Three of your four sources are work from our class but these need to be 4 scholarly sources (not short stories) that you find doing your own research. See the Library Guides on Canvas or talk to a librarian for the definition of scholarly source. First, revise and include your Rubin AB entry into this full final AB. Your precis of the first source, which IS scholarly and a good source, is well done but see the Annotated Bibliography prompt on Canvas to include a quote analysis and source evaluation.
Running Head: ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 1
ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 8
Bailey, M. M., & Stallings, L. H. (2017). Anti-Black racism and the metalanguage of sexuality. Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society, 42(3), 614-621.
Bailey and Stallings explore the concept of sexuality in all dimensions that can be used to understand it. Sex is first denoted as the act of being male or female. The concept of sexuality has been both problematic and helpful in understanding the complexities of this subject. This is because it is quite wide and refers to various subjects. Apart from the idea of being male or female, the quality of being sexual is also covered under sexuality. This means being homo, hetero or bisexual. Through this research, the authors have analyzed the sexuality and the keywords that define sexuality (615).
According to this research, authors have for a long time avoided discussing sex openly. Black sex is particularly one subject that cannot be discussed openly. Many factors have been attributed to this, the major one being the painful story of slavery and rape that the African women have had to endure for a long time. The black bodies have been subjected to so much sexual violence that they find it hard to discuss sex openly. Many authors have addressed this issue and have been able to change the African mentality about sexuality.
This research looks at the origin of the word sexuality and how this concept has been constructed over the years to what it is today. It also addresses the many factors that have been used to construct sexuality for example medical, scientific, religious among many other factors. It borrows largely from the work of Foucault who analyzed the history of sexuality to understand how sexuality has been shaped over the years. It goes ahead to show how sexuality has compelled studies to redefine and expand the concept so that it can be more understandable (618).
This research implicates that sexuality shapes our morals and consequently determining our humanity. For us to be able to understand sexuality, we must liberate our minds and be free to view this subject in all dimensions. It is important to rethink black sexuality and move away from the white theories that tend to define black sexuality because most of them are stereotypes. The understanding of sexuality requires a revolution and decolonization that will ensure that black people will not continue to live according to the definitions of whites.
The theory of sexuality in Africans has been constructed through imagination. Colonization, slavery, and imperialism have been greatly used to define sexuality and it is time to break this imagination. This research will help us understand how the concept of African sexuality has been defined and how it has been constructed over time. This will enable us to reconstruct this concept by getting rid of the stereotypes that are associated with black sexuality. This will, in turn, help us understand how racism and sexuality are interconnected (620).
Carby, H. V. (1987). Reconstructing Womanhood: The emergence of the Afro-American woman novelist. Oxford University Press on Demand.
Carby’s book addresses the ideologies of womanhood during the time of slavery. It focuses on the black woman’s sexuality and the stereotypes that are associated with her. To understand the ideologies of the black woman’s sexuality, it is also important to understand the ideologies of the white woman’s sexuality. This is because the two ideologies are interdependent with the white woman’s sexuality ideologies shaping the black woman’s sexuality ideologies. Carby, therefore, produces the opposing definitions of motherhood and womanhood for black and white women through the representation of slave and mistress. The main focus of this research is to understand how black women writers addressed these ideologies (25).
This research analyzes both dominant ideologies and literary conventions to understand the stereotypes associated with the black woman. These ideologies and conventions indicate that stereotypes do not actually a reality or social relationships. It also analyzes how racism and black sexuality leave the black woman writer with the dilemma of whether to write about her experiences or to write about only what is within the beliefs about the black woman’s sexuality. There are basic characteristics that defined the African woman and by which she was supposed to abide. These were domesticity, submissiveness, purity, and piety.
Carby’s work focuses on the struggle of women to gain relevance since as early as 1820. The distinguished rights of men and women are clearly represented and were well defined since the woman was young. Men were entitled to much more than women were. The image of womanhood is not adequate to describe the typical woman because of the many stereotypes that are associated with it. The notion of the slave and the mistress describe the black and white woman respectively. The black woman had to go through a lot to get over these stereotypes. It has taken many feminists and female writers to clear the stereotypes associated with the black woman’s sexuality. This research may be helpful to understand the struggles of the black woman with sexuality and every traditional aspect that was used to define them. The evidence provided in the research is adequate to understand the concept of reconstructing womanhood as presented by Carby. It will help us understand how and why sexuality is a form of racism (36).
Chopin, K. (1893). Desiree’s Baby.
In her fictional story, Chopin addresses the concepts of both sexuality and racism. She tells the story of Desiree who falls in love with Armand. The story begins with Madame Valmonde on her way to see her daughter Desiree who has just given birth. She recalls how Desiree was left behind as a child by travelers and how she had seen that as God’s way to give her a child since she could not conceive. She is marveled at how fast the baby has grown and Desiree announces that her husband is the happiest man especially since the baby is a boy. This shows how male children were held in high regard, unlike female children (1).
Things are good between Desiree and her husband until the husband begins to notice that their baby is not white. Armand notices this before Desiree and starts treating her coldly. By the time Desiree notices that her baby is not white, her husband is already mad at her for bringing shame to him. He accuses her of not being white. She calls her mother who asks her to take her baby back to her home. This she does because even she is not certain if Desiree is white since she is not her biological child. Nobody dares think that Armand could be the problem. When Desiree asks her husband if she should leave, he asks her to leave (4).
Later when going through his letters Armand comes across a letter that his mother had written to his father of how proud she was that Armand would never realize that she was from the cursed race. So Armand had been the course of their son’s color after all yet he sent his wife away. There is an extreme representation of racism in this work in that black people are seen as cursed. It also helps us understand the issues that women had to go through and how sexuality was so much programmed to exploit women. Nobody dared think or accuse men of making a mistake and any mistake was a woman’s doing (5).
Chou, R. S. (2012). Asian American sexual politics: The construction of race, gender, and sexuality. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
In his book, Chou addresses sexual issues in Asian America. He talks of how villains use cultural stereotypes to choose their victims. He gives an account of an occurrence two white men and one white woman kidnapped, raped and sodomized Japanese women intending to videotape the whole thing. The perpetrators tortured two different groups of Japanese women in this way where one of the groups was made up of students. They claimed to always go for Japanese women because women are known to be submissive. This shows how racism has been used by villains to pick their targets (56).
The Asian woman has been constructed as a docile human who is vulnerable to sexuality. This book, therefore, looks at how these constructions affect the lives of Asian Americans. Feminists have for a long time argued that the sexuality of women is shaped in such a way that it pleases men. Asian American sexuality is shaped in such a way that it holds the whites especially white men in high regard. Chuo examines how the sexuality of Asians is stereotyped to ensure that the sexuality of the Americans remains relevant.
African American men and women have been stereotyped as hypersexual but for Asian Americans, the case is different. Asian American women are seen as docile and submissive while their men are seen as sexually inactive. It is important to control these stereotypes about Asian Americans to ensure that we see things as they are in reality. Sex and sexuality have become so intertwined that it is difficult to tell the difference. Although race does not have to play any part in defining sexuality, it has become so much a part of sexuality that one has to understand race first before they can understand sexuality (99).
By studying the sexual politics that revolve around Asian Americans, we can understand the role that racism plays in matters of sexuality. The stereotypes attached to the Asian bodies are a new form of racism that needs to be countered just like black people’s sexuality stereotypes. The feminist theory about sexuality should be broadened to incorporate the use of racism to define sexuality. This research will help us understand a new form of racial sexuality and how we can reconstruct the idea.
Foucault, M. (1990). The history of sexuality: An introduction, volume I. Trans. Robert Hurley. New York: Vintage, 95.
This article analyzes the history of sexuality from as early as the seventeenth century. According to Foucault, during this time sexuality had not been well defined and people could talk frankly about matters sexuality and there was no illicit. But then this evolved and in matters of sexuality, secrecy and silence became most important. The decency of words started being encouraged. A person who discussed sexuality openly was seen as abnormal and all efforts would be done to curb those traits. The subject of sex still remains regressed and prohibited. In this regard, the act of speaking about it is seen as transgression (6).
This research shows the connection between sex and power in that a person who talks about sex openly defies the law. This is an ideology that has been planted in us for a long time such that even our tone when speaking about sexuality can tell that we are doing the wrong thing. Foucault, therefore, analyzes the relationship between sexuality and power. The connection is seen as repressive and that it is historical. In his research, he raises three doubts concerning this repression that he terms as repression hypotheses. One of the doubts is whether social repression is an established historical act, the second one is whether power belongs to the category of repression and lastly does the regression act as a roadblock to a hitherto unchallenged mechanism? By exploring these three hypotheses, Foucalt can analyze in detail the history of sexuality and its repression (31).
The research outlines the four operations that were covered in the concept of power concerning sexuality. One of them was the condemnation of adultery and the subordination of sexuality in children. The other operation was the definition of the acts of sexuality that were punishable for example sodomy and homosexuality. These were unacceptable sexual behaviors. Thirdly, the concept of power demanded constant and insistent observation. The last operation was to apply a hierarchy to the concept of sexuality. This research provides a broad history of sexuality which is very helpful to understand the concept of sexuality. By learning about the connection between sexuality and power, we can understand why matters of sexuality are treated the way they are (43).
Bailey, M. M., & Stallings, L. H. (2017). Anti-Black racism and the metalanguage of sexuality. Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society, 42(3), 614-621. Retrieved from
Carby, H. V. (1987). Reconstructing womanhood: The emergence of the Afro-American woman novelist. Oxford University Press on Demand. Retrieved from
Chopin, K. (1893). Desiree’s Baby. Retrieved from
https://repositorio.ufsc.br/bitstream/handle/123456789/132722/Desirees_Baby_(Kate_Chopin_1893) x ?sequence=1
Chou, R. S. (2012). Asian American sexual politics: The construction of race, gender, and sexuality. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. Retrieved from
Foucault, M. (1990). The history of sexuality: An introduction, volume I. Trans. Robert Hurley. New York: Vintage, 95. Retrieved from
Writing Assignment: Annotated Bibliography (AB)
Due Dates (by 11:59PM):
Rubin AB entry:
AB Final Draft
(5 entries): 3/ 10
AB Revised Draft:
6 page minimum (including 5 AB entries and a Literature Review with CRQ), double-spaced, 12 point, 1” margins, MLA (or other) format
Annotated Bibliography is a genre of writing in academia that works to show your awareness of what others have written about a topic. The work done in an AB, including introducing the authors with brief intellectual biographies; explicating the main claims and concepts; tracing the argument and its evidence; evaluating the source; and discussing its stakes and implications gives some context to the course reading you choose to research and situates the course reading into a research topic by indicating the intellectual conversations you are entering. The point of this assignment is to practice research skills but also to dig a little deeper into 4 of our readings using research. For this assignment:
1. Compile an Annotated Bibliography
of five scholarly sources, including one entry for Gayle Rubin’s “Thinking Sex” and 4 more scholarly sources based on researching sources that are connected to one (the deep dive) or more of our course readings. See the next page for the specific AB entry format.
· “Scholarly” means peer-reviewed articles from academic journals or chapters in books written by experts in a field and not wikis, encyclopedias, newspapers, popular magazines/media, blogs, websites, etc. (see the Library Guide on what constitutes a scholarly source).
· “Connected” means that each of your researched, scholarly sources must be connection to a course reading in some way. You can either find a source that engages or discusses the particular critical essay or cultural text from the course calendar or you can do research on a topic or theme that is brought up in or similar to the course reading. Whatever you decide, you’ll explain the connection in your quote analysis.
· “Deep Dive” means you may also include more than one researched source per course text. You can, for instance, research two sources on a critical essay and two on a cultural text or even include 4 sources that are all about one essay or text to give some in-depth engagement with one course reading. Alternatively, you may also include 4 sources on 4 different course texts.
· If you’d like, you can focus your research within a broad topic, on a field of knowledge, or on a really specific object of analysis within that topic. For example, you can produce an AB based on a specific topic (like racialized hypersexuality, the sex/gender/desire matrix, or a particular sexual stereotype) or a specific discipline (for instance, focus on the sociology of sex) or an interdisciplinary one that pursues a critical research question through multiple fields of knowledge (for instance, focused on how sociology, cultural studies, biology, psychology, etc. engage questions about transphobia and sexual violence).
· You can also not worry about a focus and research the texts that interest you and then figure out how to connect them when you’re done. Good research has been done in both ways.
2. Write a Literature Review paragraph that asks a Critical Research Question and frames your AB with a discussion of some connections you see between your sources and our course readings. Your Literature Review should synthesize the ideas in your AB entries by discussing some “threads” of connection you see developing in your research. Part of this review should also discuss your research’s connection to a class text/concept, which can be anything but must be articulated by you. Include a CRQ that indicates the focus of your Annotated Bibliography. This can be a broad or a more specific question and you can use or adapt a CRQ from your or another student’s WAQs.
Annotated Bibliography Format
To do a substantial, comprehensive Annotated Bibliography, follow all of the four steps below closely for each entry.
1. Cite each source.
Begin with the MLA (or other) Works Cited format of your source at the top of the page.
2. Write a précis that introduces and summarizes each source.
· First, introduce each source with a) the full name of the author, b) a brief bio, c) the full title and disciplinary framing of the chapter/essay d) the book/journal that contains it, and e) the date of publication. Then give a summary of the essay’s argument as a whole.
· Then, summarize each source by processing the information in the entire source down into a paragraph that discusses in your own words and using no quotes the main claim of the essay/article/chapter, any subclaims and/or important concepts, and the source’s evidence, including the way it uses that evidence to support its argument. To do this well, read the source carefully both 1) conceptually for meaning to understand its main intervention/claim and to discuss a few of the main point(s), and 2) rhetorically to trace the argument briefly by discussing how the main points are made and how the article progresses using its evidence.
· Analyze one quote from each source that engages our course essay or text in some way or analyze one quote to explain how it relates or connects to our course readings or topics.
3. Evaluate each source
Then evaluate each source’s credibility by using the Library Guides: Evaluating Sources page (link on Canvas) to discuss the source’s:
· Currency: When was it published? Has it been revised/discounted by then?
· Relevance: For what topics might this essay be useful? Be specific in naming 1-2 possibilities. What ways of thinking does it offer? Who is the audience? What is its scope – how much information or history is it trying to cover?
· Authority: Is it scholarly (by an expert in the field, in a peer-reviewed journal, with a bibliography)? Who is the author (give a brief bio)? What are the author’s credentials? Who is the publisher?
· Accuracy: What is the evidence given? Does it have enough evidence to make its case and is the evidence handled well? Are there unsupported claims or misuse of evidence?
· Purpose: Why was it written? What are its intervention (and into what disciplines/fields)? Is there bias (this means obvious agenda, not just a focus on one claim/argument)? What kinds of biases are apparent? Is it objective? Is it an opinion or a reasoned argument?
4. Discuss the stakes and implications of each source
Finally, end each entry by discussing the stakes of each source and elaborate on its particular implications for your research question. Discuss the stakes by articulating why this source is important and for whom. Why is this essay/concept important? What new ideas are offered? What disciplines or areas of study might use this essay? Who might this essay/concept be helping? Discuss the implications by offering some thoughts and a specific example or two of how this essay or a particular concept or interpretation in it are useful. How can you use this essay/concept to think about sex, sexuality, race, gender, etc. in America? How can you use the new ways of thinking it offers to convince people of how sexuality is a form of racial and/or gendered power?
Fair Warning: Annotated Bibliographies are always more work than they seem because you need to take some time to find relevant sources, process the information in them, and then write the précis and evaluation.