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Cyber Security – Research paper

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 The Research Report needs to be at least 14 pages and is written in the past and present tense, as appropriate.  

Webology,Volume 17, Number 2, December, 2020

289 http://www.webology.org

A Strategic Vision to Reduce Cybercrime to Enhance Cyber

Security

Mohammed I. Alghamdi

Department of Computer Science, Al-Baha University, Al-Baha City, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

E-mail: mialmushilah@bu.edu.sa

Received June 15, 2020; Accepted August 18, 2020

ISSN: 1735-188X

DOI: 10.14704/WEB/V17I2/WEB17031

Abstract

The cyber-security development for future generations is at stake as a global concern. The

existing strategic and policy structures on cyber security and awareness-raising at many levels

needs more investigation in order to formulate workable and efficient strategic vision that

addresses actual needs and challenges. The justification for this work is therefore to test the

robustness, in contrast with some of the most technologically advanced countries on the Asian

Continent and others like the USA, Japan, of Saudi Arabia’s current cyber security strategy in

order to keep the NCSS up-to-date. This research aimed to develop a strategic vision to

combat cybercrime to enhance cyber security. The research results confirmed the approval of

the members of the study community to a medium degree on the reality of digital extremism

and cyber terrorism as seen by the researcher. Moreover, the approval of the members of the

study community was to a high degree on the role of combating cybercrime in promoting

human security as seen by the researcher. The members of the study community agreed with a

high degree on the obstacles identified by the researcher to combat cyber-crimes to enhance

human security in Saudi Arabia. There was a high approval of the study community members

on the

strategic vision developed by the researcher to combat cyber-crimes to enhance human

security in Saudi Arabia.

Keywords

Cyber-Security, Strategic Vision, National Network for Cyber Security (NCSS), Cyber-Crime

Prevention.

Introduction

Technology is a continually changing expression in modern times, which has enhanced

security concerns and driven us to build a cyber-environment. A country’s National

Network for Cyber Security (NCSS) reflects the cyber strength of the country, which is a

target and vision for a country’s cyber safety. Researchers worked on NCSS by comparing

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290 http://www.webology.org

NCSS for international cooperation and harmonization between various nations and some

researchers worked for their respective governments in the policy framework (Sarker, K.,

et al., 2019).

The Internet has become a basic and critical need for people’s lives and socio-economic

activities. Although it facilitates things for people, it also creates new risks. Never stopped

cyber-attacks and never will they, but they exponentially increase instead. That country

therefore needs an ICT infrastructure secure, efficient and robust. There can be a high risk

of a poor ICT infrastructure. Every interested cyber intelligence specialist can use ICT to

manipulate state-of-the-art government and industry classified information. However very

small attempts were made to estimate Saudi Arabia’s strategic strength in the NCSS by

comparing the NCSS of the various nations.

Training in cyber-security is an effective response to an increasing number of intrusions

and attacks (Nagarajan et al., 2012). 80 percent of all vulnerabilities exploited by hackers

are due to human vulnerabilities (IBM, 2013) but cyber security is a priority of

information technology on tools and technologies (Hershberger, 2014). Human

vulnerabilities include employee incompetence, misinformed management and limited

training in cyber security, malicious insiders and third parties having access to a

company’s network, but are not confined to them. Current politicians, government bodies

and academic researchers have come to know the need to improve cyber security

capabilities and increase awareness in the workforce and leadership (Evans & Reeder,

2010). After the breach of Target Organization information in 2013, an empirical review

of the attack found that the Target security systems recognized the intrusion. But the

management and the personnel involved in taking action lacked the know-how and skills

necessary (Hershberger, 2014).

Cyber security is then built on cyber defense or on a series of technical and non-technical

measures that allow a country to defend information systems that are deemed essential to

the creation of cyberspace. Cyber security could then be called a state desired by an

information system that would allow it to withstand cyberspace events that might

jeopardize the reliability, integrity or privacy of the data stored, processed, distributed and

the related services provided or made available by those systems. It uses security

techniques of information systems and is based on cybercrime combat and cyber defense.

As a prerequisite for technological growth and globalization dynamics as well as a

resource for sustainable development, cyber security concerns that entity (individual,

government, institutional, etc.) and represents thus cross-cutting challenges. These

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challenges range from the securing of IT and IT systems (Industrial IT, IT management,

connected objects, etc.) to the economic, political and capacity-building strategies

(Willemant and Foulgoc, 2016).

The current combination of the exponential increase in internet flows and the increasing

connection between players and their information makes cybersecurity a comprehensive

and global issue. In addition, through the Agenda for Sustainable Development, the

Millennium Development Goals are one of 17 goals to be reached in 2030 for

technological development and capacity building in this region. In this regard cyber

security and cyber-crime prevention, as a means of ensuring this space for trade and

growth, constitute major issues in this process. Estimates suggest that cyber-attacks cost

the global economy about EUR 400 billion a year (El Melhem, J., et al., 2019).

Government organizations are also vulnerable to cyber-attacks. It has been shown over the

past 12 months that nearly 70% of organizations have reported that a successful cyber-

attack has affected their security. 65 percent of organizations say that there is a shortage

of qualified cyber response professionals. In a report, Kim and Solarwinds reported that in

the United Kingdom Government in 2017, almost two-thirds of the nation’s largest

company was cyber-attacked over the past 12 months. Cyber security is therefore an

important government priority. Data theft or cyber-attack could cost government agencies

millions. It also harms an organization’s image and can have devastating consequences for

the people.

In their analysis, Saad et al. (2016) analyzed the need to examine any gap in current

technology in network security at current times, thereby promoting the intensification of

researchers ‘ expertise while finding answers to these potential issues. Although such

systems might be more valuable, it is usually smaller networks, such as a campus

network, that are vulnerable to hackers. They studied in their paper the current field of

research based on a 6-fold survey, {what, where, how, who, how} and developed a mental

map to catch lacunae and the opening doors to network safety research.

Webology, Volume 17, Number 2, December, 2020

292 http://www.webology.org

Figure 1 Cyber-crime mitigation network security mind – map

Most cyber security attacks are due to human errors and attackers focus more on human

vulnerability exploitation (Evans, M., et al., 2019; Kelly, R., 2017; Islam, T., et al., 2019).

Consequently, it is increasingly important to understand human functions in promoting

cyber security. Joins on and van Steen (2018) suggested the incorporation of history,

actions and design for that reason of security tools and policies.

In the case of complex situations, Ganin et al. (2016) proposed a multi-criteria policy

framework incorporating risk assessments (threat, vulnerability and consequences) for

prioritizing countermeasures using user friendly technology. Dykstra and Orr (2016)

proposed a human decision-making evaluation framework for defining security risks and

responses context accordingly.

This research aimed to develop a strategic vision to combat cybercrime to enhance cyber

security in Saudi Arabia through the following steps:

1. Identify the nature and types of cybercrime.
2. Knowledge of the nature and dimensions of cyber security.

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3. Identify the reality of digital extremism and cyber terrorism and its impact on cyber
security.

4. Know the role of combating cybercrime in promoting cyber security.
5. Identify obstacles to combating cybercrime to enhance cyber security.

Methodology

An online survey was carried out in which 16 cyber security hazards rates were measured

on the basis of the previous research as an independent variable. A total of 200 web users

were surveyed. The study was carried out. The students’ risk perception and precautionary

actions in terms of safety during internet usage were examined through a qualitative

empiric on-line analysis with psychometric methods. The survey found it clear that in

cases of crimes such as identity thieving, cyber bullying, social engineering, and loggers,

the perceived risk increased. Among the most optimistic predictors, we are afraid,

voluntarism, catastrophic and immediate threats. In addition the top scores are Internet

competence and its level of use. In fact, regulation was an important precautionary

measure. Identity theft was discerned as dangerous threat by students.

Results and Discussion

The research results confirmed the approval of the members of the study community to a

medium degree on the reality of digital extremism and cyber terrorism as seen by the

researcher. Moreover, the approval of the members of the study community was to a high

degree on the role of combating cybercrime in promoting human security as seen by the

researcher. The members of the study community agreed with a high degree on the

obstacles identified by the researcher to combat cyber-crimes to enhance human security

in Saudi Arabia. There was a high approval of the study community members on the

strategic vision developed by the researcher to combat cyber-crimes to enhance human
security in Saudi Arabia.

Strategic Steps to Avoid Cyber Crimes

Monitoring and

alerts

Network monitoring and alerting settings to detect suspicious activity are very important – a

malicious attacker should not be allowed to access and store sensitive data on a peripheral

device by means of comprehensive system monitoring.

Risk management

decision-making

By means of a risk assessment, they can determine how assets and a limited budget should be

expended. If the piece in question is downgraded or attacked by a virus, it will access

technical equipment, software system and allocate monetary risk value

Up-to-date

technology

The proper use of security technologies and the equipment necessary: The company will

remain vulnerable to hackers by outdated computer firmware, weak protocols and out – of-

date safety technology.

Security team
A well-trained professional staff should be able instantly to protect sensitive and private

information – the IT department should be vigilant to know about common threats

Knowledge is

power
To avoid cyber-crimes, maintaining good knowledge about potential threats and attacks

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Conclusion

This decade has seen an exponential increase in the number of internet users. It’s going on

all over the world. Each world now has the blessing and curse of technology from

underdeveloped to developing and developed countries. Cyber-attacks are increasing and

more complicated. This also increases. It’s not restricted to a state but is beyond the

boundaries to make things worse, unlike federal crimes. Therefore, when there is no

proper infrastructure to combat it, it is more likely to remain undetected.

The development of cyber security policy is at a turning point. Cyber-security has become

a national priority, while the importance of’ sovereignty’ is increasing. National cyber

security policies are aimed at promoting economic and social prosperity and at protecting

cyber-reliant societies against cyber risk. Common elements of such approaches are

improving policy and organizational government coordination; strengthening the

collaboration between public and private sectors; emphasizing the need for fundamental

values such as the security of personal data, freedom of expression and the free flow of

information; and calling for better international cooperation.

Recommendations

1. Promptly prepare a draft law called (Cyber Security Law) that defines the controls of the

operators of telecommunications and Internet service providers in the Kingdom of Saudi

Arabia, and promotes the fight against cybercrime and the protection of the Saudi society

in cyberspace.

2. Establishing a national specialized cybersecurity authority to protect Saudi’s cyberspace

and enhance infrastructure security.

3. Establish a specialized prosecutor to investigate, confront and control all types of

cybercrime.

4. Establishing a specific security unit at the Ministry of Interior specialized in combating

cybercrime and its tasks (attached in detail to the strategic vision).

5. The need to educate the Saudi society – individuals and institutions – ways to protect

against cyber-crimes.

References

Dykstra, J.A., & Orr, S.R. (2016). Acting in the unknown: the cynefin framework for

managing cyber security risk in dynamic decision making. In IEEE International

Conference on Cyber Conflict (CyCon US), 1-6.

El Melhem, J., Bouras, A., & Ouzrout, Y. (2019). Toward a Holistic Approach of

Cybersecurity Capacity Building through an Innovative Transversal Sandwich Training.

Webology, Volume 17, Number 2, December, 2020

295 http://www.webology.org

In Industry Integrated Engineering and Computing Education, Springer, Cham,

187-212.

Evans, M., He, Y., Maglaras, L., &Janicke, H. (2019). HEART-IS: A novel technique for

evaluating human error-related information security incidents. Computers & Security,

80, 74-89.

Ganin, A.A., Quach, P., Panwar, M., Collier, Z.A., Keisler, J.M., Marchese, D., & Linkov, I.

(2017).Multi-criteria decision framework for cyber security risk assessment and

management. Risk Analysis, 40(4).

Hershberger, P. (2014). Security skills assessment and training: The “make or break” critical

security control. SANS Institute Info Sec Reading Room.

IBM. (2013). The 2013 IBM Cyber Security Intelligence Index.IBM Security Services.

Islam, T., Becker, I., Posner, R., Ekblom, P., McGuire, M., Borrion, H., & Li, S. (2019). A

socio-technical and co-evolutionary framework for reducing human-related risks in

cyber security and cybercrime ecosystems. In International Conference on

Dependability in Sensor, Cloud, and Big Data Systems and Applications, Springer,

Singapore, 277-293.

Joinson, A., & Steen, T.V. (2018). Human aspects of cyber security: Behaviour or culture

change?. Cyber Security: A Peer-Reviewed Journal, 1(4), 351-360.

Kelly, R. (2017). Almost 90% of cyber attacks are caused by human error or behavior. Chief

Executive.net.

Kim, J. (2017). Cyber-security in government: reducing the risk. Computer Fraud & Security,

7, 8-11.

Nagarajan, A., Allbeck, J.M., Sood, A., & Janssen, T.L. (2012).Exploring game design for

cybersecurity training. In IEEE International Conference on Cyber Technology in

Automation, Control, and Intelligent Systems (CYBER), 256-262.

Saad, A., Amran, A.R., Afif II, Zolkeple, A.H., Said, A.I.A., Hamzah, M.F., & Salim,

W.N.S.W. (2016). Privacy and security gaps in mitigating Cybercrime: The review.

In IEEE 2nd International Symposium on Agent, Multi-Agent Systems and Robotics

(ISAMSR), 92-99.

Sarker, K., Rahman, H., Rahman, K.F., Arman, M., Biswas, S., & Bhuiyan, T. (2019). A

Comparative Analysis of the Cyber Security Strategy of Bangladesh. International

Journal on Cybernetics & Informatics (IJCI), 8(2), 1-21.

Willemant, R., & Foulgoc, S. (2016). Legal Aspects of Cyber-security. Action Canada Fr., 25,

18-19.

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School of Business, Economic, and Technology

Campbellsville University- Louisville Center

Research Report Guide

A Guide for CU Graduate Students

©2017, Dr Vincent Scovetta

Campbellsville University. All rights reserved.

4/20/2020

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Table of Contents

The Research Report …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 4

Chapter 1- Background/Introduction (3 – 4 pages) …………………………………………………………………………… 4

Introduction …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 4

Problem Statement and Purpose of Research …………………………………………………………………………………… 4

Relevance and Significance …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 4

Research Questions ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 5

Barriers and Issues ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 5

Chapter 2 – Review of the Literature (6-8 pages) ……………………………………………………………………………… 5

Chapter 3 – Approach/Methodology (1 – 2 pages) …………………………………………………………………………….. 5

Chapter 4: Findings, Analysis, and Summary of Results (2 – 4 pages) ………………………………………………… 5

Chapter 5: Conclusions (2 – 4 pages) ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 5

References …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 6

Research Report Structure …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 6

Front Matter……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 6

Chapter 1 through 5 (12 pages): ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 6

Back Matter: …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 6

Document Preparation – Form and Style …………………………………………………………………………………………. 6

References and Citations ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 7

Margins……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 7

Line Spacing …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 7

Paragraph Spacing …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 8

Page Numbering ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 8

Type Style ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 8

Title Page…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 8

The Abstract …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 8

Chapter Title, Heading 1, Heading 2……………………………………………………………………………………………. 8

Tables and Figures in the Text Body …………………………………………………………………………………………… 9

Appendix …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 9

Additional Resources ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 9

Sample First Page of Table of Contents ………………………………………………………………………………………… 11

Sample Reference List ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 12

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4

The Research Report

The Research Report serves as the deliverable towards partial completion of the requirement for BA634. The

requirement of your research is expected to be built and constitutes the five-chapter model. This document is not

intended to be a one-time or static document. The Research Report needs to be at least 14 pages and is written

in the past and present tense, as appropriate.

The Research Report should be a complete and concise document that establishes your credentials as a relative

expert in the domain of your study. In all cases, a good understanding of the specific domain will be necessary

for the successful completion of your study. It is vital that you stay current in the literature germane to the

study you are conducting and update the chapters accordingly.

The following is the general structure of the Research Report

Font Style: Times New Roman throughout the document

Font color: Black (including headings)

Chapter 1- Background/Introduction (3 – 4 pages)
In this section, present enough information about the proposed work so that the reader understands the general

context or setting. It is also helpful to include a summary of how this document is organized.

Introduction
This section introduces the reader to the structural content of your Research Report

Problem Statement and Purpose of Research
In this section, present a concise statement of a research-worthy problem to be addressed (i.e., why the work

should be undertaken – don’t state “it was a requirement of the professor”). Follow the statement of the problem

with a well-supported discussion of its scope and nature. The discussion of the problem should include: what the

problem is, why it is a problem, how the problem evolved or developed, and the issues and events leading to the

problem. Your problem statement must be clear, concise, to the point and able to be articulated in no more than

three sentences.

Relevance and Significance
This section provides the necessary support for both the problem statement of your study. Consider the following

questions and support your discussion by citing the research literature:

 Why is there a problem? What groups or individuals are affected?

 How far-ranging is the problem and how great is its impact? What’s the benefit of solving the problem?

 What has been tried without success to correct the situation? Why weren’t those attempts successful?

 What are the consequences of not solving the problem?

 How does the goal of your study address the research problem and how will your proposed study offer
promise as a resolution to the problem?

 How will your research add to the knowledge base?

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 What is the potential for generalization of your results?

 What is the potential for original work?

Research Questions
In this section you will define the research questions you expect to answer in your finding / results / conclusion

sections. The research question(s) must be directly related to the problem statement and introduce the reader to

their respective relationships. The answers to the research question(s) need to be either qualitative or

quantitative.

Barriers and Issues
In this section, identify how the problem is inherently difficult to solve. You should also show how the solution

you propose are difficult to obtain (unlike a book report). You should show the study you propose is of adequate

difficulty to warrant a successful grade assignment.

Chapter 2 – Review of the Literature (6-8 pages)
In this section, it is important to clearly identify the major areas on which you will need to focus your research in

order to build a solid foundation for your study in the existing body of knowledge. The literature review is the

presentation of quality literature in a particular field that serves as the foundation and justification for the research

problem, research questions or hypothesis, and methodology. You will develop a more comprehensive review of

the literature as part of your report.

Chapter 3 – Approach/Methodology (1 – 2 pages)
Describe how you plan to address your research problem and accomplish your stated goal. List the major steps

that must be taken to accomplish the goal and include a preliminary discussion of the methodology and specific

research methods you plan to implement. Although specific details are not required at this point, you must provide

adequate discussion of the general process you will follow to implement your research methodology.

Chapter 4: Findings, Analysis, and Summary of Results (2 – 4 pages)
Chapter 4 includes an objective description and analysis of the findings, results or outcomes of the research. Limit

the use of charts, tables, figures to those that are needed to support the narrative. Most of these illustrations can

be included as part of the Appendixes.

The following topics are intended to serve as a guide:

 Data analysis

 Findings & discussion

 Analysis

 Summary of results & discussion

Chapter 5: Conclusions (2 – 4 pages)
 Conclusions – Clearly state the conclusions of the study based on the analysis performed and results achieved.

Indicate by the evidence or logical development the extent to which the specified objectives have been

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accomplished. If the research has been guided by hypotheses, make a statement as to whether the data

supported or rejected these hypotheses. Discuss alternative explanations for the findings, if appropriate.

Delineate strengths, weaknesses, and limitations of the study.

 Implications – Discuss the impact of the work on the field of study and its contributions to knowledge and
professional practice. Discuss implications for future research.

 Recommendations – Present recommendations for future research or for changes in research methods or
theoretical concepts. As appropriate, present recommendations for changes in academic practice, professional

practice, or organizational procedures, practices, and behavior.

References
Follow the most current version of APA to format your references. However, each reference should be single-

spaced with a double space between each cited entry. Make sure that every citation is referenced and every

reference is cited.

Research Report Structure
Notes:

 White space added to the report will negatively affect the final grade of your report. Do not add extra space

to your document in an effort to extend the page count.

Front Matter
 The front matter includes the following:

o Title Page
o Abstract
o Table of Contents
o List of Tables
o List of Figures

Chapter 1 through 5 (12 pages):

Back Matter:
 The back matter includes the following:

o Appendixes
o References

Document Preparation – Form and Style

Form and style guidelines for a Research Report serve a number of purposes: to ease adaptation of the document

for publication in whole or part, to ensure a level of professional appearance, and ease the burden on the readers

of the document by presenting material in a logical, consistent fashion. Nevertheless, form and style guidelines

should not be burdensome for Peer Reviewer or Professor. The bulk of the effort in developing and mentoring a

Research Report should certainly be directed toward the quality of the thoughts being presented, not the

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appearance of that presentation.

The current edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association serves as the primary

guide for format and style. Since that manual focuses primarily on publication in journals, some exceptions are

necessary for a Research Report. The Research Report guidelines are amplified with examples of:

• Title Page (Appendix A)
• Table of Contents (Appendix E)
• List of Tables (Appendix F)
• List of Figures (Appendix G)
• First Page of a Chapter (Appendix H)
• Appendix Pages (Appendix I)
• Reference List (Appendix J)

References and Citations
One of the most important tasks in writing a Research Report is to reference other works and sources in the text

body. You must provide a formal reference citation for each idea or statement taken from the work of an

individual or organization. Failure to provide a reference citation, when one is appropriate, is plagiarism, which

is a violation of the university’s Code of Student Conduct and Academic Responsibility. An act of plagiarism

will subject the student to disciplinary action including suspension or expulsion from the university. Always err

on the side of caution when writing any formal paper. As you conduct your work, keep accurate records that

indicate which portions of your Research Report are not your own words and ideas. If you attempt to do this as

an afterthought, you run the risk of losing the source of the information and committing plagiarism. Reference

citations in the text should use the author-date citation system specified in the current edition of the Publication

Manual of the American Psychological Association. All reference citations must be listed alphabetically in the

References section at the end of the document, again following the format specified in the current edition of the

Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. However, each reference should be single-

spaced with a double space in between each entry. Make sure that every citation is referenced and every

reference is cited.

Margins
The left-hand margin must be 1.5 inches (4 cm.). Margins at the right, top, and bottom of the page should be 1.0

inch. (See exception for chapter title pages below.) The Research Report text must be left-aligned (leaving a

ragged right edge).

Line Spacing
Double-spacing is required for most of the text in documents submitted during the Research Report process.

Pages for the abstract, acknowledgments, and parts of the table of contents, however, must be single-spaced in

the Research Report. Single-spacing also can be used for table titles and headings, figure captions, references in

a reference list (but double-spacing is required between references in the list), footnotes, and long quotations.

Long quotations may be indented five spaces. Judicial triple can improve appearance and readability and is

appropriate after chapter titles, before major subheadings, before footnotes, and before and after tables in the

text; however, avoid open white spaces.

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Paragraph Spacing
The text of the document is double-spaced. There should be no extra spaces between paragraphs in sections;

however, indent the first line of paragraphs five spaces (1/2 inch). Chapters must begin on new pages.

Page Numbering
Page numbers for the front matter, starting with the Table of Contents, should be lowercase roman numerals,

centered at the bottom of the page. All pages following the front matter should have page numbers in Arabic

numerals in the upper right-hand corner. The page order and numbering for the front matter is:

1. Title page is page i, but the page number is not printed.
2. Approval Signature page is page ii, but the page number is not printed.
3. Abstract is page iii but the page number is not printed.
4. Acknowledgements is page iv and not to exceed one page. The page number is not printed.
5. Table of Contents is page v and the page number is printed, bottom center.
6. List of Tables (only present if the document contains tables) is given the next page number in

sequence, printed bottom center.

7. List of Figures (only present if the document contains figures) is given the next page number in
sequence, printed bottom center.

Type Style

For body text, you should use 12-point Times New Roman. Text for the cover page may be larger but should

not exceed 14-point size. Text for the chapter title text should be 14-point size. Be consistent in your use of

typefaces throughout the document. Do not use a compressed typeface or any settings on your word processor

that would decrease the spacing between letters or words. Sans serif typefaces such as Helvetica or Arial may

be used for relatively short blocks of text such as chapter headings and captions but should be avoided in long

passages of text as they impede readability.

Title Page
Every document that is submitted, from the Research Report, must have a title page. The title page includes the

exact title of the Master’s Thesis, date of submission, your name, and name of the department which the report

is submitted. Use the format of the Sample Research Report Title Page provided in Appendix A.

The Abstract
The abstract (see Appendix es C) is single spaced. An abstract is a stand-alone document and therefore, should

not include citations because it would then need references. Note that the abstract must be fewer than 200

words.

Chapter Title, Heading 1, Heading 2
It is preferred that Research Report contain no more than three levels of headings in the body text. All headings

should have only the first letter of each word capitalized except that non-major words shorter than four letters

have no capital letters. See Appendix H for a sample page for a first page of a chapter.

Instructions for heading levels follow:

Level 1: Chapter Title

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This heading starts two inches from the top of the page, is centered on the page, and is set in 14point type.

The first line contains the chapter number (e.g., Chapter 4). The second line is blank. The third line

displays the chapter title, is centered on the page, and is set in 14-point type.

Level 2: Heading 1

Start heading 1 at the left margin of the page, four spaces (i.e., two returns when your document is set for

double-spacing) down from the title, set in bold 12-point type. Double-space (one return) to the

subheading body text. Indent the first line of the body text five spaces.

Level 3: Heading 2

Start the heading 2 at the left margin of the page, double-spaced (i.e., one return when your document is

set up for double-spacing) from the subheading, set in 12-point italics. Double-space (one return) to the

sub-subheading body text. Indent the first line of the body text five spaces.

Tables and Figures in the Text Body
Charts, graphs, diagrams, figures, and summary tables that significantly enhance reading of the Research Report

should be placed in the text body. Only include material in the text body that is needed by the reader to understand

the point(s) you are trying to make. Other material should be placed in Appendixes. Tables that summarize large

amounts of data are best placed at the end of the Master’s Thesis. If you have included data in your text related

to some point, then the full table containing such data belongs in an Appendix. When using tables and figures in

the body of the paper, remember that the horizontal center of the body is not at the center of the paper. It is 0.25”

to the right of center due to the 1.5” left binding margin. All tables and figures that are less than body width must

be centered properly. Samples of a table and figure appear in Appendixes L and M.

Appendix
Place in appropriate appendices all analytical tables, evaluation instruments, and other material important in the

determination, evaluation, analysis, and description of your research that is not contained in the text body (see

section above). Use an Appendix to present material that supplements the text or may be of interest to readers but

is too detailed or distracting for inclusion in the main body of the text. Surveys, evaluation instruments, original

data, complicated mathematical tables, new computer programs, computer printouts, and data collection forms

are examples of materials that are most appropriately appended. Do not exclude material that would be necessary

for another researcher to replicate your work and that is not available elsewhere. Include copies of IRB permission

from the sponsoring organization and from the study site. Present copies of all letters and e-mails that allow you

to use and modify materials belonging to others. If appropriate, you may use a titled cover sheet for an Appendix.

Additional Resources

American Psychological Association (2010). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association. (6
th

ed.). Washington, D.C.: Author.

Bolker, J. (1998). Writing your Research Reportin fifteen minutes a day: A guide to starting, revising, and

finishing your doctoral thesis. New York, NY: Henry Holt Publishing.

10

Kiernan, V (2005). Writing Your Dissertation with Microsoft Word. MattilyPublishing, Alexandria, Virginia

11

Sample First Page of Table of Contents
Table of Contents

Abstract iii

List of Tables (if necessary) viii (your actual page number may be different)

List of Figures (if necessary) ix (your actual page number may be different)

Chapters

1. Introduction

 Statement of the Problem to Be Investigated 1

 Goal to Be Achieved 2

 Relevance and Significance 4

 Barriers and Issues 7

 etc.

2. Review of the Literature

 The theory and research literature specific to the topic 17

 etc.

3 . Methodology

 Research Methods Employed 35

 etc.

4. Findings, Analysys, Results,

 Findings 78

 Analysis 91

 Results

5. Conclusions, Implications, and Recommendations

 Results 102

 Conclusions 108

 Implications 123

 etc.

Appendices

A. xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx 140

B. xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx 148

C. xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx 155 etc.

Reference List 198

Note: Count and print the number of this page centered here in lowercase Roman.

12

Sample Reference List

American Psychological Association (2010). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association. (6
th

ed.). Washington, D.C.: Author.
Bolker, J. (1998). Writing your Research Reportin fifteen minutes a day: A guide to starting, revising, and

finishing your doctoral thesis. New York, NY: Henry Holt Publishing.

Kiernan, V (2005). Writing Your Dissertation with Microsoft Word. MattilyPublishing, Alexandria, Virginia

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