Due in 24 hrs must follow assignment details and provided templates
[APA WRITING STYLE GUIDE]
Citation Style Basics for CTU Students Updated December 1, 2016
APA WRITING STYLE GUIDE – VERSION 2.2 2
We created the CTU APA Writing Style Guide as a tool to help students understand and
apply the University’s citation method and writing expectations. CTU has adopted the American
Psychological Association (APA) citation style for all classes, graduate and undergraduate. APA
establishes a citation system that includes a set of rules and guidelines for manuscript preparation
and documentation of sources. When writing assignments of any type, you must document and
cite all sources properly using APA style. Citing and referencing sources correctly both
indicates your professional ability to include other voices in your work and prevents accusations
Our CTU APA Writing Style Guide answers some of the common questions CTU students
ask about using APA style for formatting documents, including in-text citations and constructing
references. However, if you have questions not answered in our guide, please consult either the
APA Style for CTU Students or The Publication Manual of the American Psychological
Association, 6th ed. (2010).
Along with our guide, use the APA Paper Template when composing essays or other
papers. This Microsoft Word document is already formatted for APA style using the
expectations outlined in our guide.
Refer to the Introductory APA Writing Style Guide if your assignment advises its use. The
introductory style guide emphasizes proper citation of sources and basic formatting but does not
require more advanced formatting, including title page, abstract, running head, or page numbers.
APA WRITING STYLE GUIDE – VERSION 2.2 3
Assignment Style Format Checklist
The following checklist outlines the writing format requirements for all assignments unless the
assignment specifies different formatting requirements.
Discussion Board/Forum Post
If references are used or required for an assignment, include the
References list (at the end of the discussion post)
If you are submitting an assignment in essay format using Microsoft Word, include the
Running head and page numbers
Double-spaced throughout without additional spacing between paragraphs
Indent the first line of each new paragraph
12 point Times New Roman black font
If references are used or required for an assignment, include the following:
References list as a separate page at the end of the document
If references are used or required for an assignment, include the following:
References slide at the end of the presentation
APA WRITING STYLE GUIDE – VERSION 2.2 4
Why Do I Need to Understand and Utilize APA Style When Completing My Assignments?
1. To credit the outside sources you incorporate into your assignments, to avoid plagiarism,
and to situate yourself in the professional discussions occurring in your field.
2. To establish credibility as an author by demonstrating consistent application of a
comprehensive and industry-wide system of attribution.
3. To confirm for your audience (peers and faculty) where they can locate the information
4. To create a uniform document acceptable for both academic and professional purposes
How Do I Include Resources in My Assignments to Avoid Plagiarizing?
Review the requirements for your assignment. You must properly credit any sources you
Use in-text citations and references to acknowledge and cite your sources. Place in-text
citations in the body of the paper, usually immediately following information included
from outside sources.
Include a references list on the last page of the paper that includes the complete
bibliographical information for each source, cited in APA format.
Citing Sources in the Text
When citing a resource in a piece of writing, the basic information is included in the body
of the paper and the full information in the reference list. The in-text citation is the author’s last
name(s), year of publication, and, if appropriate, the page number. Consult the APA Style for
CTU Students guide for more examples on how to use in-text citations.
APA WRITING STYLE GUIDE – VERSION 2.2 5
Outside sources can be included in the text in multiple ways. Use the skills of Direct
Quotation, Paraphrase, and Summary as the primary methods to include outside sources.
To paraphrase is to use information from one source and restate the information in your
own words. When you paraphrase, you credit your source because the ideas you used are not
your own. Paraphrasing allows you to include particular information from a piece of evidence
without quoting the language directly, while maintaining the original intent of the source. Below
are examples of how to cite a source you have paraphrased in your writing.
According to Booth, Colomb, and Williams (2003), plagiarism should be avoided.
Plagiarism should be avoided (Booth, Colomb, & Williams, 2003).
In both examples, you include the author’s last name(s) and the year of the publication only. Do
not include author’s initials unless there are two or more authors with the same last name.
Using Direct Quotations
A quotation is a statement or a portion of a statement taken from an original text. Direct
quotations should be recorded accurately and used rarely, primarily to emphasize your point. A
good rule of thumb is to use a quotation when a paraphrase does not represent the information
properly or a better way to state the information is not clear. The more experience you gain with
writing and using sources, the better you become at determining which is better: a quotation or
paraphrase of the information.
APA WRITING STYLE GUIDE – VERSION 2.2 6
Below are examples of how you could cite a direct quotation within the text of your
assignment. Please note: Direct quotations that are 40 words or more should start on a new line
and be indented without quotation marks to create a block quote.
According to Booth, Colomb, and Williams (2003), “In all fields, you plagiarize when
you use a source’s words or ideas without citing that source” (p. 202).
Many authorities have commented on the topic, but this is one of the most effective
descriptions: “In all fields, you plagiarize when you use a source’s words or ideas without
citing that source” (Booth, Colomb, & Williams, 2003, p. 202).
Formatting Your Paper
CTU provides a template in Microsoft Word that is already in APA format, located on the
APA Style for CTU Students site. We recommend you use the template when writing papers so
you do not need to spend time unnecessarily putting a document into the format. See section
8.03 of the APA Publication Manual for more information on formatting your paper.
An APA formatted paper has:
1 inch margins
double spacing throughout without additional spacing between paragraphs
12 point Times New Roman black font
Each page of the document has a running head at the top left in the header. The running
head is a shortened version of the title, around 50 characters including spaces, in ALL CAPS.
Each page has a page number at the top right in the header. The title page is page 1, and
pages are numbered consecutively from there.
APA WRITING STYLE GUIDE – VERSION 2.2 7
The first line of each paragraph is indented ½ inch (one tab or 5-7 spaces).
If appropriate, use headings as described in section 3.03 of the APA Manual.
The first page of your document is the title page. The title of your paper, your name, and
the name of the university are centered in the upper half of the page. APA recommends the title
“should be fully explanatory when standing alone” (“Publication Manual,” 2010, section 2.01)
and be a maximum of 12 words. See section 2.01 of the APA Publication Manual.
On the title page, the running head is preceded by the words “Running head:”—all
subsequent pages have only the running head; use Microsoft Word’s “Different First Page”
header option to maintain the difference.
Running head: APA WRITING STYLE GUIDE
Only include an abstract if the assignment or instructor specifies you should. The
abstract is placed on page 2 with the label Abstract centered at the top of the page. The abstract
is a short summary of the whole paper rather than a repeat of the introduction. See section 2.04
of the APA Manual for hints on how to write a good abstract.
Start the reference list on a new page at the end of your paper. Title the page with the
word References centered at the top. See section 2.11 of the APA Publication Manual.
All of the sources you cite in your assignment, and only those sources, must be compiled
to create a references list. The References Page is the second step to confirm you’ve cited and
documented your sources successfully and avoided plagiarism. You should not have a source
APA WRITING STYLE GUIDE – VERSION 2.2 8
cited in your essay that is not listed on the references page, and you should not have an entry on
your references page that is not cited in the body of your essay.
The references list starts on a new page at the end of the paper and includes the complete
reference/bibliographic information for each source cited in the paper or presentation.
The references list is double spaced without additional spacing between entries.
All references are listed in alphabetical order by the author’s last name or, if no author is
listed, by the title of the source. If you are using multiple works by the same author,
place them in order of publication date.
Each entry is formatted as a “hanging indent,” which means that the first line of each
entry is justified to the left margin and the second and following lines are indented 5-7
spaces (one tab). You can format a hanging indent in Microsoft Word by opening the
paragraph dialogue box, and in the “Indentation” section under “Special,” selecting
“Hanging” from the drop-down menu and under “By” selecting “0.5″.”
The specific APA format for a reference depends on the type of source included in your
assignment. For more information on specific formatting details, see the reference examples on
pages 9-14 of our document or consult the APA Style Guide for CTU students.
APA WRITING STYLE GUIDE – VERSION 2.2 9
Based on Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th ed. (2010):
Chapter 7, Reference examples, pp. 193-224
Consult the APA Style Guide for CTU Students for more reference examples.
Non-periodical Web document, Web page, or report.
Author’s Last Name, First and Second Initial or Name Corporate Author. (Date of Publication).
Title of document. Retrieved from http://Web
Capital Community College. (2007, February). A guide for writing research papers based on the
recommended by the American Psychological Association. Retrieved from
Note: When creating references for Web documents and pages, writers frequently need to hunt
around for the required information. It is important to include as much of the required
information as possible in the reference.
If your source has no publication date:
Use “n.d.” in place of the date in both the references entry and the in-text citation: (Smith, n.d.)
Capital Community College. (n.d.). A guide for writing research papers based on the styles
recommended by the American Psychological Association. Retrieved from
APA WRITING STYLE GUIDE – VERSION 2.2 10
Article from an online newspaper.
Author’s Last Name, First and Second Initial., & Author’s Last Name, First and Second initial.
(Year, Month Day). Title of article. Title of Newspaper. Retrieved from http://Web
Jackson, D., & Marx, G. (2009, October 12). State Senate hearing to examine nursing home
safety. Chicago Tribune. Retrieved from http://www.chicagotribune.com
Note: If the article is available through a search of the source’s website, give just the URL of the
home page. If the URL home page is not available by the search box, give the full URL to the
Journal article from an online source or library database.
Author’s Last Name, First and Second Initial. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of
Newspaper, Magazine, or Journal, Volume(Issue number if known), page numbers. DOI
number or if no DOI is available use the following: Retrieved from the URL for the
journal’s home page
With DOI number.
Brewer, P. D. & Brewer, K. L. (2010, July/August). Knowledge management, human resource
management, and higher education: A theoretical model. Journal of Education for
Business, 84(6), 330-336. doi:10.1080/08832321003604938
Without DOI number.
Tomkiewicz, J., Bass, K., & Gribble, A. (2011, June). Potential pitfalls of ethnocentricism in a
globalizing world. College Student Journal, 45(2), 369-375. Retrieved from
APA WRITING STYLE GUIDE – VERSION 2.2 11
Article from an online magazine.
Author’s Last Name, First and Second Initial. (Year, Month Day). Title of article. Title of
Magazine, Volume(Issue number if known). Retrieved from http://Web address
Crumley, B. (2009, October 12). Should students be paid to do well in school? Time. Retrieved
Corporate author, government report or document.
Name of Government Department or Agency. (Date of publication). Title of document (Report or
document number if given).
Retrieved from http://Web address
United States Department of Education (2008, January 16). Secretary Spellings awards over $38
million to 20 states in school improvement grants. Retrieved from
Author’s Last Name, First and Second Initial. (Year of Publication). Title of Book [Electronic
version, for example, DX Reader version]. doi number or Retrieved from http://Web
Urquhart, V., & McIver, M. (2005). Teaching writing in the content areas [Ebrary Reader
version]. Retrieved from http://site.ebrary.com/lib/cecybrary/docDetail.
APA WRITING STYLE GUIDE – VERSION 2.2 12
Entry in an online reference work, no author or editor.
Title of entry. (Year of Publication). In Title of reference work (edition number if given).
Retrieved from http://Web address
Paraphrase. (2009). In Merriam-Webster online. Retrieved from http://www.merriam-
Use the following method to cite your instructor’s lecture in the classroom or in private
communication. These include emails, interviews, letters, or any other communication. Your in-
text citation should include the communicator’s name, the fact that it was personal
communication, and the date of the communication.
“Those zombies, they would control the world, you know? If we allowed it, we would be
out of control” (A. Smith, personal
communication, January 1, 2000).
A. Smith said zombies would take over the world if we let them (personal
communication, January 1, 2000).
Do not include personal communication in the references list.
Live chat session.
Instructor/author last name, first initial. (Date). Title [type of posting (chat)]. Retrieved from
online location, course number and section, course title: http://Web address
Danley, L. (2009, January 9). APA chat 1: Introduction to APA style [Chat]. Retrieved from
Colorado Technical University, Virtual Campus, APA Style Lab:
APA WRITING STYLE GUIDE – VERSION 2.2 13
Author’s Last name, First Initial. (Date). Name of presentation or document [type of source
(Multimedia presentation)]. Retrieved from Colorado Technical University Virtual
Campus, Course Code-Quarter session: http://Web Address
Colorado Technical University. (2009). LTR215 Phase 1 activity: Getting accustomed to
literature [Multimedia presentation]. Retrieved from Colorado Technical University
Virtual Campus, LTR215-0802B-01: https://campus.ctuonline.edu
Author’s Last name, First Initial. (Date of blog post). Title of blog post [Web log message].
Retrieved from http://Web address
Catspaw. (2009, September 10). So what have you been up to at Google? [Weblog message].
Retrieved from http://www.insanecats.com/
Note: Use the log in/user name if the author’s name is not listed.
Message posted to an online forum, discussion group, or newsgroup.
Author’s Last name, First Initial. (Date of message/post). Title of message/post [Type of post, for
example, Discussion board post]. Retrieved from http://Web address
Anderson, L. (2009, October 19). Re: Writing is an important skill [Discussion board post].
Retrieved from Colorado Technical University, Virtual Campus, The Writing Center:
APA WRITING STYLE GUIDE – VERSION 2.2 14
Article from a scholarly/peer reviewed journal.
Author’s Last Name, First and Second Initial. (Year of Publication). Title of the article. Title of
the Journal, Volume(issue number if known), page numbers. doi number if one is
White, E. M. (2005). The scoring of writing portfolios: Phase 2. College Composition and
Communication, 56(4), 581-600.
Article from a newspaper (no author).
Title of the article. (Year, month day of publication). Title of the Newspaper, page numbers.
Boss defends trooper who used Taser on driver. (2007, December 2). Chicago Tribune, p. A3.
Book with two authors.
Author’s Last Name, First and Second Initial, & Author’s Last Name, First and Second Initial.
(Year of Publication). Title of book (Volume/Edition number). City, State of
Greenfield, S. B., & Calder, D. G. (1986). A new critical history of Old English literature. New
York, NY: New York University Press.
Chapter from a print book.
Author’s Last Name, First and Second Initial. (Year of Publication). Title of book
(Volume/Edition number, page numbers). Place of Publication: Publisher.
Hacker, D. (2008). A pocket style manual (5th ed., pp. 70-90). Boston, MA: Bedford/St. Martins.
APA WRITING STYLE GUIDE – VERSION 2.2 15
American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication manual of the American Psychological
Association (6th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
Running head: SHORTENED VERSION OF TITLE 1
SHORTENED VERSION OF TITLE HERE 4
Type Your Title Here
Colorado Technical University
An abstract is a single paragraph, without indentation, that summarizes the key points of the manuscript in 150 to 250 words. The purpose of the abstract is to provide the reader with a brief overview of the paper. This template is based on 6thed of the Publication manual of the American Psychological Association.
Note: an abstract is only required if the assignment calls for it. Consult with your instructor.
Type Your Title Here
Begin writing your paper with a .5” indent and continue the paper with an indent for each new paragraph.
Heading Level 1, Centered, Boldface
Heading Level 2, Flush left, Boldface, Uppercase and Lowercase
Heading level 3, indented, boldface, lowercase ends with period.
Heading Level 4, indented, boldface, lowercase, italicized, ends with period.
Heading level 5, italicized, lowercase, ends with a period
Note: Depending on the length and complexity of your paper you will use different levels of headings.
Encyclopedia, S. E. (1993). Article. In The new encyclopedia Britannica (vol. 38, pp. 745-758). Chicago, IL: Publisher.
Lastname, F. (2003). Book title: Subtitle. Sterling, VA: Publisher Name.
Newspaper article without an author. (1993, July 15). The Washington Post, p. A12.
Wittkopf, B., & Shaw, M. E. (2003, fall). Article title from the journal. Journal Name, 43(2), 18-22. doi:10:109.0932.9385.09
For this assignment, as the final step of your research project, you will add 23 pages on the last three sections of your research project report document: Conclusion, Limitation and Future Works. You will also add the Abstract and some Keywords on the title page.
Finally, you will further refine the Computer Science Problem-Solving Research Project Report document to produce the final version. Updates may be based on peer and instructor feedback.
The following are the project deliverables:
· Update the Computer Science Problem-Solving Research Project Report document title page with a new date and project name.
· Update the previously completed sections based on instructor feedback.
· New Content for Week 5:
· 5. Conclusion and Future Works
· 5.1 Conclusion
· Describe what you have concluded in the research project including how the research question has been answered and if the hypothesis has been approved or disapproved, as well as the main contribution or takeaway of this research project.
· 5.2 Limitations
· Discuss any limitations of your solution, and the reason of the limitations, as well as possible solution to overcome the limitation.
· 5.3 Future Works
· Provide a list of at least 2 current or future technology trends that might affect your project or research results.
· Discuss how each trend would influence your project or research.
· Your discussion should provide details about the impact that the technology trend would have on your project or research.
· Justify your analysis with appropriate research.
· Produce a financial impact analysis scenario for a hypothetical company based on the potential effect of trends identified in the previous steps.
· Abstract and Keywords
· Provide an Abstract of your research project in 200 – 250 words which should include the motivation and background of the project, the problem to be solved, the solution to address the problem, the main technical feature of the solution, and the result of the research project.
· Provide at least three keywords
· Put both the Abstract and keywords on the title page of the Computer Science Problem-Solving Research Project Report document.
· Key Assignment final draft: Computer Science Problem Analysis document
· Review the entire document for any changes and improvements that you would like to make.
· Ensure that this final version of the document is sufficiently detailed to fully meet the assignment requirements for each part of the course.
· Any previous instructor feedback should be addressed with appropriate changes.
· Include a summary of lessons learned and next steps for the project.
· Be sure to update your table of contents before submission.
· Name the document “yourname_CS698_IP5 .”
These are the instructor’s critiques that need to be corrected
Opportunities for improvement:
> Your research matter provides some terms, but does not explicitly state how they will be used in your experiment.
> There is no information connecting your experiment to the data needed to prove or disprove your hypothesis.
> You provide no information on your experiment design. Without this information, your experiment could not be replicated. As an example, you must provide details on the surveys as well as your planned analysis technique.
> You must go beyond general ideas and concepts to describe an explicit experiment that supports the objectives of your capstone paper.
> Minimal evidence previous IP comments have been addressed. This results in numerous technical, grammar, and formatting errors throughout the paper that must be corrected.
> I am unable to find any explicit list of the tasks and sub-tasks needed to execute your project.
> The text provided is difficult to understand and seems to be focused on only portions of the project.
> There is no project timeline provided that shows the tasks, sub-tasks, duration, and resources for the project.
> The costs only cover a single activity and not the costs for the entire project.
> No Cost Benefit Analysis is provided to determine if the costs of the project is worth the expenditure must have a complete cost business analysis.
> Numerous technical, grammatical, and formatting errors remain throughout the paper. IP3 comments have not been addressed.
Artificial Intelligence & Robotics used in the 2
Artificial Intelligence & Robotics used in the
Artificial Intelligence & Robotics used in the 21st century
Colorado Technical University
Table of Contents
1.1 Company Overview
1.2 Project Introduction 6
1.3 Problem Identification
1.3.1 Problem Context and Background 9
1.3.2 Problem Statement 12
2.1 Solution Framework 12
2.2 Hypothesis Statement
2.3 Research Questions 15
2.4 Related Works 15
3.1 Research Matters 16
Probability sampling 16
System Set up 16
Controlled Variables 16
Cronbach’s alpha 16
Descriptive Statistical Analysis 16
Statistical Analysis 17
3.2 Experiment Design
3.2.1 Experiment Requirements
Data Protection Statement 17
Sample Size 17
3.2.2 Experiment Procedures
4. Project Plan
4.1 Project plan for Data Collection & Analysis 19
Data analysis tasks 20
Timeline and human resources Scope Statement 20
Work Breakdown Structure 20
Project Dependencies 20
Estimated Cost 21
4.2 Risk and Cost-Benefit Analysis 21
Cost-benefit analysis 22
Artificial Intelligence & Robotics are used in the 21st century to transform workplace activities and ensure accuracy and validity (Lungarella et al., 2007) (Wisskirchen et al., 2017). Artificial intelligence is one of the broader fields of computer science used to make workplace functions fast and effective by integrating machines and robotics with consciousness and emotionality. The purpose of customer artificial intelligence integrating at workplaces is to eliminate the need for human laborers who are not efficient and active all the time. Artificial intelligence and robots can detect organizational needs and come up with ultimate and immediate solutions (Dirican, 2015). These technologies are also helpful for organizations to introduce complex services and enhanced customer experience. These technologies help the organization compete in the intense market and bring higher good (Arsene, 2020).
1.1 Company Overview
The company that I have selected to discuss the problem is “Cigna Corporation.” Health care organization is also one of the rapidly growing institutions in society with the integration of different technologies. Health care organizations are depending on technology and innovation to manage bundles of patient records and added data (Hinton, 2018). Databases and patient portals are some of the most used types of technology and innovation (Tanwar, Parekh and Evans, 2020). However, to be successful and two transform organizational functions as a whole, health care organizations need the integration of artificial intelligence and robotics. Artificial intelligence in the healthcare field interprets the huge amount of data and helps patients create their personalized medicine plans, interpret data and make decisions, think for strategies for the development of the organization and collective gain, and serve patient needs (Braecklein, Knaup-Gregori and Weigand, 2019). One of the biggest applications of artificial intelligence and robotics add Healthcare is to manage time effectively because sometimes, in this situation of emergency, doctors’ nurses, and hospital officials become panic that affects the outcomes of the crisis. Artificial intelligence is a branch of computer science and in the modern age of business, its integrated in every business, regardless of its size, is crucial for speech recognition, planning, problem-solving, learning, and understanding (Poppe, Rienks and van Dijk, 2007).
The Cigna Corporation is an international health care service provider based in America. The company is engaged in international health care delivery for years, and David cordani founded the company in 1792. The mission of the company is to improve the health, peace of mind, and wellbeing of those to whom the company is served, by offering them simple, predictable, and affordable health care services (Cigna Corporation, 2000). The company makes it easy for patients to get healthcare and get assess anywhere, anytime, and to everyone. The company is operating in different segments through integrated medical, group disability, international markets, and other health services. The health service segments of the company include specialty pharmacy services, pharmacy benefits management, home delivery, technical solutions, and health management services. The company offers a variety of health care solutions to individuals and employers as the mission statement of the company states that the company wants to deliver affordable health care services to everyone, including disability groups (Shah, 2019). The Cigna Company is running on advanced strategies and plans integrated with technological advancement and innovation. The company plans to increase its reach towards international markets through the use of artificial intelligence. The planning is about to identify gaps in existing health care services and treatment practices by the using the artificial intelligence. For instance, to track whether patients are taking their medication or not delivered personalized Medicare health and chronic diseases. The company is investing a huge amount in the implementation of artificial intelligence within the organization and states that the system will be available for all patients and stakeholders within less time (Cigna Corporation, 2021).
Although artificial intelligence and robot’s integration in healthcare organizations proved positive sources to enhance productivity,however, at the same time, some limitations affect the trust of patients towards them. Along with the integration of technology and advancement in healthcare, numerous cases of data breaches and hacking are also heard. Therefore, this is the factor that causes mistrust among the population. By integration of artificial intelligence, the company aims to enhance the productivity of the workplace, but at the same time, there will be ethical concerns of patients. Along with the ethical issues and patients concerns, there are legal issues that will affect the reputation of the organization ((CI), 2021). The health care organization aims to optimize its functions through the integration of artificial intelligence because it could learn from histories and patients’ medical tests without losing in time and spending extra time. But the assessment of data of health care records by the boots that are not trustworthy.
1.2 Project Introduction
Cigna Corporation is a healthcare organization that is offering a variety of healthcare services to local and international patients (Cigna Corporation, 2021). The company aims to expand its reach on international platforms and optimize its diagnostic and treatment approaches by the integration of robots and artificial intelligence that is also a need of time. Artificial intelligence is replacing human workers and offering health care to patients. Gaps are still exists. The question arises here that artificial intelligence over reports will offer physical and mental health care to patients, but what about spiritual health care that can only be provided by nurses or human health care practitioners. Spiritual health care is also an important need of every patient that helps them for rapid recovery. But modern healthcare organizations are avoiding this need of patients that will affect the outcomes of treatment. Cigna is currently using artificial intelligence to predict the patient’s behavior about medication, however, the thought of providing personalized health care to patients might cause ethical or legal results. The role of technology and innovation to provide the data to health care practitioners is not ordinary, but at the same time, interventions of technology are harmful to patients and health care organizations themselves. The goal of the company is to focus on its health care business and offer quality health to patients at all costs. To meet market standards and the race of advancement, companies investing more and more in technological intervention with open that same thought about its impact on the ethical aspect of a business (Wisskirchen et al., 2017).
Cigna is one of the leading health care companies in the health care industry that maintains its position by carefully analyzing the market situation and consumer preferences. There are numerous strengths of the company that helps it to thrive in the marketplace of medical science. The strength of the company not only helps it to flourish in the existing markets but also helps maintain its place in the new markets. Following are the strengths of the company;
· The company has abilities to successfully track emerging products and participate in the innovation process.
· The company is getting higher returns on capital expenditures by building revenue streams.
· Strong brand order services please in the market that enhances the trust of patients towards the health care organization
· Cigna health strong internal and external infrastructure dead helps it to promote quality health care globally
· Through collaboration with mergers and acquisitions, the company is integrating with new firms and bringing higher innovation towards the company to enhance customer experience
· Strong free cash flow services hence their company to integrate into new projects (M.E, 2020).
Along with the strengths, Cigna healthcare company has some weaknesses on which the company should focus to improve. Few weaknesses of the company are as follows;
· Cigna is one of the most successful and leading healthcare companies in the United States, but still, the company has the matters gaps in its product line, such as gaps in the treatment also serious diseases.
· One of the biggest weaknesses of the company is the lack of faculty who can deal with its intercultural patience and bring quality health for them.
· The company needs to enhance or increase its investment in the research and development department with the standards of the growing industry. Instead of merging with small companies, Cigna should combine with the huge health care companies to enhance its standard.
· The financial planning of the company is not efficient and proper that affect its total asset ratio and liquidity ratio every year.
· The company needs to increase its spending on the Training of its workers to enhance its market image and gain a competitive advantage over its competitors (M.E, 2020).
Competitors of Cigna include a United Health Group, Molina Healthcare, and anthem health care organizations. These health care organizations are also offering quality services to patients globally and meeting their expectations for years. These companies are also integrating technology and innovation in their day-to-day functions to enhance customer experience and to enhance their recovery. The United health group is one of the leading healthcare organizations having technology involved in its day-to-day functions. The key to the success of these health care organizations is careful decision-making about the need of the organization regarding technologies. Taking motivation from the united health group, Cigna can think for improvement in its decision-making processes and then implement any technological or innovation change within the organization to minimize negative outcomes (Jasso-Aguilar, Waitzkin and Landwehr, 2004).
Cigna ranked 2nd when it comes to revenue that is $156.9 billion, While the revenue of the United health group is $252.6 billion. This difference in revenue is because of the range of services that boot healthcare organizations are offering and the number of employees. Cigna is doing its best to meet market standards and launch innovative approaches that enhance customer satisfaction. Anthem healthcare company is another competitor that has revenue of $121.9 billion. This healthcare organization is ranking at 1/3 and struggling to meet industry standards by offering quality but limited services (COMPETITIVE ANALYSIS, 2020).
1.3 Problem Identification
1.3.1 Problem Context and Background
The integration of artificial intelligence and robots in the healthcare organization be a positive aspect if there will be no ethical and legal implications. The major problem that health care organizations are confronting when it comes to the integration of artificial intelligence and robots is the patient’s concern about the privacy of their information. Patients are the important stakeholders of any healthcare organization; thus, it is the ethical and moral duty of healthcare organizations to protect their privacy and information (Okamura, Matarić and Christensen, 2010). Laws and ethical concerns regarding artificial intelligence in health care in the United States are as follows;
· Use of informed consent researches,
· Transparency and safety,
· Algorithmic biases and fairness,
· Data privacy and protection (Jasso-Aguilar, Waitzkin and Landwehr, 2004).
The above listed four concerns apply to all healthcare organizations dealing with artificial intelligence systems. Business and inequality in healthcare services will increase because only those who can afford heavy investments would get benefit from this technology. At the same time, the middle class or lower-class population will suffer for this ability to healthcare services. It could be possible to add the organization is not intentionally doing this, but these possibilities are higher. Transparency and the safety of patients are the second dimensions of the problem that the organization is facing. Day-to-day increasing cases of hacking and data breaches serve as a field for Decision-makers of Cigna regarding the integration of artificial intelligence and in the organization (Sara Gerke, 2020).
Health care organizations are meaning the bright future, but the profound impact of AI on human privacy is ignored. The dignity and privacy of patients should be carefully considered while designing show boots for health care organizations. Research says that technology raises issues that are affecting fundamental human rights, such as freedom and privacy expressions (Sara Gerke, 2020). Research (Eleanor Bird, 2014) result from IPA shows that in the modern and advanced world, the biggest concern Arthur’s patience is that their information is protected with the health care organizations. To solve problems or treatment for patients, it is important to know their history and background thus to keep this information private and protected and save it from any unauthorized access is the responsibility of health care organizations.
The problem that Cigna health care organization will confront there is to spend he would require investments in privacy and protection of the patient data if they decide to integrate artificial intelligence within the workplace. At the same time, if the health care organization aims to integrate robotics within the health care organizations to offer quality end fast has disappeared there are possibilities that the company will losses the loyalty of patience. Because Cigna will not be able to provide spiritual health care to patients anymore. This will bring several ethical issues for the company. Ethical issues will impact the acceptance of services provided by the healthcare organization, while legal issues are raised when customers’ data will be breached and that will affect the organization’s overall reputation.
Thus, the company should rethink its moves and invest more own research and development to evaluate whether the integration of artificial intelligence and robotics will bring opportunities for the company over there will be negative outcomes that might have a more drastic impact. The evaluation and analysis with its competitors will help the company to take a substantive decision without compromising on aids in the eye of the public and the expectations of patients. This project is aimed to discuss problems that Cigna is facing to integrate artificial intelligence and robotics in the organization and how this problem can be addressed to enhance the productivity and optimization of day-to-day processes. To integrate artificial intelligence and robotics in workplace organizations, effectiveness in the making through efficient market research and trends will be evaluated.
1.3.2 Problem Statement
In the Cigna Health care organization, ethical and legal issues arise due to the integration of Artificial Intelligence and Robotics.
2. Solution Identification
2.1 Solution Framework
Ethical issues are common in the artificial intelligence, where there is a need for improvement. The root cause of the ethical issue is that the data can be hacked, and, he or she can easily use the patient’s data for some unethical purpose. Since, it is difficult to bear the consequences in case of software development. However, a moderate approach should be used to deal with the ethical and legal issues related to the integration of Artificial Intelligence in the Cigna healthcare organization, which includes the utilization of deontological approach related to ethical concerns, secondly, there must be precise algorithms only dealing with the specific technology to deal with the issue of responsibility in term of complex problems, lastly, there must be stringent check and balance mechanism to deal with the behavior and responsibilities concerning moral values within the professional environment of Cigna healthcare company. Furthermore, another approach that can be used in the integration of Artificial intelligence is the use of responsible research and innovation (RRI), where the use of internal and external dialogues can be utilized (Stahl and Coeckelbergh, 2016). Moreover, when there is the incorporation of collaboration and rooted ethics can lead to a better system.
Furthermore, it is not a simple integration of artificial intelligence systems in healthcare but it is a series of events, which lead to the innovative research viable incorporation. If the developer of software or system is not well versed with ethics, there is a gap of ethics and will be filled by ethical issues. To deal with the issue, there must be a collaborate with the developer, instead of giving the collaborator just a code of conduct, he/she must be involved in such a way that there must be the integration of ethics within the system. This will leave no room for the missing areas. There will be cooperation between three distinct types of professionals, where science, philosophy, and community will be involved, leading to a better understanding of the issues (Stahl and Coeckelbergh, 2016). The current method will identify the appraising of moral and societal significances of technology, which is not negligible in any term, and supplementary work which can be subcontracted to philosophers and social scientists. The addition of such form will be beneficial in terms of quality of work as well as the collaboration of technologists, and scientists. As in the case of the human genome project, there was the integration of the same concept also known as ethical, legal, and social issues (ELSI), which incorporated the idea of ethics in term of collaboration within the technology from the start of the human genome project (Rip, 2009). Furthermore, there can be the incorporation of the 7th Framework Programmer as in the European Commission, where Robot being autonomous work under the supervision of a therapist in the DREAM research project (Fischinger et al., 2016). The project incorporated ethics within the system, leaving no room for further gaps or issues. The same method can be adopted by the Cigna Company to deal with ethical and legal issues.
The use of responsible research and innovation provides the approach for the integration of not only single internal factors but also the integration of external factors leading to better cooperation between stakeholders, where healthcare workers and industries can work together on issues related to Artificial Intelligence and find the better solution system (Stilgoe, Owen and Macnaghten, 2013). European Commission initiated a new research program name “Horizon 2020”, which incorporated responsible research and innovation. Responsible research and innovation(RRI) can be defined as a “transparent, interactive process by which societal actors and innovators become mutually responsive to each other with a view on the (ethical) acceptability, sustainability and societal desirability of the innovation process and its marketable products (to allow a proper embedding of scientific and technological advances in our society)” (Von Schomberg, 2014). The program is majorly focused on the solution based on the involvement of all domains to deal with the ethical issues, also utilizing societal force (Stilgoe, (Stilgoe, Owen and Macnaghten, 2013). This approach uses issues and concerns from the past and helps them study the present prospects. The basic framework of research and innovation (RRI) is the use of four tools, where the anticipation of the influence, reflection on the determination and motivation behind the technology, engagement with all sector of societies directly or indirectly involved, and act on the flow of the innovation is utilized. The process and product issue can also be raised which can create a problem in the implementation of RRI (Owen et al., 2013).
Furthermore, the four Ps can be incorporated in the idea of RRI, which includes process, product, purpose, and people. The process includes the identification of all the procedures done while doing the research, the product includes the identification of misuse, purpose includes the reason behind the technology, and lastly, people include the major reason behind the technology (Stahl and Coeckelbergh, 2016).
2.2 Hypothesis Statement
When the responsible research and innovative approach is implemented, then, that will resolve the privacy issue that arises in the Cigna Healthcare organization due to the integration of Artificial intelligence and Robotics.
2.3 Research Questions
The independent variable in the hypothesis statement is responsible research and innovative approach whereas, the dependent variable is the patient privacy issue. Therefore, the research question is “how will the responsible research and innovative approach will impact the patient’s privacy issue.”
2.4 Related Works
According to Rene(2013), innovation and research processes should be more adaptive and responsive to the challenges. Furthermore, it assesses the new technologies’ impact and risks associated with the technologies (Schomberg, 2013). In another article, the author states that the data of patients are stolen from the hospital, however, OIG and CMS collaborate to promote the data security and privacy of the patients. Furthermore, healthcare professionals will safeguard the privacy and security of the patient (Taitsman, Grimm , & Agrawal, 2013). Furthermore, ethics and trustworthiness can be improved through innovation and research approaches (Strech, Weissgerber, & Dirnagl, 2020).
3. Research Methodology
3.1 Research Matters
Survey Questionnaire: Survey questionnaire is the data collection methodology, where data is collected based on the pre-defined population to determine several factors. The current survey will be based on several questions estimating the effect and usefulness of AI in Cigna Corporation.
Probability sampling: Samples are based on the probability of representing the whole population under a normal distribution. The study will be using random sampling in the study, without any prior specification. Furthermore, the level of confidence will be 95%, as it will be representing 95% of the population, with a 5% error rate.
System Set up: System set is how the survey questionnaire is developed, provided, and collected. The system will use the Cigna employees and patients will be included within the survey method. All the population covered by Cigna will be incorporated.
Controlled Variables: Controlled variable includes the use of a variable to estimate the correctness of the data. The variable is not part of the research interest, however, it influences the data. The controlled variable includes gender, age, employment, race, education, income, computer-based skills both theoretical and technical, AI techniques knowledge, and expertise.
Cronbach’s alpha: It is used as a reliability scale, to analyze how much the data is reliable. This method is used to estimate the consistency inside the data in the form of a group. The reliability of data will confirm if the data will be reliable for further experimentation or not.
Descriptive Statistical Analysis: The data measured by using data summaries, like average, variation, mean, mode, skewness, kurtosis, total samples, percentages, etc.
Statistical Analysis: The collection and interpretation of the data using a computer-based system like SPSS, R Studio, or Excel.
3.2 Experiment Design
3.2.1 Experiment Requirements
Data Protection Statement: Data protection statement must be used in all of the survey questionnaires. The statement is intended to safeguard the privacy rights of all the people and information collected in the whole study. The data in the current study will be obtained from Cigna, and the only aim will be in the analysis of the current research question. The basic reason for the data protection statement is giving full support to respondents that their data is safe and only be utilized for experimental purposes.
Organization: The organization in the study is Cigna cooperate. All employees, patients, and doctors will be included in the study without any distinctions. As the study is based on the analysis of the incorporation of AI in the Cigna cooperation so the data will be only collected from the population inside the Cigna.
Sample Size: The sample size for survey data is always high as compared to a sample questionnaire. The current study will collect data up to 200, however, if data exceed the current sample size, we will also include them. The collection of data also depends on permission from the individual to participate in the study. If the respondent does not allow for the study, data will not be collected.
Assessment: Assessment will be based on the numbering of each parameter, the score will be given. The data will be assessed based on the questions and the responses provided by the respondents. Furthermore, later all the data will be assessed using different statistical tools, to conclude. Furthermore, data will be analyzed based on 95% confidence and with a P-value of 0.05.
3.2.2 Experiment Procedures
First in the current study carefully survey questionnaire will be designed. In the questionnaire , different questions will be incorporated to measure the validity and usefulness of AI in the healthcare system of Cigna Corporation. Constant variables will also be included in the study. One of the issues in the survey is the unintentional and random responses in the survey, which can negatively influence the data interpretation. To cover this issue, random questions will also be provided to measure if the questions are based on randomness or carefulness. If these questions are provided with random answers, data will be dropped from that respondent. Further questions will be based on the effectiveness of the AI, for instance, the use of AI technology effect on the personalized medicines, the use of new robotics techniques, and their concerns about data privacy.
Data will be collected from the Cigna health care cooperation for one month period. Informed consent and data protection will be signed by the respondents. The data will not be collected through the online survey questionnaire as online questions are not accurate and random. The data will be collected individually in the hospital from the intended population. After the collection of data, all the data will be shifted to an excel sheet in Microsoft format. The data will be analyzed based on the random answers, and data with random responses will be dropped from the research. First data variability will be measured, using Cronbach’s alpha, which is not a statistical tool but provides insight into the reliability of data. Data will be further analyzed based on the statistical tools using excel, or SPSS tool to measure if the use of AI in the Cigna Corporate is beneficial in the eyes of patients and employees working the system. First, descriptive statistics will be done on the data, and later further advance statistical analysis will be done to measure the effectiveness. The data will be further process based on the graphs and tables to give summaries information.
4. Project Plan
4.1 Project plan for Data Collection & Analysis
Data is considered a “valuable” resource that every company has. When a company knows about the wants and needs of the customers, then, that helps them to understand their customers. Moreover, through data, the company can attract customers by providing them what they need. Therefore, there are several methods through which we can collect the data, and those are surveys, online marketing campaigns, collecting the registration and subscription data, traffic monitoring, monitoring the social media, tracking the transactional data, and online tracking. Furthermore, primary data collection is another way to collect the data. It is more effective and accurate because, in the primary collection of data method, an individual personally collects the information from the individuals. Therefore, for this research project, data collected through surveys and primary collection methods. In the surveys, questionnaires are made that will be given to every individual in the Cigna healthcare organization and collect data from patients, doctors, nurses, and other staff members. This data will be accurate because it was collected from those people who are within the organization. If data is collected from outside the organization then that will give an inaccurate result (Paradis, O’Brien, Nimmon, Bandiera, & Martimianakis, 2016).
Data analysis tasks
Firstly, the problem statement is that by using the integration of research and innovation, Cigna organization can decrease the ethical and legal issues. For solving this, data will be collected through the primary source and survey. Moreover, before collected the new data, we will determine if there is any historical information or data already exist in the database. After collecting the data, we examine the data through average, variation, mean, mode, skewness, kurtosis, total samples, percentages, etc. Furthermore, after analyzing and examining the data, we interpret the result. This will help to decide how the integration of research and innovation and other approaches will decrease the ethical and legal issues that arise due to Artificial intelligence and Robotics.
Timeline and human resources Scope Statement: Firstly, we collect the data through the primary source, and surveys to know-how integration of research and innovation are decrease the ethical issue in the Cigna Healthcare organization.
Work Breakdown Structure: Five questions were present in the surveys, and firstly, we will make five questions that define our scope statement. Furthermore, the survey questionnaire will be first given to patients, secondly given to staff and lastly, it will be given to the doctors.
Project Dependencies: Project dependencies are those tasks that could not be able to start until the first task is finished or completed. In our research project, the main task is to make questions that will be present in the survey questionnaire. If questions are not made, then, another task which is giving survey questionnaires to patients, staff, and doctors cannot be started. However, for starting the second task, making questions for the survey questionnaire is important. For the first week, we design the question according to our research project scope statement. In the second week, we made a survey questionnaire and give those survey questionnaires to patients. In the third week, we gave a survey questionnaire to staff members and doctors. In the fourth week, we examine the data and interpret the result.
The first task is to make questions. For making questions, we will need time, and that does not incur any cost. Therefore, another task is to make a survey questionnaire and that incurred print cost and which is 25 dollars. Furthermore, collecting data through a primary source does not incur any cost, however, if we use any software, then, that incurs the cost.
4.2 Risk and Cost-Benefit Analysis
Several risks are associated with the research project, and those are that if the questions that are present in the questionnaire are not relevant to the project problem statement. That will arise a risk that negatively influences the result of the research. However, this risk can be mitigated by getting help from teachers on making the questionnaires. Furthermore, inaccurate data risk is also present because normally people do not carefully fill the survey questions and that will negatively influence the result of the research. Therefore, some questions are present in the survey that will help us to know the questionnaire is filled with care or not and that mitigate the inaccurate data risk. Another risk that is associated with the survey is that people sometimes do not properly understand and interpret the questions. When an individual does not interpret and understand the question then that means they cannot accurately give their opinion which negatively influences the result of the research. For mitigating the risk, simple questions will be made that are easily understood and interpreted by every individual in the Cigna Healthcare organization. When these risks are mitigated/manage through proper techniques, then, that will not affect the project result. However, its risk and not manage on time then that negatively influence the result of the research project (Fischhoff, 2015).
The cost-benefit analysis is used to analyze the negative and positive outcomes of the decision alternative. The main objective of the project is to know “how responsible research and innovation and deontological approach will decrease the ethical and legal issues in the Cigna corporation that arise due to the integration of Artificial intelligence and robotics”. Furthermore, the main stakeholder of the project is “patients” because they bring most of the revenue. When customers are not satisfied with the service and concerned about privacy, then that negatively influences the profitability and brand image of the Cigna healthcare organization. Therefore, when this issue is resolved, then that will give benefit the organization in terms of revenue and improve the brand’s image in the market. Furthermore, when brand image improves in the market then that positively influences the stock price of the organization. Therefore, when the issue is resolved then that increases the stock price of Cigna corporation in the financial market.
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