Categories for English

Coco Fusco Cultural Commentary Essay

Coco Fusco Cultural Commentary Essay

This performance was intended to mock Western concepts of the exotic but instead took on a different facade when most audiences did not realize it was a performance piece. Their cage became “a metaphor for [their] condition, linking the racism implicit in the ethnographic paradigms of discovery”[1]. Reactions and commentary received throughout a span of two years allowed Coco Fusco to gage an even stronger sense of “otherness” where she was looked upon as a specimen instead of a human being.

Being dehumanized in such a form cannot be easy to handle even when taking into account the fictional situation she and Gomez-Pena were in.

However, the prevalent “otherness” for Coco Fusco wasn’t exclusive to the performance piece; as a Cuban-American she had already encountered that denial of one’s actual presence within society. As a young child her family hid the reasons for and meaning of comments/looks made as a way of protecting her from the harsh realities.

Even in later years when Coco Fusco returned from her study abroad trip to Paris, her family was exuberant by the thought of her speaking French. She anecdotes thinking that her “newly acquired French impressed everyone much more than [her] English ever had”[2].

This inadvertently established that languages of the Western world were superior to her vernacular Spanish. The implication was that if she relinquished the use of Spanish or even the hybrid Spanglish she would be more successful in life. In a reading covered by Professor Alba-Salas the author reaffirms this notion by saying that “those who achieve success have done so within social and educational systems that favor the use of English over Spanish”[3]. Coco Fusco’s family was consumed by the same fear most immigrant families have; the fear of being marginalized as the “other” and never really reaching the viable potential one can have.

Soon after Coco Fusco comes to realize the immense “culture clash” she had been living. She realizes the implications of those stares and the thoughts brought upon by her speech. It is then when she takes in upon herself to at least attempt to dispel or even clarify the misconceptions of the population through her performances. In the Two Undiscovered Amerindians performance it is clearly seen how two conflicting cultures create animosity where the privileged, in this case the audience, attempt set the standard for the normative.

Coco Fusco notes that as she and Gomez-Pena assume their “stereotypical role of domesticated savage[s] and many audience members [feel] entitled to assume the role of the colonizer”[4] where as to continue the already rampant cycle of discrimination. After a particular performance one young woman came back to share her discontent, claiming that Gomez-Pena was “ungrateful for all the benefits he had received thanks to multiculturalism… Gomez-Pena responded that multiculturalism was not a gift from the white but a result of decades of struggle by people of color”[5].

In this discourse Gomez-Pena reinforces the idea of this “culture clash” in America and how the privileged still see themselves as that standard that enables them to pass judgment. Nevertheless both “culture clash” and this sense of “otherness” within communities creates a harmful effect in society but equally harmful is the alienation that appears as an outcome of their presence. The other tends to feel this alienation most when realizing there is disengagement between them and their society, work, and even at times themselves.

My Experience, My Goals Essay

My Experience, My Goals Essay

I grew up in a country whose native language is not English. So, needless to say, the move from my native country to the United States has been difficult primarily because of the communication barriers I had to contend with. However, while English might not have been my first language, I grew up learning the language nevertheless. In my home, we had access to English shows which I was constantly exposed to at a very young age. This is the reason why I learned English without much conscious effort.

The language learning was taking place at the sub-conscious level.

Lu (2) said that in the acquisition of oral language, “young children are active agents”, constantly making sense of the inputs that they get from their surroundings in way that is meaningful to them. From these meanings, children then create their own sense of language rules, constantly refining and redefining these rules through active engagement and communication with the more competent language users in their immediate environment.

(Lu 3) I realize that the constant exposure to the English language at a young age is the reason why I grew up knowing how to use it.

There was never a conscious effort on my part to use or learn English, because it was already ingrained in my person. While the people in my household are not proficient in the language, there was an effort to know it, perhaps in preparation for our migration to the US. I had access to English books which strengthened my phonological and print awareness of the English alphabet. This happened side by side while I was learning my mother language as well and while my parents and older siblings were trying to learn English as well.

As a child with a facility for the English language, I was subject to an excess of attention that I would not have received otherwise, had I just spoken our native tongue and nothing else. There is a prestige attached to the English language that makes people in my country take a second look and listen closely to what I have to say. Such is the high stature of the English language in my country that most people associate it with affluence and breeding. The situation changed once my family made the move to the United States.

If you are multi-lingual, you are regarded as ethnic, especially if your pronunciation has a very thick and recognizable accent. You will be subject to stereotyping, and in some cases, be even regarded as second class citizens. While I am not saying that everyone will react negatively to your accent or your use of your mother language, it is a reality that there are some people who regard that with some amount of condescension. It is not necessarily a bad thing, just a natural part of human nature.

Because language is one fundamental aspect of culture, it is therefore only natural that we become defined or identified by our native language. Difficulties can arise if we are not fluent in the standard language being used in a particular place. In such cases, when we do not know the standard language, we are immediately labeled as “foreigners”, or not born native to that place. While to some people this may not matter, the truth is that there are people who will take this against you. If there is any field that multilingualism is always an advantage, in the United States or elsewhere, and that is in the world of business.

This is especially true in the age of globalism, where most business have international operations as well. Being multilingual means that I will be able to communicate with my colleagues at work, and at the same time be able to communicate with a client or supplier who speaks my native language. Actually, upon deeper reflection of my experiences, I have come to the conclusion that people do not react to your multilingualism as much as they are reacting to the accent or how you speak the English language.

The more neutral your accent or the better your “American twang”, the better people regard you. And this is true regardless or what place you are in. What we speak and how we speak, reflects our history as an individual. How we speak makes a statement about who we are as a person and a measure of who we could be. Knowing how to speak in a second language will not be of much value if you cannot be understood because of how you say it. Pronunciation can be a barrier in communication, so being able to say words correctly is crucial.

The good news is that once, you are fluent in English, the process of neutralizing the accent will come naturally especially in a natural English environment. After all is said and done, there is great satisfaction in not just being fluent in a second language, but also being able to say it properly and clearly. And this is what I am focusing on: working on fluency and pronunciation at the same time. In an era of globalization where English is the language of trade, the ability to communicate in the English language is a definite advantage.

However with that being said, the value of the mother tongue should never be forgotten. The respect that we have for our own cultural heritage renders us with our own unique identities. And in an era of globalization, where everything is being homogenized we need to hang on to that identity or stand to lose ourselves.

Works Cited

Lu, Mei-Yu, Language Learning in Social and Cultural Contexts, ERIC Digest, 1998, Retrieved: April 14, 2008 from http://www. ericdigests. org/1999-2/language. htm

English Mamet Miller Essay

English Mamet Miller Essay

Crucial to the dramatic impact of any stage play are the entrances and exits of the characters, as well as the motivations which drive these entrances and exits.  In both Arthur Millers “Death of a Salesman” and David Mamet’s “Glengarry Glen Roos,” pivotal events and sequences of events are set in motion by the entrances of exits of the plays’ characters.

The  entrances and exits of the characters and, most importantly, the entrances and exits of the plays’ main characters, are keyed to the thematic impulses of the plays.

In “Death of a Salesman” it is the very existence of an “exit” for Willie Loman that drives the play’s message regarding classicism and the “American Dream.”   In “Glengarry Glen Ross,” the action of the play is framed almost entirely by the entrances and exits of the players on or off of an unchanging set than from various set-changes which set mood and pace.

             Miller’s “Death of a Salesman” offers one of the most famous and memorable exits of a play’s main character in American theater.

Mamet’s “Glengarry Glen Ross” offers ironic and darkly comical entrances and exits by it’s main character Shelly Levine. The most prominent impact of a character’s entrances and exits on stage to an audience is to signal to the audience that the character or characters in question will either be apart from the ensuing action, or be initiated into it. For audiences the arrivals end exits of a play’s main character are poignant and obvious symbols of a change in the direction of the plot, pace, and mood.

            Miller’s “Death of a Salesman” exemplifies how the entrance and exit of a play’s main character can frame the entire action of a play. The play’s first dramatic action, other than the revelation of the non-realistic and semitransparent set, is the entrance of Willie Loman who comes onstage “carrying two large sample-cases.” (Miller).  The image of a man, past sixty, striding onto an unrealistic set with two suitcases transmits a considerable amount of information to the audience in a  single dramatic gesture. Loman, merely by entering the stage, can be obviously determined to be a middle-aged man, lost in hazy memories of the past, facing an uncertain future, carrying a heavy load, and ready to travel.

            These qualities are precisely those which drive the play’s dramatic plot and its themes. The plot involves Willie Loman’s battle to make a home and living world for his family, to find meaning in his existence, and to salvage dignity from an undignified station in life. The theme of the play, which deals with economic disparity and the dissolution of the average working person, is clearly articulated purely by the image of Willie Loman’s initial entrance onto the hazy, dreamlike set.

            Loman’s exit, which closes the play, is similarly concise in dramatic impact and vision. Before making his famous exit — to his own death — Loman turns to emphatically address the audience. He says, “There’s all kinds of important people in the stands; and the first thing you know….” This direct appeal to the audience, spoken just before Loman’s final exit from the stage, invites the audience to identify even more deeply with Loman and his plight just prior to his death. The breaking of the invisible “fourth wall” (or at least the bending of it) invests Loman with humanity and realism, bringing the audience as close to him as he possibly can, before throwing himself to his fate.  (Miller)

            In this way, the dialogue spoken by characters as the enter or exit the stage can be rightly considered a part of the exit or entrance itself and is, in a well-made drama, keyed compositionally into the thematic purpose of the entrance or exit. When Loman speaks his last word to the audience “Shhh!” the audience knows, even before his exit, that he is about to do something extremely important,. perhaps more dramatic and more important than any action up to that point in the play.  The dialogue is, itself, signaling both his exit and the play’s climax. Loman’s physical exit from the stage is accompanied not only by spoken dialogue, but it is immediately followed by an off-stage cacophony which directly contradicts Loman’s “Shhh!”

            This abrupt shift, from a call to silence, to a roaring crash, which modulates to a single cello note, wraps the play together thematically as well as granting the complex plot a suitable denouement.  The swift transformation from impelled silence to the off-stage crash takes the audience through a grand dramatic arc in the space of a few moments and encapsulates the play’s essential message about the sanctity of the individual. By framing the entirety of the play with Loman’s exceedingly well-composed and envisioned entrance, Miller conveys the essence of his theme through two dramatic gestures, each of which incites the reader or audience to identify more closely and more intensely with Loman’s plight and fate and in so doing, embrace to the same degree the play’s thematic message.

            Mamet’s “Glengarry Glen Ross” offers a similar thematic impulse as “Death of a Salesman,” in that it explores the dissolution and degradation of a “little man” in American society. However, Mamet, rather than opting for warm, empathetic audience identification, seeks to lead his audience to his thematic message by way of a study in ambition and moral ambiguity. Shelly Levine aspires to be a thief and a selfish and materialistic person.  The impact of his selfishness and materialism is conveyed, often ironically, through his entrance sand exits in the play. An example of this is in Act Two when Levine bursts onto the (ransacked) office-set with tremendous glee and confidence. He says:

            Get the chalk.  Get the chalk…get  the chalk!  I closed ’em!  I closedthe cocksucker.  Get the chalk and put me on the board.  I’m going to Hawaii!  Put me on the Cadillac board, Williamson!  Pick up the fuckin’ chalk.  Eight units. Mountain View…

            Meanwhile, it is clear to the audience by the mere fact of the office being in shambles, that Levine’s victorious tone is  completely inappropriate. This is an ironic gesture, created by Mamet from the dissonance created by Levine’s up-beat entrance and the shambled state of the set he enters on. The irony generated in this gesture is central to the play”s themes of selfish dissolution and culpability.

            Like Miller, Mamet incorporates important dialogue into the entrances  and exits of the characters and, like Miller, he utilizes audience expectation and the sudden change of the play’s pace and mood to transmit important thematic information tot he audience. In this, both playwrights partake of musical composition where the various entrances and exists of melodic themes and passages indicate a shift in mood and thematic direction for the listener.

            Similarly, Aaronow’s exit into the side-office in the same scene discussed above indicates a pending plot complication. His line “We had a robbery.” which comes just before he moves from the office-space to the inner-room indicates a shift in the plot. The line indicates that the motion of leaving the main office is somehow tied to the fact of the robbery. And at this point, the audience feels intensely, the ironic impact of Levine’s enthusiastic entrance earlier in the scene.

            The energy of the scene is tied directly to the play’s themes and, in fact, encapsulates them for the audience. Levine’s initial excitement and dialogue are indicative of the ambition which drives him; Aaronow’s line and subsequent stage-movement  indicates both the moral ambiguity of Levine’s ambition and the potential repercussions for this naked ambition.

             Both Miller and Mamet decline to give their main characters entrances and exits of noble stature or consequence (as one might expect from a Shakespearean or Greek tragedy). Instead, the players’ entrances and exits are ironic, chaotic, elegiac, or fragmented. For miller the lack of grand entrances and exists invested with nobility symbolized the fragmentation and degradation of an individual’s mind, body,m and spirit. For Mamet, the rather hectic and ominous entrances and exits of the characters in “Glengarry Glen Ross”  symbolize the disorder and fragmentation of modern society.

            As important to the dramatic impact of the play as dialogue or plot, the entrances and exits of a plays’ charters produce a dynamic relationship with the plays’ sets and situations. As noted above, Mamet’s construction of a pivotal scene in Act 2 is structured around an ironic entrance by the play’s protagonist.  Miller’s unforgettable climax is structured around the tragic exit of Willie Loman; the play’s “Requiem” in effect becoming an extension of this last exit, for it is the absence (the exit) of Loman which provides the impetus and motion of all that concludes beyond his leaving the stage.

            When Shelly Levine is guided meekly away in handcuffs by detectives at the close of “Glengarry Glen Ross,” the audience is left with the impression of tragedy, but also with a sense of ironic justice. The meekness of Levine, in contrast to the ambition which has propelled him through the events of the play and given rise to the play’s complications is reduced, at last, to helpless culpability.    This resonance drives Mamet’s theme of social disintegration for it is not merely a moral failing on Levine’s part which incites the play’s final, ironic tragedy, but the hopelessness of ambition and competition in an economically driven society, which values money over human relationships or moral fortitude.

            By staking so much dramatic impact on the entrances and exits of their characters, both Miller and Mamet, create a sense of constant motion, excitement, change and energy, giving a sense of the ephemerality of an individual’s existence. In effect the entrances and exits of Loman and Levine demonstrate the ineffectuality of the individual in an impersonal society, but they also manage to convey (usually by irony) a sense of the injustice which accompanies their characters ignoble entrances and exits.

            For Miler, the sanctity and nobility of the individual was more important even than death — for Mamet the destruction of the individual through submission to material ambition was viewed as thoroughly corrupting, so much that his protagonist perceived victory only at the moment of his actual defeat. For Loman, some form of self-reclamation took place in his final, tragic exit form the stage; for Levine, self-reclamation is left as an ambiguous and unlikely possibility.

            Both “Death of a Salesman” and “Glengarry Glen Rooss” depend on important entrances and exits by their main (and minor) characters to shape the flow and pace of the plays’ scenes, plots, and character development — but also to transmit through gesture, word, and motion the thematic meaning, or “message” of the work. In each case, the use of dialogue, set-changes, and dramatic irony accompany the entrances and exits of their characters as a method for inverting (or subverting)the traditional, flourished and noble entrances of classically tragic characters.

            Miller and Mamet each chose to articulate the story of “little’ men. In keeping with these portrayals, they necessarily constructed entrances and exits for these characters and the characters the interacted with in order to present the theme of the individual in modern society, with a vie toward examining the moral implications of materialism, ambition, and classicism in American society. the entrances and exits of their characters proved to be crucial technical elements for transmitting these important themes.

Not yet forgotten Essay

Not yet forgotten Essay

There have been many wonderful periods of time in my life and the one I have chosen to talk about here is high school. Not the English type of high school, but the Romanian one: those four years before university. Before I had got there, I had already got used to the idea that school is an unlikely place for friendships to occur and it can’t get any better than boredom and stress. Nevertheless, it was with hope and confidence that I stepped into the high school entrance.

From the very first day I could feel something was going on well. I had a cheerful feeling and I was very comfortable and motivated. People would mind their own business and, if they had to choose, would rather be nice to each other. It was there that I really met people who appreciated me and with whom I could get on. Each morning – here I must make clear that I am a night owl – I got up with a smile on my face, even if outside was still dark.

I would then take the bus and watch the sunrise on my way to the last station.

The buses at that time of the day were terribly crowded and despite the fact that us pupils had special buses on which others weren’t allowed to board, no-one respected that rule. Afterwards, I would have to walk to the high school for about ten minutes past a great statue of a Romanian revolutionary and fighter which had different backgrounds, depending on the weather. The statue was in front of a cathedral for which the city is famous: an enormous, astonishingly beatiful Orthodox cathedral built in the middle ages.

It was a very energizing feeling watching so many people go to work or school in the centre of the city. The buzz managed to nudge me from my semi-conscious state of mind in which I was still, due to the early hour of the morning when I had lessons and had to get up. It is true that the spirit of a place is given by the people in it. Obviously, not all my classmates were great friends, but those who were taught me lots of things about people’s behaviour and what really counts, directly and indirectly. They let me know that I can really be loved for who I am and that being yourself is worth it.

The teachers were, for the first time ever, happy to teach us and be part of the education system. The lessons were fun, informative and, although quite tiring, we would all leave the high school at the end of the day with a smile on our face, if not laughing. That single year of high school was definitely one of the most rewarding experiences I have had until now. Sometimes my friends and I would skip classes and go to a pub in the city centre, but these naughty adventures will take their place in another story, another time.

Jane Eyre Elements of Fairy Tale

Jane Eyre as a Fairy Tale

The fairy tale master plots of rags to riches and good versus evil are recurring themes throughout stories from many different cultures. Charlotte Bronte’s Jane Eyre, can be likened to a fairy tale, as certain elements of the master plot of the story, as it contains certain aspects of traditional fairy tale stories, such as Briar Rose and Cinderella. Jane Eyre was one of the first books with a female author that was widely read by the literate public. Since its first publication it has become part of the literary canon and continues to be the basis of discussion and debate among scholars even today, over a century after it was written. Jane Eyre is similar to many fairy tales due to the fact that there are elements of traditional fairy tale master plots, such as rags to riches, good versus evil and a lost love found again; and, ultimately, the implication of this is that the reader has a good idea that the novel will end with the traditional fairy tale ending of the characters living “happily ever after”.

Many fairy tales, such as Cinderella involve a main character who is suffering and in order to escape their suffering they use their imagination as an escape. In Cinderella the singing birds and talking mice are all examples of how she uses her imagination to escape the world that imprisons her (Cinderella). Jane’s experience in the red room reminds the reader that imagination is very important to Jane, as it is a way for her to escape the realities of her everyday life. The narrative that Jane creates also has a mythological element to it as she mixes the realistic aspects of her life with fantasy. We see the first instance of this as Jane sits nervously in the red-room and imagines a gleam of light shining on the wall; for her, this indicates a vision from another world (Bronte 25). Throughout the book, the appearance of supernatural incidents such as the one in the red room, usually occur before there is a big change in Jane’s life. As Jane’s departure from Gateshead was marked by her pseudo-supernatural experience in the red-room, her movement away from Lowood also has a fairy tale component. As Jane is contemplating what would be the best way for her to gain new employment, she is visited by a “kind fairy” who gives her specific advice to place an advertisement in a local paper (Bronte 101). Jane takes the fairy’s advice and places the ad in the paper with responses addressed to J.E.; through the newspaper Jane is offered the job at Thornfield and soon after accepts the position. These different paranormal experiences of Jane, share many elements with stories such as Cinderella, where the fairy God mother of Cinderella makes it possible for her to attend the kings ball and provides the necessary components for her to change her circumstances.

Jane’s rise from a poor orphan girl to a rather wealthy lady who has inherited a fortune from her unknown family members is another example of fairy tale elements that are present in the book. Whether it be Cinderella or any other rags to riches fairy tale, the idea of coming form nothing and ending up rich is an overarching theme throughout many fairy tales. In addition to being wealthy, the character also tends to find true love as part of the good luck that has been bestowed upon them. We see this to be the fact, as Jane ends up with her “Prince Charming” in Rochester and goes on to get married and lives happily together.

The love story element in Jane Eyre is another example of how the story shares elements with the traditional fairy tale genre. Bronte emphasizes the idea that Jane and Rochester are an example “true lovers” by creating an almost mythical scene for their first meeting (Bronte 128). Her association of Rochester’s horse and dog with the mythical Gytrash places their initial meeting in an almost fairytale-like setting. Later, Rochester reveals that at this initial meeting, he thought Jane was a fairy who had bewitched his horse, and he repeatedly refers to her as a sprite or elfin character, claiming the “men in green” are her relatives. At the end of the novel, when Jane returns to Rochester, the reunion between the two of them has another fairy tale like element. As she is about to accept St. John’s proposal of marriage, Jane experiences a sensation as “sharp, as strange, as shocking” similar to an electric shock (Bronte 466). Afterwards, she hears Rochester’s voice call her name; the voice comes from nowhere, speaking “in pain and woe, wildly, eerily, urgently” (Bronte 466). So powerful is this voice that Jane cries, “I am coming,” and runs out the door into the garden, but she discovers no sign of Rochester (Bronte 467). Although Jane dismisses the voice of Rochester that she heard as not being witchcraft or some other form of the devil, she feels that it is the natural environment trying its very best to help her and Rochester to come together and continue their relationship, Rochester feels that Jane’s answer to him is echoing around him. Through the use of incidents such as this, Bronte makes it very apparent to us that Rochester and Jane are not just ordinary lovers, but are the archetypes of ideal lovers that are often brought forth in stories and in particular fairy tale stories. Very often the archetypes of lovers can be found in fairy tales such as Briar Rose and Cinderella. In Briar Rose the Prince is portrayed as being the one true love for the Princess as the hedge surrounding the castle allowed only him to pass through, to find and save his true love (Grimm 18). The stories Briar Rose and Cinderella end up with the Prince saving the princess and the two of them living happily ever after, Jane Eyre also ends in a similar way with Jane and Rochester getting married.

The discovery, followed by the loss of some great love is an element that is present in Cinderella and is also present in Jane Eyre. In Cinderella, she is able to attend the ball and find her true love, however she has to leave by midnight and she leaves the Prince behind (Cinderella). The prince doesn’t stop looking for her though and is able to find his true love again by finding the woman whose foot fit the glass slipper, when he finds her they are married and live happily ever after (Cinderella). The relationship between Jane and Rochester is similar to Cinderella, as Jane runs away but in the end find each other again, end up getting married and as far as the reader knows live “happily ever after”.

Throughout Jane Eyre, the element of the fairy tale master plot is present and by using the master plot, Bronte creates a new style of story. Bronte blends the realistic aspects of the Victorian era life of Jane with the somewhat unrealistic elements from fairy tales like Briar Rose and Cinderella. In the end, the implication of using the fairy tale master plot throughout the novel, means that the reader will be able to expect that story to follow a certain pattern and to end with the traditional “happily ever after”. The end of the novel finishes with the marriage of Jane and Rochester and the two of them being very happy together which is what the reader has come to expect from the use of elements of the fairy tale master plot.

Works Cited

Bronte, Charlotte. Jane Eyre. London: Penguin Group, 2003.

Cinderella. Dir. Clyde Geronimi and Wilfred Jackson. 1950. DVD. Disney 2005.

Grimms, Jakob and Wilhelm. Little Briar Rose. Online Posting. Kelowna BC: U. British Columbia Okanagan. 30Oct. 2007 < http://www.pitt.edu/~dash/grimm050.html>

Jane Eyre Elements of Fairy Tale

Jane Eyre as a Fairy Tale

The fairy tale master plots of rags to riches and good versus evil are recurring themes throughout stories from many different cultures. Charlotte Bronte’s Jane Eyre, can be likened to a fairy tale, as certain elements of the master plot of the story, as it contains certain aspects of traditional fairy tale stories, such as Briar Rose and Cinderella. Jane Eyre was one of the first books with a female author that was widely read by the literate public. Since its first publication it has become part of the literary canon and continues to be the basis of discussion and debate among scholars even today, over a century after it was written. Jane Eyre is similar to many fairy tales due to the fact that there are elements of traditional fairy tale master plots, such as rags to riches, good versus evil and a lost love found again; and, ultimately, the implication of this is that the reader has a good idea that the novel will end with the traditional fairy tale ending of the characters living “happily ever after”.

Many fairy tales, such as Cinderella involve a main character who is suffering and in order to escape their suffering they use their imagination as an escape. In Cinderella the singing birds and talking mice are all examples of how she uses her imagination to escape the world that imprisons her (Cinderella). Jane’s experience in the red room reminds the reader that imagination is very important to Jane, as it is a way for her to escape the realities of her everyday life. The narrative that Jane creates also has a mythological element to it as she mixes the realistic aspects of her life with fantasy. We see the first instance of this as Jane sits nervously in the red-room and imagines a gleam of light shining on the wall; for her, this indicates a vision from another world (Bronte 25). Throughout the book, the appearance of supernatural incidents such as the one in the red room, usually occur before there is a big change in Jane’s life. As Jane’s departure from Gateshead was marked by her pseudo-supernatural experience in the red-room, her movement away from Lowood also has a fairy tale component. As Jane is contemplating what would be the best way for her to gain new employment, she is visited by a “kind fairy” who gives her specific advice to place an advertisement in a local paper (Bronte 101). Jane takes the fairy’s advice and places the ad in the paper with responses addressed to J.E.; through the newspaper Jane is offered the job at Thornfield and soon after accepts the position. These different paranormal experiences of Jane, share many elements with stories such as Cinderella, where the fairy God mother of Cinderella makes it possible for her to attend the kings ball and provides the necessary components for her to change her circumstances.

Jane’s rise from a poor orphan girl to a rather wealthy lady who has inherited a fortune from her unknown family members is another example of fairy tale elements that are present in the book. Whether it be Cinderella or any other rags to riches fairy tale, the idea of coming form nothing and ending up rich is an overarching theme throughout many fairy tales. In addition to being wealthy, the character also tends to find true love as part of the good luck that has been bestowed upon them. We see this to be the fact, as Jane ends up with her “Prince Charming” in Rochester and goes on to get married and lives happily together.

The love story element in Jane Eyre is another example of how the story shares elements with the traditional fairy tale genre. Bronte emphasizes the idea that Jane and Rochester are an example “true lovers” by creating an almost mythical scene for their first meeting (Bronte 128). Her association of Rochester’s horse and dog with the mythical Gytrash places their initial meeting in an almost fairytale-like setting. Later, Rochester reveals that at this initial meeting, he thought Jane was a fairy who had bewitched his horse, and he repeatedly refers to her as a sprite or elfin character, claiming the “men in green” are her relatives. At the end of the novel, when Jane returns to Rochester, the reunion between the two of them has another fairy tale like element. As she is about to accept St. John’s proposal of marriage, Jane experiences a sensation as “sharp, as strange, as shocking” similar to an electric shock (Bronte 466). Afterwards, she hears Rochester’s voice call her name; the voice comes from nowhere, speaking “in pain and woe, wildly, eerily, urgently” (Bronte 466). So powerful is this voice that Jane cries, “I am coming,” and runs out the door into the garden, but she discovers no sign of Rochester (Bronte 467). Although Jane dismisses the voice of Rochester that she heard as not being witchcraft or some other form of the devil, she feels that it is the natural environment trying its very best to help her and Rochester to come together and continue their relationship, Rochester feels that Jane’s answer to him is echoing around him. Through the use of incidents such as this, Bronte makes it very apparent to us that Rochester and Jane are not just ordinary lovers, but are the archetypes of ideal lovers that are often brought forth in stories and in particular fairy tale stories. Very often the archetypes of lovers can be found in fairy tales such as Briar Rose and Cinderella. In Briar Rose the Prince is portrayed as being the one true love for the Princess as the hedge surrounding the castle allowed only him to pass through, to find and save his true love (Grimm 18). The stories Briar Rose and Cinderella end up with the Prince saving the princess and the two of them living happily ever after, Jane Eyre also ends in a similar way with Jane and Rochester getting married.

The discovery, followed by the loss of some great love is an element that is present in Cinderella and is also present in Jane Eyre. In Cinderella, she is able to attend the ball and find her true love, however she has to leave by midnight and she leaves the Prince behind (Cinderella). The prince doesn’t stop looking for her though and is able to find his true love again by finding the woman whose foot fit the glass slipper, when he finds her they are married and live happily ever after (Cinderella). The relationship between Jane and Rochester is similar to Cinderella, as Jane runs away but in the end find each other again, end up getting married and as far as the reader knows live “happily ever after”.

Throughout Jane Eyre, the element of the fairy tale master plot is present and by using the master plot, Bronte creates a new style of story. Bronte blends the realistic aspects of the Victorian era life of Jane with the somewhat unrealistic elements from fairy tales like Briar Rose and Cinderella. In the end, the implication of using the fairy tale master plot throughout the novel, means that the reader will be able to expect that story to follow a certain pattern and to end with the traditional “happily ever after”. The end of the novel finishes with the marriage of Jane and Rochester and the two of them being very happy together which is what the reader has come to expect from the use of elements of the fairy tale master plot.

Works Cited

Bronte, Charlotte. Jane Eyre. London: Penguin Group, 2003.

Cinderella. Dir. Clyde Geronimi and Wilfred Jackson. 1950. DVD. Disney 2005.

Grimms, Jakob and Wilhelm. Little Briar Rose. Online Posting. Kelowna BC: U. British Columbia Okanagan. 30Oct. 2007 < http://www.pitt.edu/~dash/grimm050.html>

Media Literacy after “The Simpsons”

Homer Simpson Explains our Postmodern Identity crisis,

Whether we Prize it or not: Media Literacy after “The Simpsons”

ABSTRACT

This article suggests that “The Simpsons” is a sophisticated media subject about media that forces educators who teach media literacy into an encounter with postmodern judgment. The sense of postmodern judgment for media education is explored through a focus on two now themes in “The Simpsons”: the changing judgment of personal identity and the consequences of a relentlessly ironic worldview. Icons of habitual culture can be used to teach about philosophical constructs. From its inception “The Simpsons” has posed a significant challenge to educators.

The program, which ridiculed all forms of influence and turned Bart Simpson into a wildly habitual anti-hero, initially provoked an intense reaction from the education citizens, in some schools influential to the banning of paraphernalia bearing Bart’s images and habitual denunciations of the series. As the series grew in popularity- and eventually was joined by other cartoon series that were seen to be all the more more educationally offensive, such as “Beavis and Butthead” and “South Park”-the furor died down to a now on the other artisan passive hostility toward the program, at least in the classroom. It certainly didn’t facilitate the educational community’s disagreement to have Interval magazine reputation the series the best television program of the 20th century, or to have the poet laureate of the United States, Robert Pinsky, praise the series, stating that it “penetrates to the existence of television itself ” (Owen, 2000, p. 65). Nor did it facilitate that various teachers went habitat, turned the program on, and laughed themselves silly. All the more another abbreviate has been created between the culture of children and the culture of education, a poser that has been perhaps all the more more painful for media educators, various of whom follow Hobbs’ (1998) target that “the texts of everyday career, when constituted as objects of social participation, provide the possibility for combining textual, historical, and ideological examination in ways that relieve students and teachers move beyond the limits of traditional disciplines and controversy areas” (p. 21). To be undeniable, there have been efforts by media educators to bring “The Simpsons” into the classroom. Our debate of the media literacy literature and media literacy sites revealed a number of examples of proposed lessons incorporating the series, from examining “The Simpsons” as a virgin variant of social satire to comparing “The Simpsons” family to other television families. On the other hand, in almost every dispute, we sensed that the unique qualities of the series eluded these efforts. The basic tools of media education and literacy as typically agreed upon by numerous media literacy communities-tools which regulate our control to basic precepts such as the meaning that “the media are constructed”-appear not to be enough to turn “The Simpsons” from renegade habitual culture into a teachable moment (Aufderheide, 1993; Media Awareness Network, 2000). Perhaps the central poser with “The Simpsons” is that it seems to drag the media literacy examination onto the unfamiliar and all the more foreboding terrain of postmodernism, where issues of image and replica open to fall apart, a terrain where sporadic media educators are willing or able to follow. Of line, there has been an effort to define, critique, and bring postmodern impression to bear on educational judgment and application, expressly from advocates of critical pedagogy (e.g., Aronowitz & Giroux, 1992). All the more this has been a theory-driven effort that has not reached further far into educational scholarship, and has made almost no headway into the frontlines of educational manipulate.

Various teachers Studies in Media & Info Literacy Education, Tome 1, Subject 1 (February 2001), 1-12 # University of Toronto Press. DOI: 10.3138/sim.1.1.002 have never heard of the label “postmodernism.” The same mould is equally, if not more pronounced, in the media education citizens. Our examination of media literacy literature and key media literacy web sites in the United States and Canada revealed an almost comprehensive absence of controversy and examination on postmodernism. There have been, of pathway, notable exceptions (McLaren, Hammer, Scholle, & Reilly, 1995; Steinberg & Kincheloe, 1997). The outcome of this empty margin is another critical abbreviate, in this dispute not between students and educators, on the other artisan between media educators and media theorists. In examining this section, we are struck by two observations. First, the gap between media education manipulate and media judgment comes precisely at the moment when teachers and media educators are finding themselves overwhelmed by strange contemporary regular cultural texts for which the unfamiliar category of “postmodernism” may potentially be the most fruitful interpretive handle. Second, the positions of students and media theorists stand in the succeeding relationship. Students are living inside an increasingly postmodern regular cultural participation that media theorists are attempting to label, define, and scan. The puzzle is that students don’t necessarily have the vocabulary to generate meaning of their participation, and the vocabulary that theorists have developed seems to cause meaning only in graduate seminars. “The Simpsons” offers a promising opportunity to strategically residence these issues, highlighting the limits of conventional media literacy tools, illustrating the aesthetic examine of postmodernism, and providing some vocabulary to label that examine. In effect, it serves as an dispute of how the solution of postmodernism can be used to develop a contemporary range of critical interpretive skills for constructively engaging this growing trend in habitual culture.

Our article presents a mini introduction to postmodernism and a grounded process of the benefits and limits of applying this judgment. Our reason is not to provide an exhaustive or all the more spread out introduction to postmodern judgment. Rather, it is to position “The Simpsons” as a media subject that can be used as a starting stop for exploring postmodern judgment. Fear of Postmodernism If everyone loves “The Simpsons,” postmodernism has its correct participation of critics. Writing in U.S. Material and Field Report, Leo (1999) argues that postmodernism has created a language that no one can understand, a language that is used to intellectually bully readers into agreeing with outlandish propositions. The academic area, on the other artisan, has offered more equivocal assessments. Hebdige (1988) argues that “we are in the presence of a buzzword,” a expression which, while confusing, does appropriate an influential social or cultural transition. Kellner (1995) agrees, observing that “. . . the label ‘postmodern’ is often a placeholder, or semiotic marker, that indicates that there are virgin phenomena that demand mapping and theorizing” (p. 46). In the infrequent instances where references to postmodernism do appear in media literacy literature, its ambiguous area is emphasized. For process, Buckingham and Sefton-Green (1997), in their effort to launch charting the challenges posed by multimedia education in an increasingly digitized media area, believe that postmodernism, although “glib and sweeping,” offers a beneficial pathway to characterize a number of broad social and cultural transformations. Some of the changes that control Buckingham and Sefton-Green embrace the area of consumption, the blurring distinctions between production and consumption, the poaching of texts and symbols, and the rejection of the “elitist and sterile oppositions between high and habitual culture” (pp. 289-292). Given the slipperiness of the sense, postmodernism on the other hand marks a critical modern moment in the scan of media and replica. Building on the business of Buckingham and Sefton-Green (1997), we open by asking “what is postmodernism” and “what can we do with it?” With its questioning of “truthfulness” and its subject of the politics of media representations, postmodernism, once it is understood properly, can be a rich source of pedagogical judgment and manipulate. The Postmodern Dispute: Definitions and Symptoms What true is the label “postmodernism” trying to receive? There is, first, the sense of opposition to “modernism.”

In essence, modernism states that individuals and nations, guided by rational thinking and Studies in Media & Counsel Literacy Education, Tome 1, Subject 1 (February 2001), 1-12 # University of Toronto Press. DOI: 10.3138/sim.1.1.002 2 scientific achievements, are moving toward a more humane, more just, and more economically prosperous ultimate. In other contents, modernism embraces progress, viewing it as a linear and inexorable phenomenon with acceptable outcomes. Accordingly, the “publish” in postmodernism stands for the meaning that there is no longer any guarantee of progress. In point, there is further petty consensus as to what progress all the more wealth. Postmodernity typically is distinguished by an undermining of force, the denigration of novel by turning it into a “style” or evocative nostalgia, the questioning of progress, and the head to impression the ultimate as empty. Other postmodern symptoms embrace the meaning of image overload, intertextuality (the seemingly random quoting of one subject by another), a heightened meaning of media self-reflexivity calling control to replica as a hall of mirrors, and pastiche, defined as the sense to cause disjointed images and subject fragments. Finally, the postmodern process is marked by commodification overload (the head to turn everything into a product or marketing opportunity), irony overload (the elevation of irony as the dominant rhetorical posture), and the increased questioning of the sense of personal identity brought on by viewing the self as a social construction. In short, the meaning of postmodernism calls control to the ways in which a beneficial deal of everyday regular culture is at once fully informed by, if not driven by, the basic media literacy precept that media construct social naked truth. In act, all the more of regular culture relentlessly draws carefulness to the further arbitrariness of almost every aspect of our social participation, as well as the moral and epistemological foundations on which social participation depends. In other contents, the curriculum of regular culture has outstripped the curriculum of the classroom, all the more the media education classroom. The vocabulary of postmodernism allows us to launch to contemplate and term the various ways in which this is taking fix, on the other share it further leaves us at a loss about how to proceed. Recognizing this disagreement, memo and educational theorists have attempted to clarify what is to be gained by drawing on the social and theoretical insights generated by the deconstructive influence of postmodern criticism. At the same interval, they have tried to demonstrate how to tame this influence in the utility of modernist values such as human rights, equality, freedom, and democracy (Aronowitz & Giroux, 1991; Best & Kellner, 1991; Giroux, 1997; Kellner, 1995; Rorty, 1989; Wolin, 1990).

A “critical postmodernism” encourages us to solicit contemporary questions about all claims to influence (scientific or otherwise), about how contemporary forms of replica and contemporary inflections in the style of replica made practicable through technology and commodification exchange the quality of sense, and about how cultural dominance is produced and maintained through the patterns of contrasts used to define social and linguistic categories (Aronowitz & Giroux, 1991; Scholle & Denski, 1995). Postmodernism offers contemporary tools for critical interpretation and modern responsibilities for connecting media and cultural interpretation to democracy as a “form of native land that enables critical reflection and activism,” making us understand “the ways in which our seemingly private individual identities are formed, through language and symbols, in relationship to each other and the broader social and political citizens” (McKinlay, 1998, p. 481). For “The Simpsons” audience, an ambivalence toward technology and progress is guideline fare. This judgment of the ultimate as empty and without guarantees has further been associated with the core identity of Hour X, whose slogan might glance at “We have seen the forthcoming and it sucks.” While any aspect of postmodernism discussed above can be found in and explored within “The Simpsons,” two concepts in particular-irony overload and the questioning of identity-will serve as reference points in our reconsideration of the series. The puzzle of identity is a central complication for all young citizens, on the other artisan it is a puzzle that is not duration satisfactorily addressed, given the growing levels of hopelessness, cynicism, despair, and suicide among teenagers. Of particular control to us is that “The Simpsons” repeatedly focuses on this further subject: the puzzle of selfhood in an increasingly absurd culture pulverized with images, symbols, values, irony, commercialization, and hucksterism. What lessons does “The Simpsons” teach? What lessons can be learned as the characters on the demonstrate are thrust into many battles for selfhood within the postmodern terrain? Enjoy all the more postmodern Studies in Media & Info Literacy Education, Manual 1, Controversy 1 (February 2001), 1-12 # University of Toronto Press. DOI: 10.3138/sim.1.1.002 3 culture, “The Simpsons,” is saturated with irony and obsessed with issues of absolute identity, expressly in relation to media culture. Our task is to articulate an interpretive frame of reference to facilitate media educators and viewers open to cause critical meaning of these symptoms.

The Challenges of Postmodern Selfhood Gergen (1991) notes that postmodernists abbreviate version into three epochs, each of which corresponds to a particular judgment of personal identity or selfhood. These periods are labeled as the pre-modern (romantic hour), the contemporary era, and the postmodern. From the pre-modern or romantic tradition, we derive our meaning in a stable center of identity. In Gergen’s contents, “powerful forces” in the “deep interior of one’s duration” are held to be the source of “inspiration, creativity, genius, and moral courage, all the more madness” (Gergen, 1992, p. 61). Modernism redefined the self, shifting the emphasis from deep, mysterious processes to human consciousness in the here and these days, always in control with such values as efficiency, stable functioning, and progress. The self in its virgin form-what Gergen calls the postmodern or relational self-is no longer viewed as a separate target, on the other artisan is increasingly understood as a relational construction, defined by and spread across the humanity and activity experiences each individual encounters throughout her or his field. In short, as McNamee and Gergen (1999) argue, “there are no independent selves; we are each constituted by others (who are themselves similarly constituted). We are always already related by virtue of shared constitutions of the self ” (p. 15). Linked to this sense is the sense that a conscious understanding of ourselves as beings occurs through language, which is itself a fundamentally relational sense, and that our identity grows and develops in relationship to the endless dialogues that we have with others, with culture, and with ourselves. In this meaning, our interactions with the media become deeply significant. Moreover, this contemporary consciousness of the relational sense of the self comes at correct the moment when the relationships we enter into and which contribute to our definition of self are multiplying at an exponential rate and are duration increasingly spread over a in a superior way and in a superior way span of hour and amplitude. It is one baggage to see the sense of the relational self when we think of, claim, two friends engaged in a mutually sustaining and defining examination. In this setting, the sense of the relational self is promising, perhaps all the more reassuring. On the other hand, extending the meaning of relationship to subsume every symbolic encounter in which we willingly or unwilling participate-from intentional relationships to unintentional and forced relationship with 3,000 commercial messages per day-presents modern challenges. A critical postmodern perspective calls control to this crisis of identity, a crisis in which the media of memo and their commercial foundations are deeply implicated. Of line, thinking of the self as a relational construct not only gives insights into the crisis of the self, on the other share it further offers a means of thinking about how to residence that crisis. In this more hopeful and acceptable meaning, the relational self offers a glimpse of those selected aspects of human participation and identity that may be used as a moral foundation in the face of the deconstructive maelstrom of commercial postmodern culture. The relational self suggests a moral compass that is based less on the authentic truths of religion or science than in the manner by which we draw up ourselves and our community through ceaseless and inevitable physical, linguistic, and psychological dependence upon one another. Drawing on the duty of Martin Buber, Mikhail Bakhtin, Jurgen Habermas, Richard Rorty, and Jerome Bruner, McNamee and Gergen (1999) deposit elsewhere a autonomous and thoughtful introduction to what a moral ethic organized on all sides of the relational self would see enjoy. They have called it “relational responsibility,” defining relationally responsible actions as those that “sustain and enhance forms of exchange elsewhere of which influential process itself is made practicable.” Isolation, they argue, “represents the negation of citizens” (p. 19). The guideline of relational responsibility is in stark contrast to the deconstructive tendencies of postmodernism. As such, it can serve as a critical bridge linking the interpretive coercion of a critical postmodernism to the modernist values associated with progressive democracy.

Studies in Media & Counsel Literacy Education, Tome 1, Subject 1 (February 2001), 1-12 # University of Toronto Press. DOI: 10.3138/sim.1.1.002 4 At the same hour, it is autonomous that the deconstructive tendencies of postmodernism (as a fix of virgin conditions) have influential implications for personal identity construction. Giddens (1991), for process, warns of the “looming threat of personal meaninglessness.” It is this threat that directs us back to a carefulness of one of the central tropes of postmodern discourse: irony. As noted above, relentless irony is a hallmark of both “The Simpsons” and the postmodern era. As individuals struggle to confront postmodern challenges to identity, there is grounds to solicit whether there is any valuation in the postmodern strategy of irony. Thus, the implications of irony both for identity formation and relational responsibility must be considered. Irony, Identity, and the Disagreement of Responsibility “The Simpsons” is regularly celebrated for its incisive wit and social satire, for its force to manipulate irony to bell control to the absurdity of everyday social conventions and beliefs. Irony functions as a critical form that helps us to break through surface sense to examine and understand the “correct” area of things in a contemporary and deeper means. It is a vehicle for enhancing critical consciousness, and it represents a moral coercion of skilled in the function of eradicating conventional pathetic (Rorty, 1989). As Hutcheon (1992, 1994) notes, critical irony is intimately linked to politics. The compel of deconstructing can be a first development to political dispute, and irony’s oppositional character can be a major critical compel. The subversive functioning of irony is related to its status as a self-critical and self-reflexive resources that challenges hierarchy, and this influence to undermine and overturn is said to have politically transformative coercion. On the other share this is not where the manipulate of irony ends in “The Simpsons,” nor does it appropriate the postmodern turn in the meaning of irony. Postmodern irony is ambiguous and its solution is contested.

It can be interpreted by adherents as playful, reflexive, and liberating; opponents, on the other hand, contemplate it as frivolous, deviant, and perverse (Hutcheon, 1992, 1994; Kaufman, 1997; Thiele, 1997). In postmodern irony, clarity in moral delineation begins to disappear. For process, in virgin comedy, as in all social behavior, all actions are controversy to satire from some perspective. Besides, by reason of postmodern irony begins with the assumption that language produces all sense, a kind of “emancipatory indulgence in irony” is evoked-an invitation to reconceptualize language as a form of play. As Gergen (1991) writes, “we needn’t credit such linguistic activities with profundity, imbue them with deep significance, or fix elsewhere to interchange the nature on their novel. Rather, we might play with the truths of the hour, shake them about, try them on prize funny hats” (p. 188). In other contents, postmodern irony invites us to “avoid ‘saying it straight,’ using linear logic, and forming smooth, progressive narratives” (p. 188). “The Simpsons” is saturated with this form of postmodern irony. On the other facilitate where does that leave media educators trying to duty with this enormously regular series? On the one artisan, media educators would prize to engage the series fully by practise of it raises various challenges to conventional ideas of mould and selfhood; on the other share, they are unwilling to lead students to examine media literacy as a form of deconstruction that leads only to meaninglessness or play. Some media scholars contemplate postmodern irony as a laborious challenge for teachers committed to linking media literacy with productive citizenship. Purdy, for dispute, laments that “between Madonna and the fist-fight between Jesus and Santa Claus that opened the cartoon series South Park, there is less and less left in society whose flouting can elicit shock.” Irony, he concludes, “invites us to be self-absorbed, on the other facilitate in selves that we cannot believe to be particularly interesting or significant” (p. 26). Conway and Seery (1992) are similarly concerned about the implications of postmodern irony for engaged citizenship. “Although irony may equip the dispossessed with much-needed critical perspective and all the more underwrite a minimal political agenda,” they draw up, “it is generally regarded as irremediably parasitic and antisocial” (p. 3). Hutcheon (1994) further shares this episode, noting that irony can be “both political and apolitical, both conservative and radical, both repressive and democratizing in a pathway that other discursive strategies are not” (p. 35). Gergen (1991) frames the challenge of postmodern irony in terms of its challenge to forming a coherent self. If all serious projects are reduced to satire, play, Studies in Media & Counsel Literacy Education, Tome 1, Subject 1 (February 2001), 1-12 # University of Toronto Press. DOI: 10.3138/sim.1.1.002 5 or nonsense, “all attempts at authenticity or earnest ends become empty-merely postures to be punctuated by sophisticated self-consciousness” (p. 189). If this is the poser that “The Simpsons” raises in its manipulate of both critical and postmodern irony, to what room is it contributing to a social consciousness with a practicable for social process, as opposed to contributing to a cynical numbness founded on ironic detachment?

What solutions does the series offer for resolving this disagreement? Are there any alternative solutions that acknowledge the postmodern challenge to identity? Exploration of Self in “Homer to the Max” With these concerns in meaning, we see an phase of “The Simpsons” that originally aired on February 7, 1998. The period focuses with particular vehemence on the quest for identity and asks the closest questions: † How is the sense of the self understood in relationship to the blizzard of media images, symbols, and values? † How does irony fit into the exploration and resolution of identity issues? † How do we understand “The Simpsons” confrontations with the self and identity in terms of what has been called the postmodern process? The demonstrate begins with the principles sight gags on the couch and the Simpson family’s lampooning of television’s midseason replacement series. The program that finally captures the family’s carefulness is “Police Cops,” which becomes a present within the present. As the two Miami-Vice enjoy heroes of “Police Cops” subdue would-be bank thieves, one of the police detective heroes, a millionaire cop surrounded by admiring women, introduces himself as “Simpson, Detective Homer Simpson.” The Simpson family is shocked and Homer is exclusively overwhelmed, confusing himself with his television image.

The plot then unfolds in essentially five kernels that hire up and explore Homer’s confusion over his own identity (Chatman, 1978). First, Homer identifies completely with the television detective hero: “Wow. They captured my personality perfectly! Did you examine the means Daddy caught that bullet?” In turn, the all-inclusive citizens of Springfield validates Homer’s contemporary pseudo-identity, treating him as if he were the television detective hero: “Hey, Mr. Simpson, sir, can I purchase your autograph?” Second, the “Police Cops” producers interchange their television detective character from glamorous hero to bumbling sidekick, launching a series of gags about Homer’s correct identity. The virgin characterization is truly a near perfect replication of the “absolute” Homer Simpson. This outrages Homer: “Hey what’s going on? That guy’s not Homer Simpson! He’s fat and stupid!” The town continues to respond to Homer as the television character, only these days with ridicule rather than respect. Nonetheless, Homer gains some insight into the confusion between his “authentic” and “fictional” identity. As a assemblage of co-workers gathers in the hallway absent his business waiting for him to “do something stupid,” Homer retorts, “Well, I’m sorry to disappoint you gentleman, on the other artisan you seem to have me confused with a character in a fictional present.” Factor of the pleasure for viewers derives from the irony of the cartoon character Homer making the state that he is the “authentic” Homer Simpson, as opposed to the fictional cartoon character within the cartoon.

The writers of the period then continue to play with this seemingly endless hall of mirrors between “absolute” and “fictional” identity by scripting Homer to behave true in the transaction of the revised fictional detective character. Homer obliges by spilling a fondue pot on the nuclear reactor polity panel. Homer’s identity crisis eventually leads him to Hollywood, where he confronts the producers of the “Police Cops”-By the Numbers Productions-and demands that they recast the detective character: “I’m begging you! I’m a human duration! Let me have my dignity back!” The lines between Homer’s authentic identity and his media identity blur all the more besides when his efforts in the production business are used as grist for a contemporary gag in the later “Police Cops” period. Studies in Media & Counsel Literacy Education, Manual 1, Controversy 1 (February 2001), 1-12 # University of Toronto Press. DOI: 10.3138/sim.1.1.002 6 In the third kernel, the plot shifts absent from Homer’s struggle over his identification with his media replica to his fixation on the sense that a contemporary label will give him a virgin identity. In this kernel, Homer goes to court to sue “Police Cops” for the improper application of his reputation. When his petition is nowadays rebuffed in the term of corporate proprietary interests, he rashly decides to transform his reputation to Max Coercion. Homer’s growth is nowadays transformed. His self-image improves, he becomes forceful and dynamic, and his co-workers and boss treat him with respect. Mr. Burns, remembering Homer’s reputation for the first interval, exclaims, “Well, who could forget the reputation of a magnetic individual prize you? Keep up the acceptable profession, Max.” While shopping at Costington’s for a contemporary faculty wardrobe, Homer meets a member of Springfield’s elite with a similarly powerful label, Trent Steele. Trent nowadays takes Homer/Max under his wing, inviting him to garden troop for “Springfield’s young, hip force couples,” an period that turns elsewhere to be the jumping off stop for an environmental reason. The critical moment in this kernel-which links the identity crisis of “Police Cops” with the identity theme in the “Max Force” parcel of the episode-occurs when Homer reveals to his contemporary best friend Trent Steele the origin of the term “Max Compel.”

When Trent exclaims, “Hey, beneficial term!,” Homer replies, “Yeah, isn’t it? I got it off a hairdryer.” Homer’s resolution to his identity crisis with his media self is to redefine himself in terms of the force setting of a mini household appliance. The self is these days equated with a product. At first, the results are stunningly successful. The fourth kernel leads to the denouement. In the third kernel, Homer’s appropriation of the identity of his hair dryer appears to have resolved his identity crisis in satisfactory transaction. On the other hand, this meaning soon falls apart. At the garden assemblage, Homer and Marge rub shoulders with celebrity environmental activists Woody Harrelson and Ed Begley, Jr., two of the various celebrities lampooned in the phase. The sense extreme these scenes is that Homer, as the buffoon celebrity Max Force, is on the same level as other equally shallow and ridiculous celebrities. Finally, Trent Steele announces that it is interval to board a bus to reason “the wanton destruction of our nation’s forests.” This generate is relentlessly parodied: “We have to protect [trees] by generate of trees can’t protect themselves, except, of trail, the Mexican Fighting Trees.” The partygoers travel to a stand of redwoods about to be bulldozed and are chained to the trees. The police (Chief Wiggum, Eddie, and Lou) confront Homer, attempt to swab his eyes with “Hippie- Coercion” mace, and stop up chasing him on all sides of his tree. His chain works prize a saw, cutting down the redwood, which in turn topples the comprehensive forest. Homer, freed at persist, throws his chain into the air, killing a bald eagle. Homer, as the phony Max Force, is rejected by the phony celebrity activists. In the fifth and final kernel, which serves as an epilogue to the phase, Marge and Homer are in bed. Marge tells Homer she is glad he changed his reputation back to Homer Simpson and Homer responds, “Yes, I learned you gotta be yourself.” The Phase Through a Postmodern Lens The phase is intriguing by generate of of its insistent focus on the search for identity, and the methods by which that identity is constructed within the absurdities of the postmodern landscape. As Gergen (1992) notes, “We are exposed to more opinions, values, personalities, and ways of activity than was any previous interval in novel; the number of our relationships soars, the variations are enormous: past relationships extreme (only a ring bell apart) and contemporary faces are only a channel absent” (p. 58). There is, in short, an explosion in social connections.

What does this explosion have to do with our meaning of selves and what we stand for, and how does it undermine beliefs in a romantic interior or in a rational center of the self ? This is precisely the controversy this period of “The Simpsons” takes up again and again. What is exclusively engaging in this phase is the focus on Homer’s identity crisis and its relationship to the media. This is not, of line, a theme unique to “The Simpsons.” As Caldwell (1995) observes, comedy-variety shows in the late 1940s and early 1950s were repeatedly using the conventions of intertextuality and

Jane Eyre Elements of Fairy Tale

Jane Eyre as a Fairy Tale

The fairy tale master plots of rags to riches and good versus evil are recurring themes throughout stories from many different cultures. Charlotte Bronte’s Jane Eyre, can be likened to a fairy tale, as certain elements of the master plot of the story, as it contains certain aspects of traditional fairy tale stories, such as Briar Rose and Cinderella. Jane Eyre was one of the first books with a female author that was widely read by the literate public. Since its first publication it has become part of the literary canon and continues to be the basis of discussion and debate among scholars even today, over a century after it was written. Jane Eyre is similar to many fairy tales due to the fact that there are elements of traditional fairy tale master plots, such as rags to riches, good versus evil and a lost love found again; and, ultimately, the implication of this is that the reader has a good idea that the novel will end with the traditional fairy tale ending of the characters living “happily ever after”.

Many fairy tales, such as Cinderella involve a main character who is suffering and in order to escape their suffering they use their imagination as an escape. In Cinderella the singing birds and talking mice are all examples of how she uses her imagination to escape the world that imprisons her (Cinderella). Jane’s experience in the red room reminds the reader that imagination is very important to Jane, as it is a way for her to escape the realities of her everyday life. The narrative that Jane creates also has a mythological element to it as she mixes the realistic aspects of her life with fantasy. We see the first instance of this as Jane sits nervously in the red-room and imagines a gleam of light shining on the wall; for her, this indicates a vision from another world (Bronte 25). Throughout the book, the appearance of supernatural incidents such as the one in the red room, usually occur before there is a big change in Jane’s life. As Jane’s departure from Gateshead was marked by her pseudo-supernatural experience in the red-room, her movement away from Lowood also has a fairy tale component. As Jane is contemplating what would be the best way for her to gain new employment, she is visited by a “kind fairy” who gives her specific advice to place an advertisement in a local paper (Bronte 101). Jane takes the fairy’s advice and places the ad in the paper with responses addressed to J.E.; through the newspaper Jane is offered the job at Thornfield and soon after accepts the position. These different paranormal experiences of Jane, share many elements with stories such as Cinderella, where the fairy God mother of Cinderella makes it possible for her to attend the kings ball and provides the necessary components for her to change her circumstances.

Jane’s rise from a poor orphan girl to a rather wealthy lady who has inherited a fortune from her unknown family members is another example of fairy tale elements that are present in the book. Whether it be Cinderella or any other rags to riches fairy tale, the idea of coming form nothing and ending up rich is an overarching theme throughout many fairy tales. In addition to being wealthy, the character also tends to find true love as part of the good luck that has been bestowed upon them. We see this to be the fact, as Jane ends up with her “Prince Charming” in Rochester and goes on to get married and lives happily together.

The love story element in Jane Eyre is another example of how the story shares elements with the traditional fairy tale genre. Bronte emphasizes the idea that Jane and Rochester are an example “true lovers” by creating an almost mythical scene for their first meeting (Bronte 128). Her association of Rochester’s horse and dog with the mythical Gytrash places their initial meeting in an almost fairytale-like setting. Later, Rochester reveals that at this initial meeting, he thought Jane was a fairy who had bewitched his horse, and he repeatedly refers to her as a sprite or elfin character, claiming the “men in green” are her relatives. At the end of the novel, when Jane returns to Rochester, the reunion between the two of them has another fairy tale like element. As she is about to accept St. John’s proposal of marriage, Jane experiences a sensation as “sharp, as strange, as shocking” similar to an electric shock (Bronte 466). Afterwards, she hears Rochester’s voice call her name; the voice comes from nowhere, speaking “in pain and woe, wildly, eerily, urgently” (Bronte 466). So powerful is this voice that Jane cries, “I am coming,” and runs out the door into the garden, but she discovers no sign of Rochester (Bronte 467). Although Jane dismisses the voice of Rochester that she heard as not being witchcraft or some other form of the devil, she feels that it is the natural environment trying its very best to help her and Rochester to come together and continue their relationship, Rochester feels that Jane’s answer to him is echoing around him. Through the use of incidents such as this, Bronte makes it very apparent to us that Rochester and Jane are not just ordinary lovers, but are the archetypes of ideal lovers that are often brought forth in stories and in particular fairy tale stories. Very often the archetypes of lovers can be found in fairy tales such as Briar Rose and Cinderella. In Briar Rose the Prince is portrayed as being the one true love for the Princess as the hedge surrounding the castle allowed only him to pass through, to find and save his true love (Grimm 18). The stories Briar Rose and Cinderella end up with the Prince saving the princess and the two of them living happily ever after, Jane Eyre also ends in a similar way with Jane and Rochester getting married.

The discovery, followed by the loss of some great love is an element that is present in Cinderella and is also present in Jane Eyre. In Cinderella, she is able to attend the ball and find her true love, however she has to leave by midnight and she leaves the Prince behind (Cinderella). The prince doesn’t stop looking for her though and is able to find his true love again by finding the woman whose foot fit the glass slipper, when he finds her they are married and live happily ever after (Cinderella). The relationship between Jane and Rochester is similar to Cinderella, as Jane runs away but in the end find each other again, end up getting married and as far as the reader knows live “happily ever after”.

Throughout Jane Eyre, the element of the fairy tale master plot is present and by using the master plot, Bronte creates a new style of story. Bronte blends the realistic aspects of the Victorian era life of Jane with the somewhat unrealistic elements from fairy tales like Briar Rose and Cinderella. In the end, the implication of using the fairy tale master plot throughout the novel, means that the reader will be able to expect that story to follow a certain pattern and to end with the traditional “happily ever after”. The end of the novel finishes with the marriage of Jane and Rochester and the two of them being very happy together which is what the reader has come to expect from the use of elements of the fairy tale master plot.

Works Cited

Bronte, Charlotte. Jane Eyre. London: Penguin Group, 2003.

Cinderella. Dir. Clyde Geronimi and Wilfred Jackson. 1950. DVD. Disney 2005.

Grimms, Jakob and Wilhelm. Little Briar Rose. Online Posting. Kelowna BC: U. British Columbia Okanagan. 30Oct. 2007 < http://www.pitt.edu/~dash/grimm050.html>

Jane Eyre Elements of Fairy Tale

Jane Eyre as a Fairy Tale

The fairy tale master plots of rags to riches and good versus evil are recurring themes throughout stories from many different cultures. Charlotte Bronte’s Jane Eyre, can be likened to a fairy tale, as certain elements of the master plot of the story, as it contains certain aspects of traditional fairy tale stories, such as Briar Rose and Cinderella. Jane Eyre was one of the first books with a female author that was widely read by the literate public. Since its first publication it has become part of the literary canon and continues to be the basis of discussion and debate among scholars even today, over a century after it was written. Jane Eyre is similar to many fairy tales due to the fact that there are elements of traditional fairy tale master plots, such as rags to riches, good versus evil and a lost love found again; and, ultimately, the implication of this is that the reader has a good idea that the novel will end with the traditional fairy tale ending of the characters living “happily ever after”.

Many fairy tales, such as Cinderella involve a main character who is suffering and in order to escape their suffering they use their imagination as an escape. In Cinderella the singing birds and talking mice are all examples of how she uses her imagination to escape the world that imprisons her (Cinderella). Jane’s experience in the red room reminds the reader that imagination is very important to Jane, as it is a way for her to escape the realities of her everyday life. The narrative that Jane creates also has a mythological element to it as she mixes the realistic aspects of her life with fantasy. We see the first instance of this as Jane sits nervously in the red-room and imagines a gleam of light shining on the wall; for her, this indicates a vision from another world (Bronte 25). Throughout the book, the appearance of supernatural incidents such as the one in the red room, usually occur before there is a big change in Jane’s life. As Jane’s departure from Gateshead was marked by her pseudo-supernatural experience in the red-room, her movement away from Lowood also has a fairy tale component. As Jane is contemplating what would be the best way for her to gain new employment, she is visited by a “kind fairy” who gives her specific advice to place an advertisement in a local paper (Bronte 101). Jane takes the fairy’s advice and places the ad in the paper with responses addressed to J.E.; through the newspaper Jane is offered the job at Thornfield and soon after accepts the position. These different paranormal experiences of Jane, share many elements with stories such as Cinderella, where the fairy God mother of Cinderella makes it possible for her to attend the kings ball and provides the necessary components for her to change her circumstances.

Jane’s rise from a poor orphan girl to a rather wealthy lady who has inherited a fortune from her unknown family members is another example of fairy tale elements that are present in the book. Whether it be Cinderella or any other rags to riches fairy tale, the idea of coming form nothing and ending up rich is an overarching theme throughout many fairy tales. In addition to being wealthy, the character also tends to find true love as part of the good luck that has been bestowed upon them. We see this to be the fact, as Jane ends up with her “Prince Charming” in Rochester and goes on to get married and lives happily together.

The love story element in Jane Eyre is another example of how the story shares elements with the traditional fairy tale genre. Bronte emphasizes the idea that Jane and Rochester are an example “true lovers” by creating an almost mythical scene for their first meeting (Bronte 128). Her association of Rochester’s horse and dog with the mythical Gytrash places their initial meeting in an almost fairytale-like setting. Later, Rochester reveals that at this initial meeting, he thought Jane was a fairy who had bewitched his horse, and he repeatedly refers to her as a sprite or elfin character, claiming the “men in green” are her relatives. At the end of the novel, when Jane returns to Rochester, the reunion between the two of them has another fairy tale like element. As she is about to accept St. John’s proposal of marriage, Jane experiences a sensation as “sharp, as strange, as shocking” similar to an electric shock (Bronte 466). Afterwards, she hears Rochester’s voice call her name; the voice comes from nowhere, speaking “in pain and woe, wildly, eerily, urgently” (Bronte 466). So powerful is this voice that Jane cries, “I am coming,” and runs out the door into the garden, but she discovers no sign of Rochester (Bronte 467). Although Jane dismisses the voice of Rochester that she heard as not being witchcraft or some other form of the devil, she feels that it is the natural environment trying its very best to help her and Rochester to come together and continue their relationship, Rochester feels that Jane’s answer to him is echoing around him. Through the use of incidents such as this, Bronte makes it very apparent to us that Rochester and Jane are not just ordinary lovers, but are the archetypes of ideal lovers that are often brought forth in stories and in particular fairy tale stories. Very often the archetypes of lovers can be found in fairy tales such as Briar Rose and Cinderella. In Briar Rose the Prince is portrayed as being the one true love for the Princess as the hedge surrounding the castle allowed only him to pass through, to find and save his true love (Grimm 18). The stories Briar Rose and Cinderella end up with the Prince saving the princess and the two of them living happily ever after, Jane Eyre also ends in a similar way with Jane and Rochester getting married.

The discovery, followed by the loss of some great love is an element that is present in Cinderella and is also present in Jane Eyre. In Cinderella, she is able to attend the ball and find her true love, however she has to leave by midnight and she leaves the Prince behind (Cinderella). The prince doesn’t stop looking for her though and is able to find his true love again by finding the woman whose foot fit the glass slipper, when he finds her they are married and live happily ever after (Cinderella). The relationship between Jane and Rochester is similar to Cinderella, as Jane runs away but in the end find each other again, end up getting married and as far as the reader knows live “happily ever after”.

Throughout Jane Eyre, the element of the fairy tale master plot is present and by using the master plot, Bronte creates a new style of story. Bronte blends the realistic aspects of the Victorian era life of Jane with the somewhat unrealistic elements from fairy tales like Briar Rose and Cinderella. In the end, the implication of using the fairy tale master plot throughout the novel, means that the reader will be able to expect that story to follow a certain pattern and to end with the traditional “happily ever after”. The end of the novel finishes with the marriage of Jane and Rochester and the two of them being very happy together which is what the reader has come to expect from the use of elements of the fairy tale master plot.

Works Cited

Bronte, Charlotte. Jane Eyre. London: Penguin Group, 2003.

Cinderella. Dir. Clyde Geronimi and Wilfred Jackson. 1950. DVD. Disney 2005.

Grimms, Jakob and Wilhelm. Little Briar Rose. Online Posting. Kelowna BC: U. British Columbia Okanagan. 30Oct. 2007 < http://www.pitt.edu/~dash/grimm050.html>

Jane Eyre Elements of Fairy Tale

Jane Eyre as a Fairy Tale

The fairy tale master plots of rags to riches and good versus evil are recurring themes throughout stories from many different cultures. Charlotte Bronte’s Jane Eyre, can be likened to a fairy tale, as certain elements of the master plot of the story, as it contains certain aspects of traditional fairy tale stories, such as Briar Rose and Cinderella. Jane Eyre was one of the first books with a female author that was widely read by the literate public. Since its first publication it has become part of the literary canon and continues to be the basis of discussion and debate among scholars even today, over a century after it was written. Jane Eyre is similar to many fairy tales due to the fact that there are elements of traditional fairy tale master plots, such as rags to riches, good versus evil and a lost love found again; and, ultimately, the implication of this is that the reader has a good idea that the novel will end with the traditional fairy tale ending of the characters living “happily ever after”.

Many fairy tales, such as Cinderella involve a main character who is suffering and in order to escape their suffering they use their imagination as an escape. In Cinderella the singing birds and talking mice are all examples of how she uses her imagination to escape the world that imprisons her (Cinderella). Jane’s experience in the red room reminds the reader that imagination is very important to Jane, as it is a way for her to escape the realities of her everyday life. The narrative that Jane creates also has a mythological element to it as she mixes the realistic aspects of her life with fantasy. We see the first instance of this as Jane sits nervously in the red-room and imagines a gleam of light shining on the wall; for her, this indicates a vision from another world (Bronte 25). Throughout the book, the appearance of supernatural incidents such as the one in the red room, usually occur before there is a big change in Jane’s life. As Jane’s departure from Gateshead was marked by her pseudo-supernatural experience in the red-room, her movement away from Lowood also has a fairy tale component. As Jane is contemplating what would be the best way for her to gain new employment, she is visited by a “kind fairy” who gives her specific advice to place an advertisement in a local paper (Bronte 101). Jane takes the fairy’s advice and places the ad in the paper with responses addressed to J.E.; through the newspaper Jane is offered the job at Thornfield and soon after accepts the position. These different paranormal experiences of Jane, share many elements with stories such as Cinderella, where the fairy God mother of Cinderella makes it possible for her to attend the kings ball and provides the necessary components for her to change her circumstances.

Jane’s rise from a poor orphan girl to a rather wealthy lady who has inherited a fortune from her unknown family members is another example of fairy tale elements that are present in the book. Whether it be Cinderella or any other rags to riches fairy tale, the idea of coming form nothing and ending up rich is an overarching theme throughout many fairy tales. In addition to being wealthy, the character also tends to find true love as part of the good luck that has been bestowed upon them. We see this to be the fact, as Jane ends up with her “Prince Charming” in Rochester and goes on to get married and lives happily together.

The love story element in Jane Eyre is another example of how the story shares elements with the traditional fairy tale genre. Bronte emphasizes the idea that Jane and Rochester are an example “true lovers” by creating an almost mythical scene for their first meeting (Bronte 128). Her association of Rochester’s horse and dog with the mythical Gytrash places their initial meeting in an almost fairytale-like setting. Later, Rochester reveals that at this initial meeting, he thought Jane was a fairy who had bewitched his horse, and he repeatedly refers to her as a sprite or elfin character, claiming the “men in green” are her relatives. At the end of the novel, when Jane returns to Rochester, the reunion between the two of them has another fairy tale like element. As she is about to accept St. John’s proposal of marriage, Jane experiences a sensation as “sharp, as strange, as shocking” similar to an electric shock (Bronte 466). Afterwards, she hears Rochester’s voice call her name; the voice comes from nowhere, speaking “in pain and woe, wildly, eerily, urgently” (Bronte 466). So powerful is this voice that Jane cries, “I am coming,” and runs out the door into the garden, but she discovers no sign of Rochester (Bronte 467). Although Jane dismisses the voice of Rochester that she heard as not being witchcraft or some other form of the devil, she feels that it is the natural environment trying its very best to help her and Rochester to come together and continue their relationship, Rochester feels that Jane’s answer to him is echoing around him. Through the use of incidents such as this, Bronte makes it very apparent to us that Rochester and Jane are not just ordinary lovers, but are the archetypes of ideal lovers that are often brought forth in stories and in particular fairy tale stories. Very often the archetypes of lovers can be found in fairy tales such as Briar Rose and Cinderella. In Briar Rose the Prince is portrayed as being the one true love for the Princess as the hedge surrounding the castle allowed only him to pass through, to find and save his true love (Grimm 18). The stories Briar Rose and Cinderella end up with the Prince saving the princess and the two of them living happily ever after, Jane Eyre also ends in a similar way with Jane and Rochester getting married.

The discovery, followed by the loss of some great love is an element that is present in Cinderella and is also present in Jane Eyre. In Cinderella, she is able to attend the ball and find her true love, however she has to leave by midnight and she leaves the Prince behind (Cinderella). The prince doesn’t stop looking for her though and is able to find his true love again by finding the woman whose foot fit the glass slipper, when he finds her they are married and live happily ever after (Cinderella). The relationship between Jane and Rochester is similar to Cinderella, as Jane runs away but in the end find each other again, end up getting married and as far as the reader knows live “happily ever after”.

Throughout Jane Eyre, the element of the fairy tale master plot is present and by using the master plot, Bronte creates a new style of story. Bronte blends the realistic aspects of the Victorian era life of Jane with the somewhat unrealistic elements from fairy tales like Briar Rose and Cinderella. In the end, the implication of using the fairy tale master plot throughout the novel, means that the reader will be able to expect that story to follow a certain pattern and to end with the traditional “happily ever after”. The end of the novel finishes with the marriage of Jane and Rochester and the two of them being very happy together which is what the reader has come to expect from the use of elements of the fairy tale master plot.

Works Cited

Bronte, Charlotte. Jane Eyre. London: Penguin Group, 2003.

Cinderella. Dir. Clyde Geronimi and Wilfred Jackson. 1950. DVD. Disney 2005.

Grimms, Jakob and Wilhelm. Little Briar Rose. Online Posting. Kelowna BC: U. British Columbia Okanagan. 30Oct. 2007 < http://www.pitt.edu/~dash/grimm050.html>