Posted: October 27th, 2022

CH 1000 MOD 2 REVIEW

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  • Reading Review Chapters 6 & 7In the lecture slides, we stopped after each chapter to cover review questions. Upload the solutions to the problems from chapters 6 & 7 here.
  • Reading Review Chapters 8 & 9In the lecture slides, we stopped after each chapter to cover review questions. Upload the solutions to the problems from chapters 8 & 9 here.

CH1000
Fundament
als of
Chemistry
Module 2 – Chapter 9

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  • Introduction to Stoichiometry
  • • Equations must always be balanced before calculation of any mass,
    moles, or volume of a reactant or product!
    • Stoichiometry is the area of chemistry that deals with quantitative

    relationships between products and reactants in chemical equations.

    • Solving stoichiometry problems always requires the use of:
    • A balanced chemical equation (coefficients must be known!)
    • Conversion factors in units of moles (mole ratios)

  • Mole Ratios
  • •Mole ratio is the conversion
    factor between any two
    species in a chemical reaction

    •The mole ratio will come from
    the coefficients of a balanced
    chemical equation

  • Mole Ratios in Practice
  • •The mole ratio can be used as a
    conversion factor to convert
    between moles of one substance
    and another.
    •The desired quantity goes in the
    numerator and the known
    quantity goes into the
    denominator of the mole ratio
    •Same method as the solution
    map from chapter 2.

  • Problem Solving for Stoichiometry Problems
  • Problem Solving for Stoichiometry

    Problems

    Problem Solving for
    Stoichiometry

    Problems

    •Remember that Step 1 is to
    always ensure you have a
    balanced equation!!!
    •You must be in moles to
    convert from one substance to
    another!

    Limiting
    Reactants
    •In chemical reactions, the
    reaction will occur until one of the
    reactants runs out

    •Think of a burning fire. You need
    oxygen, heat and fuel to keep a
    fire going. If the fuel (wood) all
    burns, the fire goes out. The wood
    would be the limiting reactant
    because had it not all burned, the
    fire would continue to exist.

    •In a chemical reaction, the
    maximum amount of product
    formed depends on the amount of
    reactant not in excess, the limiting
    reactant

  • Reaction Yield
  • • The amount of products formed calculated by stoichiometry are the
    maximum yields possible (100%)
    • Yields are often lower in practice due to side reactions, loss of

    product while isolating/transferring the material, etc.
    • The theoretical yield is the maximum possible yield for a reaction,

    calculated based on the balanced chemical equation.
    • The actual yield is the yield obtained from the reaction
    • The percent yield is the ratio of the actual and theoretical yield

    Reading
    Review

    What is stoichiometry?

    What unit must you be in to convert from one
    substance to another?

    What is the limiting reactant?

    What is the difference between theoretical
    and actual yields?

    How do you calculate the percent yield?

    • Slide 1
    • Introduction to Stoichiometry
      Mole Ratios
      Mole Ratios in Practice
      Problem Solving for Stoichiometry Problems
      Problem Solving for Stoichiometry Problems
      Problem Solving for Stoichiometry Problems

    • Limiting Reactants
    • Reaction Yield

    • Reading Review

    CH1000
    Fundament
    als of
    Chemistry
    Module 2 – Chapter 7

  • The Mole (or mol)
  • • In chemistry, a mole (mol) is a standard scientific unit for measuring large
    quantities of very small entities such as atoms, molecules, or other
    specified particles.

    • The number represented by 1 mole above is also called Avogadro’s number.

    • 1 mol of any element contains the same number of atoms, but can vary
    greatly in the overall mass. (Atoms of different elements have different
    masses)

  • Molar Mass
  • •Molar Mass is the atomic mass
    of an element or compound in
    grams which contains Avogadro’s
    number of particles
    • Molar masses are expressed

    to 4 significant figures in the
    text

    •Convert atomic mass units on
    the periodic table to grams and
    sum the masses of the total
    atoms present

  • Mole Map
  • ** Not found in the textbook,

    save for easy access

  • Molar Mass of Compounds
  • •Much like an element, molar
    mass can be defined for a
    compound
    •Molar Mass is the mass of one
    mole of the formula unit of a
    compound
    • The molar mass of a

    compound is equal to the
    sum of the molar masses of
    all the atoms in the
    molecule

    Percent
    Composition of
    Compounds

    Percent composition is the mass percent of each
    element in a compound.
    • Percent = parts per 100 parts
    • Molar mass is the total mass (100%) of the compound

    % Composition is independent of sample size

    % Composition can be determined by:

    • 1. Knowing the compound’s formula
    • 2. Using experimental data

  • Percent Composition from the Compound’s Formula
  • Percent Composition from Experimental Data
  • Empirical
    and
    Molecular
    Formula

    Empirical Formula
    Smallest whole number ratio of
    atoms in a compound

    Molecular Formula
    Actual formula of a compound.
    Represents the total number of
    atoms in one formula unit of the
    compound

    Calculating
    Empirical
    Formulas
    •Special Case:
    • If fractions are

    encountered,
    multiply by a
    common factor to
    provide whole
    numbers for each
    subscript.

  • Calculating the Molecular Formula from the Empirical Formula
  • •If molar mass is known,
    the molecular formula can
    be calculated from the
    empirical formula
    •Molecular formula is a
    multiple of the empirical
    formula.

    Reading
    Review

    What is Avagadro’s
    number?

    How would you
    convert from grams

    to atoms of an
    element?

    What is a mole?

    What is the
    difference between

    empirical and
    molecular formulas?

    What is the special
    case when

    calculating empirical
    formulas?

    • Slide 1
    • The Mole (or mol)
      Molar Mass
      Mole Map
      Molar Mass of Compounds

    • Percent Composition of Compounds
    • Percent Composition from the Compound’s Formula
      Percent Composition from Experimental Data

    • Empirical and Molecular Formula
    • Calculating Empirical Formulas
    • Calculating the Molecular Formula from the Empirical Formula

    • Reading Review

    CH1000
    Fundament
    als of
    Chemistry
    Module 2 – Chapter 6

  • Common and Systematic Names
  • • Chemical nomenclature is the systematic naming of chemical compounds
    • Common names are historical names of compounds which are not based

    on systematic rules
    • Common names are often used because systematic names are too long

    and technical for everyday use
    • Chemists prefer systematic names that precisely identify the chemical

    composition of compounds.
    • Example CaO

    • Common name: lime
    • Systematic name: calcium oxide

    Naming
    Flowchart

    We will focus on nomenclature of inorganic compounds

  • Elements and Ions
  • • The formula for most elements is the symbol of the element off of
    the periodic table.
    • Diatomic molecules are an exception:

    • Two other elements also exist in polyatomic arrangements:

  • Naming Anions
  • •Remember from Chapter 5
    that any neutral atom that
    gains an electron is called
    an anion
    •When naming anions,
    change the element ending
    to -ide

    Symbols
    of the
    Elements
    •Each element has an
    abbreviation called a symbol.

    •The first letter of a symbol
    must always be capitalized.

    •If a second letter is needed, it
    should be lowercase.

    Predicting Ion
    Charge from
    Periodic Table

    •Metals form cations
    •The positive charge is equal
    to the group number

    Predicting Ion
    Charge from
    Periodic Table

    •Nonmetals form anions
    •The negative charge is equal
    to 8 – the group number

  • Writing Formulas from Names of Ionic Compounds
  • •Ionic compounds contain both a cation and
    an anion.

    •Ionic compounds must have a net charge of
    0

    •The sum of charges of the cations and
    anions in an ionic compound equal 0

    •Rules for writing formulas for ionic
    compounds:
    • Write the metal ion followed by the

    nonmetal ion formula
    • Combine the smallest whole numbers

    of each ion to provide an overall
    charge equal to zero

    • Write the compound formula for the
    metal and nonmetal, using subscripts
    determined from Step 2 for each ion

    Naming Ionic
    Binary
    Compounds
    •Binary compounds containing
    a metal which forms only one
    cation

    •By convention, the cation is
    written/named first followed
    by the anion

    •Rules for naming binary ionic
    compounds:
    • Name the cation
    • Write the anion root and

    add the –ide suffix

    Naming
    Compounds
    Containing
    Metals with

    Multiple
    Charges

    •Rules for Naming Compounds Involving Metals that Could Form
    Multiple Charges
    • Write the cation name.
    • Write the cation charge in Roman numerals in parentheses.
    • Write the root of the anion and use the –ide suffix.

    •Exception: for metals that only form two cations, a Latin root with
    either an –ous or –ic suffix can also be used.

    Formula Name Classical Name Formula Name Classical Name

    Cu+ Copper(I) cuprous Sn2+ Tin(II) stannous

    Cu2+ Copper(II) cupric Sn4+ Tin(IV) stannic

    Fe2+ Iron(II) ferrous Pb2+ Lead(II) plumbous

    Fe3+ Iron(III) ferric Pb4+ Lead(IV) plumbic

    Naming Molecular
    Compounds

    •Molecular compounds contain two nonmetals
    •Rules for naming molecular compounds:
    • Write the name for the first element, including the appropriate prefix

    (mono is rarely used).
    • Write the name for the second element, including the appropriate prefix

    and -ide ending (mono is used for the 2nd element).

    Prefix Number Prefix Number
    mono 1 hexa 6

    di 2 hepta 7

    tri 3 octa 8
    tetra 4 nona 9
    penta 5 deca 10

    Naming Binary
    Acids

    Rules for naming Binary Acids:

    Write the prefix hydro followed by the root
    of the second element and add an –ic suffix Add the word acid

    Hydrogen is always written first in an acid formula.

    This is the indicator that it is an acid

    Certain binary compounds containing hydrogen behave as acids in water and have special names.

    HCl(g) is hydrogen chloride HCl(aq) is hydrochloric acid

    Naming
    Polyatomic Ions

    •A polyatomic ion is anion that
    contains two or more
    elements
    •The names, formulas and
    charges of common
    polyatomic ions should be
    learned.
    •Rules for naming compounds
    containing polyatomic ions
    • Name the cation
    • Name the anion

    Name Formula Charge Name Formula Charge
    Acetate C2H3O2- -1 Cyanide CN- -1

    Ammonium NH4+ +1 Dichromate Cr2O72- -2
    Hydrogen
    Carbonate HCO3

    – -1 Hydroxide OH- -1

    Hydrogen
    Sulfate HSO4

    – -1 Nitrate NO3- -1

    Bromate BrO3- -1 Nitrite NO2- -1
    Carbonate CO32- -2 Permanganate MnO4- -1
    Chlorate ClO3- -1 Phosphate PO43- -3

    Chromate CrO42- -2 Sulfate SO42- -2
    Sulfite SO32- -2

    Naming
    Oxyanions
    •Oxyanions are polyatomic ions that contain
    oxygen
    •Often end in suffix –ate or –ite
    •-ate compounds contain more O atoms
    than ite compound(s)
    •For elements that form multiple ions with
    oxygen, prefixes are also needed:
    • Per: add one oxygen to the –ate root
    • Hypo – subtract one oxygen from the –

    ite root

    Anion
    Formula Anion Name

    Anion
    Formula Anion Name

    ClO- hypochlorite HClO hypochlorous acid

    ClO2- chlorite HClO2 chlorous acid

    ClO3- chlorate HClO3 chloric acid

    ClO4- perchlorate HClO4 perchloric acid

    More Complicated
    Polyatomics

    •Inorganic ions can be formed from more
    than 3 elements
    •The same method is used as before:
    • Identify the ions and name in order
    • Cations before anions

    Compound Ions Name

    NaHCO3 Na+; HCO3-
    Sodium hydrogen

    carbonate

    NaHS Na+; HS- Sodium hydrogen sulfide

    MgNH4PO4
    Mg2+; NH4+;

    PO43-
    Magnesium
    ammonium
    phosphate

    NaKSO4 Na+; K+; SO42-
    Sodium potassium

    sulfate

  • Naming Acids
  • • Acids generally begin with hydrogen
    • To recognize oxyacids, make sure:
    • H is the first element in the formula
    • The compound contains a polyatomic ion with oxygen

    • The following modifications are made to the name of the
    acid:
    • -ate ions are changed to –ic acids
    • -ite ions are changed to –ous acids
    • -ic acids contain one more oxygen than –ous acids

    Naming Acids
    Flowchart

    Reading
    Review

    What type of ions do metals form?

    What type of ions do nonmetals
    form?

    What is the chemical formula for
    potassium sulfide?

    Name the compound CrCl3.

    Acids often begin with what element?

    • Slide 1
    • Common and Systematic Names

    • Naming Flowchart
    • Elements and Ions
      Naming Anions

    • Symbols of the Elements
    • Predicting Ion Charge from Periodic Table
    • Predicting Ion Charge from Periodic Table
      Writing Formulas from Names of Ionic Compounds

    • Naming Ionic Binary Compounds
    • Naming Compounds Containing Metals with Multiple Charges
    • Naming Molecular Compounds
    • Naming Binary Acids
    • Naming Polyatomic Ions
    • Naming Oxyanions
    • More Complicated Polyatomics
    • Naming Acids

    • Naming Acids Flowchart
    • Reading Review

    CH1000
    Fundament
    als of
    Chemistry
    Module 2 – Chapter 8

  • Chemical Equations
  • • Chemists use chemical equations to:
    • Summarize a chemical reaction by displaying the substances reacting and

    forming.
    • Indicate specific amounts of materials consumed or produced during the

    reaction.
    • Reactants: substances consumed during the reaction.
    • Products: substances formed during the reaction.

    • Atom balance must be maintained in all chemical reactions.
    • All atoms from reactants must appear as part of products.

    a A + b B c C + d D

    The
    coefficient
    1 is not
    written in
    a balanced
    equation.

    Chemical Equations

    1. Reactants and products are separated by an arrow.
    2. Reactants are on the left side of the arrow, products are on the right.
    3. Whole number coefficients are placed in front of substances to

    balance the atoms in the equation.
    4. The numbers indicate the units of the substance reacted or formed

    during the reaction.
    5. Information about the reaction (temperature, time) may be placed

    above or below the reaction arrow.
    6. The physical state is written in brackets after the formula of the

    substance. (g) for gas, (l) for liquid, (s) for solid, (aq) for aqueous

    a A + b B c C + d D
    Reactant

    s
    Products

    Symbol
    Summary

    Symbol Significance
    Produces (points towards products)

    (s) Solid (written after substance)
    (l) Liquid (written after substance)
    (g) Gas (written after substance)
    (aq) Substance dissolved in an aqueous

    solution
    Heat is added (above or below reaction
    arrow)

    Δ

  • Law of Conservation of Mass
  • • The total mass of substances in a chemical reaction must remain
    constant.

    water hydrogen + oxygen
    100.0 g 11.2 g 88.8 g

    100.0 g total of productsreactants

    In any chemical reaction:
    Mass of reactants = Mass of products

    Writing and
    Balancing
    Chemical
    Equations

    A balanced chemical equations contain the same
    number of each kind of atom on both sides of the
    equation.

    1. Write a word equation for the reaction.

    2. Write the correct formula for each substance
    (unbalanced):

    3. Balance the equation
    a) Count the number of each atom on the reactants and

    products side and determine what requires
    balancing.

    b) Balance each element sequentially, using whole
    numbers. It is often best to balance metals first.

    mercury(II) oxide mercury + oxygenΔ

    HgO Hg + O2
    Δ

    Hg: 1
    O: 1

    Hg: 1
    O: 2

    HgO Hg + O2
    Δ

    Oxygen atoms
    need balancing
    on the reactants
    side.

    2 HgO Hg + O2
    Δ

    Hg: 2
    O: 2

    Hg: 1
    O: 2

    Now Hg atoms
    need balancing
    on the products
    side.

    Writing and
    Balancing
    Chemical
    Equations

    4. Check after adding coefficients that all atoms still
    balance. Adjust as needed (a 2 is needed in front of
    Hg).

    5. Do a final check to make sure all atoms now balance
    on both sides of the equation.

    2 HgO 2 Hg + O2
    Δ

    Hg: 2
    O: 2

    Hg: 2
    O: 2

    Note: always use the smallest whole
    numbers!

    4 HgO 4 Hg + 2 O2
    Δ

    Balanced but incorrect form!

    Information in
    a Chemical
    Equation

    © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

    Information from a Chemical
    Equation

    • From the chemical equation below, how many moles of oxygen are
    needed to burn 2 molecules of propane (C3H8)?

    • a) 5 molecules of oxygen
    • b) 6 molecules of oxygen
    • c) 10 molecules of oxygen
    • d) 15 molecules of oxygen

    C3H8 + 5 O2 3 CO2 + 4 H2O

    For every 1 molecule of propane,
    5 molecules of O2 are needed to fully

    react.
    Two molecules of propane would then

    require
    2 x 5 = 10 molecules of oxygen.

    Types of
    Chemical
    Equations

    1. Combination reactions
    2. Decomposition reactions
    3. Single displacement reactions
    4. Double displacement reactions
    5. Oxidation-reduction (redox) reactions

    (Chapter 17)

    Reactions are classified into subtypes to aide in
    predicting

    the products of chemical reactions.

    Reactions are classified into five major categories:

  • Combination Reactions
  • Two reactants combine to give a single product.
    A + B AB

    Decomposition
    Reactions

    A single reactant breaks down (decomposes) into
    two or more products

    AB A + B

    Single Displacement
    Reactions

    One element (A) reacts with a compound (BC) to replace
    one element in the compound, giving a new element (B)
    and a different compound (AC).

    General Types of

  • Single Displacement Reactions
  • Double Displacement
    Reactions

    Two compounds exchange partners with one
    another to yield two new compounds.

    AB + CD AD + CB

    General Types of

  • Double Displacement Reactions
  • Double Displacement
    Reactions
    Two compounds exchange partners with one
    another to yield two new compounds.
    AB + CD AD + CB

    General Types of Double Displacement Reactions Writing Reaction Equations Practice
    1. Write the reaction equation between aqueous

    solution of hydroiodic acid and sodium
    hydroxide.

    2. First convert names to chemical formulas and
    determine the type of reaction.

    HI (acid)/NaOH(base)

    Neutralization Reaction
    acid + base salt + water
    HI (aq) + NaOH (aq) NaI (aq) + H2O (l)
    Salt formula must charge balance (Na+ and I–)

    Heat in
    Chemical
    Reactions

    Terminology

    Energy transfer and changes accompany any chemical reaction

    Heat of reaction: quantity of heat actually produced during a chemical reaction.
    Units: kilojoules (kJ) or kilocalories (kcal)

    Exothermic reactions: release heat. H2 (g) + Cl2 (g) 2 HCl (g) + 185 kJ
    Heat can be treated as a product

    Endothermic reactions: absorb heat. N2 (g) + O2 (g) + 181 kJ 2
    NO (g)
    Heat can be treated as a product

    C (s) + O2 (g) CO2 (g) + 393 kJ
    1 mol of C reacts with 1 mol of O2 to provide 1 mol of CO2 and 393 kJ
    of heat
    are released.

    Heat in Chemical Reactions
    Equations Practice

    Heat as an Energy
    Transfer

    Vehicle in Nature

    Graphical
    Representations of

    Endothermic
    Reactions

    •Products are at a higher
    potential energy than
    reactants.
    •Activation energy: Amount
    of energy needed to initiate a
    chemical reaction.

    Reaction Coordinate
    Diagram

    Graphical
    Representations of

    Exothermic
    Reactions

    •Products are at a lower
    potential energy than
    reactants.
    •Activation energy: Amount
    of energy needed to initiate a
    chemical reaction.

    Reaction Coordinate
    Diagram

    Reading
    Review

    How do you know if a reaction is a
    combustion reaction?

    What is an endothermic reaction?

    What is an exothermic reaction?

    What are the four types of chemical
    equations?.

    How do you know if an equation is
    balanced?

    • Slide 1
    • Chemical Equations
      Chemical Equations

    • Symbol Summary
    • Law of Conservation of Mass

    • Writing and Balancing Chemical Equations
    • Writing and Balancing Chemical Equations

    • Information in a Chemical Equation
    • Information from a Chemical Equation
    • Types of Chemical Equations
    • Combination Reactions

    • Decomposition Reactions
    • Single Displacement Reactions
      Double Displacement Reactions
      Double Displacement Reactions

    • Heat in Chemical Reactions Terminology
    • Heat as an Energy Transfer Vehicle in Nature
    • Graphical Representations of Endothermic Reactions
    • Graphical Representations of Exothermic Reactions
    • Reading Review

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