Posted: January 24th, 2023

Construction Safety

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Board Question

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Research the internet for information on a recent (within last five years) crane accident. What possible violations of OSHA construction standards can you identify that might have contributed to the accident? Share your information with the class. Include a link to the accident information.

***Do not use an accident already discussed by a classmate.  Unfortunately, there are plenty of crane accidents that you should each be able to discuss a unique accident. ***

Unit Assignment

The instructions will appear on the first slide of the presentation. Be sure to save the presentation to your computer first in order to be able to edit the presentation and add your responses in the notes section for each slide. Once you have completed the assignment, save your changes.

Unit Assessment

QUESTION 1

In evaluating soil, if the thumb penetrates no further than the length of the thumbnail, it is probably __________.

1.

type A soil

type B soil

type C soil

layered geological strata

QUESTION

2

Which of the following is NOT a specification for a limited access zone during masonry wall construction?

1.

On the unscaffolded side of the wall

Established prior to the start of construction

Equal in width to one-half the height of the wall

Run the entire length of the wall

QUESTION 3

What is the minimum required clearance when a crane is operating in the vicinity of a 1

5

0-kV power line?

1.

10 feet

15 feet

20 feet

25 feet

QUESTION

4

For excavations that are more than 4 feet in depth, what is maximum allowable travel distance to the nearest safe means of egress?

1.

10 feet

15 feet

20 feet

25 feet

QUESTION 5

Hardware used in the lifting precast concrete must capable of supporting __________ times the intended load applied or transmitted.

1.

6

5
4
2

QUESTION 6

Discuss the site evaluation steps that should be taken before starting an excavation project. Which step(s) are likely to contribute the most in preventing excavation injuries? Why?
Your response should be at least 200 words in length.

QUESTION 7

What is the purpose of conducting an engineering survey prior to a demolition project? Describe and discuss the major components of an engineering survey for the demolition of a two-story wood structure.
Your response should be at least 200 words in length.

QUESTION 8

Explain how the different types of trenching and excavation protective systems (shielding, shoring, and sloping) are selected based on construction site conditions. Also, please provide a brief description of each type of protective system in your discussion. 
Your response should be at least 75 words in length.

QUESTION 9

Discuss hazards and precautions to be taken when operating a crane near power lines. 
Your response should be at least 75 words in length.

3/17/20, 4:20 PMOSHA Technical Manual (OTM) | Section V: Chapter 1 – Demolition | Occupational Safety and Health Administration

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UNITED STATES
DEPARTMENT OF LABOR

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Section V: Chapter 1

Demolition

Table of Contents:

I. Preparatory Operations

II. Special Structures Demolition

III. Safe Blasting Procedures

IV. Bibliography

I. Preparatory Operations

Before the start of every demolition job, the demolition contractor should take a number of steps to safeguard the health and safety of workers at the job site.
These preparatory operations involve the overall planning of the demolition job, including the methods to be used to bring the structure down, the equipment
necessary to do the job, and the measures to be taken to perform the work safely. Planning for a demolition job is as important as actually doing the work.
Therefore, all planning work should be performed by a competent person experienced in all phases of the demolition work to be performed.

The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) in its ANSI A10.6-1983 – Safety Requirements For Demolition Operations states:

“No employee shall be permitted in any area that can be adversely affected when demolition operations are being performed. Only those employees necessary for
the performance of the operations shall be permitted in these areas.”

A. Engineering Survey

1. Prior to starting all demolition operations, OSHA Standard 29 CFR 1926.850(a) requires that an engineering survey of the structure must be conducted by a
competent person. The purpose of this survey is to determine the condition of the framing, floors, and walls so that measures can be taken, if necessary, to
prevent the premature collapse of any portion of the structure. When indicated as advisable, any adjacent structure(s) or improvements should also be
similarly checked. The demolition contractor must maintain a written copy of this survey. Photographing existing damage in neighboring structures is also
advisable.

2. The engineering survey provides the demolition contractor with the opportunity to evaluate the job in its entirety. The contractor should plan for the wrecking
of the structure, the equipment to do the work, manpower requirements, and the protection of the public. The safety of all workers on the job site should be a
prime consideration. During the preparation of the engineering survey, the contractor should plan for potential hazards such as fires, cave-ins, and injuries.

3. If the structure to be demolished has been damaged by fire, flood, explosion, or some other cause, appropriate measures, including bracing and shoring of
walls and floors, shall be taken to protect workers and any adjacent structures. It shall also be determined if any type of hazardous chemicals, gases,
explosives, flammable material, or similar dangerous substances have been used or stored on the site. If the nature of a substance cannot be easily
determined, samples should be taken and analyzed by a qualified person prior to demolition.

4. During the planning stage of the job, all safety equipment needs should be determined. The required number and type of respirators, lifelines, warning signs,
safety nets, special face and eye protection, hearing protection, and other worker protection devices outlined in this manual should be determined during the
preparation of the engineering survey. A comprehensive plan is necessary for any confined space entry.

B. Utility Location

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1. One of the most important elements of the pre-job planning is the location of all utility services. All electric, gas, water, steam, sewer, and other services lines
should be shut off, capped, or otherwise controlled, at or outside the building before demolition work is started. In each case, any utility company that is
involved should be notified in advance, and its approval or services, if necessary, shall be obtained.

2. If it is necessary to maintain any power, water, or other utilities during demolition, such lines shall be temporarily relocated as necessary and/or protected. The
location of all overhead power sources should also be determined, as they can prove especially hazardous during any machine demolition. All workers should
be informed of the location of any existing or relocated utility service.

C. Medical Services and First Aid

1. Prior to starting work, provisions should be made for prompt medical attention in case of serious injury. The nearest hospital, infirmary, clinic, or physician shall
be located as part of the engineering survey. The job supervisor should be provided with instructions for the most direct route to these facilities. Proper
equipment for prompt transportation of an injured worker, as well as a communication system to contact any necessary ambulance service, must be available
at the job site. The telephone numbers of the hospitals, physicians, or ambulances shall be conspicuously posted.

2. In the absence of an infirmary, clinic, hospital, or physician that is reasonably accessible in terms of time and distance to the work site, a person who has a
valid certificate in first aid training from the U.S. Bureau of Mines, the American Red Cross, or equivalent training should be available at the work site to render
first aid.

3. A properly stocked first aid kit as determined by an occupational physician, must be available at the job site. The first aid kit should contain approved supplies
in a weatherproof container with individual sealed packages for each type of item. It should also include rubber gloves to prevent the transfer of infectious
diseases. Provisions should also be made to provide for quick drenching or flushing of the eyes should any person be working around corrosive materials. Eye
flushing must be done with water containing no additives. The contents of the kit shall be checked before being sent out on each job and at least weekly to
ensure the expended items are replaced.

4. Police and Fire Contact. The telephone numbers of the local police, ambulance, and fire departments should be available at each job site. This information
can prove useful to the job supervisor in the event of any traffic problems, such as the movement of equipment to the job, uncontrolled fires, or other
police/fire matters. The police number may also be used to report any vandalism, unlawful entry to the job site, or accidents requiring police assistance.

D. Fire Prevention and Protection

1. A “fire plan” should be set up prior to beginning a demolition job. This plan should outline the assignments of key personnel in the event of a fire and provide
an evacuation plan for workers on the site. Common sense should be the general rule in all fire prevention planning, as follows:

All potential sources of ignition should be evaluated and the necessary corrective measures taken.
Electrical wiring and equipment for providing light, heat, or power should be installed by a competent person and inspected regularly.
Equipment powered by an internal combustion engine should be located so that the exhausts discharge well away from combustible materials and away
from workers.
When the exhausts are piped outside the building, a clearance of at least six inches should be maintained between such piping and combustible material.
All internal combustion equipment should be shut down prior to refueling. Fuel for this equipment should be stored in a safe location.
Sufficient firefighting equipment should be located near any flammable or combustible liquid storage area.
Only approved containers and portable tanks should be used for the storage and handling of flammable and combustible liquids.

2. Heating devices should be situated so that they are not likely to overturn and shall be installed in accordance with their listing, including clearance to
combustible material or equipment. Temporary heating equipment, when utilized, should be maintained by competent personnel.

3. Smoking should be prohibited at or in the vicinity of hazardous operations or materials. Where smoking is permitted, safe receptacles shall be provided for
smoking materials.

4. Roadways between and around combustible storage piles should be at least 15 feet wide and maintained free from accumulation of rubbish, equipment, or
other materials. When storing debris or combustible material inside a structure, such storage shall not obstruct or adversely affect the means of exit.

5. A suitable location at the job site should be designated and provided with plans, emergency information, and equipment, as needed. Access for heavy fire-
fighting equipment should be provided on the immediate job site at the start of the job and maintained until the job is completed.

6. Free access from the street to fire hydrants and to outside connections for standpipes, sprinklers, or other fire extinguishing equipment, whether permanent or
temporary, should be provided and maintained at all times, as follows:

Pedestrian walkways should not be so constructed as to impede access to hydrants.
No material or construction should interfere with access to hydrants, Siamese connections, or fire-extinguishing equipment.

7. A temporary or permanent water supply of volume, duration, and pressure sufficient to operate the fire-fighting equipment properly should be made available.
Standpipes with outlets should be provided on large multi story buildings to provide for fire protection on upper levels. If the water pressure is insufficient, a
pump should also be provided.

8. An ample number of fully charged portable fire extinguishers should be provided throughout the operation. All motor-driven mobile equipment should be
equipped with an approved fire extinguisher.

9. An alarm system, e.g., telephone system, siren, two-way radio, etc., shall be established in such a way that employees on the site and the local fire
department can be alerted in case of an emergency. The alarm code and reporting instructions shall be conspicuously posted and the alarm system should be
serviceable at the job site during the demolition. Fire cutoffs shall be retained in the buildings undergoing alterations or demolition until operations necessitate
their removal.

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II. Special Structures Demolition

A. Safe Work Practices When Demolishing a Chimney, Stack, Silo, or Cooling Tower

1. Inspection and Planning. When preparing to demolish any chimney, stack, silo, or cooling tower, the first step must be a careful, detailed inspection of the
structure by an experienced person. If possible, architectural/engineering drawings should be consulted. Particular attention should be paid to the condition of
the chimney or stack. Workers should be on the lookout for any structural defects such as weak or acid-laden mortar joints, and any cracks or openings. The
interior brickwork in some sections of industrial chimney shafts can be extremely weak. If stack has been banded with steel straps, these bands shall be
removed only as the work progresses from the top down. Sectioning of the chimney by water, etc. should be considered.

2. Safe Work Practice
a. When hand demolition is required, it should be carried out from a working platform.

Experienced personnel must install a self-supporting tubular scaffold, suspended platform, or knee-braced scaffolding around the chimney. Particular
attention should be paid to the design, support, and tie-in (braces) of the scaffold.
A competent person should be present at all times during the erection of the scaffold.
It is essential that there be adequate working clearance between the chimney and the work platform.
Access to the top of the scaffold should be provided by means of portable walkways.
The platforms should be decked solid and the area from the work platform to the wall should be bridged with a minimum of two-inch thick lumber.
A back rail 42 inches above the platform, with a midrail covered with canvas or mesh, should be installed around the perimeter of the platform to
prevent injury to workers below. Debris netting may be installed below the platform.
Excess canvas or plywood attachments can form a wind-sail that could collapse the scaffold.
When working on the work platform, all personnel should wear hard hats, long-sleeve shirts, eye and face protection, such as goggles and face
shields, respirators, and safety belts, as required.
Care should be taken to assign the proper number of workers to the task. Too many people on a small work platform can lead to accidents.

b. An alternative to the erection of a self-supporting tubular steel scaffold is to “climb” the structure with a creeping bracket scaffold. Careful inspection of
the masonry and a decision as to the safety of this alternative must be made by a competent person. It is essential that the masonry of the chimney be in
good enough condition to support the bracket scaffold.

c. The area around the chimney should be roped off or barricaded and secured with appropriate warning signs posted. No unauthorized entry should be
permitted to this area. It is also good practice to keep a worker, i.e., a supervisor, operating engineer, another worker, or a “safety person,” on the ground
with a form of communication to the workers above.

d. Special attention should be paid to weather conditions when working on a chimney. No work should be done during inclement weather such as during
lightning or high wind situations. The work site should be wetted down, as needed, to control dust.

3. Debris Clearance. If debris is dropped inside the shaft, it can be removed through an opening in the chimney at grade level.
The opening at grade must be kept relatively small in order not to weaken the structure. If a larger opening is desired, a professional engineer should be
consulted.
When removing debris by hand, an overhead canopy of adequate strength should be provided. If machines are used for removal of debris, proper
overhead protection for the operator should be used.
Excessive debris should not be allowed to accumulate inside or outside the shaft of the chimney as the excess weight of the debris can impose pressure
on the wall of the structure and might cause the shaft to collapse.
The foreman should determine when debris is to be removed, halt all demolition during debris removal, and make sure the area is clear of cleanup
workers before continuing demolition.

4. Demolition by Deliberate Collapse
a. Another method of demolishing a chimney or stack is by deliberate collapse. Deliberate collapse requires extensive planning and experienced personnel,

and should be used only when conditions are favorable. There must be a clear space for the fall of the structure of at least 45 degrees on each side of the
intended fall line and 1½ times the total height of the chimney. Considerable vibration may be set up when the chimney falls, so there should be no
sewers or underground services on the line of the fall. Lookouts must be posted on the site and warning signals must be arranged. The public and other
workers at the job site must be kept well back from the fall area.

b. The use of explosives is one way of setting off deliberate collapse. This type of demolition should be undertaken only by qualified persons. The entire work
area shall be cleared of nonessential personnel before any explosives are placed. Though the use of explosives is a convenient method of bringing down a
chimney or stack, there is a considerable amount of vibration produced, and caution should be taken if there is any likelihood of damage.

B. Demolition of Prestressed Concrete Structures

1. The different forms of construction used in a number of more or less conventional structures built during the last few decades will give rise to a variety of
problems when the time comes for them to be demolished. Prestressed concrete structures fall in this general category. The most important aspect of
demolishing a prestressed concrete structure takes place during the engineering survey. During the survey, a qualified person should determine if the structure
to be demolished contains any prestressed members.

2. It is the responsibility of the demolition contractor to inform all workers on the demolition job site of the presence of prestressed concrete members within the
structure. They should also instruct them in the safe work practice which must be followed to safely perform the demolition. Workers should be informed of
the hazards of deviating from the prescribed procedures and the importance of following their supervisor’s instruction.

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There are four main categories of prestressed members. The category or categories should be
determined before attempting demolition, bearing in mind that any prestressed structure may contain
elements of more than one category.

Category
1

Members are prestressed before the application of the superimposed loads, and all cables
or tendons are fully bonded in the concrete or grouted within ducts.

Category
2

Like Category 1, but the tendons are left ungrouted. This type of construction can
sometimes be recognized from the access points that may have been provided for
inspection of the cables and anchors. More recently, unbonded tendons have been used in
the construction of beams, slabs, and other members; these tendons are protected by
grease and surrounded by plastic sheathing, instead of the usual metal duct.

Category
3

Members are prestressed progressively as building construction proceeds and the dead
load increases, using bonded tendons as in Category 1.

Category
4

Like Category 3, but using unbonded tendons as in Category 2.

Examples of construction using members of Categories 3 or 4 are relatively rare. However, they may
be found, for example in the podium of a tall building or some types of bridges. They require particular
care in demolition.

3. Pretensioned members usually do not have any end anchors, the wires being embedded or bonded within the length of the member. Simple Pretensioned
beams and slabs of spans up to about 7 meters (23 feet) can be demolished in a manner similar to ordinary reinforced concrete. Pretensioned beams and
slabs may be lifted and lowered to the ground as complete units after the removal of any composite concrete covering to tops and ends of the units. To
facilitate breaking up, the members should be turned on their sides. Lifting from the structure should generally be done from points near the ends of the units
or from lifting point positions. Reuse of lifting eyes, if in good condition, is recommended whenever possible. When units are too large to be removed,
consideration should be given to temporary supporting arrangements.

Figure V:1-1. Categories of Prestressed Construction

C. Precast Units Stressed Separately from the Main Frames of the Structure, With End Anchors and Grouted and Ungrouted Ducts

Before breaking up, units of this type should be lowered to the ground, if possible. It is advisable to seek the counsel of a professional engineer before carrying out
this work, especially where there are ungrouted tendons. In general, this is true because grouting is not always 100% efficient. After lowering the units can be
turned on their side with the ends up on blocks after any composite concrete is removed. This may suffice to break the unit and release the prestress; if not, a
sand bag screen, timbers, or a blast mat as a screen should be erected around the ends and demolition commenced, taking care to clear the area of any
personnel. It should be borne in mind that the end blocks may be heavily reinforced and difficult to break up.

D. Monolithic Structures

The advice of the professional engineer experienced in prestressed work should be sought before any attempt is made to expose the tendons or anchorages of
structures in which two or more members have been stressed together. It will usually be necessary for temporary supports to be provided so that the tendons and
the anchorage can be cautiously exposed. In these circumstances it is essential that indiscriminate attempts to expose and destress the tendons and anchorages
not be made.

E. Progressively Prestressed Structures

In the case of progressively prestressed structures, it is essential to obtain the advice of a professional engineer, and to demolish the structure in strict accordance
with the engineer’s method of demolition. The stored energy in this type of structure is large. In some cases, the inherent properties of the stressed section may
delay failure for some time, but the presence of these large prestressing forces may cause sudden and complete collapse with little warning.

F. Safe Work Practices When Working in Confined Spaces

1. Demolition contractors often come in contact with confined spaces when demolishing structure at industrial sites. These confined spaces can be generally
categorized in two major groups: those with open tops and a depth that restricts the natural movement of air, and enclosed spaces with very limited openings
for entry. Examples of these spaces include storage tanks, vessels, degreasers, pits vaults, casing, and silos.

2. The hazards encountered when entering and working in confined spaces are capable of causing bodily injury, illness, and death. Accidents occur among
workers because of failure to recognize that a confined space is a potential hazard. It should therefore be considered that the most unfavorable situation exists
in every case and that the danger of explosion, poisoning, and asphyxiation will be present at the onset of entry.

III. Safe Blasting Procedures

A. General Safe Work Practices

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1. Blasting Survey and Site Preparation
a. Prior to the blasting of any structure or portion thereof, a complete written survey must be made by a qualified person of all adjacent improvements and

underground utilities. When there is a possibility of excessive vibration due to blasting operations, seismic or vibration tests should be taken to determine
proper safety limits to prevent damage to adjacent or nearby buildings, utilities, or other property.

b. The preparation of a structure for demolition by explosives may require the removal of structural columns, beams or other building components. This work
should be directed by a structural engineer or a competent person qualified to direct the removal of these structural elements. Extreme caution must be
taken during this preparatory work to prevent the weakening and premature collapse of the structure.

c. The use of explosives to demolish smokestacks, silos, cooling towers, or similar structures should be permitted only if there is a minimum of 90 of open
space extended for at least 150% of the height of the structure or if the explosives specialist can demonstrate consistent previous performance with
tighter constraints at the site.

2. Fire Precautions
a. The presence of fire near explosives presents a severe danger. Every effort should be made to ensure that fires or sparks do not occur near explosive

materials. Smoking, matches, firearms, open flame lamps, and other fires, flame, or heat-producing devices must be prohibited in or near explosive
magazines or in areas where explosives are being handled, transported, or used. In fact, persons working near explosives should not even carry matches,
lighters, or other sources of sparks or flame. Open fires or flames should be prohibited within 100 feet of any explosive materials. In the event of a fire
which is in imminent danger of contact with explosives, all employees must be removed to a safe area.

b. Electrical detonators can be inadvertently triggered by stray RF (radio frequency) signals from two-way radios. RF signal sources should be restricted from
or near to the demolition site, if electrical detonators are used.

3. Personnel Selection
a. A blaster is a competent person who uses explosives. A blaster must be qualified by reason of training, knowledge, or experience in the field of

transporting, storing, handling, and using explosives. In addition, the blaster should have a working knowledge of state and local regulations which pertain
to explosives. Training courses are often available from manufacturers of explosives and blasting safety manuals are offered by the Institute of Makers of
Explosives (IME) as well as other organizations.

b. Blasters shall be required to furnish satisfactory evidence of competency in handling explosives and in safely performing the type of blasting required. A
competent person should always be in charge of explosives and should be held responsible for enforcing all recommended safety precautions in
connection with them.

B. Transportation of Explosives

1. Vehicle Safety
a. Vehicles used for transporting explosives shall be strong enough to carry the load without difficulty, and shall be in good mechanical condition. All vehicles

used for the transportation of explosives shall have tight floors, and any exposed spark-producing metal on the inside of the body shall be covered with
wood or some other nonsparking material. Vehicles or conveyances transporting explosives shall only be driven by, and shall be under the supervision of, a
licensed driver familiar with the local, state, and Federal regulations governing the transportation of explosives. No passengers should be allowed in any
vehicle transporting explosives.

b. Explosives, blasting agents, and blasting supplies shall not be transported with other materials or cargoes. Blasting caps shall not be transported in the
same vehicle with other explosives. If an open-bodied truck is used, the entire load should be completely covered with a fire and water-resistant tarpaulin
to protect it from the elements. Vehicles carrying explosives should not be loaded beyond the manufacturer’s safe capacity rating, and in no case should
the explosives be piled higher than the closed sides and ends of the body.

c. Every motor vehicle or conveyance used for transporting explosives shall be marked or placarded with warning signs required by OSHA and the DOT. Each
vehicle used for transportation of explosives shall be equipped minimally with at least a ten-pound rated, serviceable ABC fire extinguisher. All drivers
should be trained in the use of the extinguishers on their vehicle.

d. In transporting explosives, congested traffic and high density population areas should be avoided, where possible, and no unnecessary stops should be
made. Vehicles carrying explosives, blasting agents, or blasting supplies shall not be taken inside a garage or shop for repairs or servicing. No motor
vehicle transporting explosives shall be left unattended.

C. Storage of Explosives

1. Inventory Handling and Safe Handling
a. All explosives must be accounted for at all times and all not being used must be kept in a locked magazine. A complete detailed inventory of all explosives

received and placed in, removed from, and returned to the magazine should be maintained at all times. Appropriate authorities must be notified of any
loss, theft, or unauthorized entry into a magazine.

b. Manufacturers’ instructions for the safe handling and storage of explosives are ordinarily enclosed in each case of explosives. The specifics of storage and
handling are best referred to these instructions and the aforementioned IME manuals. They should be carefully followed. Packages of explosives should
not be handled roughly. Sparking metal tools should not be used to open wooden cases. Metallic slitters may be used for opening fiberboard cases,
provided the metallic slitter does not come in contact with the metallic fasteners of the case.

c. The oldest stock should always be used first to minimize the chance of deterioration from long storage. Loose explosives or broken, defective, or leaking
packages can be hazardous and should be segregated and properly disposed of in accordance with the specific instructions of the manufacturer. If the
explosives are in good condition it may be advisable to repack them. In this case, the explosives supplier should be contacted. Explosives cases should not

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be opened or explosives packed or repacked while in a magazine.
2. Storage Conditions

a. Providing a dry, well-ventilated place for the storage of explosives is one of the most important and effective safety measures. Exposure to weather
damages most kinds of explosives, especially dynamite and caps. Every precaution should be taken to keep them dry and relatively cool. Dampness or
excess humidity may be the cause of misfires resulting in injury or loss of life. Explosives should be stored in properly constructed fire and bullet-resistant
structures, located according to the IME American Table of Distances and kept locked at all times except when opened for use by an authorized person.
Explosives should not be left, kept, or stored where children, unauthorized persons, or animals have access to them, nor should they be stored in or near
a residence.

b. Detonators should be stored in a separate magazine located according to the IME American Table of Distances. DETONATORS SHOULD NEVER BE STORED
IN THE SAME MAGAZINE WITH ANY OTHER KIND OF EXPLOSIVES.

c. Ideally, arrangements should be made whereby the supplier delivers the explosives to the job site in quantities which will be used up during the work day.
An alternative would be for the supplier to return to pick up unused quantities of explosives. If it is necessary for the contractor to store his explosives, he
should be familiar with all local requirements for such storage.

D. Proper Use of Explosives

1. Blasting operations shall be conducted between sunup and sundown, whenever possible. Adequate signs should be sounded to alert to the hazard presented
by blasting. Blasting mats or other containment should be used where there is danger of rocks or other debris being thrown into the air or where there are
buildings or transportation systems nearby. Care should be taken to make sure mats and other protection do not disturb the connections to electrical blasting
caps.

2. Radio, television, and radar transmitters create fields of electrical energy that can, under exceptional circumstances, detonate electric blasting caps. Certain
precautions must be taken to prevent accidental discharge of electric blasting caps from current induced by radar, radio transmitters, lightning, adjacent power
lines, dust storms, or other sources of extraneous or static electricity. These precautions shall include:

Ensuring that mobile radio transmitters on the job site that are less than 100 feet away from electric blasting caps, in other than original containers, shall
be de-energized and effectively locked.
The prominent display of adequate signs, warning against the use of mobile radio transmitters, on all roads within 1,000 feet of the blasting operations.
Maintaining the minimum distances recommended by the IME between the nearest transmitter and electric blasting caps.
The suspension of all blasting operations and removal of persons from the blasting area during the approach and progress of an electric storm.
After loading is completed, there should be as little delay as possible before firing. Each blast should be fired under the direct supervision of the blaster,
who should inspect all connections before firing and who should personally see that all persons are in the clear before giving the order to fire. Standard
signals, which indicate that a blast is about to be fired and a later all-clear signal shall have been adopted. It is important that everyone working in the
area be familiar with these signals and that they be strictly obeyed.

3. Procedures After Blasting
1. Inspection After the Blast. Immediately after the blast has been fired, the firing line shall be disconnected from the blasting machine and short-

circuited. Where power switches are used, they shall be locked open or in the off position. Sufficient time shall be allowed for dust, smoke, and fumes to
leave the blasted area before returning to the spot. An inspection of the area and the surrounding rubble shall be made by the blaster to determine if all
charges have been exploded before employees are allowed to return to the operation. All wires should be traced and the search for unexploded cartridges
made by the blaster.

2. Disposal of Explosives
a. Explosives, blasting agents, and blasting supplies that are obviously deteriorated or damaged should not be used, they should be properly disposed of.

Explosives distributors will usually take back old stock. Local fire marshals or representatives of the United States Bureau of Mines may also arrange
for its disposal. Under no circumstances should any explosives be abandoned.

b. Wood, paper, fiber, or other materials that have contained high explosives should not be used again for any purpose, but should be destroyed by
burning. These materials should not be burned in a stove, fireplace, or other confined space. Rather, they should be burned at an isolated outdoor
location, at a safe distance from thoroughfares, magazines, and other structures. It is important to check that the containers are entirely empty before
burning. During burning, the area should be adequately protected from intruders and all persons kept at least 100 feet from the fire.

IV. Bibliography

Malmberg, K.B. 1975. EPA Demolition and Renovation Inspection Procedures. U.S.E.P.A.: Washington, D.C.

National Association of Demolition Contractors (NADC). 1981. Demolition Safety Manual. NADC: Hillside, IL.

Occupational Safety and Health Administration. OSHA Safety and Health Standards, Construction, (29 CFR 1926). 1989. U.S. Government Printing Office:
Washington DC.

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UNITED STATES
DEPARTMENT OF LABOR

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Section V: Chapter 2

Excavations: Hazard Recognition in Trenching and Shoring

Table of Contents:

I. Introduction

II. Definitions

III. Overview: Soil Mechanics

IV. Determination of Soil Type

V. Test Equipment and Methods for Evaluating Soil Type

VI. Shoring Types

VII. Shielding Types

VIII. Sloping and Benching

IX. Spoil

X. Special Health and Safety Considerations

XI. Bibliography

List of Appendices:

Appendix V:2-1. Site Assessment Questions

For problems with accessibility in using figures and illustrations in this document, please contact the Office of Science and Technology Assessment at (202)
693-2095.

I. Introduction

Excavating is recognized as one of the most hazardous construction operations. OSHA recently revised Subpart P, Excavations, of 29 CFR 1926.650, 29 CFR
1926.651, and 29 CFR 1926.652 to make the standard easier to understand, permit the use of performance criteria where possible, and provide construction
employers with options when classifying soil and selecting employee protection methods.

This chapter is intended to assist OSHA Technical Manual users, safety and health consultants, OSHA field staff, and others in the recognition of trenching and
shoring hazards and their prevention.

II. Definitions

A.

Accepted Engineering Practices are procedures compatible with the standards of practice required of a registered professional engineer.

B.

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Adjacent Structures Stability refers to the stability of the foundation(s) of adjacent structures whose location may create surcharges, changes in soil
conditions, or other disruptions that have the potential to extend into the failure zone of the excavation or trench.

C.

Competent Person is an individual who is capable of identifying existing and predictable hazards or working conditions that are hazardous, unsanitary, or
dangerous to employees, and who has authorization to take prompt corrective measures to eliminate or control these hazards and conditions.

D.

Confined Space is a space that, by design and/or configuration, has limited openings for entry and exit, unfavorable natural ventilation, may contain or produce
hazardous substances, and is not intended for continuous employee occupancy.

E.

Excavation. An Excavation is any man-made cut, cavity, trench, or depression in an earth surface that is formed by earth removal. A Trench is a narrow
excavation (in relation to its length) made below the surface of the ground. In general, the depth of a trench is greater than its width, and the width (measured at
the bottom) is not greater than 15 ft (4.6 m). If a form or other structure installed or constructed in an excavation reduces the distance between the form and the
side of the excavation to 15 ft (4.6 m) or less (measured at the bottom of the excavation), the excavation is also considered to be a trench.

F.

Hazardous Atmosphere is an atmosphere that by reason of being explosive, flammable, poisonous, corrosive, oxidizing, irritating, oxygen-deficient, toxic, or
otherwise harmful may cause death, illness, or injury to persons exposed to it.

G.

Ingress and Egress mean “entry” and “exit,” respectively. In trenching and excavation operations, they refer to the provision of safe means for employees to
enter or exit an excavation or trench.

H.

Protective System refers to a method of protecting employees from cave-ins, from material that could fall or roll from an excavation face or into an excavation,
and from the collapse of adjacent structures. Protective systems include support systems, sloping and benching systems, shield systems, and other systems that
provide the necessary protection.

I.

Registered Professional Engineer is a person who is registered as a professional engineer in the state where the work is to be performed. However, a
professional engineer who is registered in any state is deemed to be a “registered professional engineer” within the meaning of Subpart P when approving designs
for “manufactured protective systems” or “tabulated data” to be used in interstate commerce.

J.

Support System refers to structures such as underpinning, bracing, and shoring that provide support to an adjacent structure or underground installation or to
the sides of an excavation or trench.

K.

Subsurface Encumbrances include underground utilities, foundations, streams, water tables, transformer vaults, and geological anomalies.

L.

Surcharge means an excessive vertical load or weight caused by spoil, overburden, vehicles, equipment, or activities that may affect trench stability.

M.

Tabulated Data are tables and charts approved by a registered professional engineer and used to design and construct a protective system.

N.

Underground Installations include, but are not limited to, utilities (sewer, telephone, fuel, electric, water, and other product lines), tunnels, shafts, vaults,
foundations, and other underground fixtures or equipment that may be encountered during excavation or trenching work.

O.

Unconfined Compressive Strength is the load per unit area at which soil will fail in compression. This measure can be determined by laboratory testing, or it
can be estimated in the field using a pocket penetrometer, by thumb penetration tests, or by other methods.

P.

Definitions That Are No Longer Applicable. For a variety of reasons, several terms commonly used in the past are no longer used in revised Subpart P. These
include the following:

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A.

Tension Cracks. Tension cracks usually form at a horizontal distance of 0.5 to 0.75 times the depth of the trench,
measured from the top of the vertical face of the trench. See the accompanying drawing for additional details.

Figure V:2-1. Tension Crack

B.

Sliding or sluffing may occur as a result of tension cracks, as illustrated below.

Figure V:2-2. Sliding

C.

Toppling. In addition to sliding, tension cracks can cause toppling. Toppling occurs when the trench’s vertical face
shears along the tension crack line and topples into the excavation.

Figure V:2-3. Toppling

D.

Subsidence and Bulging. An unsupported excavation can create an unbalanced stress in the soil, which, in turn,
causes subsidence at the surface and bulging of the vertical face of the trench. If uncorrected, this condition can cause
face failure and entrapment of workers in the trench.

Figure V:2-4. Subsidence and Bulging

1. Angle of Repose. Conflicting and inconsistent definitions have led to confusion as to the meaning of this phrase. This term has been replaced by Maximum
Allowable Slope.

2. Bank, Sheet Pile, and Walls. Previous definitions were unclear or were used inconsistently in the former standard.
3. Hard Compact Soil and Unstable Soil. The new soil classification system in revised Subpart P uses different terms for these soil types.

III. Overview: Soil Mechanics

A number of stresses and deformations can occur in an open cut or trench. For example, increases or decreases in moisture content can adversely affect the
stability of a trench or excavation. The following diagrams show some of the more frequently identified causes of trench failure.

Figure V:2-1. Ethanol Characteristics

Text version of Figure V:2-1.

This figure illustrates how a tension cracks usually form at a horizontal distance of 0.5 to 0.75 times the depth of the trench, measured from the top of the
vertical face of the trench.

Figure V:2-2. Sliding

Text version of Figure V:2-2.

This figure illustrates how sliding or sluffing may occur as a result of tension cracks.

Figure V:2-3. Toppling

Text version of Figure V:2-3.

This figure illustrates how toppling occurs when the trench’s vertical face shears along the tension crack line and topples into the excavation.

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E.

Heaving or Squeezing. Bottom heaving or squeezing is caused by the downward pressure created by the weight of
adjoining soil. This pressure causes a bulge in the bottom of the cut, as illustrated in the drawing above. Heaving and
squeezing can occur even when shoring or shielding has been properly installed.

Figure V:2-5. Heaving or Squeezing

F.

Boiling is evidenced by an upward water flow into the bottom of the cut. A high water table is one of the causes of
boiling. Boiling produces a “quick” condition in the bottom of the cut, and can occur even when shoring or trench boxes
are used.

Figure V:2-6. Boiling

G.

Unit Weight of Soils refers to the weight of one unit of a particular soil. The weight of soil varies with type and
moisture content. One cubic foot of soil can weigh from 110 pounds to 140 pounds or more, and one cubic meter (35.3
cubic feet) of soil can weigh more than 3,000 pounds.

Figure V:2-4. Subsidence and Bulging

Text version of Figure V:2-4.

This figure illustrates how an unsupported excavation can create an unbalanced stress in the soil, which, in turn, causes subsidence at the surface and
bulging of the vertical face of the trench.

Figure V:2-5. Heaving or Squeezing

Text version of Figure V:2-5.

This figure illustrates how downward pressure created by the weight of adjoining soil causes a bulge in the bottom of the cut.

Figure V:2-6. Boiling

Text version of Figure V:2-6.

This figure illustrates an upward water flow into the bottom of the cut. Boiling produces a “quick” condition in the bottom of the cut, and can occur even
when shoring or trench boxes are used.

IV. Determination of Soil Type

OSHA categorizes soil and rock deposits into four types, A through D, as follows:

A.

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Stable Rock is natural solid mineral matter that can be excavated with vertical sides and remain intact while exposed. It is usually identified by a rock name such
as granite or sandstone. Determining whether a deposit is of this type may be difficult unless it is known whether cracks exist and whether or not the cracks run
into or away from the excavation.

B.

Type A Soils are cohesive soils with an unconfined compressive strength of 1.5 tons per square foot (tsf) (144 kPa) or greater. Examples of Type A cohesive soils
are often: clay, silty clay, sandy clay, clay loam and, in some cases, silty clay loam and sandy clay loam. (No soil is Type A if it is fissured, is subject to vibration of
any type, has previously been disturbed, is part of a sloped, layered system where the layers dip into the excavation on a slope of 4 horizontal to 1 vertical (4H:1V)
or greater, or has seeping water.

C.

Type B Soils are cohesive soils with an unconfined compressive strength greater than 0.5 tsf (48 kPa) but less than 1.5 tsf (144 kPa). Examples of other Type B
soils are: angular gravel; silt; silt loam; previously disturbed soils unless otherwise classified as Type C; soils that meet the unconfined compressive strength or
cementation requirements of Type A soils but are fissured or subject to vibration; dry unstable rock; and layered systems sloping into the trench at a slope less
than 4H:1V (only if the material would be classified as a Type B soil).

D.

Type C Soils are cohesive soils with an unconfined compressive strength of 0.5 tsf (48 kPa) or less. Other Type C soils include granular soils such as gravel, sand
and loamy sand, submerged soil, soil from which water is freely seeping, and submerged rock that is not stable. Also included in this classification is material in a
sloped, layered system where the layers dip into the excavation or have a slope of four horizontal to one vertical (4H:1V) or greater.

E.

Layered Geological Strata. Where soils are configured in layers, i.e., where a layered geologic structure exists, the soil must be classified on the basis of the soil
classification of the weakest soil layer. Each layer may be classified individually if a more stable layer lies below a less stable layer, i.e., where a Type C soil rests on
top of stable rock.

V. Test Equipment and Methods for Evaluating Soil Type

Many kinds of equipment and methods are used to determine the type of soil prevailing in an area, as described below.

A. Pocket Penetrometer

Penetrometers are direct-reading, spring-operated instruments used to determine the unconfined compressive strength of saturated cohesive soils. Once pushed
into the soil, an indicator sleeve displays the reading. The instrument is calibrated in either tons per square foot (tsf) or kilograms per square centimeter (kPa).
However, Penetrometers have error rates in the range of ± 20-40%.

1. Shearvane (Torvane). To determine the unconfined compressive strength of the soil with a shearvane, the blades of the vane are pressed into a level
section of undisturbed soil, and the torsional knob is slowly turned until soil failure occurs. The direct instrument reading must be multiplied by 2 to provide
results in tons per square foot (tsf) or kilograms per square centimeter (kPa).

2. Thumb Penetration Test. The thumb penetration procedure involves an attempt to press the thumb firmly into the soil in question. If the thumb makes an
indentation in the soil only with great difficulty, the soil is probably Type A. If the thumb penetrates no further than the length of the thumb nail, it is probably
Type B soil, and if the thumb penetrates the full length of the thumb, it is Type C soil. The thumb test is subjective and is therefore the least accurate of the
three methods.

3. Dry Strength Test. Dry soil that crumbles freely or with moderate pressure into individual grains is granular. Dry soil that falls into clumps that subsequently
break into smaller clumps (and the smaller clumps can be broken only with difficulty) is probably clay in combination with gravel, sand, or silt. If the soil
breaks into clumps that do not break into smaller clumps (and the soil can be broken only with difficulty), the soil is considered unfissured unless there is
visual indication of fissuring.

B. Plasticity or Wet Thread Test

This test is conducted by molding a moist sample of the soil into a ball and attempting to roll it into a thin thread approximately 1/8 inch (3 mm) in diameter
(thick) by 2 inches (50 mm) in length. The soil sample is held by one end. If the sample does not break or tear, the soil is considered cohesive.

C. Visual Test

A visual test is a qualitative evaluation of conditions around the site. In a visual test, the entire excavation site is observed, including the soil adjacent to the site
and the soil being excavated. If the soil remains in clumps, it is cohesive; if it appears to be coarse-grained sand or gravel, it is considered granular. The evaluator
also checks for any signs of vibration.

During a visual test, the evaluator should check for crack-line openings along the failure zone that would indicate tension cracks, look for existing utilities that
indicate that the soil has previously been disturbed, and observe the open side of the excavation for indications of layered geologic structuring.

The evaluator should also look for signs of bulging, boiling, or sluffing, as well as for signs of surface water seeping from the sides of the excavation or from the
water table. If there is standing water in the cut, the evaluator should check for “quick” conditions (see Paragraph III. F in this chapter). In addition, the area
adjacent to the excavation should be checked for signs of foundations or other intrusions into the failure zone, and the evaluator should check for surcharging and

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Figure V:2-7. Timber Shoring

Figure V:2-8. Shoring Variations: Typical Aluminum Hydraulic Shoring Installations

the spoil distance from the edge of the excavation.

VI. Shoring Types

Shoring is the provision of a support system for trench faces used to prevent movement of soil, underground utilities, roadways, and foundations. Shoring or
shielding is used when the location or depth of the cut makes sloping back to the maximum allowable slope impractical. Shoring systems consist of posts, wales,
struts, and sheeting. There are two basic types of shoring, timber and aluminum hydraulic.

Figure V:2-7. Timber Shoring

Text version of Figure V:2-7.

This figure illustrates an example of timber shoring, including various parts such as sheeting, crossbrace struts, uprights, and wales. The crossbrace struts
connect to the wales, which provide support to the sheeting and uprights.

A. Hydraulic Shoring

The trend today is toward the use of hydraulic shoring, a prefabricated strut and/or wale system manufactured of aluminum or steel. Hydraulic shoring provides a
critical safety advantage over timber shoring because workers do not have to enter the trench to install or remove hydraulic shoring. Other advantages of most
hydraulic systems are that they:

Are light enough to be installed by one worker;
Are gauge-regulated to ensure even distribution of pressure along the trench line;
Can have their trench faces “preloaded” to use the soil’s natural cohesion to prevent movement; and
Can be adapted easily to various trench depths and widths.

All shoring should be installed from the top down and removed from the bottom up. Hydraulic shoring should be checked at least once per shift for leaking hoses
and/or cylinders, broken connections, cracked nipples, bent bases, and any other damaged or defective parts.

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Figure V:2-9. Shoring Variations

Figure V:2-8. Shoring Variations: Typical Aluminum Hydraulic Shoring Installations

Text version of Figure V:2-8.

This figure illustrates four vertical aluminum hydraulic shoring variations: Vertical Aluminum Hydraulic Shoring with Spot Bracing, Vertical Aluminum
Hydraulic Shoring with Plywood, Vertical Aluminum Hydraulic Shoring (Stacked), and Aluminum Hydraulic Shoring Water System (Typical). The first variation
uses a hydraulic cylinder to exert force against a vertical roll, which transfers the force the the wale. The second variety adds plywood between the vertical
roll and wale. The third variety stacks multiple arrangements of the first type vertically. The fourth variety uses a hydraulic cylinder exerting force on a
horizontal walethat presses against upright sheeting.

B.

Pneumatic Shoring

works in a manner similar to hydraulic shoring. The primary difference is that pneumatic shoring uses air pressure in place of hydraulic pressure. A disadvantage to
the use of pneumatic shoring is that an air compressor must be on site.
1. Screw Jacks. Screw jack systems differ from hydraulic and pneumatic systems in that the struts of a screw jack system must be adjusted manually. This

creates a hazard because the worker is required to be in the trench in order to adjust the strut. In addition, uniform “preloading” cannot be achieved with
screw jacks, and their weight creates handling difficulties.

2. Single-Cylinder Hydraulic Shores. Shores of this type are generally used in a water system, as an assist to timber shoring systems, and in shallow trenches
where face stability is required.

3. Underpinning. This process involves stabilizing adjacent structures, foundations, and other intrusions that may have an impact on the excavation. As the
term indicates, underpinning is a procedure in which the foundation is physically reinforced. Underpinning should be conducted only under the direction and
with the approval of a registered professional engineer.

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Figure V:2-10. Trench Shield

Figure V:2-11. Trench Shield, Stacked

Figure V:2-9. Shoring Variations

Text version of Figure V:2-9.

This figure has a diagram showing the various components of upright sheeting, along with pneumatic/hydraulic jacks and a screw jack. The various jacks
press up against the wale, which in turn keep the shoring in position.

VII. Shielding Types
A.

Trench Boxes are different from shoring because, instead of shoring up or otherwise supporting the trench face, they are intended primarily to protect workers
from cave-ins and similar incidents. The excavated area between the outside of the trench box and the face of the trench should be as small as possible. The space
between the trench boxes and the excavation side are backfilled to prevent lateral movement of the box. Shields may not be subjected to loads exceeding those
which the system was designed to withstand.

Figure V:2-10. Trench Shield

Text version of Figure V:2-10.

This figure illustrates a trench shield, consisting of a knife edge, sidewall, and struts. The knife edge is at the bottom edge of the sides of the trench shield,
and struts are going between both sides of the shield, providing support.

Figure V:2-11. Trench Shield, Stacked

Text version of Figure V:2-11.

This figure illustrates two trench shields, stacked upon each other.

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B.

Combined Use. Trench boxes are generally used in open areas, but they also may be used in combination with sloping and benching. The box should extend at
least 18 in (0.45 m) above the surrounding area if there is sloping toward excavation. This can be accomplished by providing a benched area adjacent to the box.

Earth excavation to a depth of 2 ft (0.61 m) below the shield is permitted, but only if the shield is designed to resist the forces calculated for the full depth of the
trench and there are no indications while the trench is open of possible loss of soil from behind or below the bottom of the support system. Conditions of this type
require observation on the effects of bulging, heaving, and boiling as well as surcharging, vibration, adjacent structures, etc., on excavating below the bottom of a
shield. Careful visual inspection of the conditions mentioned above is the primary and most prudent approach to hazard identification and control.

Figure V:2-12. Slope and Shield Configurations

Figure V:2-12a. Slope and Shield Configurations

Text version of Figure V:2-12a.

This figure illustrates how a support or shield system can be used in Type A soil. The slope alongside it is 18″ minimum, 20′ maximum, with a 1/0.75 slope.

Figure V:2-12. Slope and Shield Configurations

Text version of Figure V:2-12.

This figure illustrates how a support or shield system can be used in Type B soil. The slope alongside it is 18″ minimum, 20′ maximum, with a 1/1 slope.

Figure V:2-12c. Slope and Shield Configurations

Text version of Figure V:2-12c.

This figure illustrates how a support or shield system can be used in Type C soil. The slope alongside it is 18″ minimum, 20′ maximum, with a 1/1.5 slope.

VIII. Sloping and Benching

A. Sloping

Maximum allowable slopes for excavations less than 20 ft (6.09 m) based on soil type and angle to the horizontal are as follows:

Table V:2-1. Allowable Slopes

Soil type Height:Depth ratio Slope angle

Stable Rock Vertical 90°

Type A ¾:1 53°

Type B 1:1 45°

Type C 1½:1 34°

Type A(short-term) ½:1 63°

(For a maximum excavation depth of 12 ft)

Figure V:2-13. Slope Configurations: Excavations in Layered Soils

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Figure V:2-13. Slope Configurations: Excavations in Layered Soils

Text version of Figure V:2-13.

This figure illustrates the different types of slope excavations in layered soils. This includes Type A, B, and C soils in single slope excavations, and different
permutations such as: Type A soil over both Types B and C individually, Type B soil over Types A and C individually, and Type C soil over Types A and B
individually.

Figure V:2-14. Excavations Made in Type A Soil

Figure V:2-14. Excavations Made in Type A Soil

Text version of Figure V:2-14.

This figure illustrates the types of excavations made in Type A soil: Two types use an unsupported vertically sided lower portion (with maximum depths of 8
Feet and 12 Feet), and the three remaining types include single bench excavation, simple slope – short term, and multiple bench excavation.

B. Benching

There are two basic types of benching, simple and multiple. The type of soil determines the horizontal to vertical ratio of the benched side.

As a general rule, the bottom vertical height of the trench must not exceed 4 ft (1.2 m) for the first bench. Subsequent benches may be up to a maximum of 5 ft
(1.5 m) vertical in Type A soil and 4 ft (1.2 m) in Type B soil to a total trench depth of 20 ft (6.0 m). All subsequent benches must be below the maximum
allowable slope for that soil type. For Type B soil the trench excavation is permitted in cohesive soil only.

Figure V:2-15. Excavations Made in Type B Soil

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Figure V:2-16. Temporary Spoil

Figure V:2-15. Excavations Made in Type B Soil

Text version of Figure V:2-15.

This figure illustrates two types of excavations made in Type B soil that are permitted in cohesive soil only: Single Bench Excavation, and Multiple Bench
Excavation.

IX. Spoil
Figure V:2-16. Temporary Spoil

Text version of Figure V:2-16.

This figure illustrates temporary spoil being placed at a minimum of two feet from the surface edge of the excavation.

A. Temporary Spoil

Temporary spoil must be placed no closer than 2 ft (0.61 m) from the surface edge of the excavation, measured from the nearest base of the spoil to the cut. This
distance should not be measured from the crown of the spoil deposit. This distance requirement ensures that loose rock or soil from the temporary spoil will not
fall on employees in the trench.

Spoil should be placed so that it channels rainwater and other run-off water away from the excavation. Spoil should be placed so that it cannot accidentally run,
slide, or fall back into the excavation.

B. Permanent Spoil

Permanent spoil should be placed at some distance from the excavation. Permanent spoil is often created where underpasses are built or utilities are buried. The
improper placement of permanent spoil, i.e. insufficient distance from the working excavation, can cause an excavation to be out of compliance with the horizontal-
to-vertical ratio requirement for a particular excavation. This can usually be determined through visual observation. Permanent spoil can change undisturbed soil to
disturbed soil and dramatically alter slope requirements.

X. Special Health and Safety Considerations

A. Competent Person

The designated competent person should have and be able to demonstrate the following:

Training, experience, and knowledge of:
soil analysis;
use of protective systems; and
requirements of 29 CFR Part 1926 Subpart P

Ability to detect:
conditions that could result in cave-ins;
failures in protective systems;
hazardous atmospheres; and
other hazards including those associated with confined spaces.

Authority to take prompt corrective measures to eliminate existing and predictable hazards and to stop work when required.

B. Surface Crossing of Trenches

Surface crossing of trenches should be discouraged; however, if trenches must be crossed, such crossings are permitted only under the following conditions:

Vehicle crossings must be designed by and installed under the supervision of a registered professional engineer.
Walkways or bridges must be provided for foot traffic. These structures shall:

have a safety factor of 4;
have a minimum clear width of 20 in (0.51 m);
be fitted with standard rails; and
extend a minimum of 24 in (.61 m) past the surface edge of the trench.

C. Ingress and Egress

https://www.osha.gov/pls/oshaweb/owastand.display_standard_group?p_toc_level=1&p_part_number=1926%231926_Subpart_P

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Access to and exit from the trench require the following conditions:

Trenches 4 ft or more in depth should be provided with a fixed means of egress.
Spacing between ladders or other means of egress must be such that a worker will not have to travel more than 25 ft laterally to the nearest means of egress.
Ladders must be secured and extend a minimum of 36 in (0.9 m) above the landing.
Metal ladders should be used with caution, particularly when electric utilities are present.

D. Exposure to Vehicles

Procedures to protect employees from being injured or killed by vehicle traffic include:

Providing employees with and requiring them to wear warning vests or other suitable garments marked with or made of reflectorized or high-visibility
materials.
Requiring a designated, trained flagperson along with signs, signals, and barricades when necessary.

E. Exposure to Falling Loads

Employees must be protected from loads or objects falling from lifting or digging equipment. Procedures designed to ensure their protection include:

Employees are not permitted to work under raised loads.
Employees are required to stand away from equipment that is being loaded or unloaded.
Equipment operators or truck drivers may stay in their equipment during loading and unloading if the equipment is properly equipped with a cab shield or
adequate canopy.

F. Warning Systems for Mobile Equipment

The following steps should be taken to prevent vehicles from accidentally falling into the trench:

Barricades must be installed where necessary.
Hand or mechanical signals must be used as required.
Stop logs must be installed if there is a danger of vehicles falling into the trench.
Soil should be graded away from the excavation; this will assist in vehicle control and channeling of run-off water.

G. Hazardous Atmospheres and Confined Spaces

Employees shall not be permitted to work in hazardous and/or toxic atmospheres. Such atmospheres include those with:

Less than 19.5% or more than 23.5% oxygen;
A combustible gas concentration greater than 20% of the lower flammable limit; and
Concentrations of hazardous substances that exceed those specified in the Threshold Limit Values for Airborne Contaminants established by the ACGIH
(American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists).

All operations involving such atmospheres must be conducted in accordance with OSHA requirements for occupational health and environmental controls (see 29
CFR Part 1926 Subpart D) for personal protective equipment and for lifesaving equipment (see 29 CFR Part 1926 Subpart E). Engineering controls (e.g., ventilation)
and respiratory protection may be required.

When testing for atmospheric contaminants, the following should be considered:

Testing should be conducted before employees enter the trench and should be done regularly to ensure that the trench remains safe.
The frequency of testing should be increased if equipment is operating in the trench.
Testing frequency should also be increased if welding, cutting, or burning is done in the trench.

Employees required to wear respiratory protection must be trained, fit-tested, and enrolled in a respiratory protection program. Some trenches qualify as confined
spaces. When this occurs, compliance with the Confined Space Standard is also required.

H. Emergency Rescue Equipment

Emergency rescue equipment is required when a hazardous atmosphere exists or can reasonably be expected to exist. Requirements are as follows:

Respirators must be of the type suitable for the exposure. Employees must be trained in their use and a respirator program must be instituted.
Attended (at all times) lifelines must be provided when employees enter bell-bottom pier holes, deep confined spaces, or other similar hazards.
Employees who enter confined spaces must be trained.

I. Standing Water and Water Accumulation

Methods for controlling standing water and water accumulation must be provided and should consist of the following if employees are permitted to work in the
excavation:

Use of special support or shield systems approved by a registered professional engineer.
Water removal equipment, i.e. well pointing, used and monitored by a competent person.

https://www.osha.gov/pls/oshaweb/owastand.display_standard_group?p_toc_level=1&p_part_number=1926%231926_Subpart_D

https://www.osha.gov/pls/oshaweb/owastand.display_standard_group?p_toc_level=1&p_part_number=1926%231926_Subpart_E

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Safety harnesses and lifelines used in conformance with 29 CFR 1926.104.
Surface water diverted away from the trench.
Employees removed from the trench during rainstorms.
Trenches carefully inspected by a competent person after each rain and before employees are permitted to re-enter the trench.

J. Inspections

Inspections shall be made by a competent person and should be documented. The following guide specifies the frequency and conditions requiring inspections:

Daily and before the start of each shift;
As dictated by the work being done in the trench;
After every rainstorm;
After other events that could increase hazards, e.g. snowstorm, windstorm, thaw, earthquake, etc.;
When fissures, tension cracks, sloughing, undercutting, water seepage, bulging at the bottom, or other similar conditions occur;
When there is a change in the size, location, or placement of the spoil pile; and
When there is any indication of change or movement in adjacent structures.

XI. Bibliography

29 CFR 1926, Subpart P. Excavations.

Construction Safety Association of Ontario. Trenching Safety. 74 Victoria St., Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5C2A5.

International Labour Office (ILO). Building Work: A Compendium of Occupational Safety and Health Practice. International Occupational Safety and Health
Information Centre (CIS): ILO, Geneva, Switzerland.

National Safety Council. Accident Prevention Manual for Industrial Operations, Engineering and Technology, 9th ed., Chicago, IL: National Safety Council.

National Safety Council. Protecting Worker’s Lives: A Safety and Health Guide for Unions. Chicago, IL: National Safety Council.

National Safety Council. Industrial Data Sheets: I-482, General Excavation, and I-254, Trench Excavation, Chicago, IL: National Safety Council.

National Utility Contractors Association, Competent Person Manual-1991.

NBS/NIOSH, Development of Draft Construction Safety Standards for Excavations. Volume I, April 1983. NIOSH 83-103, Pub. No. 84-100-569. Volume II, April
1983. NIOSH 83-2693, Pub. No. 83-233-353.

Scardino, A.J., Jr. 1993. Hazard Identification and Control–Trench Excavation. Lagrange, TX: Carlton Press.

Appendix V:2-1. Site Assessment Questions

During first and subsequent visits to a construction or facility maintenance location, the compliance officer (or the site’s safety officer or other competent person)
may find the following questions useful.

1. Is the cut, cavity, or depression a trench or an excavation?
2. Is the cut, cavity, or depression more than 4 ft (1.2 m) in depth?
3. Is there water in the cut, cavity, or depression?
4. Are there adequate means of access and egress?
5. Are there any surface encumbrances?
6. Is there exposure to vehicular traffic?
7. Are adjacent structures stabilized?
8. Does mobile equipment have a warning system?
9. Is a competent person in charge of the operation?

10. Is equipment operating in or around the cut, cavity, or depression?
11. Are procedures required to monitor, test, and control hazardous atmospheres?
12. Does a competent person determine soil type?
13. Was a soil testing device used to determine soil type?
14. Is the spoil placed 2 ft (0.6 m) or more from the edge of the cut, cavity, or depression?
15. Is the depth 20 ft (6.1 m) or more for the cut, cavity, or depression?
16. Has a registered professional engineer approved the procedure if the depth is more than 20 ft (6.1 m)?
17. Does the procedure require benching or multiple benching? Shoring? Shielding?
18. If provided, do shields extend at least 18 in (0.5 m) above the surrounding area if it is sloped toward the excavation?
19. If shields are used, is the depth of the cut more than 2 ft (0.6 m) below the bottom of the shield?
20. Are any required surface crossings of the cut, cavity, or depression the proper width and fitted with hand rails?
21. Are means of egress from the cut, cavity, or depression no more than 25 ft (7.6m) from the work?
22. Is emergency rescue equipment required?

https://www.osha.gov/pls/oshaweb/owadisp.show_document?p_table=STANDARDS&p_id=10667

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Construction

Industry Digest

OSHA 2202-09R 2015

Occupational Safety and Health Act of 19

70

“To assure safe and healthful working
conditions for working men and women; by
authorizing enforcement of the
standards developed under the Act; by
assisting and encouraging the States in their
efforts to assure safe and healthful working
conditions; by providing for research,
information, education, and training in the
field of occupational safety and health…”

This informational booklet is intended to
provide an overview of frequently used
OSHA standards in the Construction
industry. This publication does not itself alter
or determine compliance responsibilities,
which are set forth in OSHA standards
themselves and the Occupational Safety and
Health Act.

Employers and employees in the 28 states
and territories that operate their own OSHA-
approved workplace safety and health plans
should check with their state safety and
health agency. Their state may be enforcing
standards and other procedures that, while “at
least as effective as” federal standards, are not
always identical to the federal requirements.
For more information on states with OSHA-
approved state plans, please visit: www.osha.
gov/dcsp/osp.

Material contained in this publication is in the
public domain and may be reproduced, fully
or partially, without permission. Source credit
is requested but not required.

This information will be made available
to sensory-impaired individuals upon
request. Voice phone: (202) 693-1999;
teletypewriter (TTY) number: 1-877-889-5627.

Construction
Industry Digest

U.S. Department of Labor

Occupational Safety and Health Administration

OSHA 2202-09R
201

5

U.S. Department of Labor

CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY DIGEST

3

  • Contents
  • Foreword
  • 7

  • General
  • 8

  • OSHA Worksite Investigations
  • 8

    Frequently Used Standards in
    Construction

    9

    Access to Medical and Exposure Records 9
    Aerial Lifts 9

    Air Tools

    10

    Asbestos 10

    Belt Sanding Machines

    12

    Chains (See Wire Ropes, Chains, and
    Ropes) 12

    Chemicals (See Gases, Vapors, Fumes,
    Dusts, and Mists; Asbestos; Lead; Silica;
    and Hazard Communication) 12

    Compressed Air, Use of 12

    Compressed Gas Cylinders 12

    Concrete and Masonry Construction

    13

    Confined Spaces 1

    4

    Cranes and Derricks

    15

    Demolition 1

    6

    Disposal Chutes

    16

    Diving

    17

    Drinking Water

    18

    Electrical Installations 18

    Electrical Work Practices

    19

    Excavating and Trenching

    20

    Exits 22

    Explosives and Blasting

    22

    Eye and Face Protection 23

    Fall Protection

    24

    Fall Protection, Falling Objects

    26

    Fall Protection, Wall Openings 26

    OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION

    4

    Fire Protection 26

    Flaggers

    27

    Flammable and Combustible Liquids

    28

    Forklifts (See Powered Industrial Trucks)

    29

    Gases, Vapors, Fumes, Dusts, and Mists 29

    General Duty Clause

    30

    Grinding 30

    Hand Tools

    31

    Hazard Communication 31

    Hazardous Waste Operations

    33

    Head Protection 33

    Hearing Protection

    34

    Heating Devices, Temporary

    35

    Highway Work Zones (See Flaggers;
    Signs, Signals, and Barricades) 35

    Hoists, Material and Personnel 35

    Hooks (See Wire Ropes, Chains, and
    Ropes)

    36

    Housekeeping 36

    Illumination 36

    Jointers

    37

    Ladders

    38

    Lasers

    39

    Lead

    40

    Lift Slab

    41

    Liquefied Petroleum Gas

    42

    Medical Services and First Aid 42

    Motor Vehicles and Mechanized
    Equipment

    43

    Noise (See Hearing Protection) 43

    Personal Protective Equipment 43

    Powder-Actuated Tools

    44

    Power Transmission and Distribution 44

    Powered Industrial Trucks (Forklifts) 45

    CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY DIGEST
    5

    Power Transmission, Mechanical 45

    Process Safety Management of Highly
    Hazardous Chemicals

    46

    Radiation, Ionizing 46

    Railings

    47

    Recordkeeping: Recording and Reporting
    Requirements 47

    Reinforced Steel

    48

    Respiratory Protection 48

    Rollover Protective Structures (ROPS)

    49

    Safety Nets 49

    Saws

    50

    Band 50
    Portable Circular 50
    Radial 50
    Swing or Sliding Cut-Off 51
    Table 51

    Scaffolds, General Requirements

    52

    Bricklaying

    53

    Erectors and Dismantlers 53
    Fall Arrest Systems

    54

    Guardrails 54
    Mobile

    55

    Planking 55
    Supported

    56

    Suspension (Swing) 56

    Signs, Signals, and Barricades
    (See Flaggers)

    58

    Silica 58

    Stairs 58

    Steel Erection

    60

    Storage

    62

    Tire Cages 62

    Toeboards 62

    Toilets 62

    Training and Inspections 63

    OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION
    6

    Underground Construction 63

    Washing Facilities

    64

    Water, Working Over or Near 64

    Welding, Cutting, and Heating

    65

    Wire Ropes, Chains, and Ropes

    66

    Woodworking Machinery

    67

    Workplace Complaints:
    Workers’ Rights 67

    OSHA Assistance, Services
    and Programs

    68

    NIOSH Health Hazard
    Evaluation Program

    73

  • How to Contact OSHA
  • 73

  • OSHA Regional Offices
  • 74

  • OSHA-Approved State Plans
  • 76

    CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY DIGEST
    7

    Foreword

    The Construction Industry Digest contains
    summaries of the most frequently used standards
    in the construction industry. The standards are
    presented alphabetically followed by the reference
    to the appropriate regulation. With few exceptions,
    standards in this digest are from Title 29 of the
    Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 1926.

    Remember, this booklet is only a digest of basic
    applicable standards and should not be
    considered as a complete substitute for any
    provisions of the Occupational Safety and Health
    Act of 1970 (OSH Act), or for any standards issued
    under the OSH Act. The requirements discussed in
    this publication are summarized and abbreviated.
    The actual source standards are referenced at
    the end of each topic discussed; consult the CFR
    for a more complete explanation of the specific
    standards listed.

    OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION
    8

    General

    Employers have the responsibility to provide a
    safe workplace. Employers MUST provide their
    employees with a workplace that does not have
    serious hazards and follow all relevant OSHA
    safety and health standards.

    Employers must comply with specific standards.
    All employers in the construction industry must
    also have injury and illness prevention programs.
    Contractors and employers who do construction
    work must comply with standards in 29 CFR
    1926. Subpart C, General Safety and Health
    Provisions, as well as other specific sections of
    these standards, include the responsibilities for
    each contractor/employer to initiate and maintain
    injury and illness prevention programs, provide
    for a competent person to conduct frequent and
    regular inspections, and instruct each employee
    to recognize and avoid unsafe conditions and
    know what regulations are applicable to the work
    environment. Employees must be provided
    training in a language and vocabulary they can
    understand.

    OSHA Worksite Investigations

    OSHA conducts on-site inspections of worksites
    to enforce the OSHA law that protects workers
    and their rights. Inspections are initiated without
    advance notice, conducted using on-site or
    telephone and facsimile investigations, and
    performed by highly trained compliance officers.
    Worksite inspections are conducted based on the
    following priorities:

    � Imminent danger;

    � A fatality or hospitalizations;
    � Worker complaints and referrals;
    � Targeted inspections – particular hazards, high
    injury rates; and

    � Follow-up inspections.

    CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY DIGEST
    9

    Inspections are conducted without employers
    knowing when or where they will occur. The
    employer is not informed in advance that there
    will be an inspection, regardless of whether it is
    in response to a complaint or is a programmed
    inspection.

    Frequently Used Standards in
    Construction

    Access to Medical and Exposure Records

    Each employer shall permit employees, their
    designated representatives, and OSHA direct
    access to employer-maintained exposure and
    medical records. The standard limits access only
    to those employees who are, have been (including
    former employees), or will be exposed to toxic
    substances or harmful physical agents. 1910.1020
    made applicable to construction by 1926.33

    Each employer must preserve and maintain
    accurate medical and exposure records for each
    employee. Exposure records and data analyses
    based on them are to be kept for 30 years. Medical
    records are to be kept for at least the duration
    of employment plus 30 years. Background data
    for exposure records such as laboratory reports
    and work sheets need to be kept for only 1 year.
    1910.1020(b)(3), .1020(d)(1)(i), and .1020(d)(1)(ii)

    Records of employees who have worked for
    less than 1 year need not be retained after
    employment if they are provided to the employee
    upon the termination of employment. First-
    aid records of one-time treatment need not be
    retained for any specified period. 1910.1020(d)(1)(i)
    (B) and (C)

    Aerial Lifts

    Aerial lifts, powered or manual, include, but are
    not limited to, the following types of vehicle-
    mounted aerial devices used to elevate personnel
    to jobsites above ground: extensible boom
    platforms, aerial ladders, articulating boom
    platforms, and vertical towers. 1926.453(a)(1)

    OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION
    10

    When operating aerial lifts, employers must
    ensure that employees are

    � Trained,
    � Authorized,
    � Setting brakes,
    � Positioning outriggers on pads or a solid surface,
    � Not exceeding boom and basket load limits,
    � Attached to the boom or basket with a restraint
    device or personal fall arrest system,

    � Standing firmly on the floor of the basket,
    � Not climbing on the edge of the basket or using
    ladders, planks, or other devices for a work
    position. 1926.453(b) and 1926.454

    In addition, manufacturers (or the equivalent, such
    as a nationally recognized testing laboratory) must
    certify in writing that all modifications to aerial lifts
    conform to applicable OSHA and ANSI A92.2-1969
    provisions, and are at least as safe as the
    equipment was before modification. 1926.453(a)(2)

    Air Tools

    Pneumatic power tools shall be secured to the
    hose in a positive manner to prevent accidental
    disconnection. 1926.302(b)(1)

    Safety clips or retainers shall be securely installed
    and maintained on pneumatic impact tools to
    prevent attachments from being accidentally
    expelled. 1926.302(b)(2)

    The manufacturer’s safe operating pressure for all
    fittings shall not be exceeded. 1926.302(b)(5)

    All hoses exceeding 1/2-inch (1.3-centimeters)
    inside diameter shall have a safety device at the
    source of supply or branch line to reduce pressure
    in case of hose failure. 1926.302(b)(7)

    Asbestos

    Each employer who has a workplace or work
    operation where exposure monitoring is required
    must perform monitoring to determine accurately
    the airborne concentrations of asbestos to which
    employees may be exposed. 1926.1101(f)(1)(i)

    CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY DIGEST

    11

    Employers also must ensure that no employee is
    exposed to an airborne concentration of asbestos
    in excess of 0.1 fiber per cubic centimeter of air (f/
    cc) as an 8-hour time-weighted average (TWA).
    1926.1101(c)(1)

    In addition, employers must ensure that no
    employee is exposed to an airborne concentration
    of asbestos in excess of 1 f/cc as averaged over a
    sampling period of 30 minutes. 1926.1101(c)(2)

    Respirators must be used during (1) all Class I
    asbestos jobs; (2) all Class II work where an
    asbestos-containing material is not removed
    substantially intact; (3) all Class II and III work
    not using wet methods, except on sloped roofs;
    (4) all Class II and III work without a negative
    exposure assessment; (5) all Class III jobs where
    thermal system insulation or surfacing asbestos-
    containing or presumed asbestos-containing
    material is cut, abraded, or broken; (6) all Class
    IV work within a regulated area where respirators
    are required; (7) all work where employees
    are exposed above the PEL or STEL; and (8) in
    emergencies. 1926.1101(h)(1)(i) through (viii)

    The employer must provide and require the use of
    protective clothing – such as coveralls or similar
    whole-body clothing, head coverings, gloves, and
    foot coverings – for:

    � Any employee exposed to airborne asbestos
    exceeding the PEL or STEL,

    � Work without a negative exposure assessment, or

    � Any employee performing Class I work involving
    the removal of over 25 linear or 10 square feet
    (10 square meters) of thermal system insulation
    or surfacing asbestos containing or presumed
    asbestos-containing materials. 1926.1101(i)(1)

    The employer must provide a medical surveillance
    program for all employees who – for a combined
    total of 30 or more days per year – engage in
    Class I, II, or III work or are exposed at or above
    the PEL or STEL; or who wear negative-pressure
    respirators. 1926.1101(m)(1)(i)

    OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION
    12

    Belt Sanding Machines

    Belt sanding machines shall be provided with
    guards at each nip point where the sanding belt
    runs onto a pulley. 1926.304(f), incorporated from
    ANSI 01.1-1961, Section 4.9.4

    The unused run of the sanding belt shall be
    guarded against accidental contact. 1926.304(f),
    incorporated from ANSI 01.1-1961, Section 4.9.4

    Chains (See Wire Ropes, Chains, and Ropes)

    Chemicals (See Gases, Vapors, Fumes,
    Dusts, and Mists; Asbestos; Lead; Silica;
    and Hazard Communication)

    Compressed Air, Use of

    Compressed air used for cleaning purposes shall
    be reduced to less than 30 pounds per square
    inch (psi) and then only with effective chip
    guarding and personal protective equipment. This
    requirement does not apply to concrete form,
    mill scale, and similar cleaning operations.
    1926.302(b)(4)

    Compressed Gas Cylinders

    Valve protection caps shall be in place and
    secured when compressed gas cylinders are
    transported, moved, or stored. 1926.350(a)(1)

    Cylinder valves shall be closed when work is
    finished and when cylinders are empty or are
    moved. 1926.350(a)(8)

    Compressed gas cylinders shall be secured in an
    upright position at all times, except if necessary
    for short periods of time when cylinders are
    actually being hoisted or carried. 1926.350(a)(9)

    Cylinders shall be kept far enough away from the
    actual welding or cutting operations so that
    sparks, hot slag, or flame will not reach them.

    CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY DIGEST
    13

    When this is impractical, fire-resistant shields
    shall be provided. Cylinders shall be placed where
    they cannot become part of an electrical circuit.
    1926.350(b)(1) through (2)

    Oxygen and fuel gas pressure regulators,
    including their related gauges, shall be in proper
    working order while in use. 1926.350(h)

    Concrete and Masonry Construction

    No construction loads shall be placed on a
    concrete structure or portion of a concrete
    structure unless the employer determines, based
    on information received from a person who is
    qualified in structural design, that the structure or
    portion of the structure is capable of supporting
    the loads. 1926.701(a)

    No employee shall be permitted to work under
    concrete buckets while buckets are being elevated
    or lowered into position. 1926.701(e)(1)

    To the extent practical, elevated concrete buckets
    shall be routed so that no employee or the fewest
    number of employees is exposed to the hazards
    associated with falling concrete buckets.
    1926.701(e)(2)

    Formwork shall be designed, fabricated, erected,
    supported, braced, and maintained so that it is
    capable of supporting – without failure – all vertical
    and lateral loads that may reasonably be anticipated
    to be applied to the formwork. 1926.703(a)(1)

    Forms and shores (except those used for slabs on
    grade and slip forms) shall not be removed until
    the employer determines that the concrete has
    gained sufficient strength to support its weight and
    superimposed loads. Such determination shall be
    based on compliance with one of the following:

    � The plans and specifications stipulate conditions
    for removal of forms and shores, and such
    conditions have been followed, or

    � The concrete has been properly tested with an
    appropriate American Society for Testing
    Materials (ASTM) standard test method designed

    OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION

    14

    to indicate the concrete compressive strength,
    and the test results indicate that the concrete has
    gained sufficient strength to support its weight
    and superimposed loads. (ASTM, 100 Barr
    Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken, PA 19428;
    (610) 832-9585). 1926.703(e)(1)(i) through (ii)

    A limited access zone shall be established
    whenever a masonry wall is being constructed.
    The limited access zone shall conform to the
    following:

    � Established prior to the start of construction of
    the wall,

    � Equal to the height of the wall to be constructed
    plus 4 feet (1.2 meters), and shall run the entire
    length of the wall,

    � Established on the side of the wall that will be
    unscaffolded,

    � Restricted to entry by employees actively
    engaged in constructing the wall. No other
    employees shall be permitted to enter the zone,

    � Remain in place until the wall is adequately
    supported to prevent overturning and to prevent
    collapse; where the height of a wall is more than
    8 feet (2.4 meters), the limited access zone shall
    remain in place until the requirements of
    paragraph (b) of this section have been met.
    1926.706(a)(1) through (5)

    All masonry walls more than 8 feet (2.4384
    meters) in height shall be adequately braced
    to prevent overturning and to prevent collapse
    unless the wall is adequately supported so that
    it will not overturn or collapse. The bracing shall
    remain in place until permanent supporting
    elements of the structure are in place. 1926.706(b)

    Confined Spaces

    All employees required to enter into confined or
    enclosed spaces must be instructed as to the
    nature of the hazards involved, the necessary
    precautions to be taken, and in the use of
    required protective and emergency equipment.

    CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY DIGEST
    15

    The employer shall comply with any specific
    regulations that apply to work in dangerous or
    potentially dangerous areas. Confined or enclosed
    spaces include, but are not limited to, storage
    tanks, process vessels, bins, boilers, ventilation or
    exhaust ducts, sewers, underground utility vaults,
    tunnels, pipelines, and open top spaces more than
    4 feet deep (1.2 meters) such as pits, tubs, vaults,
    and vessels. 1926.21(b)(6)(i) through (ii)

    Cranes and Derricks

    Before assembly or use of a crane, ground
    conditions must be firm, drained, and graded so
    that the equipment manufacturer’s specifications
    for adequate support and degree of level are met.
    1926.1402(b)

    A competent person must begin a visual inspection
    prior to each shift during which the equipment will
    be used, which must be completed before or during
    the shift. The inspection must consist of observation
    for apparent deficiencies. 1926.1412(d)(1)

    A qualified person must conduct a comprehensive
    inspection at least every 12 months. 1926.1412(f)(1)

    The employer must comply with all manufacturer
    procedures applicable to the operational functions
    of equipment, including its use with attachments.
    1926.1417(a)

    Hand signal charts must be either posted on the
    equipment or conspicuously posted in the vicinity
    of the hoisting operations. 1926.1422

    A personal fall arrest system is permitted to be
    anchored to the crane/derrick’s hook (or other part
    of the load line) where a qualified person has
    determined the set-up and rated capacity of the
    crane/derrick (including the hook, load line, and
    rigging) meets or exceeds the requirements in
    §1926.502(d)(15) and no load is suspended from
    the load line when the personal fall arrest system
    is anchored to the crane/derrick’s hook (or other
    part of the load line). The equipment operator
    must be at the work site and know the equipment
    is being used for this purpose. 1926.1423(j)

    OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION
    16

    Where available, hoisting routes that minimize the
    exposure of employees to hoisted loads must be
    used, to the extent consistent with public safety.
    1926.1425(a)

    The employer must ensure that, prior to operating
    any equipment covered under Subpart CC, the
    person operating the equipment is qualified or
    certified to operate the equipment. Exceptions:
    operation of derricks, sideboom cranes, and
    equipment with a rated hoisting/lifting capacity of
    2,000 pounds or less. 1926.1427(a)(1) through (3)

    On equipment with a rated hoisting/lifting capacity
    of 2,000 pounds or less the employer must train
    each operator, prior to operating the equipment,
    on the safe operation of the type of equipment the
    operator will be using. 1926.1441(e)

    Demolition

    Prior to permitting employees to start demolition
    operations, a competent person shall make an
    engineering survey of the structure to determine
    the condition of the framing, floors, and walls, and
    possibility of unplanned collapse of any portion
    of the structure. A similar survey of any adjacent
    structure where employees may be exposed shall
    be completed. The employer shall have in writing
    evidence that such a survey has been performed.
    1926.850(a)

    During balling or claiming operations, employers
    shall not permit any workers in any area that can
    be adversely affected by demolition operations.
    Only those workers necessary for the performance
    of the operations shall be permitted in this area at
    any other time. 1926.859(a)

    Disposal Chutes

    Whenever materials are dropped more than 20
    feet (6 meters) to any exterior point of a building,
    an enclosed chute shall be used. 1926.252(a)

    CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY DIGEST
    17

    When debris is dropped through holes in the floor
    without the use of chutes, the area where the
    material is dropped shall be enclosed with
    barricades not less than 42 inches high (106.7
    centimeters) and not less than 6 feet (1.8 meters)
    back from the projected edges of the opening
    above. Warning signs of the hazard of falling
    material shall be posted at each level. 1926.252(b)

    Note: During demolition, 1926.852 applies to
    chutes and 1926.853 applies to the removal of
    materials through floor openings.

    Diving

    The employer shall develop and maintain a safe
    practice manual, and make it available at the dive
    location for each dive team member. 1910.420(a)
    made applicable to construction by 1926.1080

    The employer shall keep a record of each dive.
    The record shall contain the diver’s name, his
    or her supervisor’s name, date, time, location,
    type of dive (scuba, mixed gas, surface supply),
    underwater and surface conditions, and maximum
    depth and bottom time. 1910.423(d)(1)(i) through
    (vi) made applicable to construction by 1926.1083

    Each dive team member shall have the experience
    or training necessary to perform assigned
    tasks safely. 1910.410(a)(1) made applicable to
    construction by 1926.10

    76

    Each dive team member shall be briefed on the
    tasks, safety procedures, unusual hazards or
    environmental conditions, and modifications
    made to the operating procedures. 1910.421(f)
    made applicable to construction by 1926.1081

    The dive shall be terminated when a diver
    requests it, the diver fails to respond correctly,
    communication is lost, or when the diver begins
    to use the reserve breathing gas. 1910.422(i)(1)
    through (4) made applicable to construction by
    1926.1082.

    OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION
    18

    Drinking Water

    An adequate supply of potable water shall be
    provided in all places of employment. 1926.51(a)(1)

    Portable drinking water containers shall be
    capable of being tightly closed and equipped with
    a tap. 1926.51(a)(2)

    Using a common drinking cup is prohibited.
    1926.51(a)(4)

    Where single service cups (to be used but once)
    are supplied, both a sanitary container for unused
    cups and a receptacle for used cups shall be
    provided. 1926.51(a)(5)

    Electrical Installations

    Employers must provide either ground-fault circuit
    interrupters (GFCIs) or an assured equipment
    grounding conductor program to protect employees
    from ground-fault hazards at construction sites.
    The two options are detailed below.

    � All 120-volt, single-phase, 15- and 20-ampere
    receptacles that are not part of the permanent
    wiring must be protected by GFCIs. Receptacles
    on smaller generators are exempt under certain
    conditions, or

    � An assured equipment grounding conductor
    program covering extension cords, receptacles,
    and cord- and plug-connected equipment must
    be implemented. The program must include the
    following:

    � A written description of the program,

    � At least one competent person to implement the
    program,

    � Daily visual inspections of extension cords and
    cord- and plug-connected equipment for defects.
    Equipment found damaged or defective shall not
    be used until repaired,

    � Continuity tests of the equipment grounding
    conductors or receptacles, extension cords, and
    cord- and plug-connected equipment. These
    tests must generally be made every 3 months,

    CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY DIGEST
    19

    � Equipment that does not meet the above
    requirements may not be used,

    � Required tests shall be recorded. 1926.404(b)(1)
    (i) through (iii)(e)

    Light bulbs for general illumination must be
    protected from breakage, and metal shell sockets
    must be grounded. 1926.405(a)(2)(ii)(E)

    Temporary lights must not be suspended by their
    cords, unless they are so designed. 1926.405(a)(2)
    (ii)(F)

    Portable lighting used in wet or conductive
    locations, such as drums, tanks, and vessels, must
    be operated at no more than 12 volts or must be
    protected by a ground-fault circuit interrupter
    (GFCI). 1926.405(a)(2)(ii)(G)

    Extension cords must be of the three-wire type.
    Extension cords and flexible cords used with
    temporary and portable lights must be designed
    for hard or extra hard usage (for example, types S,
    ST, and SO). 1926.405(a)(2)(ii)(J)

    Flexible cords must be connected to devices and
    fittings so that strain relief is provided which will
    prevent pull from being directly transmitted to
    joints or terminal screws. 1926.405(g)(2)(iv)

    Listed, labeled, or certified equipment shall be
    installed and used in accordance with instructions
    included in the listing, labeling, or certification.
    1926.403(b)(2)

    Electrical Work Practices

    Employers must not allow employees to work
    near live parts of electrical circuits, unless the
    employees are protected by one of the following
    means:

    � Deenergizing and grounding the parts,

    � Guarding the part by insulation,

    � Any other effective means. 1926.416(a)(1)

    In work areas where the exact location of
    underground electrical power lines is unknown,
    employees using jack hammers, bars, or other

    OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION
    20

    hand tools that may contact the lines must be
    protected by insulating gloves. 1926.416(a)(2)

    Barriers or other means of guarding must be used
    to ensure that workspace for electrical equipment
    will not be used as a passageway during periods
    when energized parts of equipment are exposed.
    1926.416(b)(1)

    Work spaces, walkways, and similar locations
    shall be kept clear of cords. 1926.416(b)(2)

    Worn or frayed electric cords or cables shall not
    be used. 1926.416(e)(1)

    Extension cords shall not be fastened with
    staples, hung from nails, or suspended by wire.
    1926.416(e)(2)

    Equipment or circuits that are deenergized must
    be rendered inoperative and must have tags
    attached at all points where the equipment or
    circuits could be energized. 1926.417(b)

    Excavating and Trenching

    The estimated location of utility installations –
    such as sewer, telephone, fuel, electric, water
    lines, or any other underground installations that
    reasonably may be expected to be encountered
    during excavation work – shall be determined
    prior to opening an excavation. 1926.651(b)(1)

    Utility companies or owners shall be contacted
    within established or customary local response
    times, advised of the proposed work, and asked
    to establish the location of the utility underground
    installations prior to the start of actual excavation.
    When utility companies or owners cannot
    respond to a request to locate underground utility
    installations within 24 hours (unless a longer
    period is required by state or local law), or cannot
    establish the exact location of these installations,
    the employer may proceed, provided the employer
    does so with caution, and provided detection
    equipment or other acceptable means to locate
    utility installations are used. 1926.651(b)(2)

    CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY DIGEST

    21

    When excavation operations approach the
    estimated location of underground installations,
    the exact location of the installations shall be
    determined by safe and acceptable means. While
    the excavation is open, underground installations
    shall be protected, supported, or removed, as
    necessary, to safeguard employees. 1926.651(b)(3)
    through (4)

    Each employee in an excavation shall be
    protected from cave-ins by an adequate protective
    system except when excavations are made
    entirely in stable rock, or excavations are less than
    5 feet (1.5 meters) in depth and examination of
    the ground by a competent person provides no
    indication of a potential cave-in. 1926.652(a)(1)(i)
    through (ii)

    Protective systems shall have the capacity to
    resist, without failure, all loads that are intended
    or could reasonably be expected to be applied or
    transmitted to the system. 1926.652(a)(2)

    Employees shall be protected from excavated or
    other materials or equipment that could pose a
    hazard by falling or rolling into excavations.
    Protection shall be provided by placing and
    keeping such materials or equipment at least 2
    feet (0.6 meters) from the edge of excavations, or
    by the use of retaining devices that are sufficient
    to prevent materials or equipment from falling or
    rolling into excavations, or by a combination of
    both if necessary. 1926.651(j)(2)

    Daily inspections of excavations, the adjacent
    areas, and protective systems shall be made by a
    competent person for evidence of a situation
    that could result in possible cave-ins, indications
    of failure of protective systems, hazardous
    atmospheres, or other hazardous conditions. An
    inspection shall be conducted by the competent
    person prior to the start of work and as needed
    throughout the shift. Inspections shall also be
    made after every rainstorm or other hazard-
    increasing occurrence. These inspections are
    only required when employee exposure can be
    reasonably anticipated. 1926.651(k)(1)

    OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION
    22

    Where a competent person finds evidence of a
    situation that could result in a possible cave-in,
    indications of failure of protective systems,
    hazardous atmospheres, or other hazardous
    conditions, exposed employees shall be removed
    from the hazardous area until the necessary
    precautions have been taken to ensure their
    safety. 1926.651(k)(2)

    A stairway, ladder, ramp, or other safe means of
    egress shall be located in trench excavations that
    are 4 feet (1.2 meters) or more in depth so as to
    require no more than 25 feet (7.6 meters) of lateral
    travel for employees. 1926.651(c)(2)

    Each employee at the edge of an excavation 6
    feet deep (1.8 meters) or more in depth shall
    be protected from falling by guardrail systems,
    fences, barricades when the excavations are not
    readily seen because of plant growth or other
    visual barrier. 1926.501(b)(7)(i)

    Exits

    Exits must be free of all obstructions so they can
    be used immediately in case of fire or emergency.
    1926.34(c)

    Explosives and Blasting

    Only authorized and qualified persons shall be
    permitted to handle and use explosives.
    1926.900(a)

    Explosives and related materials shall be stored in
    approved facilities required under the applicable
    provisions of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and
    Firearms regulations contained in 27 CFR Part
    55, Commerce in Explosives. (See Subpart K.)
    1926.904(a)

    Smoking and open flames shall not be permitted
    within 50 feet (15.2 meters) of explosives and
    detonator storage magazines. 1926.904(c)
    Procedures that permit safe and efficient loading
    shall be established before loading is started.
    1926.905(a)

    CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY DIGEST

    23

    Eye and Face Protection

    Eye and face protection shall be provided when
    machines or operations present potential for eye
    or face injury. 1926.102(a)(1)

    Eye and face protective equipment shall meet the
    requirements of ANSI Z87.1-1968, Practice for
    Occupational and Educational Eye and Face
    Protection. 1926.102(a)(2)

    Employees involved in welding operations shall
    be furnished with filter lenses or plates of at least
    the proper shade number as indicated in Table
    E-2. 1926.102(b)(1)

    Table E-2 – Filter Lens Shade Numbers for
    Protection Against Radiant Energy – 1926.102(b)(1)

    Welding operation Shade Number

    Shielded metal-arc welding 1/16-, 3/32-, 1/8-,
    5/32-inch diameter electrodes

    10

    Gas-shielded arc welding (nonferrous) 1/16-,
    3/32-, 1/8-, 5/32-inch diameter electrodes

    11
    Gas-shielded arc welding (nonferrous) 1/16-,
    3/32-, 1/8-, 5/32-inch diameter electrodes
    12

    Shielded metal-arc welding 3/16-, 7/32-,
    1/4-inch diameter electrodes

    12

    5/16-, 3/8-inch diameter electrodes 14

    Atomic hydrogen welding 10-14

    Carbon-arc welding 14

    Soldering 2

    Torch brazing 3 or 4

    Medium cutting, 1 inch to 6 inches 4 or 5

    Heavy cutting, over 6 inches 5 or 6

    Gas welding (light), up to 1/8-inch 4 or 5

    Gas welding (medium), 1/8- to 1/2-inch 5 or 6

    Gas welding (heavy), over 1/2-inch 6 or 8

    Employees exposed to laser beams shall be
    furnished suitable laser safety goggles that will
    protect for the specific wave length of the laser
    and the optical density adequate for the energy
    involved. 1926.102(b)(2)(i)

    OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION
    24

    Fall Protection

    Employers are required to assess the workplace to
    determine if the walking/working surface on which
    employees are to work have the strength and
    structural integrity to safely support workers.
    Employees are not permitted to work on those
    surfaces until it has been determined that the
    surfaces have the requisite strength and structural
    integrity to support the workers. 1926.501(a)(2)

    Where employees are exposed to falling 6 feet
    (1.8 meters) or more from an unprotected side or
    edge, the employer must select either a guardrail
    system, safety net system, or personal fall arrest
    system to protect the worker. 1926.501(b)(1)

    A personal fall arrest system consists of an
    anchorage, connectors, body harness and may
    include a lanyard, deceleration device, lifeline, or
    a suitable combination of these. Body belts used
    for fall arrests are prohibited. 1926.500(b) and
    1926.502(d)

    Each employee in a hoist area shall be protected
    from falling 6 feet (1.8 meters) or more by
    guardrail systems or personal fall arrest systems.
    If guardrail systems (or chain gate or guardrail)
    or portions thereof must be removed to facilitate
    hoisting operations, as during the landing of
    materials, and a worker must lean through the
    access opening or out over the edge of the access
    opening to receive or guide equipment and
    materials, that employee must be protected by a
    personal fall arrest system. 1926.501(b)(3)

    Each employee on walking/working surfaces shall
    be protected from falling through holes (including
    skylights) more than 6 feet (1.8 m) above lower
    levels, by personal fall arrest systems, covers,
    or guardrail systems erected around such holes.
    1926.501(b)(4)(i)

    Each employee on ramps, runways, and other
    walkways shall be protected from falling 6 feet
    or more to lower levels by guardrail systems.
    1926.501(b)(6)

    CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY DIGEST

    25

    Each employee at the edge of an excavation 6
    feet deep (1.8 meters) or more in depth shall be
    protected from falling by guardrail systems, fences,
    barricades when the excavations are not readily
    seen because of a visual barrier. 1926.501(b)(7)(i)

    Each employee at the edge of a well, pit, shaft,
    and similar excavation 6 feet (1.8 meters) or
    more in depth shall be protected from falling by
    guardrail systems, fences, barricades, or covers.
    1926.501(b)(7)(ii)

    Each employee performing overhand bricklaying
    and related work 6 feet (1.8 meters) or more above
    lower levels, on surfaces other than scaffolds,
    shall be protected by guardrail systems, safety net
    systems, or personal fall arrest systems, or shall
    work in a controlled access zone. All employees
    reaching more than 10 inches (25.4 centimeters)
    below the level of a walking/working surface on
    which they are working shall be protected by a
    guardrail system, safety net system, or personal
    fall arrest systems. 1926.501(b)(9)

    Each employee engaged in roofing activities on
    low-slope roofs with unprotected sides and
    edges 6 feet (1.8 meters) or more above lower
    levels shall be protected from falling by guardrail,
    safety net, or personal fall arrest systems or a
    combination of a:

    � Warning line system and guardrail system,

    � Warning line system and safety net system,

    � Warning line system and personal fall arrest
    system, or

    � Warning line system and safety monitoring
    system.

    On low-slope roofs 50 feet (15.2 meters) or less
    in width, the use of a safety monitoring system
    without a warning line system is permitted.
    1926.501(b)(10)

    Each employee on a steep roof with unprotected
    sides and edges 6 feet (1.8 meters) or more
    above lower levels shall be protected by guardrail
    systems with toeboards, safety net systems, or
    personal fall arrest systems. 1926.501(b)(11)

    OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION
    26

    Fall Protection, Falling Objects

    When an employee is exposed to falling objects,
    the employer must ensure that each employee
    wear a hard hat and erect toeboards, screens, or
    guardrail systems; or erect a canopy structure and
    keep potential fall objects far enough from the
    edge of the higher level; or barricade the area to
    which objects could fall. 1926.501(c)(1) and (2)

    Fall Protection, Wall Openings

    Each employee working on, at, above, or near wall
    openings (including those with chutes attached)
    where the outside bottom edge of the wall opening
    is 6 feet (1.8 meters) or more above lower levels
    and the inside bottom edge of the wall opening is
    less than 39 inches (1 meter) above the walking/
    working surface must be protected from falling by
    the use of a guardrail system, a safety net system,
    or a personal fall arrest system. 1926.501(b)(14)

    Fire Protection

    A fire protection program is to be followed
    throughout all phases of the construction and
    demolition work involved. It shall provide for
    effective firefighting equipment to be available
    without delay, and designed to effectively meet all
    fire hazards as they occur. 1926.150(a)(1)

    Firefighting equipment shall be conspicuously
    located and readily accessible at all times, be
    periodically inspected, and be maintained in
    operating condition. 1926.150(a)(2) to (4)

    A fire extinguisher, rated not less than 2A
    (acceptable substitutes are a 1/2-inch diameter
    garden-type hose not to exceed 100 feet capable
    of discharging a minimum of 5 gallons per minute
    or a 55-gallon drum of water with two fire pails),
    shall be provided for each 3,000 square feet (270
    square meters) of the protected building area,
    or major fraction thereof. Travel distance from
    any point of the protected area to the nearest
    fire extinguisher shall not exceed 100 feet (30.5
    meters). 1926.150(c)(1)(i) to (iii)

    CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY DIGEST
    27

    The employer shall establish an alarm system at
    the worksite so that employees and the local fire
    department can be alerted for an emergency.
    1926.150(e)(1)

    Flaggers

    High-visibility clothing

    For daytime work, the flagger’s vest, shirt, or
    jacket shall be orange, yellow, strong yellow-
    green or fluorescent versions of these colors. For
    nighttime work, similar outside garments shall be
    retroreflective. The retroreflective material shall
    be orange, yellow, white, silver, strong yellow-
    green, or a fluorescent version of one of these
    colors and shall be visible at a minimum distance
    of 1,000 feet. The retroreflective clothing shall be
    designed to identify clearly the wearer as a person
    and be visible through the full range of body
    motions. Part VI of the Manual on Uniform Traffic
    Control Devices made applicable to construction
    by 1926.201(a) and 1926.200(g)(2)

    Hand-signaling procedures

    The STOP/SLOW paddle, which gives drivers
    more positive guidance than red flags, should
    be the primary hand-signaling device. Flag use
    should be limited to emergencies and at low-
    speed and/or low-volume locations that can best
    be controlled by a single flagger.

    The following methods of signaling with STOP/
    SLOW paddles should be used:

    � To Stop Traffic – The flagger shall face traffic and
    extend the STOP sign paddle in a stationary
    position with the arm extended horizontally
    away from the body. The free arm should be
    raised with the palm toward approaching traffic.

    � To Direct Stopped Traffic to Proceed – The
    flagger shall face traffic with the SLOW paddle
    held in a stationary position with the arm
    extended horizontally away from the body. The
    flagger should motion with the free hand for
    traffic to proceed.

    OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION
    28

    � To Alert or Slow Traffic – The flagger shall face
    traffic with the SLOW sign paddle held in a
    stationary position with the arm extended
    horizontally away from the body. The flagger
    may motion up and down with the free hand,
    palm down, indicating that the vehicle should
    slow down.

    The following methods of signaling with a flag
    should be used:

    � To Stop Traffic – The flagger shall face traffic
    and extend the flag staff horizontally across the
    traffic lane in a stationary position, so that the
    full area of the flag is visible hanging below the
    staff. The free arm should be raised with the
    palm toward approaching traffic.

    � To Direct Stopped Traffic to Proceed – The
    flagger shall face traffic with the flag and arm
    lowered from view of the driver. With the
    free hand, the flagger should motion traffic to
    proceed. Flags shall not be used to signal traffic
    to proceed.

    � To Alert or Slow Traffic – The flagger shall face
    traffic and slowly wave the flag in a sweeping
    motion of the extended arm from shoulder level
    to straight down, without raising the arm above
    a horizontal position.

    Flammable and Combustible Liquids

    Only approved containers and portable tanks shall
    be used for storing and handling flammable and
    combustible liquids. 1926.152(a)(1)

    No more than 25 gallons (94.7 liters) of flammable
    or combustible liquids shall be stored in a room
    outside of an approved storage cabinet. No more
    than three storage cabinets may be located in a
    single storage area. 1926.152(b)(1) and (3)

    Inside storage rooms for flammable and
    combustible liquids shall be of fire-resistant
    construction, have self-closing fire doors at all
    openings, 4-inch (10 centimeter) sills or depressed
    floors, a ventilation system that provides at least

    CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY DIGEST
    29

    six air changes within the room per hour, and
    electrical wiring and equipment approved for
    Class 1, Division 1 locations. 1926.152(b)(4)

    Storage in containers outside buildings shall not
    exceed 1,100 gallons (4,169 liters) in any one pile
    or area. The storage area shall be graded to divert
    possible spills away from buildings or other
    exposures, or shall be surrounded by a curb or
    dike. 1926.152(c)(1) and (3)

    Outdoor portable tanks shall be located at least 20
    feet (6 meters) from any building. 1926.152(c)(4)(i)

    Storage areas shall be free from weeds, debris,
    and other combustible materials not necessary to
    the storage. 1926.152(c)(5)

    Flammable liquids shall be kept in closed
    containers when not actually in use. 1926.152(f)(1)

    Conspicuous and legible signs prohibiting
    smoking shall be posted in service and refueling
    areas. 1926.152(g)(9)

    Forklifts (See Powered Industrial Trucks)

    Gases, Vapors, Fumes, Dusts, and Mists

    Exposure to toxic gases, vapors, fumes, dusts,
    and mists at a concentration above those
    specified in Appendix A, shall be avoided.
    1926.55(a) and 1926.55 Appendix A

    Administrative or engineering controls must be
    implemented whenever feasible to comply with
    Threshold Limit Values. When engineering and
    administrative controls are not feasible to achieve
    full compliance, protective equipment or other
    protective measures shall be used to keep the
    exposure of employees to air contaminants
    within the limits prescribed. Any equipment and
    technical measures used for this purpose must
    first be approved for each particular use by a
    competent industrial hygienist or other technically
    qualified person. Whenever respirators are used,
    their use shall comply with 1910.134, made
    applicable to construction by 1926.103. 1926.55(b)

    OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION
    30

    General Duty Clause

    Hazardous conditions or practices not covered in
    an OSHA standard may be covered under Section
    5(a)(1) of the Occupational Safety and Health
    Act of 1970, which states: “Each employer shall
    furnish to each of his employees employment
    and a place of employment which are free from
    recognized hazards that are causing or are likely
    to cause death or serious physical harm to his
    employees.”

    Grinding

    All abrasive wheel bench and stand grinders
    shall be equipped with safety guards that cover
    the spindle ends, nut and flange projections, and
    are strong enough to withstand the effects of a
    bursting wheel. 1926.303(b)(1), (2), and (c)(1)

    An adjustable work rest of rigid construction shall
    be used on floor and bench-mounted grinders,
    with the work rest kept adjusted to a clearance not
    to exceed 1/8-inch (0.3 centimeters) between the
    work rest and the surface of the wheel.
    1926.303(c)(2)

    All abrasive wheels shall be closely inspected and
    ring-tested before mounting to ensure that they
    are free from cracks or other defects. 1926.303(c)(7)

    Portable abrasive wheel tools used for external
    grinding shall be provided with safety guards,
    except when the wheels are 2 inches (5
    centimeters) or less in diameter or the work
    location makes it impossible (then a wheel
    equipped with safety flanges shall be used).
    1926.303(c)(3)

    Portable abrasive wheel tools used for internal
    grinding shall be provided with safety flanges,
    except when the wheels are 2 inches (5
    centimeters) or less in diameter or the wheel is
    entirely inside the work. 1926.303(c)(4)

    CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY DIGEST
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    Hand Tools

    All hand and power tools and similar equipment,
    whether furnished by the employer or employee,
    shall be maintained in a safe condition. Employers
    shall not issue or permit the use of unsafe hand
    tools. 1926.300(a) and 1926.301(a)

    Wrenches shall not be used when jaws are sprung
    to the point that slippage occurs. Impact tools
    shall be kept free of mushroomed heads. The
    wooden handles of tools shall be kept free of
    splinters or cracks and shall be kept tight in the
    tool. 1926.301(b) through (d)

    Electric power operated tools shall either be
    approved double-insulated, or be properly
    grounded in accordance with Subpart K of the
    standard. 1926.302(a)(1)

    Hazard Communication

    Employers shall develop, implement, and
    maintain at the workplace a written hazard
    communication program for their workplaces.
    Employers must inform their employees of the
    availability of the program, including the required
    list(s) of hazardous chemicals, and material safety
    data sheets required. 1910.1200(e)(1) and (e)(4)
    made applicable to construction by 1926.

    59

    The chemical manufacturer, importer, or
    distributor shall ensure that each container of
    hazardous chemicals leaving the workplace is
    labeled, tagged, or marked with the identity
    of the hazardous chemical(s), the appropriate
    hazard warnings, and the name and address of
    the chemical manufacturer, importer, or other
    responsible party. 1910.1200(f)(1) made applicable
    to construction by 1926.59

    The employer shall ensure that each container of
    hazardous chemicals in the workplace is labeled,
    tagged or marked with the following information:

    � Identity of the hazardous chemical(s) contained
    therein, and

    OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION

    32

    � Appropriate hazard warnings, or alternatively,
    words, pictures, symbols, or combination
    thereof, which provide at least general
    information regarding the hazards of the
    chemicals, and which, in conjunction with the
    other information immediately available to
    employees under the hazard communication
    program, will provide employees with specific
    information regarding the physical and health
    hazards of the hazardous chemical. 1910.1200(f)
    (5) made applicable to construction by 1926.59

    Chemical manufacturers and importers shall
    obtain or develop a material safety data sheet for
    each hazardous chemical they produce or import.
    Employers shall have a material safety data
    sheet for each hazardous chemical they use.
    1910.1200(g)(1) made applicable to construction
    by 1926.59

    Employers shall provide employees with
    information and training on hazardous chemicals
    in their work area at the time of their initial
    assignment, and whenever a new hazard is
    introduced into their work area. Employers shall
    also provide employees with information on any
    operations in their work area where hazardous
    chemicals are present, and the location and
    availability of the written hazard communication
    program, including the required list(s) of
    hazardous chemicals, and material safety data
    sheets required by the standard. 1910.1200(h)
    (1) and (2)(i) through (iii) made applicable to
    construction by 1926.59

    Employers who produce, use, or store hazardous
    chemicals at multi-employer workplaces shall
    additionally ensure that their hazard communication
    program includes the methods the employer will
    use to provide other employer(s) with a copy
    of the material safety data sheet for hazardous
    chemicals which employees of other employer(s)
    may be exposed to while working; the methods
    the employer will use to inform other employer(s)

    CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY DIGEST
    33

    of any precautionary measures for the protection
    of employees; and the methods the employer will
    use to inform the other employer(s) of the labeling
    system used in the workplace. 1910.1200(e)(2)
    made applicable to construction by 1926.59

    Hazardous Waste Operations

    Employers must develop and implement a written
    safety and health program for employees involved
    in hazardous waste operations. At a minimum, the
    program shall have an organizational structure, a
    comprehensive workplan, standard operating
    procedures, a site specific safety and health plan
    (which need not repeat the standard operating
    procedures), the training program, and medical
    surveillance program. 1926.65(b)(1)

    A site control program also shall be developed and
    shall include, at a minimum, a map, work zones,
    buddy systems, site communications – including
    alerting means for emergencies – standard
    operating procedures or safe work practices, and
    identification of the nearest medical assistance.
    1926.65(d)(3)

    Training must be provided for all site employees,
    their supervisors, and management who are
    exposed to health or safety hazards before they
    are permitted to engage in hazardous waste
    operations. 1926.65(e)(1)(i)

    Head Protection

    Head protective equipment (helmets) shall be
    worn in areas where there is a possible danger of
    head injuries from impact, flying or falling objects,
    or electrical shock and burns. 1926.100(a)

    Helmets for protection against impact and
    penetration of falling and flying objects shall meet
    the requirements of ANSI Z89.1-1969. Helmets for
    protection against electrical shock and burns
    shall meet the requirements of ANSI Z89.2-1971.
    1926.100(b) and (c)

    OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION
    34

    Hearing Protection

    Feasible engineering or administrative controls
    shall be utilized to protect employees against
    sound levels in excess of those shown in Table D-2.

    When engineering or administrative controls fail
    to reduce sound levels within the limits of Table
    D-2, ear protective devices shall be provided and
    used. 1926.52(b) and .101(a)

    Plain cotton is not an acceptable protective device.
    1926.101(c)

    In all cases where the sound levels exceed
    the values shown in Table D-2, a continuing,
    effective hearing conservation program shall be
    administered. 1926.52(d)(1)

    OSHA considers the following topics to be
    valuable in a hearing conservation program:

    � Monitoring employee noise exposures (to
    determine if sound levels exceed those shown in
    1926.52 Table D-2 at the right),

    � Using engineering, work practice and
    administrative controls, and personal protective
    equipment measures (see “Training and Hazard
    Control” 1926.21(b)(2)),

    � Fitting each overexposed employee with
    appropriate hearing protectors 1926.101(b),

    � Training employees in the effects of noise and
    protection measures (see “Training and Hazard
    Control” 1926.21(b)(2),

    � Explaining procedures for preventing further
    hearing loss, and recordkeeping and reporting.

    For more information: OSHA describes hearing
    conservation program requirements for general
    industry in the General Industry Occupational
    Noise Exposure standard 1910.95(c) – (o).

    CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY DIGEST
    35

    Table D-2 – Permissible Noise Exposures –
    1926.52(d)(1)

    Duration per day, hours: Sound Level/dBA slow response

    8 90

    6 92

    4 95

    3 97

    2 100

    1 1/2 102

    1 105

    1/2 110

    1/4 or less 115

    Exposure to impulsive or impact noise should not
    exceed 140 dB peak sound pressure level.
    1926.52(e)

    Heating Devices, Temporary

    When heating devices are used, fresh air shall be
    supplied in sufficient quantities to maintain the
    health and safety of workers. 1926.154(a)(1)

    Solid fuel salamanders are prohibited in buildings
    and on scaffolds. 1926.154(d)

    Highway Work Zones (See Flaggers and
    Signs, Signals, and Barricades)

    Hoists, Material and Personnel

    The employer shall comply with the
    manufacturer’s specifications and limitations.
    1926.552(a)(1)

    Rated load capacities, recommended operating
    speeds, and special hazard warnings or
    instructions shall be posted on cars and platforms.
    1926.552(a)(2)

    Hoistway entrances of material hoists shall be
    protected by substantial full width gates or bars
    that are painted with diagonal contrasting colors
    such as black and yellow stripes. 1926.552(b)(2)

    OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION
    36

    Hoistway doors or gates of personnel hoists shall
    be not less than 6 feet 6 inches (198.1 meters)
    high and shall be protected with mechanical locks
    that cannot be operated from the landing side
    and that are accessible only to persons on the car.
    1926.552(c)(4)

    Overhead protective coverings shall be provided
    on the top of the hoist cage or platform.
    1926.552(b)(3) and (c)(7)

    All material hoists shall conform to the
    requirements of ANSI A10.5-1969, Safety
    Requirements for Material Hoists. 1926.552(b)(8)

    The requirements of 1926.1431 apply when one
    or more employees are hoisted using equipment
    covered by Subpart CC, Cranes and Derricks in
    Construction.

    Hooks (See Wire Ropes, Chains, and Ropes)

    Housekeeping

    Form and scrap lumber with protruding nails and
    all other debris shall be kept clear from all work
    areas. 1926.25(a)

    Combustible scrap and debris shall be removed at
    regular intervals. 1926.25(b)

    Containers shall be provided for collection and
    separation of all refuse. Covers shall be provided
    on containers used for flammable or harmful
    substances. Waste shall be disposed of at
    frequent intervals. 1926.25(c)

    Illumination

    Construction areas, aisles, stairs, ramps, runways,
    corridors, offices, shops, and storage areas
    shall be lighted to not less than the minimum
    illumination intensities listed in Table D-3 while
    any work is in progress. 1926.26

    CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY DIGEST
    37

    Table D-3 – Minimum Illumination Intensities
    in Footcandles

    Footcandles: Area of Operation

    5……..General construction area lighting

    3……..General construction areas, concrete
    placement, excavation, waste areas,
    accessways, active storage areas, loading
    platforms, refueling, and field maintenance
    areas

    5……..Indoor warehouses, corridors, hallways,
    and exitways

    5……..Tunnels, shafts, and general underground
    work areas (Exception: minimum of 10
    footcandles is required at tunnel and shaft
    heading during drilling, mucking, and scaling.
    Bureau of Mines- approved cap lights shall be
    acceptable for use in the tunnel heading)

    10…….General construction plant and
    shops (e.g., batch plants, screening plants,
    mechanical and electrical equipment rooms,
    carpenters shops, rigging lofts and active store
    rooms, barracks or living quarters, locker or
    dressing rooms, mess halls, indoor toilets, and
    workrooms)

    30…….First-aid stations, infirmaries, and offices

    1926.56(a)

    Jointers

    A jointer guard shall automatically adjust itself
    to cover the unused portion of the head and the
    section of the head on the working side and the
    back side of the fence or cage. The jointer guard
    shall remain in contact with the material at all
    times. ANSI 01.1-1961, section 4.3.2, incorporated
    by reference to construction by 1926.304(f)

    OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION
    38

    Ladders

    A ladder (or stairway) must be provided at all
    work points of access where there is a break in
    elevation of 19 inches (48.2 centimeters) or more
    except if a suitable ramp, runway, embankment,
    or personnel hoist is provided to give safe access
    to all elevations. 1926.1051(a)

    Portable and fixed ladders with structural defects –
    such as broken or missing rungs, cleats or steps,
    broken or split rails, or corroded components –
    shall be withdrawn from service by immediately
    tagging “DO NOT USE” or marking in a manner
    that identifies them as defective, or shall be
    blocked, such as with a plywood attachment that
    spans several rungs. Repairs must restore ladder
    to its original design criteria. 1926.1053(b)(16), (17)
    (i) through (iii) and (18)

    Portable non-self-supporting ladders shall have
    clear access at top and bottom and be placed at
    an angle so the horizontal distance from the top
    support to the foot of the ladder is approximately
    one-quarter the working length of the ladder.
    1926.1053(b)(5)(i) and (b)(9)

    Portable ladders used for access to an upper landing
    surface must extend a minimum of 3 feet (0.9
    meters) above the landing surface, or where not
    practical, be provided with grab rails and be secured
    against movement while in use. 1926.1053(b)(1)

    Ladders must have nonconductive siderails if they
    are used where the worker or the ladder could
    contact energized electrical conductors or
    equipment. 1926.1053(b)(12)

    Job-made ladders shall be constructed for their
    intended use. Cleats shall be uniformly spaced not
    less than 10 inches (25.4 centimeters) apart, nor
    more than 14 inches (35.5 centimeters) apart.
    1926.1053(a)(3)(i)

    Wood job-made ladders with spliced side rails
    must be used at an angle where the horizontal
    distance is one-eighth the working length of the
    ladder. 1926.1053(b)(5)(ii)

    CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY DIGEST
    39

    Fixed ladders must be used at a pitch no greater
    than 90 degrees from the horizontal, measured
    from the back side of the ladder. 1926.1053(b)(5)(iii)

    Ladders must be used only on stable and level
    surfaces unless secured to prevent accidental
    movement. 1926.1053(b)(6)

    Ladders must not be used on slippery surfaces
    unless secured or provided with slip-resistant feet
    to prevent accidental movement. Slip-resistant
    feet must not be used as a substitute for the care
    in placing, lashing, or holding a ladder upon a
    slippery surface. 1926.1053 (b)(7)

    Employers must provide a training program for
    each employee using ladders and stairways. The
    program must enable each employee to recognize
    hazards related to ladders and stairways and to
    use proper procedures to minimize these hazards.
    For example, employers must ensure that each
    employee is trained by a competent person in the
    following areas, as applicable:

    � The nature of fall hazards in the work area,

    � The correct procedures for erecting, maintaining,
    and disassembling the fall protection systems to
    be used,

    � The proper construction, use, placement, and
    care in handling of all stairways and ladders, and

    � The maximum intended load-carrying capacities
    of ladders used.

    In addition, retraining must be provided for each
    employee, as necessary, so that the employee
    maintains the understanding and knowledge
    acquired through compliance with the standard.
    1926.1060(a) and (b)

    Lasers

    Only qualified and trained employees shall be
    assigned to install, adjust, and operate laser
    equipment. 1926.54(a)

    OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION
    40

    Employees shall wear proper (antilaser) eye
    protection when working in areas where there is a
    potential exposure to direct or reflected laser light
    greater than 0.005 watts (5 milliwatts). 1926.54(c)

    Beam shutters or caps shall be utilized, or the
    laser turned off, when laser transmission is
    not actually required. When the laser is left
    unattended for a substantial period of time – such
    as during lunch hour, overnight, or at change of
    shifts – the laser shall be turned off. 1926.54(e)

    Employees shall not be exposed to light intensities
    in excess of the following: direct staring – 1
    microwatt per square centimeter, incidental
    observing – 1 milliwatt per square centimeter, and
    diffused reflected light – 2 1/2 watts per square
    centimeter. 1926.54(j)(1) through (3)

    Employees shall not be exposed to microwave
    power densities in excess of 10 milliwatts per
    square centimeter. 1926.54(1)

    Lead

    Each employer who has a workplace or operation
    covered by this standard shall initially determine if
    any employee may be exposed to lead at or above
    the action level of 30 micrograms per cubic meter
    (30 µg/m3) of air calculated as an 8-hour time-
    weighted average. 1926.62(d)(1)(i)

    The employer shall assure that no employee is
    exposed to lead at concentrations greater than 50
    micrograms per cubic meter (50 µg/m3) of air
    averaged over an 8-hour period (the permissible
    exposure limit PEL). 1926.62(c)(1)

    Whenever there has been a change of equipment,
    process, control, personnel, or a new task has
    been initiated that may result in additional
    employees being exposed to lead at or above
    the action level or may result in employees
    already exposed at or above the action level
    being exposed above the PEL, the employer shall
    conduct additional monitoring. 1926.62(d)(7)

    CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY DIGEST
    41

    Training shall be provided in accordance with the
    Hazard Communication standard and additional
    training shall be provided for employees exposed
    at or above the action level. 1926.62(1)

    Prior to the start of the job, each employer shall
    establish and implement a written compliance
    program. 1926.62(e)(2)(i)

    Where employees are required to use respirators,
    the employer must implement a respiratory
    protection program. 1910.134(b) through (d)
    (except (d)(iii)), and (f) through (m) made
    applicable to construction by 1926.62(f)(2)(i)

    Where airborne concentrations of lead equal or
    exceed the action level at any time, an initial
    medical examination consisting of blood sampling
    and analysis shall be made available for each
    employee prior to initial assignment to the area.
    1926.62 Appendix B, viii, paragraph (j)

    Lift Slab

    Lift-slab operations shall be designed and planned
    by a registered professional engineer who has
    experience in lift-slab construction. Such plans
    and designs shall be implemented by the
    employer and shall include detailed instructions
    and sketches indicating the prescribed method of
    erection. 1926.705(a)

    Jacking equipment shall be capable of supporting
    at least two and one-half times the load being
    lifted during jacking operations. Also, do not
    overload the jacking equipment. 1926.705(d)

    During erection, no employee, except those
    essential to the jacking operation, shall be
    permitted in the building or structure while jacking
    operations are taking place unless the building
    or structure has been reinforced sufficiently to
    ensure its integrity. 1926.705(k)(1)

    Equipment shall be designed and installed to
    prevent slippage; otherwise, the employer shall
    institute other measures, such as locking or

    OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION
    42

    blocking devices, which will provide positive
    connection between the lifting rods and
    attachments and will prevent components from
    disengaging during lifting operations. 1926.705(p)

    Liquefied Petroleum Gas

    Each system shall have containers, valves,
    connectors, manifold valve assemblies, and
    regulators of an approved type. 1926.153(a)(1)

    Every container and vaporizer shall be provided
    with one or more approved safety relief valves or
    devices. 1926.153(d)(1)

    Containers shall be placed upright on firm
    foundations or otherwise firmly secured.
    1926.153(g) and (h)(11)

    Portable heaters shall be equipped with an
    approved automatic device to shut off the flow of
    gas in the event of flame failure. 1926.153(h)(8)

    All cylinder connectors shall be equipped with
    an excess flow valve to minimize the flow of
    gas in the event the fuel line becomes ruptured.
    1926.153(i)(2)

    Storage of liquefied petroleum gas within
    buildings is prohibited. 1926.153(j)

    Storage locations shall have at least one approved
    portable fire extinguisher rated not less than
    20-B:C. 1926.153(l)

    Medical Services and First Aid

    The employer shall ensure the availability of
    medical personnel for advice and consultation on
    matters of occupational health. 1926.50(a)

    When a medical facility is not reasonably
    accessible for the treatment of injured employees,
    a person qualified to render first aid shall be
    available at the worksite. 1926.50(c)

    First-aid supplies when required should be readily
    available. 1926.50(d)(1)

    CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY DIGEST
    43

    In areas where 911 is not available, the telephone
    numbers of the physicians, hospitals, or
    ambulances shall be conspicuously posted.
    1926.50(f)

    Motor Vehicles and Mechanized Equipment

    All vehicles in use shall be checked at the
    beginning of each shift to ensure that all parts,
    equipment, and accessories that affect safe
    operation are in proper operating condition and
    free from defects. All defects shall be corrected
    before the vehicle is placed in service. 1926.601
    (b)(14)

    No employer shall use any motor vehicle,
    earthmoving, or compacting equipment having an
    obstructed view to the rear unless:

    � The vehicle has a reverse signal alarm distin-
    guishable from the surrounding noise level, or
    the vehicle is backed up only when an observer
    signals that it is safe to do so. 1926.601(b)(4)(i)
    through (ii) and 602(a)(9)(i) through (ii)

    Heavy machinery, equipment, or parts thereof that
    are suspended or held aloft shall be substantially
    blocked to prevent falling or shifting before
    employees are permitted to work under or
    between them. 1926.600(a)(3)(i)

    Noise (See Hearing Protection)

    Personal Protective Equipment

    The employer is responsible for requiring the
    wearing of appropriate personal protective
    equipment in all operations where there is an
    exposure to hazardous conditions or where the
    need is indicated for using such equipment to
    reduce the hazard to the employees. 1926.28(a)
    and 1926.95(a) through (c)

    Employers must provide most personal protective
    equipment at no cost to employees. 1926.95(d)(1),
    see 1926.95(d)(2) through (6) for exceptions

    OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION
    44

    OSHA requires employers to provide and for
    employees to use specific types of personal
    protective equipment in specific standards
    throughout 29 CFR 1926. These standards
    include, but are not limited to:

    � Foot protection. 1926.96

    � Head protection. 1926.100

    � Hearing protection. 1926.101

    � Eye and face protection. 1926.102

    � Respiratory protection. 1910.134 made
    applicable to construction by 1926.103

    � Safety belts, lifelines, and lanyards. 1926.104

    � Safety nets. 1926.105

    � Working over or near water (life jackets).
    1926.106

    � Personal fall arrest system. 1926.502(d)

    � Protective equipment for use during electrical
    work. 1926.416 and 1926.9

    51

    Head, hearing, eye and face, safety nets, fall
    protection, and working over or near water are
    covered in detail in this digest.

    Powder-Actuated Tools

    Only trained employees shall be allowed to
    operate powder-actuated tools. 1926.302(e)(1)

    All powder-actuated tools shall be tested daily
    before use and all defects discovered before
    or during use shall be corrected. 1926.302(e)(2)
    through (3)

    Tools shall not be loaded until immediately before
    use. Loaded tools shall not be left unattended.
    1926.302(e)(5) through (6)

    Power Transmission and Distribution

    Existing conditions shall be determined before
    starting work, by an inspection or a test. Such
    conditions shall include, but not be limited to,

    CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY DIGEST

    45

    energized lines and equipment, condition of
    poles, and the location of circuits and equipment
    including power and communications, cable
    television, and fire-alarm circuits. 1926.950(b)(1)

    Electric equipment and lines shall be considered
    energized until determined otherwise by testing or
    until grounding. 1926.950(b)(2) and .954(a)

    Operating voltage of equipment and lines shall be
    determined before working on or near energized
    parts. 1926.950(b)(3)

    Rubber protective equipment shall comply with
    the provisions of the ANSI J6 series, and shall be
    visually inspected before use. 1926.951(a)(1)(i)
    through (ii)

    Protective equipment of material other than
    rubber shall provide equal or better electrical and
    mechanical protection. 1926.951(a)(iv)

    Powered Industrial Trucks (Forklifts)

    Each powered industrial truck operator must be
    competent to operate a powered industrial
    truck safely, as demonstrated by the successful
    completion of the training and evaluation.
    1910.178(l)(1)(i) made applicable to construction
    by 1926.602(d)

    Training shall consist of a combination of formal
    instruction (e.g., lecture, discussion, interactive
    computer learning, video tape, written material),
    practical training (demonstrations performed by
    the trainer and practical exercises performed by
    the trainee), and evaluation of the operator’s
    performance in the workplace. 1910.178(l)(2)(ii)
    made applicable to construction by 1926.602(d)

    Power Transmission, Mechanical

    Belts, gears, shafts, pulleys, sprockets, spindles,
    drums, flywheels, chains, or other reciprocating,
    rotating, or moving parts of equipment shall be
    guarded if such parts are exposed to contact by

    OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION
    46

    employees or otherwise constitute a hazard.
    Guarding shall meet the requirement of ANSI
    B15.1-1953 (R 1958), Safety Code for Mechanical
    Power Transmission Apparatus. 1926.300(b)(2)

    Process Safety Management of Highly
    Hazardous Chemicals

    Employers shall develop a written plan of action
    regarding employee participation and consult
    with employees and their representatives on the
    conduct and development of process hazards
    analyses and on the development of the other
    elements of process safety management.
    1926.64(c)(1) through (2)

    The employer, when selecting a contractor, shall
    obtain and evaluate information regarding the
    contract employer’s safety performance and
    programs. 1926.64(h)(2)(i)

    The contract employer shall assure that each
    contract employee is trained in the work practices
    necessary to safely perform his/her job. 1926.64(h)
    (3)(i)

    The employer shall perform a pre-startup safety
    review for new facilities and for modified facilities
    when the modification is significant enough to
    require a change in the process safety
    information. 1926.64(i)(1)

    The employer shall establish and implement
    written procedures to maintain the ongoing
    integrity of process equipment. 1926.64(j)(2)

    Radiation, Ionizing

    Pertinent provisions of the Nuclear Regulatory
    Commission (NRC) Standards for Protection
    Against Radiation (10 CFR Part 20) relating
    to protection against occupational radiation
    exposure shall apply. 1926.53(a)

    Any activity that involves the use of radioactive
    materials or X-rays, whether or not under license
    from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, shall

    CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY DIGEST
    47

    be performed by competent persons specially
    trained in the proper and safe operation of such
    equipment. 1926.53(b)

    Railings

    Top edge height of top rails or equivalent guardrail
    system members shall have a vertical height of
    approximately 42 inches (106.6 centimeters), plus
    or minus 3 inches (7.6 centimeters) above the
    walking/working level. 1926.502(b)(1)

    Guardrail systems shall be surfaced so as to
    prevent injury to an employee, with a strength to
    withstand at least 200 pounds (90 kilograms), the
    minimum requirement applied in any outward or
    downward direction, at any point along the top
    edge. 1926.502(b)(3) and (6)

    A stair railing shall be of construction similar to
    a standard railing with a vertical height of not
    less than 36 inches (91.5 centimeters) from the
    upper surface of top rail to the surface of tread
    in line with face of riser at forward edge of tread.
    1926.1052(c)(3)(i)

    Recordkeeping: Recording and
    Reporting Requirements

    All employers must report the death of any
    employee from a work-related incident within
    8 hours of learning about it or report within
    24 hours any work-related inpatient hospitalization,
    amputation or loss of an eye to the closest OSHA
    office, or call 1-800-321-OSHA (6742). 1904.39(a)
    and (b)(7)

    If your company had more than 10 employees
    at any time during the last calendar year, you
    must keep the OSHA injury and illness records
    using the OSHA Forms 300, 300-A, and 301 or the
    equivalent form. 1904.1(a)(2) and 1904.29(a) and (b)(4)

    If your company had 10 or fewer employees at
    all times during the last calendar year, you do
    not need to keep OSHA injury and illness records

    OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION
    48

    unless OSHA or the Bureau of Labor Statistics
    informs you in writing that you must keep these
    records. 1904.1(a)(1)

    Each recordable injury or illness must be entered
    on the OSHA Forms 300 and 301 within 7 days of
    receiving the information. 1904.29(b)(3)

    OSHA injury and illness records must be kept
    for all projects. If the project is 1 year or longer
    a separate OSHA 300 log must be kept. If the
    projects are less than 1 year, these projects may
    be placed on one OSHA 300 log that covers all
    short-term projects. These records may be kept
    at a central location as long as the information is
    transferred within 7 days. 1904.30(a), (b)(1) and (2)

    The OSHA 300 log must be verified, certified by a
    company executive, and posted at the end of each
    calendar year. The log must be posted no later
    than February 1 of the following year and remain
    posted until April 30. 1904.32 (a) and (b)

    The OSHA 300 and 301 logs must be kept for 5
    years following the year to which they relate.
    1904.33(a) and 1904.44

    Reinforced Steel

    All protruding reinforced steel, onto and into
    which employees could fall, shall be guarded to
    eliminate the hazard of impalement. 1926.701(b)

    No employee (except those essential to the post-
    tensioning operations) shall be permitted to be
    behind the jack during tensioning operations.
    1926.701(c)(1)

    Reinforcing steel for walls, piers, columns, and
    similar vertical structures shall be adequately
    supported to prevent overturning and to prevent
    collapse. 1926.703(d)(1)

    Employers shall take measures to prevent
    unrolled wire mesh from recoiling. Such
    measures may include, but are not limited to,
    securing each end of the roll or turning over the
    roll. 1926.703(d)(2)

    CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY DIGEST
    49

    Respiratory Protection

    In emergencies, or when feasible engineering or
    administrative controls are not effective in
    controlling toxic substances, appropriate
    respiratory protective equipment shall be provided
    by the employer and shall be used. 1910.134(a)(1)
    made applicable to construction by 1926.103

    Employers must select a NIOSH-certified respirator.
    The respirator must be used in compliance with
    the conditions of its certification. 1910.134(d)(1)(ii)
    made applicable to construction by 1926.103

    Respiratory protective devices shall be
    appropriate for the hazardous material
    involved and the extent and nature of the work
    requirements and conditions. 1910.134(d)(1)(i)
    made applicable to construction by 1926.103

    Employees required to use respiratory protective
    devices shall be thoroughly trained in their use.
    1910.134(k) made applicable to construction by
    1926.103

    Respiratory protective equipment shall be inspected
    regularly and maintained in good condition.
    1910.134(h) made applicable to construction by
    1926.103

    Rollover Protective Structures (ROPS)

    Rollover protective structures (ROPS) apply to the
    following types of materials handling equipment:
    all rubber-tired, self-propelled scrapers, rubber-tired
    frontend loaders, rubber-tired dozers, wheel-type
    agricultural and industrial tractors, crawler tractors,
    crawler-type loaders, and motor graders, with or
    without attachments, that are used in construction
    work. This requirement does not apply to sideboom
    pipelaying tractors. 1926.1000(a)(1)

    Safety Nets

    Safety nets must be installed as close as
    practicable under the walking/working surface
    on which employees are working, but in no case

    OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION
    50

    more than 30 feet (9.14 meters) below such level.
    When nets are used on bridges, the potential fall
    area from the walking/working surface to the net
    shall be unobstructed. 1926.502(c)(1)

    Safety nets and their installations must be
    capable of absorbing an impact force equal to that
    produced by the drop test. 1926.502(c)(4)

    Saws

    Band Saws

    All portions of band saw blades shall be enclosed
    or guarded, except for the working portion of
    the blade between the bottom of the guide rolls
    and the table. ANSI 01.1-1961, incorporated by
    reference to construction by 1926.304(f)

    Band saw wheels shall be fully encased.
    ANSI 01.1-1961, incorporated by reference to
    construction by 1926.304(f)

    Portable Circular Saws

    Portable, power-driven circular saws shall be
    equipped with guards above and below the base
    plate or shoe. The lower guard shall cover the saw
    to the depth of the teeth, except for the minimum
    arc required to allow proper retraction and contact
    with the work, and shall automatically return to
    the covering position when the blade is removed
    from the work. 1926.304(d)

    Circular saws shall have a constant pressure
    switch that will shut off the power when the
    pressure is released. 1926.300(d)(3)

    Radial Saws

    Radial saws shall have an upper guard that
    completely encloses the upper half of the saw
    blade. The sides of the lower exposed portion
    of the blade shall be guarded by a device that
    will automatically adjust to the thickness of and
    remain in contact with the material being cut.
    1926.304(g)(1)

    CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY DIGEST
    51

    Radial saws used for ripping shall have nonkickback
    fingers or dogs. ANSI 01.1-1961, incorporated by
    reference to construction by 1926.304(f)

    Radial saws shall be installed so that the cutting
    head will return to the starting position when
    released by the operator. ANSI 01.1-1961,
    incorporated by reference to construction by
    1926.304(f)

    Swing or Sliding Cut-Off Saws

    All swing or sliding cut-off saws shall be provided
    with a hood that will completely enclose the upper
    half of the saw. ANSI 01.1-1961, incorporated by
    reference to construction by 1926.304(f)

    Limit stops shall be provided to prevent swing or
    sliding type cut-off saws from extending beyond
    the front or back edges of the table. ANSI 01.1-
    1961, incorporated by reference to construction by
    1926.304(f)

    Each swing or sliding cut-off saw shall be
    provided with an effective device to return the
    saw automatically to the back of the table when
    released at any point of its travel. ANSI 01.1-1961,
    incorporated by reference to construction by
    1926.304(f)

    Inverted sawing of sliding cut-off saws shall be
    provided with a hood that will cover the part of the
    saw that protrudes above the top of the table or
    material being cut. ANSI 01.1-1961, incorporated by
    reference to construction by 1926.304(f)

    Table Saws

    Circular table saws shall have a hood over the
    portion of the saw above the table, so mounted
    that the hood will automatically adjust itself to
    the thickness of and remain in contact with the
    material being cut. 1926.304(h)(1)

    Circular table saws shall have a spreader aligned
    with the blade, spaced no more than 1/2-inch
    (1.27-centimeters) behind the largest blade
    mounted in the saw. This provision does not

    OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION
    52

    apply when grooving, dadoing, or rabbiting.
    ANSI 01.1-1961, incorporated by reference to
    construction by 1926.304(f)

    Circular table saws used for ripping shall have
    nonkickback fingers or dogs. ANSI 01.1-1961,
    incorporated by reference to construction by
    1926.304(f)

    Feeder attachments shall have the feed rolls or
    other moving parts covered or guarded so as
    to protect the operator from hazardous points.
    1926.304(c)

    Scaffolds, General Requirements

    Scaffolds shall be erected, moved, dismantled, or
    altered only under the supervision and direction
    of a competent person. 1926.451(f)(7)

    Scaffolds are any temporary elevated platform
    (supported or suspended) and its supporting
    structure (including points of anchorage), used for
    supporting employees or materials or both.
    1926.450(b)

    Each employee who performs work on a scaffold
    shall be trained by a person qualified to recognize
    the hazards associated with the type of scaffold
    used and to understand the procedures to
    control or minimize those hazards. The training
    shall include such topics as the nature of any
    electrical hazards, fall hazards, falling object
    hazards, the maintenance and disassembly of the
    fall protection systems, the use of the scaffold,
    handling of materials, the capacity and the
    maximum intended load. 1926.454(a)

    Fall protection (guardrail systems and personal
    fall arrest systems) must be provided for each
    employee on a scaffold more than 10 feet (3.1
    meters) above a lower level. 1926.451(g)(1)

    Each scaffold and scaffold component shall
    support without failure its own weight and at
    least 4 times the maximum intended load applied
    or transmitted to it. Suspension ropes and
    connecting hardware must support 6 times the

    CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY DIGEST
    53

    intended load. Scaffolds and scaffold components
    shall not be loaded in excess of their maximum
    intended loads or rated capacities, whichever is
    less. 1926.451(a)(1), (a)(4), (f)(1)

    The scaffold platform shall be planked or decked
    as fully as possible. 1926.451(b)(1)

    The platform shall not deflect more than 1/60 of
    the span when loaded. 1926.451(f)(16)

    The work area for each scaffold platform
    and walkway shall be at least 18 inches (46
    centimeters) wide. When the work area must
    be less than 18 inches (46 centimeters) wide,
    guardrails and/or personal fall arrest systems shall
    still be used. 1926.451(b)(2)(ii)

    Access must be provided when the scaffold
    platforms are more than 2 feet (0.6 m) above
    or below a point of access. Direct access is
    acceptable when the scaffold is not more than 14
    inches (36 centimeters) horizontally and not more
    than 24 inches (61 centimeters) vertically from the
    other surfaces. Crossbraces shall not be used as a
    means of access. 1926.451(e)(1) and (e)(8)

    A competent person shall inspect the scaffold,
    scaffold components, and ropes on suspended
    scaffolds before each work shift and after any
    occurrence which could affect the structural
    integrity and authorize prompt corrective action.
    1926.450 (b), 451(f)(3)

    Scaffold, Bricklaying

    Employees doing overhand bricklaying from a
    supported scaffold shall be protected by a
    guardrail or personal fall arrest system on all
    sides except the side where the work is being
    done. 1926.451(g)(1)(vi)

    Scaffold, Erectors and Dismantlers

    A competent person shall determine the feasibility
    for safe access and fall protection for employees
    erecting and dismantling supported scaffolds.
    1926.451(e)(9) and (g)(2)

    OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION
    54

    Scaffold, Fall Arrest Systems

    A personal fall arrest system consists of an
    anchorage, connectors, a body harness, a
    lanyard, and may include a deceleration device.
    Anchorages used for attachment shall be capable
    of supporting at least 5,000 pounds (22.2 kN) per
    employee attached or shall be designed, installed,
    and used under the supervision of a qualified
    person as part of a complete personal fall arrest
    system which maintains a safety factor of at least
    two. Personal fall arrest systems used on scaffolds
    must be attached by lanyard to a vertical lifeline,
    horizontal lifeline, or scaffold structural member.
    1926.502(d)(15) and 1926.451(g)(3)

    Vertical or horizontal lifelines may be used.
    1926.451(g)(3)(ii) through (iv)

    Lifelines shall be independent of support lines and
    suspension ropes and not attached to the same
    anchorage point as the support or suspension
    ropes. 1926.451(g)(3)(iii) and (iv)

    Employees must be tied off when working from
    an aerial lift. Fall restraint systems or personal fall
    arrest systems may be used. The use of personal
    fall arrest systems must comply with Subpart M.
    1926.453(b)(2)(v) and 1926.502(d)

    Scaffold, Guardrails

    Guardrails shall be installed along all open sides
    and ends of platforms before the scaffold is
    released for use by employees other than the
    erection and dismantling crews. Guardrails are
    not required on the front edge of a platform if the
    front edge of the platform is less than 14 inches
    (36 centimeters) from the face of the work. For
    plastering and lathing, the distance is 18 inches
    (46 centimeters) or less from the front edge. When
    outrigger scaffolds are attached to supported
    scaffolds the distance is 3 inches (8 centimeters)
    or less from the front edge of the outrigger.
    1926.451(b)(3) and (g)(4)

    CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY DIGEST
    55

    The toprail for scaffolds must be 38 inches (0.97
    meters) to 45 inches (1.2 meters) from the
    platform. Midrails are to be installed approxi-
    mately halfway between the toprail and the
    platform surface. 1926.451(g)(4)(ii) and (iii)

    Toeboards or other barriers are to be used to
    protect employees working below. 1926.451(h)

    When screens and mesh are used for guardrails,
    they shall extend from the top edge of the
    guardrail system to the scaffold platform, and
    along the entire opening between the supports.
    1926.451(g)(4)(v)

    Crossbracing is not acceptable as an entire
    guardrail system but is acceptable for a toprail
    when the crossing point of the two braces is
    between 38 inches (0.9 meters) and 48 inches
    (1.3 meters) above the work platform and for
    midrails when between 20 inches (0.5 meters) and
    30 inches (0.8 meters) above the work platform.
    The end points of the crossbracing shall be no
    more than 48 inches (1.3 meters) apart vertically.
    1926.451(g)(4)(xv)

    Scaffolds, Mobile

    Scaffolds shall be braced by cross, horizontal, or
    diagonal braces, or a combination thereof.
    Scaffolds must be plumb, level, and squared. All
    brace connections must be secured. 1926.452(w)(1)

    Each employee on a scaffold more than 10 feet
    above a lower level shall be protected from falling
    to that lower level by use of guardrail systems or
    personal fall arrest systems. 1926.451(g)(1), (g)(1)
    (vii), and (g)(4)

    Scaffold, Planking

    Scaffold planking shall be capable of supporting
    without failure its own weight and at least 4 times
    the intended load. Solid sawn wood, fabricated
    planks, and fabricated platforms may be used as
    scaffold planks, following the recommendations

    OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION
    56

    by the manufacturer or a lumber grading
    association or inspection agency. Tables showing
    maximum permissible spans, rated load capacity,
    nominal thickness, etc., are in Appendix A of
    Subpart L (1)(b) and (c). 1926.451(a)(1)

    Scaffolds, Supported

    Supported scaffolds are platforms supported by
    legs, outrigger beams, brackets, poles, uprights,
    posts, frames, or similar rigid support. The
    structural members, poles, legs, posts, frames, and
    uprights, shall be plumb and braced to prevent
    swaying and displacement. 1926.451(b) and (c)(3)

    Supported scaffolds poles, legs, posts, frames,
    and uprights shall bear on base plates and mud
    sills, or on another adequate firm foundation.
    1926.451(c)(2)

    Either the manufacturer’s recommendation or the
    following placements shall be used for guys, ties,
    and braces: install guys, ties, and braces at the
    closest horizontal member to the 4:1 height and
    repeat vertically with the top restraint no further
    than the 4:1 height from the top:

    Vertically

    Every 20 feet (6.1 meters) or less for scaffolds less
    than 3 feet (0.9 meters) wide;

    Every 26 feet (7.9 meters) or less for scaffolds
    more than 3 feet (0.9 meters) wide;

    Horizontally

    At each end;

    At intervals not to exceed 30 feet (9.1 meters)
    from one end. 1926.451(c)(1)(ii)

    Scaffolds, Suspension (Swing)

    Each employee more than 10 feet (3.1 meters)
    above a lower level shall be protected from falling
    by guardrails and a personal fall arrest system
    when working from single or two-point suspended
    scaffolds and self-contained adjustable scaffolds that
    are supported by ropes. 1926.451(g)(1)(ii) and (iv)

    CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY DIGEST

    57

    Each employee 10 feet (3.1 meters) above a
    lower level shall be protected from falling by a
    personal fall arrest system when working from a
    boatswain’s chair, ladder jack, needle beam, float,
    or catenary scaffolds. 1926.451(g)(1)(i)

    Lifelines shall be independent of support lines and
    suspension ropes and not attached to the same
    anchorage point as the support or suspension
    ropes. 1926.451(g)(3)(iii) and (iv)

    A competent person shall inspect the ropes for
    defects prior to each workshift and after every
    occurrence which could affect a rope’s integrity,
    evaluate the direct connections that support the
    load, and determine if two-point and multi-point
    scaffolds are secured from swaying. 1926.451(d)
    (3)(i), (d)(10), (d)(18), (f)(3)

    The use of repaired wire rope is prohibited.
    1926.451(d)(7)

    Tiebacks shall be secured to a structurally sound
    anchorage on the building or structure.
    1926.451(d)(3)(ix)

    Tiebacks shall not be secured to standpipes,
    vents, other piping systems, or electrical conduit.
    1926.451(d)(3)(ix) and (d)(5)

    A single tieback shall be installed perpendicular to
    the face of the building or structure. Two tiebacks
    installed at opposing angles are required when a
    perpendicular tieback cannot be installed.
    1926.451(d)(3)(x)

    Only those items specifically designed as
    counterweights shall be used. Sand, gravel,
    masonry units, rolls of roofing felt, and other such
    materials shall not be used as counterweights.
    1926.451(d)(3)(ii) and (iii)

    Counterweights used for suspended scaffolds
    shall be made of materials that can not be easily
    dislocated. 1926.451(d)(3)(ii)

    Counterweights shall be secured by mechanical
    means to the outrigger beams. 1926.451(d)(3)(iv)

    OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION
    58

    Signs, Signals, and Barricades (See
    Flaggers)

    Construction areas shall be posted with legible
    traffic signs at points of hazard. 1926.200 (g)(1)

    Barricades for protection of employees shall
    conform to Part 6 of the Manual on Uniform
    Traffic Control Devices. 1926.202

    Silica

    Appropriate engineering controls, personal
    protective equipment, respirators, and work
    practices shall be used to protect employees from
    crystalline silica. 1926.55(a) and (b) and OSHA
    National Emphasis Program on Crystalline Silica
    1/24/2008

    Stairs

    A stairway or ladder must be provided at all
    worker points of access where there is a break in
    elevation of 19 inches (48.3 centimeters) or more
    and no ramp, runway, sloped embankment, or
    personnel hoist is provided. 1926.1051(a)

    Except during construction of the actual stairway,
    skeleton metal frame structures and steps must
    not be used (where treads and/or landings are to
    be installed at a later date), unless the stairs are
    fitted with secured temporary treads and landings.
    1926.1052(b)(2)

    When there is only one point of access between
    levels, it must be kept clear to permit free passage
    by workers. If free passage becomes restricted,
    a second point of access must be provided and
    used. 1926.1051(a)(3)

    When there are more than two points of access
    between levels, at least one point of access must
    be kept clear. 1926.1051(a)(4)

    All stairway and ladder fall protection systems
    must be provided and installed as required by
    the stairway and ladder rules before employees

    CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY DIGEST
    59

    begin work that requires them to use stairways
    or ladders and their respective fall protection
    systems. 1926.1051(b)

    Stairways that will not be a permanent part
    of the structure on which construction work is
    performed must have landings at least 30 inches
    deep and 22 inches wide (76.2 x 55.9 centimeters)
    at every 12 feet (3.6 meters) or less of vertical rise.
    1926.1052(a)(1)

    Stairways must be installed at least 30 degrees,
    and no more than 50 degrees, from the horizontal.
    1926.1052(a)(2)

    Where doors or gates open directly onto a
    stairway, a platform must be provided, and the
    swing of the door shall not reduce the effective
    width of the platform to less than 20 inches (50.8
    centimeters). 1926.1052(a)(4)

    Except during construction of the actual stairway,
    stairways with metal pan landings and treads
    must not be used where the treads and/or
    landings have not been filled in with concrete or
    other material, unless the pans of the stairs and/
    or landings are temporarily filled in with wood or
    other material. All treads and landings must be
    replaced when worn below the top edge of the
    pan. 1926.1052(b)(1)

    Stairways having four or more risers, or rising
    more than 30 inches in height (76.2 centimeters),
    whichever is less, must have at least one handrail.
    A stairrail also must be installed along each
    unprotected side or edge. 1926.1052(c)(1)(i)
    through (ii)

    Midrails, screens, mesh, intermediate vertical
    members, or equivalent intermediate structural
    members must be provided between the top
    rail and stairway steps of the stairrail system.
    1926.1052(c)(4)

    Midrails, when used, must be located midway
    between the top of the stairrail system and the
    stairway steps. 1926.1052(c)(4)(i)

    OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION
    60

    The height of handrails must not be more than 37
    inches (93.9 centimeters) nor less than 30 inches
    (76.2 centimeters) from the upper surface of the
    handrail to the surface of the tread in line with face
    of riser at forward edge of tread. 1926.1052(c)(6)

    When the top edge of a stairrail system also
    serves as a handrail, the height of the top edge
    must not be more than 37 inches (94 cm) nor less
    than 36 inches (91.5 cm) from the upper surface of
    the stairrail system to the surface of the tread, in
    line with face of riser at forward edge of the tread.
    1926.1052(c)(7)

    Temporary handrails must have a minimum
    clearance of 3 inches (7.6 centimeters) between
    the handrail and walls, stairrail systems, and other
    objects. 1926.1052(c)(11)

    Unprotected sides and edges of stairway landings
    must be provided with guardrail systems.
    1926.1052(c)(12)

    Steel Erection

    Each employee engaged in a steel erection activity
    who is on a walking/working surface with an
    unprotected side or edge more than 15 feet (4.6
    meters) above a lower level shall be protected
    from fall hazards by guardrail systems, safety net
    systems, personal fall arrest systems, positioning
    device systems or fall restraint systems.
    1926.760(a)(1)

    Connectors more than two stories or 30 feet (9.1
    meters) above a lower level, whichever is less,
    shall be protected by guardrail systems, safety net
    systems, personal fall arrest systems, positioning
    devices systems, or fall restraint systems.
    1926.760(b)(1)

    Connectors at heights over 15 feet and up to 30
    feet above a lower level shall be provided with
    a personal fall arrest system, positioning device
    system, or fall restraint system and wear the
    equipment necessary to be tied off; or be provided
    with other means of protection from fall hazards in
    accordance with 1926.760(a)(1) and 1926.760(b)(3)

    CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY DIGEST

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    Training shall be provided for all employees
    exposed to fall hazards. Special training shall be
    provided to connectors, workers in controlled
    decking zones, and those rigging for multiple lifts.
    1926.761(c)

    Steel erection begins when written notification
    that the concrete in the footings, piers, and walls
    or the mortar in the masonry piers and walls
    has attained the strength to support the loads
    imposed during steel erection. 1926.752(b)

    Shear connectors (such as headed steel studs,
    steel bars or steel lugs), reinforcing bars,
    deformed anchors or threaded studs shall not
    be attached to the top flanges of beams, joists or
    beam attachments so that they project vertically
    from or horizontally across the top flange of the
    member until after the metal decking, or other
    walking/working surface, has been installed.
    1926.754(c)(1)

    Columns shall be anchored by a minimum of four
    anchor rods (anchor bolts). 1926.755(a)(1)

    Solid web structural members shall be secured
    with at least two bolts per connection before being
    released from the hoisting line. 1926.756(a)(1)

    Open web joists must be field bolted at each end
    of the bottom chord before being released from
    the hoisting line. 1926.757(a)(1)(iii)

    Decking shall be laid tightly and secured.
    1926.754(e)(5)

    Controlled decking zones shall be clearly marked
    and access limited to only those employees
    engaged in leading edge work. 1926.760(c)(2) and (3)

    Cranes used in steel erection shall be inspected
    prior to each shift by a competent person. Routes
    for suspended loads shall be planned to ensure no
    employee is required to work directly under
    the load except for connecting or hooking or
    unhooking. Hooks with self-closing latches shall
    be used. All loads shall be rigged by a qualified
    rigger. Multiple lifts shall hoist a maximum of five
    members. 1926.753(c)(1)(i), (d)(1) and (e)(1)(ii)

    OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION
    62

    Storage

    All materials stored in tiers shall be secured to
    prevent sliding, falling, or collapsing. 1926.250(a)(1)

    Aisles and passageways shall be kept clear and in
    good repair. 1926.250(a)(3)

    Storage of materials shall not obstruct exits.
    1926.151(d)(1)

    Materials shall be stored with due regard to their
    fire characteristics. 1926.151(d)(2)

    Tire Cages

    A safety tire rack, cage, or equivalent protection
    shall be provided and used when inflating,
    mounting, or dismounting tires installed on split
    rims, or rims equipped with locking rings or
    similar devices. 1926.600(a)(2)

    Toeboards

    Toeboards, when used to protect workers from
    falling objects, shall be erected along the edge of the
    overhead walking/working surface. 1926.502(j)(1)

    Toeboards shall be capable of withstanding,
    without failure, a force of at least 50 pounds (222
    N) applied in any downward or outward direction
    at any point along the toeboard. 1926.502(j)(2)

    A standard toeboard shall be at least 3 1/2 inches
    (9 centimeters) in height and may be of any
    substantial material either solid or open, with
    openings not to exceed 1 inch (2.54 centimeters)
    in greatest dimension. 1926.502(j)(3)

    Toilets

    Toilets shall be provided according to the
    following: 20 or fewer persons – one facility; 20 or
    more persons – one toilet seat and one urinal per
    40 persons; 200 or more persons – one toilet seat
    and one urinal per 50 workers. 1926.51(c)(1)

    CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY DIGEST

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    This requirement does not apply to mobile crews
    having transportation readily available to nearby
    toilet facilities. 1926.51(c)(4)

    Training and Inspections

    The employer shall initiate and maintain such
    programs as may be necessary to provide for
    frequent and regular inspections of the job
    site, materials, and equipment by designated
    competent persons. 1926.20(b)(1) through (2)

    The employer should avail himself of the safety
    and health training programs the Secretary
    provides. 1926.21(b)(1)

    The employer shall instruct each employee in the
    recognition and avoidance of unsafe conditions
    and in the regulations applicable to his work
    environment to control or eliminate any hazards
    or other exposure to illness or injury. 1926.21(b)(2)

    The use of any machinery, tool, material, or
    equipment that is not in compliance with any
    applicable requirement of Part 1926 is prohibited.
    1926.20(b)(3)

    The employer shall permit only those employees
    qualified by training or experience to operate
    equipment and machinery. 1926.20(b)(4)

    Underground Construction

    The employer shall provide and maintain safe
    means of access and egress to all work stations.
    1926.800(b)(1)

    The employer shall control access to all openings
    to prevent unauthorized entry underground.
    Unused chutes, manways, or other openings shall
    be tightly covered, bulkheaded, or fenced off, and
    shall be posted with signs indicating “Keep Out”
    or similar language. Complete or unused sections
    of the underground facility shall be barricaded.
    1926.800(b)(3)

    OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION
    64

    Unless underground facilities are sufficiently
    completed so that the permanent environmental
    controls are effective and the remaining
    construction activity will not cause any
    environmental hazard or structural failure within
    the facilities, the employer shall maintain a
    check-in/check-out procedure that will ensure
    that aboveground designated personnel can
    determine an accurate count of the number
    of persons underground in the event of an
    emergency. 1926.800(c)

    All employees shall be instructed to recognize
    and avoid hazards associated with underground
    construction activities. 1926.800(d)

    Hazardous classifications are for “potentially
    gassy” and “gassy” operations. 1926.800(h) The
    employer shall assign a competent person to
    perform all air monitoring to determine proper
    ventilation and quantitative measurements of
    potentially hazardous gases. 1926.800(j)(1)(i)(A)

    Fresh air shall be supplied to all underground
    work areas in sufficient quantities to prevent
    dangerous or harmful accumulation of dust,
    fumes, mists, vapors, or gases. 1926.800(k)(1)(i)

    Washing Facilities

    The employer shall provide adequate washing
    facilities for employees engaged in operations
    involving harmful substances. Washing facilities
    shall be near the worksite and shall be so
    equipped as to enable employees to remove all
    harmful substances. 1926.51(f)

    Water, Working Over or Near

    Employees working over or near water, where the
    danger of drowning exists, shall be provided with
    U.S. Coast Guard-approved life jackets or buoyant
    work vests. 1926.106(a)

    CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY DIGEST
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    Welding, Cutting, and Heating

    Employers shall instruct employees in the safe use
    of welding equipment. 1926.350(d) and 1926.351(d)

    Proper precautions (isolating welding and cutting,
    removing fire hazards from the vicinity, providing
    a fire watch) for fire prevention shall be taken in
    areas where welding or other “hot work” is being
    done. No welding, cutting, or heating shall be
    done where the application of flammable paints,
    or the presence of other flammable compounds
    or heavy dust concentrations creates a fire hazard.
    1926.352(a) through (c) and (f)

    Arc welding and cutting operations shall be
    shielded by noncombustible or flameproof
    screens to protect employees and other persons
    in the vicinity from direct arc rays. 1926.351(e)

    When electrode holders are to be left unattended,
    the electrodes shall be removed and the holder
    shall be placed or protected so that they cannot
    make electrical contact with employees or
    conducting objects. 1926.351(d)(1)

    All arc welding and cutting cables shall be
    completely insulated and be capable of handling
    the maximum current requirements for the job.
    There shall be no repairs or splices within 10 feet
    (3 meters) of the electrode holder, except where
    splices are insulated equal to the insulation of
    the cable. Defective cable shall be repaired or
    replaced. 1926.351(b)(1) through (2) and (4)

    Employees performing such operations in
    the open air shall be protected by filter-type
    respirators in accordance with the requirements of
    1910.134, except that employees performing such
    operations on beryllium-containing base or filler
    metals shall be protected with air line respirators in
    accordance with 1910.134. 1926.353(c)(3)

    Fuel gas and oxygen hose shall be easily
    distinguishable and shall not be interchangeable.
    Hoses shall be inspected at the beginning of each
    shift and shall be repaired or replaced if defective.
    1926.350(f)(1) and (3)

    OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION
    66

    General mechanical ventilation, local exhaust
    ventilation, air line respirators, and other
    protection shall be provided, as required, when
    welding, cutting or heating:

    � Zinc, lead, cadmium, chromium, mercury,
    or materials bearing, based, or coated with
    beryllium in enclosed spaces,

    � Stainless steel with inert-gas equipment,

    � In confined spaces, and

    � Where an unusual condition can cause an unsafe
    accumulation of contaminants. 1926.353(b)(1),
    (c)(1)(i) through (iv), (c)(2)(i) through (iv), (d)(1)
    (iv), and (e)(1)

    Proper eye protective equipment to prevent
    exposure of personnel shall be provided.
    1926.353(e)(2)

    Wire Ropes, Chains, and Ropes

    Wire ropes, chains, ropes, and other rigging
    equipment shall be inspected prior to use and as
    necessary during use to ensure their safety.
    Defective gear shall be removed from service.
    1926.251(a)(1)

    Job or shop hooks and links or makeshift
    fasteners formed from bolts, rods, or other such
    attachments shall not be used. 1926.251(b)(3)

    When U-bolts are used for eye splices, the U-bolt
    shall be applied so that the “U” section is in
    contact with the dead end of the rope. 1926.251(c)
    (5)(i)

    When U-bolt wire rope clips are used to form
    eyes, the following table shall be used to
    determine the number and spacing of clips.
    1926.251(c)(5)

    CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY DIGEST
    67

    Table H-2 – Number and Spacing of U-Bolt Wire
    Rope Clips – 1926.251(c)(5)

    Improved plow
    steel, rope diameter

    (inches)

    Number of clips
    Drop Other

    forged material

    Minimum spacing
    (inches)

    1/2 (1.27 cm) 3 4 3 (7.62 cm)

    5/8 (.625 cm) 3 4 3-3/4 (8.37 cm)

    3/4 (.75 cm) 4 5 4-1/2 (11.43 cm)

    7/8 (.875 cm) 4 5 5-1/4 (12.95 cm)

    1 (2.54 cm) 5 6 6 (15.24 cm)

    1-1/8 (2.665 cm) 6 6 6-3/4 (15.99 cm)

    1-1/4 (2.79 cm) 6 7 7-1/2 (19.05 cm)

    1-3/8 (2.915 cm) 7 7 8-1/4 (20.57 cm)

    1-1/2 (3.81 cm) 7 8 9 (22.86 cm)

    Woodworking Machinery

    All fixed power-driven woodworking tools shall
    be provided with a disconnect switch that can
    be either locked or tagged in the off position.
    1926.304(a)

    All woodworking tools and machinery shall meet
    applicable requirements of ANSI 01.1-1961, Safety
    Code for Woodworking Machinery. 1926.304(f)

    Workplace Complaints:
    Workers’ Rights

    Workers have the right to a safe workplace. The
    Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 (OSH
    Act) was passed to prevent workers from being
    killed or seriously harmed at work. The law
    requires employers to provide their employees
    with working conditions that are free of known
    dangers. Workers may file a complaint to have
    OSHA inspect their workplace if they believe that
    their employer is not following OSHA standards or
    that there are serious hazards. Further, the OSH Act
    gives complainants the right to request that their

    OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION
    68

    names not be revealed to their employers. It is also
    against the law for an employer to fire, demote,
    transfer, or retaliate in any way against a worker for
    filing a complaint or using other OSHA rights.

    If a workplace has unsafe or unhealthful working
    conditions, workers may want to file a complaint.
    Often the best and fastest way to get a hazard
    corrected is to notify a supervisor or employer.
    Workers or their representatives may file a
    complaint online or by phone, mail, email or fax
    with the nearest OSHA office and request an
    inspection. A worker may also ask OSHA not to
    reveal his or her name. To file a complaint, call
    1-800-321-OSHA (6742) or contact the nearest
    OSHA regional, area, state plan, or consultation
    office listed at www.osha.gov. The teletypewriter
    (TTY) number is (877) 889-5627. Written, signed
    complaints submitted to OSHA area offices
    are more likely to result in an on-site OSHA
    inspection. Most online or unsigned complaints
    are resolved informally over the phone with the
    employer. Complaints from workers in states with
    an OSHA approved state plan will be forwarded to
    the appropriate state plan for response. Workers
    can call 1-800-321-OSHA (6742) to request a
    complaint form from their local OSHA office or
    visit www.osha.gov/pls/osha7/eComplaintForm.
    html to submit the form online. Completed forms
    can be faxed or mailed to the local OSHA office
    (provided at the end of this guide). Include your
    name, address and telephone number so that
    OSHA can contact you.

    OSHA Assistance, Services and
    Programs

    OSHA has a great deal of information to assist
    employers in complying with their responsibilities
    under OSHA law. Several OSHA programs and
    services can help employers identify and correct
    job hazards, as well as improve their injury and
    illness prevention program.

    http://www.osha.gov

    http://www.osha.gov/pls/osha7/eComplaintForm.html

    http://www.osha.gov/pls/osha7/eComplaintForm.html

    CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY DIGEST

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    Establishing an Injury and Illness
    Prevention Program
    The key to a safe and healthful work environment
    is a comprehensive injury and illness prevention
    program.

    Injury and illness prevention programs are
    systems that can substantially reduce the number
    and severity of workplace injuries and illnesses,
    while reducing costs to employers. Thousands
    of employers across the United States already
    manage safety using injury and illness prevention
    programs, and OSHA believes that all employers
    can and should do the same. Thirty-four states
    have requirements or voluntary guidelines for
    workplace injury and illness prevention programs.
    Most successful injury and illness prevention
    programs are based on a common set of key
    elements. These include management leadership,
    worker participation, hazard identification, hazard
    prevention and control, education and training,
    and program evaluation and improvement. Visit
    OSHA’s Injury and Illness Prevention Programs
    web page at www.osha.gov/dsg/topics/
    safetyhealth for more information.

    Compliance Assistance Specialists
    OSHA has compliance assistance specialists
    throughout the nation located in most OSHA
    offices. Compliance assistance specialists can
    provide information to employers and workers
    about OSHA standards, short educational
    programs on specific hazards or OSHA rights and
    responsibilities, and information on additional
    compliance assistance resources. For more
    details, visit www.osha.gov/dcsp/compliance_
    assistance/cas.html or call 1-800-321-OSHA (6742)
    to contact your local OSHA office.

    Free On-site Safety and Health
    Consultation Services for Small Business
    OSHA’s On-site Consultation Program offers free
    and confidential advice to small and medium-
    sized businesses in all states across the country,

    OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION
    70

    with priority given to high-hazard worksites.
    Each year, responding to requests from small
    employers looking to create or improve their
    safety and health management programs, OSHA’s
    On-site Consultation Program conducts over
    29,000 visits to small business worksites covering
    over 1.5 million workers across the nation.

    On-site consultation services are separate from
    enforcement and do not result in penalties or
    citations. Consultants from state agencies or
    universities work with employers to identify
    workplace hazards, provide advice on compliance
    with OSHA standards, and assist in establishing
    safety and health management programs.

    For more information, to find the local On-site
    Consultation office in your state, or to request
    a brochure on consultation services, visit
    www. osha.gov/consultation, or call 1-800-321-
    OSHA (6742).

    Under the consultation program, certain
    exemplary employers may request participation
    in OSHA’s Safety and Health Achievement
    Recognition Program (SHARP). Eligibility
    for participation includes, but is not limited
    to, receiving a full-service, comprehensive
    consultation visit, correcting all identified hazards
    and developing an effective safety and health
    management program. Worksites that receive
    SHARP recognition are exempt from programmed
    inspections during the period that the SHARP
    certification is valid.

    Cooperative Programs
    OSHA offers cooperative programs under which
    businesses, labor groups and other organizations
    can work cooperatively with OSHA. To find out
    more about any of the following programs, visit
    www.osha.gov/cooperativeprograms.

    www.osha.gov/cooperativeprograms

    CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY DIGEST

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    Strategic Partnerships and Alliances

    The OSHA Strategic Partnerships (OSP)
    provide the opportunity for OSHA to partner
    with employers, workers, professional or trade
    associations, labor organizations, and/or other
    interested stakeholders. OSHA Partnerships are
    formalized through unique agreements designed
    to encourage, assist, and recognize partner efforts
    to eliminate serious hazards and achieve model
    workplace safety and health practices. Through
    the Alliance Program, OSHA works with groups
    committed to worker safety and health to prevent
    workplace fatalities, injuries and illnesses by
    developing compliance assistance tools and
    resources to share with workers and employers,
    and educate workers and employers about their
    rights and responsibilities.

    Voluntary Protection Programs (VPP)

    The VPP recognize employers and workers
    in private industry and federal agencies who
    have implemented effective safety and health
    management programs and maintain injury and
    illness rates below the national average for their
    respective industries. In VPP, management, labor,
    and OSHA work cooperatively and proactively to
    prevent fatalities, injuries, and illnesses through a
    system focused on: hazard prevention and control,
    worksite analysis, training, and management
    commitment and worker involvement.

    Occupational Safety and Health Training
    The OSHA Training Institute partners with 27 OSHA
    Training Institute Education Centers at 42 locations
    throughout the United States to deliver courses
    on OSHA standards and occupational safety and
    health topics to thousands of students a year.
    For more information on training courses, visit
    www.osha.gov/otiec.

    http://www.osha.gov/otiec

    OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION

    72

    OSHA Educational Materials
    OSHA has many types of educational materials
    in English, Spanish, Vietnamese and other
    languages available in print or online. These
    include:

    � Brochures;

    � Fact Sheets;

    � Guidance documents that provide detailed
    examinations of specific safety and health issues;

    � Online Safety and Health Topics pages;

    � Posters;

    � Small, laminated QuickCards™ that provide brief
    safety and health information; and

    � QuickTakes, OSHA’s free, twice-monthly online
    newsletter with the latest news about OSHA
    initiatives and products to assist employers and
    workers in finding and preventing workplace
    hazards. To sign up for QuickTakes visit www.
    osha.gov/quicktakes.

    To view materials available online or for a
    listing of free publications, visit www.osha.gov/
    publications. You can also call 1-800-321-OSHA
    (6742) to order publications.

    Select OSHA publications are available in e-Book
    format. OSHA e-Books are designed to increase
    readability on smartphones, tablets and other mobile
    devices. For access, go to www.osha.gov/ebooks.

    OSHA’s web site also has information on job
    hazards and injury and illness prevention for
    employers and workers. To learn more about
    OSHA’s safety and health resources online,
    visit www.osha.gov or www.osha.gov/html/
    a-z-index.html.

    http://www.osha.gov/publications

    http://www.osha.gov/publications

    http://www.osha.gov/ebooks

    http://www.osha.gov

    http://www.osha.gov/html/a-z-index.html

    http://www.osha.gov/html/a-z-index.html

    CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY DIGEST
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    NIOSH Health Hazard Evaluation
    Program

    Getting Help with Health Hazards
    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and
    Health (NIOSH) is a federal agency that conducts
    scientific and medical research on workers’
    safety and health. At no cost to employers or
    workers, NIOSH can help identify health hazards
    and recommend ways to reduce or eliminate
    those hazards in the workplace through its Health
    Hazard Evaluation (HHE) Program.

    Workers, union representatives and employers
    can request a NIOSH HHE. An HHE is often
    requested when there is a higher than expected
    rate of a disease or injury in a group of workers.
    These situations may be the result of an unknown
    cause, a new hazard, or a mixture of sources. To
    request a NIOSH Health Hazard Evaluation go
    to www.cdc.gov/niosh/hhe/request.html. To find
    out more, in English or Spanish, about the Health
    Hazard Evaluation Program:

    E-mail HHERequestHelp@cdc.gov or
    call 800-CDC-INFO (800-232-4636).

    How to Contact OSHA

    For questions or to get information or advice,
    to report an emergency, fatality, inpatient
    hospitalization, amputation, or loss of an eye, or to
    file a confidential complaint, contact your nearest
    OSHA office, visit www.osha.gov or call OSHA
    at 1-800-321-OSHA (6742), TTY 1-877-889-5627.

    For assistance, contact us.
    We are OSHA. We can help.

    It’s confidential.

    http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/hhe/request.html

    mailto:HHERequestHelp@cdc.gov

    http://www.osha.gov

    OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION
    74

    OSHA Regional Offices

    Region I
    Boston Regional Office
    (CT*, ME*, MA, NH, RI, VT*)
    JFK Federal Building, Room E340
    Boston, MA 02203
    (617) 565-9860 (617) 565-9827 Fax

    Region II
    New York Regional Office
    (NJ*, NY*, PR*, VI*)
    201 Varick Street, Room 670
    New York, NY 10014
    (212) 337-2378 (212) 337-2371 Fax

    Region III
    Philadelphia Regional Office
    (DE, DC, MD*, PA, VA*, WV)
    The Curtis Center
    170 S. Independence Mall West
    Suite 740 West
    Philadelphia, PA 19106-3309
    (215) 861-4900 (215) 861-4904 Fax

    Region IV
    Atlanta Regional Office
    (AL, FL, GA, KY*, MS, NC*, SC*, TN*)
    61 Forsyth Street, SW, Room 6T50
    Atlanta, GA 30303
    (678) 237-0400 (678) 237-0447 Fax

    Region V
    Chicago Regional Office
    (IL*, IN*, MI*, MN*, OH, WI)
    230 South Dearborn Street
    Room 3244
    Chicago, IL 60604
    (312) 353-2220 (312) 353-7774 Fax

    Region

    VI

    Dallas Regional Office
    (AR, LA, NM*, OK, TX)
    525 Griffin Street, Room 602

    CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY DIGEST

    75

    Dallas, TX 75202
    (972) 850-4145 (972) 850-4149 Fax
    (972) 850-4150 FSO Fax

    Region VII
    Kansas City Regional Office
    (IA*, KS, MO, NE)
    Two Pershing Square Building
    2300 Main Street, Suite 1010
    Kansas City, MO 64108-2416
    (816) 283-8745 (816) 283-0547 Fax

    Region VIII
    Denver Regional Office
    (CO, MT, ND, SD, UT*, WY*)
    Cesar Chavez Memorial Building
    1244 Speer Boulevard, Suite 551
    Denver, CO 80204
    (720) 264-6550 (720) 264-6585 Fax

    Region IX
    San Francisco Regional Office
    (AZ*, CA*, HI*, NV*, and American Samoa,
    Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands)
    90 7th Street, Suite 18100
    San Francisco, CA 94103
    (415) 625-2547 (415) 625-2534 Fax

    Region X
    Seattle Regional Office
    (AK*, ID, OR*, WA*)
    300 Fifth Avenue, Suite 1280
    Seattle, WA 98104
    (206) 757-6700 (206) 757-6705 Fax

    * These states and territories operate their own
    OSHA-approved job safety and health plans and
    cover state and local government employees as well
    as private sector employees. The Connecticut, Illinois,
    Maine, New Jersey, New York and Virgin Islands
    programs cover public employees only. (Private
    sector workers in these states are covered by Federal
    OSHA). States with approved programs must have
    standards that are identical to, or at least as effective
    as, the Federal OSHA standards.

    OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION
    76

    Note: To get contact information for OSHA area
    offices, OSHA-approved state plans and OSHA
    consultation projects, please visit us online at
    www.osha.gov or call us at 1-800-321-OSHA (6742).

    HI

    NVCA

    AZ

    ID

    OR

    WA
    AK

    WY

    MT

    UT

    NM

    CO

    TX

    OK

    KS

    NE

    SD

    ND
    MN

    WI

    IA

    MI

    IN
    IL

    MO

    AR

    LA

    MS
    AL GA

    FL

    OH

    PA

    NY

    NH
    VT

    MA

    WV

    RICT

    NJ

    MD

    VA DC

    DE

    KY

    TN
    NC

    SC

    PR

    VI

    ME

    OSHA-approved state plans (private sector and
    public employees)

    Federal OSHA (private sector and most federal employees)

    OSHA-approved state plans (for public employees only;
    private sector employees are covered by Federal OSHA)

    OSHA-Approved State Plans

    http://www.osha.gov

    (800) 321-OSHA (6742)

    OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION

    78

    U.S. Department of Labor

    For more information:

    Occupational
    Safety and Health
    Administration

    www.osha.gov (800) 321-OSHA (6742)

      Contents
      Foreword
      General
      OSHA Worksite Investigations

    • Frequently Used Standards in
      Construction
    • Access to Medical and Exposure Records
      Aerial Lifts
      Air Tools
      Asbestos
      Belt Sanding Machines
      Chains (See Wire Ropes, Chains, and Ropes)
      Chemicals (See Gases, Vapors, Fumes, Dusts, and Mists; Asbestos; Lead; Silica; and Hazard Communication)
      Compressed Air, Use of
      Compressed Gas Cylinders
      Concrete and Masonry Construction
      Confined Spaces
      Cranes and Derricks
      Demolition
      Disposal Chutes
      Diving
      Drinking Water
      Electrical Installations
      Electrical Work Practices
      Excavating and Trenching
      Exits
      Explosives and Blasting
      Eye and Face Protection
      Fall Protection
      Fall Protection, Falling Objects
      Fall Protection, Wall Openings
      Fire Protection
      Flaggers
      Flammable and Combustible Liquids
      Forklifts (See Powered Industrial Trucks)
      Gases, Vapors, Fumes, Dusts, and Mists
      General Duty Clause
      Grinding
      Hand Tools
      Hazard Communication
      Hazardous Waste Operations
      Head Protection
      Hearing Protection
      Heating Devices, Temporary
      Highway Work Zones (See Flaggers and Signs, Signals, and Barricades)
      Hoists, Material and Personnel
      Hooks (See Wire Ropes, Chains, and Ropes)
      Housekeeping
      Illumination
      Jointers
      Ladders
      Lasers
      Lead
      Lift Slab
      Liquefied Petroleum Gas
      Medical Services and First Aid
      Motor Vehicles and Mechanized Equipment
      Noise (See Hearing Protection)
      Personal Protective Equipment
      Powder-Actuated Tools
      Power Transmission and Distribution
      Powered Industrial Trucks (Forklifts)
      Power Transmission, Mechanical
      Process Safety Management of Highly
      Hazardous Chemicals
      Radiation, Ionizing
      Railings
      Recordkeeping: Recording and
      Reporting Requirements
      Reinforced Steel
      Respiratory Protection
      Rollover Protective Structures (ROPS)
      Safety Nets
      Saws
      Band Saws
      Portable Circular Saws
      Radial Saws
      Swing or Sliding Cut-Off Saws
      Table Saws

      Scaffolds, General Requirements
      Scaffold, Bricklaying
      Scaffold, Erectors and Dismantlers
      Scaffold, Fall Arrest Systems
      Scaffold, Guardrails
      Scaffolds, Mobile
      Scaffold, Planking
      Scaffolds, Supported
      Scaffolds, Suspension (Swing)

      Signs, Signals, and Barricades (See Flaggers)
      Silica
      Stairs
      Steel Erection
      Storage
      Tire Cages
      Toeboards
      Toilets
      Training and Inspections
      Underground Construction
      Washing Facilities
      Water, Working Over or Near
      Welding, Cutting, and Heating
      Wire Ropes, Chains, and Ropes
      Woodworking Machinery

    • Workplace Complaints:
      Workers’ Rights
    • OSHA Assistance, Services and Programs
    • Establishing an Injury and Illness
      Prevention Program
      Compliance Assistance Specialists
      Free On-site Safety and Health Consultation Services for Small Business
      Cooperative Programs
      Strategic Partnerships and Alliances
      Voluntary Protection Programs (VPP)
      Occupational Safety and Health Training
      OSHA Educational Materials

    • NIOSH Health Hazard Evaluation Program
    • Getting Help with Health Hazards
      How to Contact OSHA
      OSHA Regional Offices
      OSHA-Approved State Plans

    1

    Course Learning Outcomes for Unit VI

    Upon completion of this unit, students should be able to:

    2. Apply Occupational Safety and Health Administration standards and related practices to construction.
    2.1 Apply standards related to crane safety and practices necessary for construction site safety.
    2.2 Discuss the requirements for safe demolition of buildings and structures.
    2.3 Apply standards related to trenching and excavation safety and practices necessary for

    construction site safety.
    2.4 Identify hazards and standards related to concrete construction.

    4. Examine methods used to control common construction hazards.
    4.1 Analyze hazards that contribute to construction accidents.

    Course/Unit
    Learning Outcomes

    Learning Activity

    2.1
    Unit VI Lesson
    Required Readings
    Unit VI Assessment

    2.

    2

    Unit VI Lesson
    Required Readings
    Unit VI Assessment

    2.3
    Unit VI Lesson
    Required Readings
    Unit VI Assessment

    2.4
    Unit VI Lesson
    Required Readings
    Unit VI Assessment

    4.1
    Unit VI Lesson
    Required Readings
    Unit VI Assessment

    Reading Assignment

    Click here to access the OSHA Construction Industry Digest and read the sections indicated below.

    Occupational Safety & Health Administration. (2014). Construction industry digest [Brochure]. Retrieved from
    https://www.osha.gov/Publications/osha2202

    – Concrete and Masonry Construction, pp. 13-14
    – Cranes and Derricks, pp. 15-16
    – Demolition, p. 16
    – Excavating and Trenching, pp. 20-22

    Occupational Safety & Health Administration. (2010). Cranes and derricks, subpart CC [PowerPoint
    presentation]. Retrieved from https://www.osha.gov/cranes-derricks/presentation/index.html

    UNIT VI STUDY GUIDE

    Cranes, Demolition, Excavation,
    Concrete

    https://www.osha.gov/Publications/osha2202

    https://www.osha.gov/Publications/osha2202

    https://www.osha.gov/cranes-derricks/presentation/index.html

    2

    UNIT x STUDY GUIDE

    Title

    Occupational Safety & Health Administration. (n.d.). OSHA fact sheet: Subpart CC – cranes and derricks in

    construction: Operator qualification and certification [Brochure]. Retrieved from
    https://www.osha.gov/Publications/OpCertfactsheet9-29SOL-DB

    Occupational Safety & Health Administration. (2015). OSHA technical manual, Section V, Chapter 1:
    Demolition. Retrieved from https://www.osha.gov/dts/osta/otm/otm_v/otm_v_1.html

    Occupational Safety & Health Administration. (n.d.). Excavations [PowerPoint presentation]. Retrieved from
    https://www.osha.gov/dte/outreach/construction_generalindustry/const_outreach_tp.html

    Occupational Safety & Health Administration. (2015). OSHA technical manual, Section V, Chapter 2:
    Excavations: Hazard recognition in trenching and shoring. Retrieved from
    https://www.osha.gov/dts/osta/otm/otm_v/otm_v_2.html

    Occupational Safety & Health Administration. (1998). Concrete and masonry construction [Brochure], pp. 1-
    10. Retrieved from https://www.osha.gov/Publications/osha3106

    Unit Lesson

    Cranes

    On July 14, 1999, a 547-foot mobile crane, nicknamed “Big Blue,” collapsed during the construction of Miller
    Park baseball stadium in Milwaukee. The crane was lifting a 450-ton stadium roof section when it fell. Three
    ironworkers were killed, and the millions of dollars in damage delayed the project for an entire year. Causal
    factors included operating the crane in winds greater than the crane’s rating and soft ground beneath the
    crane (Occupational Safety & Health Administration [OSHA], 2005, p.1). The Occupational Safety & Health
    Administration (OSHA) issued a total of eight citations to three different contractors and assessed more than
    $500,000 in fines. Ironically, several OSHA inspectors were onsite at the time of the accident, investigating
    potential fall hazards.

    While most safety practitioners will not have to deal with the largest mobile crane in the world, nearly all
    construction requires some type of crane or lifting device at some point in the project. Cranes are complex
    pieces of equipment that require engineering skills for the design and execution of safe lifts. OSHA
    recognizes this complexity in its very comprehensive standard for cranes (29 CFR 1926 Subpart CC).
    Construction safety professionals need to ensure that only qualified persons are allowed to operate cranes,
    rig loads, and design lifts. Crane inspections must be current and documented.

    (Almeida, n.d.)

    https://www.osha.gov/Publications/OpCertfactsheet9-29SOL-DB

    https://www.osha.gov/dts/osta/otm/otm_v/otm_v_1.html

    https://www.osha.gov/dte/outreach/construction_generalindustry/const_outreach_tp.html

    https://www.osha.gov/dts/osta/otm/otm_v/otm_v_2.html

    https://www.osha.gov/Publications/osha3106

    3

    UNIT x STUDY GUIDE

    Title

    Excavation and Trenching

    Many construction projects begin with dirt work or excavations. Earth-moving equipment moves dirt around
    the site, and then the digging starts for water lines and other types of underground utilities. Open trenches are
    created. Eventually, workers will need to enter those trenches to install utility lines. While excavation and
    trenching accidents are not always as “newsworthy” as a dramatic mobile crane collapse, they occur
    frequently enough to be part of OSHA’s “Fatal Four” construction hazards (OSHA, n.d.-a). The most common
    hazard of working in an excavation or trench is when the walls cave in and trap workers, and it often happens
    without warning. The trench does not have to be deep to be hazardous. Most accidents occur in trenches 5-
    15 feet deep. Other concerns include:

     asphyxiation due to lack of oxygen,

     inhalation of toxic materials,

     fire, and

     electrocution from accidental severing of underground utility lines.

    Watch this video, created by WorkSafeBC, highlighting the dangers of working in trenches: https://youtu.be/Q-
    4zmR6yGzw (used with permission from WorkSafeBC)

    Concrete and Masonry

    Concrete is widely used in construction as pre-cast pieces transported to the site and assembled, or poured
    into forms at the site. Safe movement of pre-cast concrete depends on a knowledge of the weight of the
    materials as well as an understanding of the capacity of the equipment used to move the load. Pouring
    concrete creates a series of unique hazards, often starting with a trench into which forms are placed. Steel
    rebar is used to give the concrete additional strength, and before the concrete is poured, workers must be
    protected from the impalement hazards. Once the concrete is poured, a determination must be made that it
    has gained sufficient strength before the forms are removed. There must be a written plan for how this
    determination is made, or an approved standard test method must be used (OSHA, 1998).

    An often-overlooked hazard of working with concrete is skin exposure to portland cement. Portland cement is
    also used in mortar, plaster, grout, stucco, and terrazzo. Skin contact with wet cement can cause caustic
    burns. These burns do not cause immediate pain and are often overlooked until serious damage has been
    done. Repeated skin exposure to cement can also result in sensitization, where even brief contact triggers a
    dermatitis-like reaction. Adequate PPE must be provided and used.

    Demolition

    Demolition is construction in reverse. Unlike construction, however, the hazards are not always easy to
    identify. For this reason, the OSHA standard for demolition (29 CFR 1926 Subpart T) requires extensive
    planning and preparation. Some of the key requirements are:

     engineering survey of the structure to be demolished,

     location of all utilities,

     medical services, and

     fire prevention and protection (OSHA, 2015).

    Demolition is a significant source of exposure to hazardous materials such as asbestos, lead, and cadmium.
    The engineering survey must contain a list of all the materials used in the construction of the facility to be
    demolished.

    You can be sure that the demolition shown in the linked video, created by Controlled Demolition, Inc., would
    not have been successful had there not been a solid plan in place: https://youtu.be/oiftDBtCFt8 (Used by
    permission from Controlled Demolition, Inc. – Phoenix, Maryland, USA.)

    Caught-In or -Between Hazards

    OSHA has identified caught-In or -between hazards as one of the four leading causes of construction fatalities
    (OSHA, n.d.-b). Many of these hazards involve construction equipment and excavations. Click on this image
    for an example of a common caught-in or -between hazard:

    Home

    4

    UNIT x STUDY GUIDE
    Title

    References

    Almeida, A. (n.d.). “What the heck is THAT??” [Cartoon]. Retrieved from
    http://www.almeidacartoons.com/Safe_toons1.html

    Occupational Safety & Health Administration. (n.d.-a). Commonly used statistics. Retrieved from
    https://www.osha.gov/oshstats/commonstats.html

    Occupational Safety & Health Administration. (n.d.-b). Construction focus four training. Retrieved from
    https://www.osha.gov/dte/outreach/construction/focus_four/index.html

    Occupational Safety & Health Administration. (1998). Concrete and masonry construction [Brochure].
    Retrieved from https://www.osha.gov/Publications/osha3106

    Occupational Safety & Health Administration. (2005). The great American ballpark (A). Retrieved from
    https://www.osha.gov/dcsp/success_stories/compliance_assistance/abbott/stadium_construction.html

    Occupational Safety & Health Administration. (2015). OSHA technical manual: Section V: Chapter 1.
    Retrieved from https://www.osha.gov/dts/osta/otm/otm_v/otm_v_1.html

    TheLoizeauxGroupLLC. (2010, March 5). Kingdome – controlled demolition, Inc. [Video]. Retrieved from

    WorkSafeBC. (2011, Jan, 11). Excavation death trap: Not today [Video]. Retrieved from

    Suggested Reading

    Are you looking for more insight on the topics discussed in this unit? Access the items listed below to view
    videos and additional information to gain further insight and understanding.

    This demolition would have benefitted from a bit more planning:

    On Demand News. (2013, May, 12). A giant building implosion in Australia goes wrong [Video]. Retrieved
    from https://youtu.be/fms8r2dRu_8

    OSHA Construction Standards

    Occupational Safety & Health Administration. (n.d.). Occupational Safety & Health Administration:
    Regulations (Standards – 29 CFR). Retrieved from
    https://www.osha.gov/pls/oshaweb/owasrch.search_form?p_doc_type=STANDARDS&p_toc_level=1
    &p_keyvalue=Construction

    https://www.osha.gov/pls/oshaweb/owasrch.search_form?p_doc_type=standards&p_toc_level=1&p_keyvalue=construction

    https://www.osha.gov/pls/oshaweb/owasrch.search_form?p_doc_type=STANDARDS&p_toc_level=1&p_keyvalue=Construction

    https://www.osha.gov/pls/oshaweb/owasrch.search_form?p_doc_type=STANDARDS&p_toc_level=1&p_keyvalue=Construction

    https://online.waldorf.edu/CSU_Content/Waldorf_Content/ZULU/EmergencyServices/OSH/OSH3401/W15Ec/UnitVI_LessonActivity.ppsx

    5

    UNIT x STUDY GUIDE

    Title
    29 CFR 1926 Subpart CC, Cranes and derricks in Construction
    29 CFR 1926 Subpart T, Demolition.
    29 CFR 1926 Subpart P, Excavations
    29 CFR 1926 Subpart Q, Concrete and Masonry Construction

    Occupational Safety & Health Administration. (2002). Trenching and excavation safety [Brochure]. Retrieved
    from https://www.osha.gov/Publications/osha2226

    Occupational Safety & Health Administration. (2005). OSHA fact sheet: Demolition and cleanup [Fact sheet].
    Retrieved from https://www.osha.gov/OshDoc/data_Hurricane_Facts/demolition_cleanup

    Occupational Safety & Health Administration. (2008). Preventing skin problems from working with portland
    cement [Brochure]. Retrieved from https://www.osha.gov/Publications/OSHA-3351-portland-
    cement

    Occupational Safety & Health Administration. (2014). CPL 02-01-057 Compliance directive for the cranes
    and derricks in construction standard [Brochure]. Retrieved from
    https://www.osha.gov/OshDoc/Directive_pdf/CPL_02-01-057

    Learning Activities (Nongraded)

    Research the Internet for information on 10 or more fatal accidents involving trenching and excavation. Look
    for trends in the causal factors and the OSHA standards violated. Create a report that analyzes the trends
    and recommends actions to be taken that would prevent the same accidents on a construction site where you
    are the safety practitioner.

    Nongraded Learning Activities are provided to aid students in their course of study. You do not have to submit
    them. If you have questions contact your instructor for further guidance and information.

    https://www.osha.gov/Publications/osha2226

    https://www.osha.gov/OshDoc/data_Hurricane_Facts/demolition_cleanup

    https://www.osha.gov/Publications/OSHA-3351-portland-cement

    https://www.osha.gov/Publications/OSHA-3351-portland-cement

    https://www.osha.gov/OshDoc/Directive_pdf/CPL_02-01-057

    Presenter Name
    Presenter Title
    Event Name
    Presentation Title

    October 1, 2010
    OSHA Cranes & Derricks Subpart CC

    CRANES & DERRICKS
    Effective Date: November 8, 2010
    Subpart CC

    HIGHLIGHTS
    Signal Person Qualifications
    Qualifications of Maintenance and Repair Workers
    Training
    Hoisting Personnel
    Multiple Crane/Derrick Lifts
    Design, Construction and Testing
    Equipment Modifications
    Tower Cranes
    Derricks
    Floating Cranes & Land Cranes on Barges
    Overhead and Gantry Cranes
    Dedicated Pile Drivers
    Sideboom Cranes
    Requirements for equipment w/ capacity of 2000 lbs and less
    Scope
    Definitions
    Ground Conditions
    Assembly/disassembly
    Power Line Safety
    Inspections
    Wire Rope
    Safety Devices
    Operational Aids
    Operation
    Authority to Stop Operation
    Signals
    Fall Protection
    Work Area Control
    Keeping Clear of the Load
    Free Fall and Controlled Load Lowering
    Operator Qualification and Certification

    SCOPE: WHAT EQUIPMENT IS COVERED?
    Functional description

    Can hoist, lower and horizontally move a
    suspended load
    &
    Long list of examples

    EXAMPLES LIST
    Dedicated pile drivers
    Service/mechanic trucks with a hoisting device
    Crane on a monorail
    Tower cranes (such as fixed jib (“hammerhead boom”), luffing boom and self-erecting)
    Pedestal cranes
    Portal cranes
    Overhead and gantry cranes
    Straddle cranes
    Sideboom cranes
    Derricks

    . . . and variations of such
    equipment.

    Articulating cranes (such as knuckle-boom cranes)
    Crawler cranes
    Floating cranes
    Cranes on barges
    Locomotive cranes
    Mobile cranes
    (such as wheel-mounted, rough-terrain, all-terrain, commercial truck-mounted, and boom truck cranes)
    Multi-purpose machines
    when configured to hoist and lower (by means of a winch or hook) and horizontally move a suspended load
    Industrial cranes (such as carry-deck cranes)

    SCOPE
    Specific exclusions (such as for power shovels, excavators, and backhoes)
    Limited exclusions (such as for digger derricks, articulating/knuckle-boom truck cranes)

    GROUND CONDITIONS
    Controlling Entity:
    Provide adequate conditions
    Firm, drained
    and graded
    Sufficient to
    support crane
    (in conjunction
    with blocking,
    mats, etc.)

    GROUND CONDITIONS
    Controlling Entity must Inform equipment user & operator of
    known
    underground hazards
    (voids, utilities, etc.)

    A CHANGE MADE SINCE THE RULE WAS PROPOSED
    Information about ground conditions now includes all information known about ground conditions, including written information in possession of the controlling employer, whether on site or off site.

    ASSEMBLY / DISASSEMBLY

    ASSEMBLY / DISASSEMBLY
    Two options:

    Manufacturer procedures
    or
    Employer procedures
    (criteria requirements)

    General requirements, such as:

    A/D Director = “competent & qualified person”
    A/D Director must:
    Understand procedures
    Review procedures (unless A/D Director has used them before)
    Check that crew members understand their tasks, hazards
    Follow manufacturer’s prohibitions
    All rigging work is done by a Qualified Rigger
    When using outriggers – fully extend or deploy as
    per the load chart
    ASSEMBLY / DISASSEMBLY

    Qualified Rigger – adds requirements that employers must use a qualified rigger for rigging operations during assembly/disassembly and other activities when workers must be in the fall zone to handle a load. (§1926.1404 and § 1926.1425)

    Synthetic Slings – adds requirements (i.e., padding) for use of synthetic slings in rigging. (§ 1926.1404(r))
    CHANGES MADE SINCE THE RULE WAS PROPOSED

    POWER LINES

    Identify Work Zone

    Work Zone =
    Marking boundaries
    or
    360 degrees around crane up to maximum working radius
    POWER LINES

    Could you get within 20 feet of power line?
    YES
    NO
    Option #1 Deenergize & Ground
    Encroachment Prevention Measures
    (Equipment Operations)
    Option #3
    Ask Utility for Voltage and
    Use Table A
    (with minimum clearance distance)
    Option #2
    20-foot clearance
    No further action
    Planning meeting
    If tag lines used Non-conductive
    Elevated warning lines, barricade or line of signs

    PLUS (Choose one):
    Proximity alarm, spotter, warning device, range limiter, or insulating link

    *

    Table A – Minimum Clearance Distances
    Voltage (nominal, kV, alternating current) Minimum clearance distance (feet)
    up to 50 10
    over 50 to 200 15
    over 200 to 350 20
    over 350 to 500 25
    over 500 to 750 35
    over 750 to 1000 45
    over 1000 (as established by the power line owner/operator or registered professional engineer who is a qualified person with respect to electrical power transmission and distribution)

    *

    Must Show:
    Staying outside zone
    is infeasible
    Infeasible to
    deenergize and
    ground
    Intentionally Working Closer Than Table A Zone
    All of the following are required:
    Power line owner – sets minimum approach distance
    Planning meeting – minimum procedures
    – Dedicated spotter
    – Elevated warning line or barricade
    – Insulating link/device
    – Nonconductive rigging
    – Range limiter (if equipped)
    – Nonconductive tag line (if used)
    – Barricades – 10 feet from equipment
    – Limit access to essential workers
    – Prohibit non-operator workers from touching above insulating link
    – Properly ground crane
    – Deactivate automatic re-energizer
    – Insulating line cover-up installed

    CHANGE MADE SINCE THE RULE WAS PROPOSED
    Electric Utilities – employers whose employees are qualified to perform power distribution and transmission work are considered to be in compliance with §§ 1926.1407-1926.1411 of subpart CC (power lines sections) when performing subpart V work in accordance with § 1910.269. (§ 1926.1400(g))

    OPERATOR CERTIFICATION
    CRANES & DERRICKS

    WORKER PARTICIPATION
    Training
    Workers must be trained to recognize and avoid hazards.
    Workers must understand this training
    Provided in a manner they understand
    Oral/written training
    Provided in a language they understand
    Some Spanish language materials are already available through OSHA

    OPTION 1:
    Accredited testing organization
    OPTION 2:
    Audited employer program
    OPTION 3:
    U.S. military
    OPTION 4:
    State/local gov’t license
    OPERATOR QUALIFICATION /
    CERTIFICATION

    A CHANGE MADE SINCE THE RULE WAS PROPOSED
    The final rule now requires that employers must comply with local and state licensing regulations that meet requirements of § 1926.1427(e) and (j). (§ 1926.1427(a))

    OPTION 1:
    Accredited testing organization
    OPTION 2:
    Audited employer program
    OPTION 3:
    U.S. military
    OPTION 4:
    State/local license
    Testing Criteria

    OPERATOR QUALIFICATION /
    CERTIFICATION
    Knowledge (written test):
    Controls/performance characteristics
    Calculate capacity
    Preventing power line contact
    Ground conditions & equipment support
    Use and locate info in operating manual
    Appendix C subjects
    Practical test

    Develops and administers the tests (written & practical) to certify operators
    Accredited Testing Organization
    Nationally Recognized Accrediting Agency
    Option 1: Accredited Testing Organization
    Determines compliance
    with testing & test
    administration criteria

    Different tests for
    Different capacity/
    type of equipment

    Accredited testing organization
    Option 2: Audited Employer Program
    Auditor
    Audited Employer
    Program
    Compliance
    with testing & test
    administration criteria
    Certifies
    Employer-administered written & practical tests

    Option 3: U.S. Military
    U.S. Military
    Issues Operator Qualification

    Option 4: State/local government license
    State/local government license office
    Determines license office complies with testing/test administration criteria

    State/local government authority that oversees licensing office
    Issues operator license

    CHANGES MADE SINCE THE RULE WAS PROPOSED
    Certification Costs for Operators – employers must pay for certification or qualification of their currently uncertified or unqualified operators. (§ 1926.1427(a)(4))

    CHANGES MADE SINCE THE RULE WAS PROPOSED

    Test Administration and Language Requirements – written tests may be administered in a language understood by the operator candidate. (§ 1926.1427(h))

    Certification – clarifies that when the operator’s testing is based on a language other than English it must be noted on the certificate. (§ 1926.1427(h))

    CHANGE MADE SINCE THE RULE WAS PROPOSED
    Audited Employer Program – now specifies that the audit must be conducted in accordance with nationally recognized auditing standards. (§ 1926.1427(c))

    OPERATOR QUALIFICATION /
    CERTIFICATION
    Portable
    Valid
    * Subject to State & Local requirements and whether or not the military/state training meets accredited requirements.
    Accredited testing organization YES * 5 years
    Audited Employer Program NO
    5 years

    U.S. Military license NO * Set by issuing entity
    State/local license
    NO *
    Valid only in jurisdiction Set by issuing entity, not > 5 years

    OPERATOR QUALIFICATION /
    CERTIFICATION
    November 8, 2010: State or local license required if (1) working within a state or locality that has licensing requirements and (2) the licensing program meets the licensing and certification criteria listed in subpart CC.
    November 8, 2010-November 10, 2014: Employer must ensure that all operators are competent to operate the equipment safely and are trained and evaluated on that training before operating the equipment.
    November 10, 2014: All operators must be certified or qualified.

    Signal person – when required:
    Point of operation not in full view of operator

    View of direction of travel is obstructed

    Site-specific safety concerns

    Signal Types:
    Hand, voice, audible or “new”
    Only time an operator can use a cell phone while lifting (but must be hands free)
    SIGNALS

    SIGNAL PERSON
    Qualification Requirements:
    Know & understand signals
    Competent in using signals
    Basic understanding of crane operation
    Verbal or written test plus practical test

    Qualifications

    Qualified how
    Documentation
    Portable
    SIGNAL PERSON
    Third party qualified evaluator Yes Yes
    Employer qualified evaluator Yes No

    INSPECTIONS
    CRANES & DERRICKS

    Type of Inspection: Who Inspects:
    INSPECTIONS
    Modified or repaired/adjusted Qualified person
    Post-assembly Qualified person
    Shift Competent person
    Monthly Competent person
    Annual Qualified person

    CHANGES MADE SINCE THE RULE WAS PROPOSED
    Inspections – all documentation required by the inspection provisions must be available to all inspectors performing required inspections (including wire rope inspections). (§§ 1926.1412 & 1926.1413)

    Pre-Erection Inspection for Tower Cranes – adds a requirement to include inspection of crane components after transportation to the work site and prior to erection of the crane. (§ 1926.1435)

    OPERATIONS
    Operations procedures must be developed by a qualified person when the manufacturer’s procedures are unavailable.
    Procedures related to the capacity of the equipment must be developed by a registered professional engineer (familiar with the equipment) when the manufacturer’s procedures are unavailable.
    This information must be readily available in the cab of the crane.

    OPERATIONS
    Operators cannot be engaged in activities that distract her or his attention while operating the equipment (for example, no cellular phone use unless used for signaling).

    KEEPING CLEAR OF THE LOAD
    When workers must be in the fall zone to handle a load, the load must be rigged by a qualified rigger.

    FALL PROTECTION
    Fall protection requirements are specified in the final rule.

    Training is required regarding the criteria and use of fall protection systems that is consistent with 29 CFR 1926 subpart M.

    Anchor points for fall protection systems must meet subpart M requirements and criteria.

    SAFETY DEVICES AND OPERATIONAL AIDS

    SAFETY DEVICES
    Safety devices are required and must be operational at all times

    Include:
    Crane level indicator
    Boom/Jib stops (except derricks)
    Integral holding device/check valve for outrigger and stabilizer jacks

    OPERATIONAL AIDS
    Operational aids are required but temporary alternative measures are also allowed while operational aids are being repaired.

    OPERATIONAL AIDS
    Boom hoist limiting device, luffing jib limiting device, and anti two-blocking device.
    Replacement of parts:
    Must be repaired within 7 days of discovery of deficiency.

    OPERATIONAL AIDS
    Category II Devices
    Boom angle or radius indicator, boom length indicator, load weighing devices, jib angle indicator, outrigger/stabilizer position sensor/monitor, and hoist drum rotation indicator.
    Replacement of parts:
    Must be repaired within 30 days of discovery of deficiency.

    OPERATIONAL AIDS

    Exception: employer has documented that it ordered the part and then repaired the equipment within 7 days of receipt of the replacement part.

    When any necessary repairs or adjustments are needed for the equipment and alternative methods are being implemented, the employer must communicate this information to all affected employees at the beginning of each shift. (§ 1926.1417(j))
    CHANGE MADE SINCE THE RULE WAS PROPOSED

    TOWER CRANES

    TOWER CRANES
    SUPPLEMENTAL REQUIREMENTS

    Some supplemental tower crane requirements
    Foundations & structural supports
    Design & Inspection
    Plumb tolerance
    Specification & verification
    Climbing procedures
    Host structure strength verification
    Wind
    Post-erection load test
    Monthly Inspection: tower mast bolts, upper-most tie-in, braces, floor supports, floor wedges

    Required Documentation Includes
    Monthly & annual inspection reports for the equipment and wire rope
    Modifications that affect the safe use of the equipment
    Operator and signal person qualifications
    Tower crane foundation/support design
    When repairs or adjustments of the equipment are needed

    Required Documentation Includes
    Employer-developed procedures (i.e., assembly/disassembly, operational, and other procedures related to the safe operation of the equipment)
    Power line encroachment procedures/plan

    STATE PLAN STATES

    STATE PLAN STATES

    States must set job safety and health standards that are “at least as effective as” comparable federal standards.
    Although most states adopt standards identical to federal ones, there is some flexibility. Therefore, cranes and derricks standards may differ in states operating their own plans.
    Some states already have their own cranes and derricks standards in place. Their regulations must be “at least as effective as” the federal standard.
    Go to www.osha.gov/dcsp/osp for more information on state plan states.

    WORKER PARTICIPATION

    WORKER PARTICIPATION
    The participation of workers is a vital component of any workplace injury and illness prevention program; workers are the best eyes and ears for identifying hazards.  Workers must be trained on the hazards they face and ways to prevent the hazards.

    WORKER PARTICIPATION
    Workers have a right to a safe and healthy workplace
    Workers have a right to report safety issues without fear of retaliation
    Workers may report safety concerns to OSHA at 1-800-321-OSHA

    Comprehensive
    State Plan
    State Plan
    Public Sector Only
    Federal OSHA
    Puerto Rico-
    Comprehensive
    Virgin Islands-
    Public Sector
    Only
    Source: Establishments County Business Patterns, 2005; Employme nt Current Employment Statistics (CES), 2007
    AK
    WASH
    OREG
    CALIF
    NEV
    N. DAK
    IDAHO
    WYO
    ARIZ
    N. MEX
    UTAH
    COLO
    TEXAS
    OKLA
    KANSAS
    NEBR
    HI
    S. DAK
    MINN
    IOWA
    MO
    ARK
    LA
    MISS
    ALAGA
    FLA
    SC
    NC
    TENN
    KY
    IND
    WIS
    MI
    OH
    WV
    PA
    NY
    VA
    ME
    MONT
    VT
    NH
    MD
    NJ
    DE
    CT
    RI
    MA
    ILL
    Federal:
    District of Columbia
    Guam
    American Samoa
    Trust territories
    Revised April 2010

    Construction Safety
    Unit VI Assignment – Caught-In or -Between Hazards

    Student Name:

    Date:

    Instructions:

    Each of the following slides contains a construction site photo that depicts one or more caught-in or -between hazards.

    Examine each photo and answer the questions in the notes section of each slide. Make sure to also move the red arrow (provided in the bottom left corner of each slide) to point toward the location of the hazard.

    Save the completed presentation and upload it into Blackboard.

    Be sure to put your name at the top of this first slide!

    1

    Figure 1
    (Indian River State College, n.d.-a)

    Identify and describe the caught-in or -between hazard in this photo. Move the arrow over the photo to indicate the location of the hazard.
    What OSHA construction standard(s) could be cited?
    What would you recommend to correct the hazard?
    .
    2

    Figure 2
    (Indian River State College, n.d.-b)

    Identify and describe the caught-in or -between hazard in this photo. Move the arrows over the photo to indicate the locations of the hazard.

    What OSHA construction standard(s) could be cited?

    What would you recommend to correct the hazard?
    3

    Figure 3
    (Indian River State College, n.d.-c)
    1
    2

    Identify and describe the caught-in or -between hazards in this photo. Move the arrows over the photo to indicate the location of the hazards.

    What OSHA construction standard(s) could be cited?

    What would you recommend to correct the hazard?
    4

    Figure 4
    (Occupational Safety & Health Administration, n.d.=d)

    Identify and describe the caught-in or -between hazard in this photo. Move the arrow over the photo to indicate the location of the hazard.

    What OSHA construction standard(s) could be cited?

    What would you recommend to correct the hazard(s)?

    5

    Figure 5
    (Indian River State College, n.d.-e)

    Identify and describe the caught-in or -between hazard in this photo. Move the arrow over the photo to indicate the location of the hazard.
    What OSHA construction standard(s) could be cited?

    What would you recommend to correct the hazard?

    6

    References
    Indian River State College. (n.d.-a). Figure 1 [Image]. From Recognize any hazard(s)? [PowerPoint presentation]. Retrieved from https://www.osha.gov/dte/outreach/construction/focus_four/caught/caught_iorb_hazrec.ppt
    Indian River State College. (n.d.-b). Figure 2 [Image]. From Recognize any hazard(s)? [PowerPoint presentation]. Retrieved from https://www.osha.gov/dte/outreach/construction/focus_four/caught/caught_iorb_hazrec.ppt
    Indian River State College. (n.d.-c). Figure 3 [Image]. From Recognize any hazard(s)? [PowerPoint presentation]. Retrieved from https://www.osha.gov/dte/outreach/construction/focus_four/caught/caught_iorb_hazrec.ppt
    Indian River State College. (n.d.-d). Figure 5 [Image]. From Recognize any hazard(s)? [PowerPoint presentation]. Retrieved from https://www.osha.gov/dte/outreach/construction/focus_four/caught/caught_iorb_hazrec.ppt
    Occupational Safety & Health Administration. (n.d.). Figure 4 [Image]. Retrieved from http://www.msabc.net/safety%20programs/osha%20poto%20archive/html/excavation_pg1.html

    7

    Excavations

    10-Hour Construction Outreach

    PPT 10-hr. Construction – Excavations v.05.18.15

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    Excavations
    Source of photos: NIOSH /John Rekus

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    Excavation and trenching are among the most hazardous construction operations.
    2

    Excavations
    Lesson Overview
    Role of Competent Person
    Excavation Hazards
    Protection from Cave-ins
    Protection from other Excavation Hazards
    Employer Requirements

    PPT 10-hr. Construction – Excavations v.05.18.15
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    Enabling Objectives:
    Describe the role of a competent person at an excavation site.
    Identify hazards associated with excavations.
    Describe the methods for protecting employees from cave-ins.
    Apply excavation hazard protection methods.
    Recognize employer requirements to protect workers from excavation hazards.
    3

    Role of Competent Person
    Required training and knowledge
    Soil classification
    Use of protective systems
    OSHA’s requirements for excavation
    Able to identify hazards and have the authority to eliminate hazards

    PPT 10-hr. Construction – Excavations v.05.18.15
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    What a competent person needs to know…
    OSHA defines soil types: Stable Rock, Type A, Type B and Type C [see 1926 Subpart P Appendix A (b)].
    Competent persons must be able to determine soil type based on at least one visual and one manual test performed at the job-site.
    OSHA standards require that employers inspect trenches daily and as conditions change by a competent person before worker entry to ensure elimination of excavation hazards. A competent person is an individual who is capable of identifying
    existing and predictable hazards or working conditions that are hazardous, unsanitary, or dangerous to workers, soil types and protective systems required, and who is authorized to take prompt corrective measures to eliminate these hazards and conditions.

    4

    This competent person is inspecting the excavation, surroundings and protective system. If a hazard is identified, they will remove the worker and take prompt corrective action.
    Source of photo: OTIEC Chabot Las Positas

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    Inspections must be made:
    Before work begins.
    After rainstorms, high winds, or other occurrences that may increase hazards.
    When it can reasonably anticipated that a worker will be exposed to hazard(s).

    It is the responsibility of the competent person to make those inspections necessary to identify situations that could result in hazardous conditions (e.g., possible cave-ins, indications of failure of protective systems, hazardous atmospheres, or other hazardous conditions), and then to insure that corrective measures are taken. It is, therefore, subject to the conditions present at each individual worksite whether or not a competent person is required to be present at the jobsite at all times.
    Note: Identify hazards – soil type – sloping – materials at edge of excavation
    5

    Excavation Hazards
    Cave-ins
    Falls
    Falling Loads
    Hazardous Environment
    Mobile Equipment
    Underground Utilities
    Source of photo: OSHA
    This is a very dangerous situation!

    PPT 10-hr. Construction – Excavations v.05.18.15
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    Ask the class how many of these exist in this photo?
    Have the students brainstorm on what environmental hazards might be.
    Ask the students which they feel is the greatest hazard?
    6

    Cave-Ins
    Greatest hazard
    It is natural for a trench to try to fill itself
    One cubic foot of soil weighs between 90-130 lbs.
    It will entrap, bury, or otherwise injure you

    PPT 10-hr. Construction – Excavations v.05.18.15
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    Cave-ins pose the greatest risk and are much more likely than other excavation related accidents to result in worker fatalities.
    Two workers die every month in trench collapses!
    7

    They Both Died
    A crew was installing conduit in an 8’ deep by 2’ wide trench.
    The trench collapsed.
    Two workers were buried.
    They both died!

    Source of photo: CDC/NIOSH/FACE

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    Protection is Required
    Never enter an unprotected trench that is 5 or more in depth
    The competent person must first choose and implement a protective system
    Even excavations less than 5 feet deep need to be deemed safe by the competent person
    Cave-ins can happen without warning

    This 6 foot deep vertical-sided, unprotected trench is dangerous!
    Source of photo: OTIEC NRC WVU

    PPT 10-hr. Construction – Excavations v.05.18.15
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    Protective Systems
    Support/shoring systems
    Sloping and benching
    Shielding systems (trench boxes)

    Shoring
    Sloping
    Shielding

    PPT 10-hr. Construction – Excavations v.05.18.15
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    How does the competent person choose the most appropriate protective system design?
    Designing a protective system can be complex because they must consider many factors: soil classification, depth of cut, water content of soil, changes due to weather and climate, or other operations in the vicinity. Employers are free to choose the most practical design approach for any particular circumstance. Once they have selected an approach, however, the system must meet the required performance criteria.
    Protective systems are not require when an excavation is made entirely in stable rock or is less than 5 feet (1.52 meters) deep, if a competent person has examined the ground and found no indication of a potential cave-in.
    10

    Support/shoring Systems

    Source of photos: NIOSH /John Rekus

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    Shoring (Shoring system) means a structure such as a metal hydraulic, mechanical or timber shoring system that supports the sides of an excavation and which is designed to prevent cave-ins.
    11

    The Theory of Shoring
    Shoring prevents cave-ins
    Shoring, if designed and installed correctly, prevents movement of the excavated wall.
    In order for the shoring to do its job, you must stay within the protection of the shoring even when entering and exiting

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    12

    Improper Shoring

    Make-shift, improperly designed shoring does little other then provide a false sense of security!
    Source of photos: OSHA

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    13

    Sloping and Benching

    This slope is safe for any soil classification!
    Is this a 1 ½ to 1 slope?

    PPT 10-hr. Construction – Excavations v.05.18.15
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    Some contractors may choose to slope the sides to an angle not steeper than 1-1/2:1; for example, for every foot of depth, the trench must be excavated back 1-1/2 feet. A slope of this gradation or less is safe for any type of soil.
    Sloping at steeper angles will require the competent person to first classify the soil and then chose a slope which will protect you from cave-ins.
    The photo above is actually depicting Type C soil and is not sloped properly.
    14

    The Theory of Sloping
    Sloping prevents cave-ins
    Sloping, if done correctly, removes the risk of cave-ins by sloping the soil of the trench back from the trench bottom
    Source of photo: OTIEC NRC WVU

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    15

    Shield System

    Source of photo: OSHA
    How many hazards can you find ?

    PPT 10-hr. Construction – Excavations v.05.18.15
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    Shield (Shield system) means a structure that is able to withstand the forces imposed on it by a cave-in and thereby protect employees within the structure. Shields can be permanent structures or can be designed to be portable and moved along as work progresses.
    Trench shields and boxes, if installed correctly, are designed to protect workers from the forces of a cave-in
    In order for the shield to do its job, the worker must stay within the protection of the shield even when entering and exiting
    Use a trench box or shield designed or approved by a registered professional engineer or based on tabulated data prepared or approved by a registered professional engineer.
    Timber, aluminum, or other suitable materials may also be used.
    Photo hazards: Improper use of ladder, trench plate can not be hung from strut, box is not stabilized, fall hazard trying to get in and out of box.
    16

    The Theory of Shielding
    Trench shields and boxes, if installed correctly, are designed to protect workers from the forces of a cave-in
    In order for the shield to do its job, you must stay within the protection of the shield even when entering and exiting

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    17

    Falls

    Source of photos: OSHA
    Safe Alternative

    PPT 10-hr. Construction – Excavations v.05.18.15
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    Class discussion
    Ask the class if they have ever seen anything like the photo on the left?
    Next ask them if they have ever had to cross a trench this way?
    Have them come up with a conclusion of the worst possible scenario should they fall.
    Explain why the photo on the right represents a safer solution.
    18

    Adjacent Structures
    Structures become unstable when earth next to them is removed
    For your safety, they must be supported
    A competent person must ensure precautions are implemented.

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    Excavations under sidewalks and pavements are prohibited unless you provide an appropriately designed support system or another effective means of support.
    19

    Underground Utilities
    Source of photo: OSHA
    As required, this worker’s employer used their state’s one call system to locate under ground utilities before breaking ground. Now he is hand digging to find the exact location.

    PPT 10-hr. Construction – Excavations v.05.18.15
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    Before starting work, the OSHA standard requires your employer to do the following:
    Determine the approximate location of utility installations—sewer, telephone, fuel, electric, and water lines; or any other underground installations;
    Contact the utility companies or owners involved to inform them of the proposed work within established or customary local response times; and
    Ask the utility companies or owners to find the exact location of underground installations. If they cannot respond within 24 hours (unless the period required by state or local law is longer) or cannot find the exact location of the utility installations, you may proceed with caution.
    When finding the exact location of underground utilities, proceed with caution, by hand or other acceptable safe means.
    Potholing is a practice used to determine the location of underground utilities by digging test holes to expose such a facility.

    1926.651(b)(3) When excavation operations approach the estimated location of underground installations, the exact location of the installations shall be determined by safe and acceptable means.
    The use of heavy equipment, such as a backhoe, for potholing is not a preferred method due to the riskiness of this endeavor compared to other methods of potholing. http://www.marc.org/Government/Local-Government-Services/pdf/Potholing
    20

    Spoil Pile

    Source of photo: OSHA
    Minimum

    PPT 10-hr. Construction – Excavations v.05.18.15
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    You must be protected from excavated or other materials or equipment that could pose a hazard by falling or rolling into excavations.
    Protection shall be provided by placing and keeping such materials or equipment at least 2 feet (.61 m) from the edge of excavations, or by the use of retaining devices that are sufficient to prevent materials or equipment from falling or rolling into excavations, or by a combination of both if necessary.
    Possibly could be further back due to “surcharge load”
    21

    Mobile Equipment

    Source of photos: OSHA
    Safe Alternative

    PPT 10-hr. Construction – Excavations v.05.18.15
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    When mobile equipment is operated adjacent to an excavation; the operator must have a clear and direct view of the edge of the excavation, or… A warning system shall be utilized such as barricades, hand or mechanical signals, or stop logs. If possible, the grade should be away from the excavation.
    22

    Vehicular or Traffic Hazards
    Source of photos: OSHA

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    Excavations which expose workers to vehicular traffic require specific precautions and controls.
    Employees exposed to public vehicular traffic shall be provided with, and shall wear, warning vests or other suitable garments marked with or made of reflectorized or high-visibility material.
    All traffic control signs or devices used for protection of construction workers shall conform to Part VI of the MUTCD, 1988 Edition, Revision 3, or Part VI of the MUTCD, Millennium Edition.
    23

    Falling Loads
    Source of photo: OSHA

    Do you see any other hazards?

    PPT 10-hr. Construction – Excavations v.05.18.15
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    Materials too close to the excavation.
    Other Photo hazards: Improperly constructed ladder; improper protection of type C soil.
    24

    Hazardous Atmospheres
    Source of photo: OSHA

    PPT 10-hr. Construction – Excavations v.05.18.15
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    Ask the class what the potential atmospheric hazards are depicted here?
    A competent person must test any excavation deeper than 4 feet (1.22 meters) or where an oxygen deficiency or a hazardous atmosphere is present or could reasonably be expected, such as a landfill or where hazardous substances are stored nearby, before an employee enters it. If there are any hazardous conditions, your employer must provide the controls such as proper respiratory protection or ventilation.
    In addition, employers are responsible for regularly testing all controls used to reduce atmospheric contaminants to acceptable levels.
    If unhealthful atmospheric conditions exist or develop in an excavation, they must provide emergency rescue equipment such as a breathing apparatus, safety harness and line, and basket stretcher and ensure that it is readily available. This equipment must be attended when in use.
    25

    Water Accumulation

    Source of photos: OSHA

    PPT 10-hr. Construction – Excavations v.05.18.15
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    Water changes everything and makes soil less stable.
    Efforts must be make to keep water out of excavations.
    Among the additional hazards stemming from water in an excavation are undermining the sides and making it more difficult to get out of the excavation. You must have adequate protection in excavations where water has accumulated or is accumulating.
    If your employer uses water removal equipment to control or prevent water accumulation, you must ensure that a competent person monitors the equipment and its operation to ensure proper use.
    Diversion ditches, dikes, or other suitable means can also be used to prevent surface water from entering an excavation and to provide adequate drainage of the adjacent area.
    In addition, a competent person must inspect excavations subject to runoffs from heavy rains.
    26

    Access/Egress

    Source of photo: OSHA

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    You must have safe access and egress when working in excavations, including ladders, steps, ramps, or other safe means of exit for employees working in trench excavations 4 feet (1.22 meters) or deeper.
    These devices must be located in the excavation within 25 feet (7.62 meters) of all workers.
    Any structural ramps must be designed by a competent person if they are used for employee access or egress, or by a competent person qualified in structural design if they are used for vehicles. Also, structural members used for ramps or runways must be uniform in thickness and joined in a manner to prevent tripping or displacement.
    27

    Ladders

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    28

    Hard Hats
    Working below grade, overhead hazards exist
    Hard hats must be worn in excavations because of overhead hazards
    Source of photo: OSHA

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    29

    Responsibilities: Employer
    Employers must:
    preplan the work and use the one-call system to identify underground utilities
    protect you from cave-ins and other excavation-related hazards
    inspect the excavation at least daily and throughout the shift as needed
    take prompt corrective action when a hazard is identified
    respond to and correct hazards pointed out by you, the worker

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    30

    Responsibilities: Employer
    Employers must:
    make sure a ladder is within 25’ of your work area when deeper than 4’
    keep excavated dirt, rocks and other materials back 2’ from the excavation’s edge
    Test and monitor the air within the trench in areas suspect to atmospheric hazards

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    31

    Responsibilities: You
    You must:
    work defensively
    Follow you company’s excavation and trenching safety rules
    correct the hazards you are able to correct
    report to your supervisor the hazards you are unable to correct

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    32

    Case Study

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    The victims were members of a crew installing conduit in an eight-foot-deep by two-foot-wide trench. After approximately an hour, the crew leader grounded the bucket, turned the machine off and walked to the company trailer to check blueprints. As he exited the trailer, he was informed by one of the workers that the trench had collapsed and that the two employees had been covered up.
    Ask the class for 3-4 things that may have contributed to these workers losing their lives.
    Possible Answers: Improper safety oversight. No protective system. No way to get out. Spoil pile too close. Any others?
    Ask the class for 3-4 recommendations for preventing a similar incident.
    Possible Answers: Have a competent person. Evaluate the soil and implement a protective system. Have a ladder for egress. Educate workers. Any others?
    33

    Hazard Recognition
    Identify hazards and what should be done

    Source of photos: OSHA

    PPT 10-hr. Construction – Excavations v.05.18.15
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    Photo left: Unprotected trench, undermined-unsupported pavement, spoil pile too close.
    Photo middle: Workers leaving protection of trench box. Inadequate box – open ends – need stackable box or lay sloping angle back. Unsupported utilities
    Right photo: Fall hazard. Improperly constructed walkway – proper access egress needed
    Have students propose solution for each.
    34

    Hazard Recognition
    Identify hazards and what should be done

    Source of photos: OSHA

    PPT 10-hr. Construction – Excavations v.05.18.15
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    Photo left: Fall hazard. Proper support? Engineering? Surcharge load of crane.
    Photo middle: Work zone hazard, traffic with no barricades. Class of Vest?
    Photo right: Fall hazard, undermined pavement, unprotected excavation. Engineering of all surface encumbrances.
    Have students propose solutions for each.
    35

    Hazard Recognition
    Identify hazards and what should be done

    Source of photo: OSHA

    PPT 10-hr. Construction – Excavations v.05.18.15
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    Created by OTIEC Outreach Resources Workgroup
    Photo left: Unsafe loads being place on soil. Surcharge loads. Spoil piles.
    Photo middle: Workers leaving protective system, unsupported utility pipe. Inadequate protection – sloping.
    Photo right: Improperly installed protective system and potential worker exposure to traffic. Surcharge load.
    Have students propose solutions
    36

    Always Remember
    Never enter a trench 5’ or greater in depth unless a protective system is in place.
    Trenches less than 5’ deep still require the competent person’s “OK”
    If a trench box or shoring is used, never leave its protection while in the trench

    PPT 10-hr. Construction – Excavations v.05.18.15
    ‹#›
    Created by OTIEC Outreach Resources Workgroup

    37

    Knowledge Check
    What is the minimum distance that excavated materials, tools, and other supplies be kept back from the excavation’s edge?
    1 foot
    2 feet
    7.5 feet
    25 feet
    b. 2 feet

    PPT 10-hr. Construction – Excavations v.05.18.15
    ‹#›
    Created by OTIEC Outreach Resources Workgroup

    38

    Knowledge Check
    At what depth must a ladder, ramp, steps, or runway be present for quick worker exit:
    4 feet
    5 feet
    10 feet
    It is never required
    a. 4 feet

    PPT 10-hr. Construction – Excavations v.05.18.15
    ‹#›
    Created by OTIEC Outreach Resources Workgroup

    39

    Knowledge Check
    What is the greatest hazard facing a worker while working in a trench:
    Hazardous atmospheres
    Falls
    Cave-ins
    Falling Objects
    c. Cave-ins

    PPT 10-hr. Construction – Excavations v.05.18.15
    ‹#›
    Created by OTIEC Outreach Resources Workgroup

    40

    Knowledge Check
    Unless made in entirely stable rock, at what depth is a protective system required for a trench:
    Any depth if the competent person says so.
    5 feet deep and greater
    Both a and b
    A protective system is never required in trenches
    c. Both a and b

    PPT 10-hr. Construction – Excavations v.05.18.15
    ‹#›
    Created by OTIEC Outreach Resources Workgroup

    41

    Excavations in Construction
    Questions?

    PPT 10-hr. Construction – Excavations v.05.18.15
    ‹#›
    Created by OTIEC Outreach Resources Workgroup

    42

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