Posted: October 27th, 2022

contemplation 2

Question, process, challenge, and think deeply about how this week’s readings relate back to you. This is a place to share your thoughts and feelings: let them be raw and vulnerable. In 500 words minimum (2-3 pages), write a personal reaction about how the core arguments or stories of the readings relate to your understanding of identities, privilege and systems of oppression. Choose and include 1 quote from each of the assigned readings/sources and write 2 dialogic questions. Be sure to talk about each of the assigned readings/podcasts in your contemplations.  This assignment can also be submitted as a video, but we will be looking for the same amount of depth in what you say as we are in a written reflection.

Use these questions as a guide:

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  • What feelings came up for you as you read the readings/sources?  What stories and personal experiences may be connected to those feelings? 
  • How did the readings/sources raise your level of consciousness around your identities, privilege and larger systems of oppression and your role in them?
  • What questions do you still have or want to continue thinking/talking about with others?

easy to understandinggood grammar

White Privilege: Unpacking the Invisible Backpack

by Peggy McIntosh

Through the work to bring materials from Women’s Studies into the rest of the
curriculum, I have often noticed men’s unwillingness to grant that they are over-
privileged, even though they may grant that women are disadvantaged. They may say
they will work to improve women’s status, in the society, the university, or the
curriculum, but they can’t or won’t support the idea of lessening men’s. Denials which
amount to taboos sur round the subject of advantages which men gain from women’s
disadvantages. These denials protect male privilege from being fully acknowledged,
lessened or ended.

Thinking through unacknowledged male privilege as a phenomenon, I realized
that since hierarchies in our society are interlocking, there was most likely a
phenomenon of white privilege which was similarly denied and protected. As a white
person, I realized I had been taught about racism as something which puts others at a
disadvantage, but had been taught not to see one of its corollary aspects, white
privilege, which puts me at an advantage.

I think whites are carefully taught not to recognize white privilege, as males are taught
not to recognize male privilege. So I have begun in an untutored way to ask what it is
like to have white privilege. I have come to se white privilege as an invisible package of
unearned assets which I can count on cashing in each day, but about which I was
‘meant’ to remain oblivious. White privilege is like an invisible weightless backpack of
special provisions, maps, passports, codebooks, visas, clothes, tools and blank checks.

Describing white privilege makes one newly accountable. As we in Women’s
Studies work to reveal male privilege and ask men to give up some of their power, so
one who writes about having white privilege must ask, “Having described it, what will I
do to lessen or end it?”

After I realized the extent to which men work from a base of unacknowledged privilege, I
understood that much of their oppressiveness was unconscious. Then I remembered
the frequent charges from women of color that white women whom they encounter are
oppressive. I began to understand why we are justly seen as oppressive, even when
we don’t see ourselves that way. I began to count the ways in which I enjoy unearned
skin privilege and have been conditioned into oblivion about its existence.

My schooling gave me no training in seeing myself as an oppressor, as an
unfairly advantaged person, or as a participant in a damaged culture. I was taught to
see myself as an individual whose moral state depended on her individual moral will.
My schooling followed the pattern my colleague Elizabeth Minnich has pointed out:
whites are taught to think of their lives as a morally neutral, normative, and average,
also ideal, so that when we work to benefit others, this is seen as work which will allow
“them” to be more like “us.”

I decided to try to work on myself at least by identifying some of the daily effects
of white privilege in my life. I have chosen those conditions which I think in my case
attack some what more to skin-color privilege that to class, religion, ethnic status, or
geographical location, though of course all these other factors are intricately
intertwined. As far as I can see, my African American co-worker, friends and
acquaintances with whom I come into daily or frequent contact in this particular time,
place, and line of work cannot count on most of these conditions.

1. I can if I wish arrange to be in the company of people of my race most of the

2. If I should need to move, I can be pretty sure of renting or purchasing housing
in an area which I can afford and in which I would want to live.

3. I can be pretty sure that my neighbors in such a location will be neutral or
pleasant to me.

4. I can go shopping alone most of the time, pretty well assured that I will not be
followed or harassed.

5. I can turn on the television or open to the front page of the paper and see
people of my race widely represented.

6. When I am told about our national heritage or about “civilization,” I am shown
that people of my color made it what it is.

7. I can be sure that my children will be given curricular materials that testify to the
existence of their race.

8. If I want to, I can be pretty sure of finding a publisher for this piece on white

9. I can go into a music shop and count on finding the music of my race
represented, into a supermarket and find the staple foods which fit with my
cultural traditions, into a hairdresser’s shop and find someone who can cut my

10. Whether I checks, credit cards, or cash, I can count on my skin color not to work
against the appearance of financial reliability.

11. I can arrange to protect my children most of the time from people who might not
like them.

12. I can swear, or dress in second hand clothes, or not answer letters, without
having people attribute these choices to the bad morals, the poverty, or the
illiteracy of my race.

13. I can speak in public to a powerful male group without putting my race on trial.

14. I can do well in a challenging situation without being called a credit to my race.

15. I am never asked to speak for all the people of my racial group.

16. I can remain oblivious of the language and customs of persons of color who
constitute the world’s majority without feeling in my culture any penalty for such

17. I can criticize our government and talk about how much I fear its policies and
behavior without being seen as a cultural outsider.

18. I can be pretty sure that if I ask to talk to “the person in charge,” I will be facing
a person of my race.

19. If a traffic cop pulls me over or if the IRS audits my tax return, I can be sure I
haven’t been singled out because of my race.

20. I can easily buy posters, postcards, picture books, greeting cards, dolls, toys,
and children’s magazine featuring people of my race.

21. I can go home from most meetings of organizations I belong to feeling
somewhat tied in, rather than isolated, out-of-place, outnumbered, unheard,
held at a distance, or feared.

22. I can take a job with an affirmative action employer without having co-workers
on the job suspect that I got it because of race.

23. I can choose public accommodation without fearing that people of my race
cannot get in or will be mistreated in the places I have chosen.

24. I can be sure that if I need legal or medical help, my race will not work against

25. If my day, week, or year is going badly, I need not ask of each negative episode
or situation whether it has racial overtones.

26. I can choose blemish cover or bandages in “flesh” color and have them more or
less match my skin.

I repeatedly forgot each of the realization on this list until I wrote it down. For
me white privilege has turned out to be an elusive and fugitive subject. The pressure to
avoid it is great, for in facing it I must give up the myth of meritocracy. If these things
are true, this is not such a free country; one’s life is not what one makes it; many doors
open for certain people through no virtues of their own.

In unpacking this invisible backpack of white privilege, I have listed conditions of
daily experience which I once took for granted. Nor did I think of any of these
perquisites as bad for the holder. I now think that we need a more finely differentiated
taxonomy of privilege, for some of these varieties are only what one would want for

everyone in a just society, and others give license to be ignorant, oblivious, arrogant
and destructive.

I see a pattern running through the matrix of white privilege, a pattern of
assumptions which were passed on to me as a white person. There was one main
piece of cultural turf; it was my own turf, and I was among those who could control the
turf. My skin color was an asset for any move I was educated to want to make. I could
think of myself as belonging in major ways, and of making social systems work for me. I
could freely disparage, fear, neglect, or be oblivious to anything outside of the dominant
cultural forms. Being of the main culture, I could also criticize it fairly free.

In proportion as my racial group was being make confident, comfortable, and
oblivious, other groups were likely being made confident, uncomfortable, and alienated.
Whiteness protected me from many kinds of hostility, distress, and violence, which I
was being subtly trained to visit in turn upon people of color.

For this reason, the word “privilege” now seems to me misleading. We usually
think of privilege as being a favored state, whether earned or conferred by birth or luck.
Yet some of the conditions I have described here work to systematically overempower
certain groups. Such privilege simply confers dominance because of one’s race or sex.

I want, then, to distinguish between earned strength and unearned power
conferred systematically. Power from unearned privilege can look like strength when it
is in fact permission to escape or to dominate. But not all of the privileges on my list are
inevitably damaging. Some, like the expectation that neighbors will be decent to you, or
that your race will not count against you in court, should be the norm in a just society.
Others, like the privilege to ignore less powerful people, distort the humanity of the
holders as well as the ignored groups.

We might at least start by distinguishing between positive advantages which we
can work to spread, and negative types of advantages which unless rejected will always
reinforce our present hierarchies. For example, the feeling that one belongs within the
human circle, as Native Americans say, should not be seen as privilege of a few.
Ideally it is an unearned advantage and conferred dominance.

I have met very few men who are truly distressed about systemic, unearned
male advantage and conferred dominance. And so one question for me and others like
is whether we will get truly distressed, even outraged, about unearned race advantage
and conferred dominance and it so, what we will do to lessen them. In any case, we
need to do more work in identifying how they actually affect our daily lives. Many,
perhaps most, of our white students in the US think that racism doesn’t affect them
because they are not people of color; they do not see “whiteness” as a racial identity. In
addition, since race and sex are not the only advantaging systems at work, we need
similarly to examine the daily experience of having age advantage, or ethnic advantage,
or physical ability, or advantage related to nationality, religion or sexual orientation.

Difficulties and dangers surrounding the task of finding parallels are many.
Since racism, sexism, and heterosexism are not the same, the advantaging associated

with them should not be seen as the same. In addition, it is hard to disentangle aspects
of unearned advantage which rest more on social class, economic class, race, religion,
sex and ethnic identity than on other factors. Still, all of the oppressions are
interlocking, as the Combahee River Collective Statement of 1977 continues to remind
us eloquently.

One factor seems clear about all of the interlocking oppressions. They take both
active forms which we can see and embedded forms which as a member of the
dominant group one is taught not to see. In my class and place, I did not see myself as
a racist because I was taught to recognize racism only in individual acts of meanness by
members of my group, never in invisible systems conferring unsought racial dominance
on my group from birth.

Disapproving of the systems won’t be enough to change them. I was taught to
think that racism could end if white individuals changed their attitudes. [But] a “white”
skin in the United States opens many doors for whites whether or not we approve of the
way dominance has been conferred on us. Individual acts can palliate, but cannot end,
these problems.

To redesign social systems we need first to acknowledge their colossal unseen
dimensions. The silences and denials surrounding privilege are the key political tool
here. They keep the thinking about equality or equity incomplete, protecting unearned
advantage and conferred dominance by making these taboo subjects. Most talk by
whites about equal opportunity seems to me now to be about equal opportunity to try to
get into a position of dominance while denying that systems of dominance exist.

It seems to me that obliviousness about white advantage, like obliviousness
about male advantage, is kept strongly inculturated in the United States so as to
maintain the myth of meritocracy the myth that democratic choice is equally available to
all. Keeping most people unaware that freedom of confident action is there for just a
small number of people props up those in power, and serves to keep power in the
hands of the same groups that have most of it already.

Though systematic change takes many decades, there are pressing questions
for me and I imagine for some others like me if we raise our daily consciousness on the
perquisites of being light-skinned. What well we do with such knowledge? As we know
from watching me, it is an open question whether we will choose to use unearned
advantage to weaken hidden systems of advantage, and whether we will use any of our
arbitrarily-awarded power to try to reconstruct power systems on a broader base.


WhiteSupremacy Culture

Tema Okun . dRworks .

• This piece is dedicated to the late Kenneth Jones, a long-time colleague, mentor,

and friend who helped me become wise about many things and kept me honest
about everything else. I love you and miss you beyond words.

• This piece on white supremacy culture builds on the work of many people, including
(but not limited to) Andrea Ayvazian, Bree Carlson, Beverly Daniel Tatum, Eli
Dueker, Nancy Emond, Kenneth Jones, Jonn Lunsford, Sharon Martinas, Joan
Olsson, David Rogers, James Williams, Sally Yee, as well as the work of Grassroots
Leadership, Equity Institute Inc, the People’s Institute for Survival and Beyond, the
Challenging White Supremacy workshop, the Lillie Allen Institute, the Western
States Center, and the contributions of hundreds of participants in the DR process.

* These sections are based on the work of Daniel Buford, a lead trainer with the People’s
Institute for Survival and Beyond who has done extensive research on white supremacy culture.

This is a list of characteristics of white supremacy culture that show up in our
organizations. Culture is powerful precisely because it is so present and at the
same time so very difficult to name or identify. The characteristics listed below
are damaging because they are used as norms and standards without being pro-
actively named or chosen by the group. They are damaging because they
promote white supremacy thinking. Because we all live in a white supremacy
culture, these characteristics show up in the attitudes and behaviors of all of us –
people of color and white people. Therefore, these attitudes and behaviors can
show up in any group or organization, whether it is white-led or predominantly
white or people of color-led or predominantly people of color.

• little appreciation expressed among people for the work that others are doing;

appreciation that is expressed usually directed to those who get most of the
credit anyway

• more common is to point out either how the person or work is inadequate
• or even more common, to talk to others about the inadequacies of a person or

their work without ever talking directly to them
• mistakes are perceived as personal, i.e. they reflect badly on the person

making them as opposed to being seen for what they are – mistakes
• making a mistake is confused with being a mistake, doing wrong with being

• little time, energy, or money put into reflection or identifying lessons learned

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that can improve practice, in other words little or no learning from mistakes
• tendency to identify what’s wrong; little ability to identify, name, and

appreciate what’s right
• often internally felt, in other words the perfectionist fails to appreciate her own

good work, more often pointing out his faults or ‘failures,’ focusing on
inadequacies and mistakes rather than learning from them; the person works
with a harsh and constant inner critic

antidotes: develop a culture of appreciation, where the organization takes
time to make sure that people’s work and efforts are appreciated; develop a
learning organization, where it is expected that everyone will make mistakes
and those mistakes offer opportunities for learning; create an environment
where people can recognize that mistakes sometimes lead to positive results;
separate the person from the mistake; when offering feedback, always speak
to the things that went well before offering criticism; ask people to offer
specific suggestions for how to do things differently when offering criticism;
realize that being your own worst critic does not actually improve the work,
often contributes to low morale among the group, and does not help you or
the group to realize the benefit of learning from mistakes

sense of urgency
• continued sense of urgency that makes it difficult to take time to be inclusive,

encourage democratic and/or thoughtful decision-making, to think long-term,
to consider consequences, or learn from mistakes (see above)

• frequently results in sacrificing potential allies for quick or highly visible
results, for example sacrificing interests of communities of color to more
quickly win victories for white people (seen as default or norm community)

• reinforced by funding proposals which promise too much work for too little
money and by funders who expect too much for too little

antidotes: realistic workplans; leadership which understands that things take
longer than anyone expects; discussion and planning for what it means to set
goals of inclusivity and diversity, particularly in terms of time; learn from past
experience how long things take; write realistic funding proposals with
realistic time frames; be clear about how you will make good decisions in an
atmosphere of urgency; realize that rushing decisions takes more time in the
long run because inevitably people who didn’t get a chance to voice their
thoughts and feelings will at best resent and at worst undermine the decision
because they were left unheard

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• the organizational structure is set up and much energy spent trying to prevent

abuse and protect power as it exists rather than to facilitate the best out of
each person or to clarify who has power and how they are expected to use it

• because of either/or thinking (see below), criticism of those with power is
viewed as threatening and inappropriate (or rude)

• people respond to new or challenging ideas with defensiveness, making it
very difficult to raise these ideas

• a lot of energy in the organization is spent trying to make sure that people’s
feelings aren’t getting hurt or working around defensive people

• white people spend energy defending against charges of racism instead of
examining how racism is actually happening

• leaders perceive calls for change as personal attacks (because if they were
leading in the “right” way, then nothing would need to change); their
defensiveness creates an oppressive culture where people feel they cannot
make suggestions or when they do, these are ignored

antidotes: understand that structure cannot in and of itself facilitate or
prevent abuse; understand the link between defensiveness and fear (of losing
power, losing face, losing comfort, losing privilege); work on your own
defensiveness; name defensiveness as a problem when it is one; give people
credit for being able to handle more than you think; discuss the ways in which
defensiveness or resistance to new ideas gets in the way of the mission;
support yourself and others to avoid taking things personally

quantity over quality*
• all resources of organization are directed toward producing measurable goals
• things that can be measured are more highly valued than things that cannot,

for example numbers of people attending a meeting, newsletter circulation,
money spent are valued more than quality of relationships, democratic
decision-making, ability to constructively deal with conflict

• little or no value attached to process; if it can’t be measured, it has no value
• discomfort with emotion and feelings
• no understanding that when there is a conflict between content (the agenda

of the meeting) and process (people’s need to be heard or engaged), process
will prevail (for example, you may get through the agenda, but if you haven’t
paid attention to people’s need to be heard, the decisions made at the
meeting are undermined and/or disregarded)

antidotes: include process or quality goals in your planning; make sure your

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organization has a values statement which expresses the ways in which you
want to do your work; make sure this is a living document and that people are
using it in their day to day work; look for ways to measure process goals (for
example if you have a goal of inclusivity, think about ways you can measure
whether or not you have achieved that goal); learn to recognize those times
when you need to get off the agenda in order to address people’s underlying

worship of the written word
• if it’s not in a memo, it doesn’t exist
• the organization does not value other ways in which information gets shared
• those with strong documentation and writing skills are more highly valued,

even in organizations where ability to relate to others is key to the mission
antidotes: take the time to analyze how people inside and outside the

organization get and share information; figure out which things need to be
written down and come up with alternative ways to document what is
happening; work to recognize the contributions and skills that every person
brings to the organization (for example, the ability to build relationships with
those who are important to the organization’s mission); make sure anything
written can be clearly understood (avoid academic language, ‘buzz’ words,

only one right way
• the belief there is one right way to do things and once people are introduced

to the right way, they will see the light and adopt it
• when they do not adapt or change, then something is wrong with them (the

other, those not changing), not with us (those who ‘know’ the right way)
• similar to the missionary who does not see value in the culture of other

communities, sees only value in their beliefs about what is good
antidotes: accept that there are many ways to get to the same goal; once the

group has made a decision about which way will be taken, honor that decision
and see what you and the organization will learn from taking that way, even
and especially if it is not the way you would have chosen; work on developing
the ability to notice when people do things differently and how those different
ways might improve your approach; look for the tendency for a group or a
person to keep pushing the same point over and over out of a belief that
there is only one right way and then name it; when working with communities
from a different culture than yours or your organization’s, be clear that you

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have some learning to do about the communities’ ways of doing; never
assume that you or your organization know what’s best for the community in
isolation from meaningful relationships with that community

• decision-making is clear to those with power and unclear to those without it
• those with power assume they are capable of making decisions for and in the

interests of those without power
• those with power often don’t think it is important or necessary to understand

the viewpoint or experience of those for whom they are making decisions
• those without power do not really know how decisions get made and who

makes what decisions, and yet they are completely familiar with the impact of
those decisions on them

antidotes: make sure that everyone knows and understands who makes what
decisions in the organization; make sure everyone knows and understands
their level of responsibility and authority in the organization; include people
who are affected by decisions in the decision-making; make sure everyone
understands the budget (because if you understand the budget, you
understand a lot)

either/or thinking*
• things are either/or — good/bad, right/wrong, with us/against us
• closely linked to perfectionism in making it difficult to learn from mistakes or

accommodate conflict
• no sense that things can be both/and
• results in trying to simplify complex things, for example believing that poverty

is simply a result of lack of education
• creates conflict and increases sense of urgency, as people feel they must

make decisions to do either this or that, with no time or encouragement to
consider alternatives, particularly those which may require more time or

• often used by those with a clear agenda or goal to push those who are still
thinking or reflecting to make a choice between ‘a’ or ‘b’ without
acknowledging a need for time and creativity to come up with more options

antidotes: notice when people use ‘either/or’ language and push to come up
with more than two alternatives; notice when people are simplifying complex
issues, particularly when the stakes seem high or an urgent decision needs to
be made; slow it down and encourage people to do a deeper analysis; when

page 6 | white supremacy culture |

people are faced with an urgent decision, take a break and give people some
breathing room to think creatively; avoid (when possible) making decisions
under extreme pressure

power hoarding
• little, if any, value around sharing power
• power seen as limited, only so much to go around
• those with power feel threatened when anyone suggests changes in how

things should be done in the organization, feel suggestions for change are a
reflection on their leadership

• those with power don’t see themselves as hoarding power or as feeling

• those with power assume they have the best interests of the organization at
heart and assume those wanting change are ill-informed (stupid), emotional,

antidotes: include power sharing in your organization’s values statement;
discuss what good leadership looks like and make sure people understand
that a good leader develops the power and skills of others; understand that
change is inevitable and challenges to your leadership can be healthy and
productive; make sure the organization is focused on the mission

fear of open conflict
• people in power are afraid of expressed conflict and try to ignore it or run

from it
• when someone raises an issue that causes discomfort, the response is to

blame the person for raising the issue rather than to look at the issue which is
causing the problem

• emphasis on being polite at the surface (while often deeply offensive to those
who have a beef with you or your organization); insisting on politeness as
terms for conversation or negotiation (i.e. requiring people to “check” their
anger, particularly when it is a logical response to what is happening)

• equating the raising of difficult issues with being impolite, rude, or out of line

antidotes: role play ways to handle conflict before conflict happens;
distinguish between being polite and raising hard issues; don’t require those
who raise hard issues to raise them in ‘acceptable’ ways, especially if you are
using the ways in which issues are raised as an excuse not to address those
issues; once a conflict is resolved, take the opportunity to revisit it and see
how it might have been handled differently

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• little experience or comfort working as part of a team
• people believe they are responsible for solving problems alone
• accountability, if any, goes up and down, not sideways to peers or to those

the organization is set up to serve
• desire for individual recognition and credit
• leads to isolation
• competition more highly valued than cooperation and where cooperation is

valued, little time or resources devoted to developing skills in how to

• creates a lack of accountability, as the organization values those who can get
things done on their own without needing supervision or guidance

antidotes: include teamwork as an important value in your values statement;
make sure the organization is working towards shared goals and people
understand how working together will improve performance; evaluate
people’s ability to work in a team as well as their ability to get the job done;
make sure that credit is given to all those who participate in an effort, not just
the leaders or most public person; make people accountable as a group
rather than as individuals; create a culture where people bring problems to
the group; use staff meetings as a place to solve problems, not just a place to
report activities

I’m the only one
• connected to individualism, the belief that if something is going to get done

right, ‘I’ am the one to do it
• little or no ability to delegate work to others
antidotes: evaluate people based on their ability to delegate to others;

evaluate people based on their ability to work as part of a team to accomplish
shared goals

progress is bigger, more*
• observed in how we define success (success is always bigger, more)
• progress is an organization which expands (adds staff, adds projects) or

develops the ability to serve more people (regardless of how well they are
serving them)

• gives no value, not even negative value, to its cost, for example, increased
accountability to funders as the budget grows, ways in which those we serve

page 8 | white supremacy culture |

may be exploited, excluded, or underserved as we focus on how many we are
serving instead of quality of service or values created by the ways in which we

antidotes: create Seventh Generation thinking by asking how the actions of
the group now will affect people seven generations from now; make sure that
any cost/benefit analysis includes all the costs, not just the financial ones, for
example the cost in morale, the cost in credibility, the cost in the use of
resources; include process goals in your planning, for example make sure that
your goals speak to how you want to do your work, not just what you want to
do; ask those you work with and for to evaluate your performance

• the belief that there is such a thing as being objective or ‘neutral’
• the belief that emotions are inherently destructive, irrational, and should not

play a role in decision-making or group process
• invalidating people who show emotion
• requiring people to think in a linear (logical) fashion and ignoring or

invalidating those who think in other ways
• impatience with any thinking that does not appear ‘logical’
antidotes: realize that everybody has a world view and that everybody’s world

view affects the way they understand things; realize this means you too; push
yourself to sit with discomfort when people are expressing themselves in ways
which are not familiar to you; assume that everybody has a valid point and
your job is to understand what that point is; recognize that we can know
things emotionally and intuitively in ways that we may not be able to explain
“rationally;” understand that often “rational” thinking is actually an emotional
response couched in logic

right to comfort
• the belief that those with power have a right to emotional and psychological

comfort (another aspect of valuing ‘logic’ over emotion)
• scapegoating those who cause discomfort
• equating individual acts of unfairness against white people with systemic

racism which daily targets people of color

antidotes: understand that discomfort is at the root of all growth and
learning; welcome it as much as you can; deepen your political analysis of
racism and oppression so you have a strong understanding of how your
personal experience and feelings fit into a larger picture; don’t take

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everything personally

One of the purposes of listing characteristics of white supremacy culture is to
point out how organizations which unconsciously use these characteristics as
their norms and standards make it difficult, if not impossible, to open the door
to other cultural norms and standards. As a result, many of our organizations,
while saying we want to be multi-cultural, actually only allow other people and
cultures to come in if they adapt or conform to already existing cultural norms.
Being able to identify and name the cultural norms and standards you want is a
first step to making room for a truly multi-cultural organization.

Partial Bibliography:
Notes from People’s Institute for Survival and Beyond Workshop, Oakland, CA, spring
1999. Notes from Challenging White Supremacy Workshop, San Francisco, CA, spring
1999. Beverly Daniel Tatum, Why Are All the Black Kids Sitting Together in the
Cafeteria? NY: HarperCollins, 1997. Derrick Jensen, A Language Older Than Words.
NY: Context Books, 2000. Paul Kivel, Uprooting Racism. PA: New Society Publishers,
1996. Anne Wilson Schaef, Living in Process. NY: Ballantine, 1998. For complete
bibliography, see complete notebook for dRwork’s Dismantling Racism process.

dRworks can be reached at

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