaucracy will not only survive but will flourish, even with those challenges?

• It is required to integrate this article in Discussion 3 original post.

Meier, K. J., & Hill, G. C. (2009). Bureaucracy in the Twenty-First Century. In The Oxford Handbook of Public Management.

Practice: U.S. Government Organizations
Now, let’s see how the bureaucracy theories apply to the real world.

Get to know your government organizations
(Recommended Reading)

• The following short reports will let you get more knowledge about
your local government organizations:
• Hogue (2013) Government Organization Summary Report
• Census Bureau (2011) Exploring the Intricate Layers of State and Local

Governments: Florida 1

• Miami-Dade County Human Resources Department. (2019). Know your county
government: A county employee’s guide to Miami-Dade County Government.
https://www.miamidade.gov/humanresources/library/know-your-county-
government

(1 If you are from other states, you can get a report for your state at https://www.census.gov/govs/pubs/topic.html#cog)

https://www.miamidade.gov/humanresources/library/know-your-county-government

https://www.census.gov/govs/pubs/topic.html

Number of U.S. Government
Organizations

• One federal government
• 2.7 million individuals working for the federal

government in civilian positions

• About 80,000 units of state, county, metropolitan,
and local governments

• In all, state and local governments employed
about 20 million

Where do state local government employees work?
A focus on how education jobs vary between state and local governments

Local State
8.1 2.7

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
State and local employees (in millions)

Education

Hospitals

Poli

Corrections

Public Welfare

Highways

Health

J dicia

Fire

12

education employment primarily consists of lementary and
econdary ducation, while .

Elementary and Secondary
Instructional

Elementary and Secondary
Non-Instructional

Higher Education
Instructional

Higher Education
Non-Instructional

Other Education

SOURCE: U.S. Census Bureau, 2013 Annual Survey of Public Employment & Payroll
The data and survey methodology can be found at www.census.gov/

govs/apes/>.

The Pre-Modern Period (1789 to the 1950s)

• Now, let’s discuss how the public sector progressed in the
United States and how it links to the theories of
bureaucracy.

• Frederick C. Mosher’s book Democracy and the Public
Service (1968) is the classic historical guide to the formative
years of public service. His chapter “The Evolution of
American Civil Service Concepts” divides the pre-modern
era into five eras.

• The watershed moment was the passage of the Pendleton
Act in 1883 (or Civil Service Reform Act in 1883).

• The Act rejected the spoils system and established the merit
system within the federal government.

• Spoils system practice in which the political party winning an
election rewards its campaign workers and other active
supporters by appointment to government posts.

• Merit system is the process of promoting and hiring
government employees based on their ability to perform a
job, rather than on their political connections.

Frederick Mosher’s Evolution of the American Civil Service Source: adapted
from Mosher (1968: pp. 96–97).

Five Eras of Civil Service
Development in the Pre-Modern
Period

Shafritz, J. M., Russell, E. W., Borick, C. P., & Hyde, A. C. (2016). Introducing Public Administration. Routledge.

Weberian bureaucracy: Occupation of offices based
on expertise.

The Modern Period (1960s – )

This picture shows the share of public
employees in three levels of government.

This picture shows the share of government employment in total nonfarm
employment.

The current share of government employment is actually very low, and
one has to go back to 1960 to find a lower number. The highest point is
in 1975.

The Modern Period: Two Themes

During the modern period (1960s – ), two themes predominate in administrative
reform:

(1) The quest for management efficiency: “do more with less”

E.g., The 1993 National Performance Review
(Link to Meier & Hill (2005) Sec 3.3: New Public Management)

(2) The desire for politically neutrality and professionalism

E.g., The establishment of Merit Systems Protection Board in 1978
(Link to Meier & Hill (2005) Sec 3.2: Political—bureaucratic relationship )

Problems of the Two Themes

• Under Weber’s bureaucracy model, public organizations are
designed to pursue administrative efficiency.

• Value-neutrality is the key principle: the organization works like a
machine and people are like bolts and nuts. It assumes that people
are rational. Values and emotions are not relevant.

• The lack of value construction for public servants has led to an
increasing number of serious problems, such as decreased interest
in public welfare or the good of the community, failures to faithfully
implement organizational goals and policy, and the mutual
distrust between citizens and bureaucrats (see the right figure).

Source: https://www.pewresearch.org/politics/2019/04/11/public-trust-
in-government-1958-2019/

Wang, X., & Wang, Z. (2020). Beyond Efficiency or Justice: The Structure and Measurement
of Public Servants’ Public Values Preferences. Administration & Society, 52(4), 499–527.

https://www.pewresearch.org/politics/2019/04/11/public-trust-in-government-1958-2019/

From Value-neutrality to Public
Service Values

• In recent years, more and more public organizations call for the
establishment of a “values-based public personnel management
system.”

• The role of public servants has evolved from only providing
instrumental public services into managing citizens’ expectations
and identifying and responding to citizens’ values preferences.

• Different scholars have formulated different sets of public values.

• Here I list a set of values proposed by the American Society for Public
Administration (ASPA), which is one of the leading organizations in
our field.

ASPA Code of Ethics
1. Advance the Public Interest. Promote the interests of the
public and put service to the public above service to oneself.

2. Uphold the Constitution and the Law. Respect and
support government constitutions and laws, while seeking to
improve laws and policies to promote the public good.

3. Promote democratic participation. Inform the public
and encourage active engagement in governance. Be open,
transparent and responsive, and respect and assist all
persons in their dealings with public organizations.

4. Strengthen social equity. Treat all persons with fairness,
justice, and equality and respect individual differences,
rights, and freedoms. Promote affirmative action and other
initiatives to reduce unfairness, injustice, and inequality in
society.

5. Fully Inform and Advise. Provide accurate, honest,
comprehensive, and timely information and advice to
elected and appointed officials and governing board
members, and to staff members in your organization.

6. Demonstrate personal integrity. Adhere to the highest
standards of conduct to inspire public confidence and trust
in public service.

7. Promote Ethical Organizations: Strive to attain the
highest standards of ethics, stewardship, and public service
in organizations that serve the public.

8. Advance Professional Excellence: Strengthen personal
capabilities to act competently and ethically and encourage
the professional development of others.

https://www.aspanet.org/ASPA/About-ASPA/Code-
of-Ethics/ASPA/Code-of-Ethics/Code-of-Ethics.aspx

Wang, X., & Wang, Z. (2020). Beyond Efficiency or Justice: The Structure and Measurement
of Public Servants’ Public Values Preferences. Administration & Society, 52(4), 499–527.

https://www.aspanet.org/ASPA/About-ASPA/Code-of-Ethics/ASPA/Code-of-Ethics/Code-of-Ethics.aspx

Understanding Public Service Values
(Required Reading)

• Our next required reading will help get a deeper
understanding of public service values.

• Required Reading 3: Molina, A. D., & Mckeown, C. L. (2012).
The Heart of the Profession: Understanding Public Service
Values. Journal of Public Affairs Education, 18(2), 375–396.

• It is required to integrate this material for Assignment 2.

Molina, A. D., & Mckeown, C. L. (2012). The Heart of the Profession: Understanding Public Service Values. Journal of Public Affairs Education, 18(2), 375–396.

List of Required Materials

• Required Reading 1: Mayer. (2014). Selected Characteristics of Private and Public
Sector Workers

• Required Video: https://youtu.be/zp554tcdWO8 You can cite this video in-text by
(Weber, 1946).

• Required Reading 2: Meier, K. J., & Hill, G. C. (2009). Bureaucracy in the Twenty-First
Century. In The Oxford Handbook of Public Management.

• Required Reading 3: Molina, A. D., & Mckeown, C. L. (2012). The Heart of the
Profession: Understanding Public Service Values. Journal of Public Affairs Education,
18(2), 375–396.

They are attached on the Canvas Module Overview Page.

List of Recommended Materials

• Benzine. (2015). Bureaucracy Basics

• Hogue (2013) Government Organization Summary Report
• Census Bureau. (2011). Exploring the Intricate Layers of State

and Local Governments: Florida

• Miami-Dade County Human Resources Department. (2019).
Know your county government: A county employee’s guide to
Miami-Dade County Government.

• ASPA (2013) Code of Ethics

They are attached on the Canvas Module Overview Page.

Questions and
Comments

Please feel free to let me know if you have any questions. I am here to help.

Yanbing Han: yahan@fiu.edu

Note: Please do NOT share any part of this lecture note with any third party without a consent of the author.

http://fiu.edu

Discussion 3

Description

Even though many Americans dislike bureaucracy, this organizational model prevails today. Meier & Hill (2005) argued that the bureaucracy will not only survive but will flourish in the 21st century.

In your original discussion post, please answer the following questions: 

1. How do you define bureaucracy? 

2. Why does bureaucracy have a bad reputation? 

3. Do you agree that bureaucracy will flourish in the 21st century? Why?

The approximate length of an original post should be between 200-300 words. 

Please use APA in-text citations of the articles read or websites to strengthen your opinion/ argument. 

Expert paper writers are just a few clicks away

Place an order in 3 easy steps. Takes less than 5 mins.

Calculate the price of your order

You will get a personal manager and a discount.
We'll send you the first draft for approval by at
Total price:
$0.00

Order your essay today and save 30% with the discount code ESSAYHELP