Categories for Education

Types of assessment Essay

Types of assessment Essay

What is meant by assessment? What are the strengths and weaknesses of the assessment types and methods you use? How would you involve your learner into the assessment process? Why do we need to keep records of assessment? Assessments are a critical part of the education system; highlighted by Black and Wiliams’(1998) who define assessments as activities providing “information to be used as feedback to modify the teaching and learning activities in which they are engaged”. There are two forms of assessment; formative and summative.

Formative assessments are carried out as the course progresses. These are an informal and simple way of gauging how and what your students are learning. This then allows teachers to amend their teaching to accommodate the results as evaluation and reflection takes place. Furthermore students can identify the areas of development and ‘ensure that objectives are being met’ (Minton,1991, p183). Feedback is therefore considered to be significant for the continued development and progression of learners (Petty, 2010).

Summative assessment, however, refers to a more traditional approach for testing learners.

see more:describe how to find out the history preferences wishes and needs of an individual

It involves assessing learners at the end of the course/year providing a final grade. Summative assessment can be very effective, however, it could be very demanding for an adult with learning disabilities as they may find it difficult to recollect information from the beginning of the course. Initial assessment should take place before a learner begins the course; these are ‘an evaluation of a learner’s skills, knowledge, strengths and areas for development. ’ (Gravells, 2012). This is effective when working with adults with learning disabilities as it will help establish the appropriate pitch, pace and content/resources to be used.

Furthermore, it will be a way of recognising prior learning and such experience/qualifications can be validated. Rules of assessment should be adhered to ensure equality and fair testing: they should be valid, reliable, authentic, current and sufficient. Teachers/Assessors should not discriminate against learners in their choice of assessment method and planning and should advance anti-discriminatory practice. There are many forms of assessment strategies in English; these include speaking and listening assessments, controlled assessments, quizzes/worksheets, essays etc.

Speaking and listening assessments are means of measuring a learners’ communication skills. Individuals are assessed on their ability to project their ideas, viewpoints and their listening skills. This allows learners to work in a group, supporting each other by sharing ideas and improve their functional skills. Furthermore, it can be videoed as evidence. However, it is difficult to assess the level of understanding of the learners through this method alone. Furthermore, this is a subjective strategy and feedback can be limited. Worksheets and quizzes both can be set as individual or group work.

They provide an objective mark at the end which can lead to informative feedback based on the learner’s strengths, weaknesses and areas for improvement. The tasks can be fun, engaging and interesting for learners. This strategy has reliability because worksheets/quizzes are consistent as similar results can be gained. Furthermore, they are valid because they measure understanding as the learners attempt to answer questions and the marks obtained shows the stage, progress and understanding of each learner. The benefits are highly valuable as the learners enjoy completing the activities.

Mitchells (1997) recognised that games and quizzes can be motivating for those learners who struggle with formal teaching styles. Other assessments include observation, watching and evaluating the learners’ progress. Observations should reflect a learner’s daily performance and should be recorded fully on paper; audiotape or video, with an awareness of confidentiality issues, signed and dated by the teacher/assessor and learner. The more detailed and factual the record, the stronger the evidence may be in terms of validity and reliability.

Such observations should be planned in advance with the 1 / 3 agreement of the learner’s manager and colleagues. However, teachers can take opportunities to record observations of unplanned events, if useful as evidence. Through observations, teacher/assessor can gather sufficient evidence and can then relate the observation back to many different units/elements of the qualification. Also, it allows teachers to see natural competence first hand in an authentic and reliable manner. Nevertheless, there are disadvantages of observations:

A learner’s normal duties may not cover all assessment criteria; observations may be unnerving for learners and observations can take a lot of an assessor’s time and expense. Brookfield’s (1998) model of reflection states that it is critical that one views themselves and their teaching through the perspective of their learners. In this lens there is a strong focus on the learner’s ‘voice’ and so value is placed on their viewpoints and also their articulation of work. Therefore, it is important to gain the learners’ thoughts on the assessment strategy. Learners should be informed of how they will be assessed from the onset, involved in feedback and evaluation at every level.

Furthermore, prior to assessment, learners could be shown a model answer and given success criterion to ensure they understand how to achieve the desired level/grade. Involving learners in the assessment process is a key way of helping them to manage and ‘take ownership’ of their learning, by reflecting on achievement and progress. Involving them in recording their own and each others’ progress and planning the next steps in learning can deepen their understanding and reinforce their sense of achievement. Therefore they should be briefed about expectations, purpose and benefits of becoming involved in assessment.

Self-assessment will allow learners to reflect upon their own progress and assesses their own development and achievements. However, self-assessment is not always easy and teachers should guide learners in a step-by-step process so they learn how to evaluate their own work and learning style, perhaps by modelling. Reid (2011) suggests that you can use other learners if, for example, they observed your learner. This refers to peer assessment, where peers assess the learner’s developments and achievements through observation of their practice during an activity.

Peer assessment and feedback activities give students opportunities to internalise the criteria, learn from examples, enables evaluation and reflection and allows development of responsibility for own learning. However there might be some drawbacks from this as some students may express concerns about showing their work to others that are not qualified to assess their work. Also, it needs to be reliable and accurate; therefore strategies need to be put into place to ensure objectivity. Records are an integral part of the teaching and learning process.

Gravells (2012) argues that records must be maintained, to support the teaching and learning process and to satisfy auditors, inspectors, regulators, verifiers, internal and external quality assurers and your own organisation’s requirements. Teachers should retain documents such as the syllabus, scheme of work, session plans, action plans, hand-outs/activities for the learner, and assessment records such as tracking sheets, marked assignments, portfolios etc. Holding records of the course and content would allow inspections on the manner in which the course is being taught and to ensure it is being delivered in accordance to specifications.

Teacher must also keep records of learners’ progression. This will identify whether the student is on task to complete course or having difficulty. Clear, concise information and evidence will lead to a greater understanding of learner needs and enable teachers to amend their teaching styles to accommodate the learner needs. Records must be kept for a length of time stipulated by your organisation in case of an auditing process. However under the Data Protection Act 1998, this information should be “kept secure with appropriate technical and organisational measures taken to protect the information’ and confidentiality should be maintained.

A very good explanation of why records must be kept in an institute. 2 / 3 Word count: 1102 (excluding references) References Benjamin S Bloom. (1980), All Our Children Learning, New York: McGraw-Hill. Black, P. , & Wiliam, D. (1998), Inside the Black Box: Raising standards through classroom assessment. King’s College London School of Education, pg 2 Brookfield, S. (1998) Critically reflective teacher. Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions Data Protection Act (2008), Information Commissioners Office, <

www.ico. gov. uk> Date accessed 21/02/14 Gravells, A. (2012) Preparing to Teach in the Lifelong Learning Sector (5th Edition) Learning Matters Ltd Exeter Minton, D. , (1991), Teaching Skills in Further and Adult Education, Macmillan Press Ltd. Mitchell, C. (1997), Transforming Teaching; Selecting and evaluating teaching strategies. Further Education Matters. Petty, G. (2010) Teaching Today – Home page, http://www. geoffpetty. com/, 201O Read, H, (2011) The Best Assessor’s Guide. Bideford: Read On Publications POWERED BY TCPDF (WWW. TCPDF. ORG).


Educating Essay

Educating Essay

“Individuals venturing into new experiences may encounter obstacles but may also gain significant rewards”. “Do you agree with this perspective?” In your response, refer to your prescribed text and atleast one other related text of your own choosing.

Individuals venturing into new experiences may encounter obstacles but may also gain significant rewards. This is present in the text ‘Educating Rita’ written by Willy Russell and the film ‘The Help’ written by Kathryn Stockett. In this text we see a fairly un-educated woman blossom and find herself through education; the obstacles she faces on her way to knowledge are the stepping stones in finding herself and entering the new world of education.

Rita is a typical uneducated woman; her life is already planned out for her consisting of children, cooking/cleaning, pub trips and the overall expectation to be content with this life and not expect any more. However throughout the text we see Rita break away from this lower class/restricting stereotype to blossoming and finding herself in the world of education.

The opening scene portrays to us the two completely different worlds in which Rita and Frank live. Rita has enrolled in an Open University course as she sees education as a way of moving out of her world; she feels out of step with her working class background and wants to discover herself first before having a baby and tying herself down for life. Rita’s constant desire to ‘know everything’ makes Frank feel that he is an appalling teacher because he feels he has nothing to offer her.

Frank is Rita’s course tutor; he is a very negative and dismal man who is heavily reliant on alcohol to dull his boredom and frustration. Although being a jaded alcoholic he is also a very precise, formal and educated professor who is just on a downward spiral in his life. Throughout the text we see Rita and Frank’s relationship grow as Rita makes him feel as if he has hope again, therefore his drive comes back.

In scene one we observe Rita struggling to open the door into Frank’s office; this symbolises her struggle to enter that world, it’s a barrier, however she’s determined to get what she wants – in this case education – therefore almost breaks the door in order to get in. “You’re the first breath of air that’s been in this room for years” quoted by Frank symbolises the opening up of a new world for him, he’s now got someone new and different to experience. This is a good change for Frank.

Scene two beings with Rita oiling Frank’s office door, then handing the oil to Frank. This is symbolic of giving him the key/tool to open up to another world. Rita still doesn’t portray herself as a ‘proper student’ and her self esteem/confidence is still very low. She doesn’t think she is capable of achieving the great essays that the other students write and doubts herself that she will even finish the course. This scene really reveals the cost that trying to change herself is likely to have on Rita. She is dissatisfied with her life and has a desire to change it, yet it would be easier in her opinion to simply stay as she is and continue her boring life of hairdressing and different flavoured beers.

Frank assigns Rita 3 novels to read as her hunger for knowledge is starting to grow extremely. The slow change in Rita is starting to become evident as she can read/take on any book presented to her, “it feeds me inside”. Her hunger is growing and making her slowly discover who she is, “it makes me stronger comin’ here”.

Although Rita feels as if she’s finally accepted in the university and has a place/fits in with the ‘proper students’, she still has barriers to face in her personal life that are important determining points in her progress and choices as an individual. Rita’s husband Denny isn’t accepting nor happy about her doing this ‘whole learning thing’ and forces her to choose between him and education as he doesn’t understand that this is the first time she’s happy and felt a sense of purpose in her life.

Denny has made her constantly feel stupid for even considering getting an education and therefore burns all of her books. The burning of the books is symbolic of Denny trying to prevent Rita from moving away. “You’d think I was havin’ a bloody affair the way he behaves” “And aren’t you?” symbolises Rita’s affair with education. Although she may not be cheating on Denny, she still desires to educate herself more than spend time with her husband and is happy with this choice as it is her own choice and no one else’s.

In scene six we start to see a notable change in the relationship between Rita and Frank. When Rita bursts into Frank’s office excited to tell him that she saw one of Shakespeare’s plays “it was bleedin’ great”, Frank thought that something serious had happened – which indicates that he is beginning to care for her. After inviting Rita to a dinner party at his house Frank feels closer to Rita – this invite symbolises the change in the basis of their relationship from teacher and student to a more personal one.

Throughout the text we have seen Rita grow and shape herself as an individual, no matter what obstacles and new experiences she has encountered with on her way she has got through them with determination and strength, and as a result has been great personal gain. Towards the end of the text Frank presents Rita with a dress; this is symbolic of a dress for an educated woman, she is now one and can wear the dress with pride. Frank decides to leave the university, as he does not feel it is the right career for him anymore and would prefer to spend his time doing something else. Rita and Frank have both grown and found themselves throughout this text which is also evident in the film ‘The Help’ written by Kathryn Stockett.

The Help is set in Mississippi during the 1960s, main character Skeeter (Stone) is a southern society girl who returns from college determined to become a writer, but turns her friends’ lives – and the Mississippi town – upside down when she decides to interview the black women who have spent their lives taking care of the richer upper class families. Davis, Skeeter’s best friend’s housekeeper, is the first to open up and be interviewed – to the shock of her friends in the close black community. Despite Skeeter’s life long friendships hanging in the balance, she and Davis continue their partnership and soon more women come forward to tell their stories – and as it turns out, they have a lot to say. Along the way, unlikely friendships are forged and a new sisterhood emerges, but not before everyone in town has a thing or two to say themselves when they become unsuspectingly/unwillingly caught up in the changing modern times. This is relevant to the text Educating Rita as the women find the courage and self confidence to venture into new experiences to help better either themselves or their community.

Dementia in the world Essay

Dementia in the world Essay

Alongside traditional A Levels in Physics, Chemistry and Biology, QMC offers an A Level in Applied Science. This is an ideal course for pupils who have studied the GCSE Applied Science and who are interested in a science based career. COURSE ENTRY REQUIREMENTS General entry requirements are 5/6 GCSEs at C or above to include Double Science, English and Mathematics.

WHAT KIND OF JOB/DEGREE CAN THIS SUBJECT LEAD TO? Success in the A Level will enable you to apply for work in science based companies, the NHS or apply for Foundation degrees at university such as: FdSc Applied Medical Technology FdSc Medical Imaging (Radiography Technician) FdSc Medicines Management (Pharmacy Technician) FdSc Oncological Therapies (Oncology and Radiography Technician) FdSc Paramedic Science, currently available at Portsmouth DURING THE AS COURSE YOU WILL STUDY THE FOLLOWING TOPICS: In the AS year you will be studying 3 units which cover all 3 sciences.

Two of the units are assessed by portfolio with the third unit being assessed by examination.

This course is therefore best suited to students who find producing a steady flow of written reports preferable to sitting several exams at the end of the year. The portfolio units look at how science is put to use in the workplace.

You will visit a range of local organisations and see science in action. Back at College you will learn how to carry out some of the techniques that scientists use at work and write reports about issues relevant to the use of science. As you go you will build up a portfolio of evidence of your growing skills. The examined unit focuses on the use of science in healthcare.

You will look at how the body’s circulatory and respiratory systems work, and how they can be monitored and investigated. This will include considering the ethical issues involved when diagnosing and treating illnesses. DURING THE A2 COURSE YOU WILL STUDY THE FOLLOWING TOPICS: In the second year you will be learning how to carry out an extended investigation and then choose one you would like to study in depth. This investigation, and a unit on the techniques involved in genetic engineering and biotechnology, are both assessed by portfolio. A final examined unit brings together all the skills you have developed during the course on working as a scientist, including collecting samples, developing methods for carrying out tests, working safely, analysing data, and ensuring accuracy and reliability in all you do. HOW IS THIS COURSE ASSESSED? AS Level A2 Level 3 Units. 2 units portfolio evidence, 1 unit examination 3 Units. 2 units portfolio evidence, 1 unit examination

IF YOU REQUIRE ANY ADDITIONAL INFORMATION … Please contact the Head of Department, Dr Eddie Grimble, on (01256) 417500

Technology in Classrooms Essay

Technology in Classrooms Essay

Technology improves everyday, and it is becoming more common in the newer generations. There are many studies, I’ve read many articles about how important technology became in the classrooms and how important its role became as well. Its role became an improvement for students and in classrooms. In the classrooms, technology has become a leadership for both teachers and students. They have also improved. Students are able to visualize their studies better. Not only are they can take it home and visualize their work for their studies.

They have access to their work even from home to view their work. Technology is also a benefit for teachers because now teachers are able to breakdown their teaching time to educate their students more. Teachers don’t have much time to teach their students in a year, so many of them it’s a great advantage to be able to teach through a power point or as Touro uses a blackboard system.

They are able to teach more, and while having more time to teach, they can review more.

Students who miss school, it wont be such an issue or trouble for them because they have a great access right at home or even on their smartphones. This is one of many ways technology can be a benefit for students and classrooms. Another advantage of technology in classrooms is that it benefits students who enter college are advanced in the technology skills. I, being a student in high school took computer classes, which helped me in the college world. I was able to even educate teachers in the field.

Students including I, feel empowered when we enter the college world. We feel like us, students can educate the teachers and teach them something that they don’t know. Studies are shown that many students are both with digital native. We see even in the newer generations that children, teenagers are very advanced in using phones, computers, the” iWorld” as some people call it. Being advanced in technology for students is a benefit towards their work as well, in research and writing papers. It can also help their work field since many fields have the use of technology in it. Many studies disagree with technology playing a huge role in classrooms.

Technology can be difficult in the classroom environments. It can be very distracting to the students and they cannot do well in their studies and work. It can be distracting to students because they can take advantage of technology being used by bringing in their laptops, and pretending to be doing school work while doing their own twits and Facebook updates, or use of cellphones in class which takes them away from listening and being educated.

Even though, these disagreements are litigable, does not mean technology is not beneficial for students. Technology are the new notebooks and pens of the classrooms, a new test taking way, it takes you into many careers. Some say, that teachers respect can be fallen by the use of technology, even though this is a great point there is still a brighter side. Students are able to visualize their studies and work more than just an audio voice of the teacher. Also, the students and their improvements in the classroom.

Issues Surrounding Masculinity in United States Essay

Issues Surrounding Masculinity in United States Essay

Our society today has little tolerance for men and masculinity in general. Masculinity can be defined as having qualities or appearance of male. It includes behaviors typically associated with men. In his book, Ferguson takes us into the world of a sole, municipal elementary school attended by students who have been labeled as troublemakers and potential jail inmates. She identifies how a group of young boys of African American origin aged between 11 to 12 years are identified by their school work force as lovers of jail (14).

Over the years black Americans boys have been subjected to a kind of discrimination both in school and outside. There are claims that teachers treat these boys as if they are doomed to fail. Ferguson (26) goes on to criticize the form of punishment given to the boys which according to him does not instill discipline but simply perpetuating troublemakers and creating potential inmates (67).

According to equality index carried out by Pascoe (114), black men in America have high chances of being unemployed than white men.

The black men are seven times more likely more to be imprisoned with a jail sentence of above ten months over their white counterparts. The report also discloses other disparities ranging from unemployment, school drop out rates and annual income. While there have been some improvements on the gap between the black men and white men in United States of America, black masculinity is still being faced with greater problem.

Despite the condemnation given to them, Ferguson argues that Black American boys look seriously at schooling and excelling in life. In addition she identifies how the whole society beliefs in a natural difference of black children from the white children. Most people according to him identify the black men as criminal and it is this view that disproportionately put them in danger of disappointment and punishment. this is a greatly interfere with the black American boys according who in future end up taking the negative behavior as implied by their mentors.

Ferguson bases her argument on a fundamental theory of learning, drawn from two sources: Marxist & Bowles speculation view of society which gives school the task of reproducing the existing communal pecking order, and Foucault’s post-structural theory of disciplinary authority that views punishment as an instrument of social segregation (82). He contrasts this speculative frame to the commonly held liberal idea that schools are meritocratic (112). But the black American boys are hyper aware of their individuality pattern.

According to Fergusson (123), they act upon their masculinity through impressive performances and disruptions in class work and they achieve their self worth for themselves by using hostility behavior strategy to regain their sense of self.  To identify themselves as resourceful, authoritative and knowledgeable in the face of the humiliation they encounter in school.

By masculinity, Malin (36) seems to mean men who not only reveal the physical qualities of toughness but also who also possesses some noble principle. In his book, Malin claimed that Clinton has been shown as a conflicted and sensitive, yet strong man (42). It is these characters according to Malin (43) that helped him win presidential elections.

Clinton’s personality remained a package of conflicts that variously embraced and overthrown different stereotypes of masculinity hence he was able to remain a strong man. Malin 2005 (78). Sonenstein associates masculinity with culture, and socialization and encourages men to try to live up to cultural standards of masculinity (342).

According to Malin, men fraternity face pressures and dilemmas around race- and gender-based individuality structure is always a flagrant force that works against these students maintaining an obligation to schooling. This is why schools across the nation for example in US observe a continual attrition of schoolboys as they link the ranks of troublemakers (67).

According to Ferguson (112), molding our boys viewing them as Bad Boys is a powerful challenge to current views on the setback of the black males in school. Currently black males are severely constrained by the society and culture of their high school and of American society in general.

This form of treatment world neither favor girl child who is always more vulnerable to several situations. Due to this unhealthy treatment the black American Male end up performing poorly in their education which lead them to drug abuse and criminal activities which in future lead them to be on the wrong side of the law. Ferguson 2000 (P 139)

Both black and white men have their roles to play as men in America. Ferguson advocates for need to change the social organization and the culture of the society so as to enhance a suitable learning environment of the African American males in particular and all children in general.

Solutions begin from an assurance that slight inputs, short-term interventions and person prescriptions into schools are greatly sufficient to cure an organization that is mainly flawed. The organization should aim for metropolitan black kid who seems to be the formation of a community which will basically obey the rules of civilization. A reform of the whole educational system is what is urgently necessary according to Ferguson (234).

Overhauling the whole school system is the only way according to Ferguson (113) for eliminating all kind of institutionalized discrimination.

She states that significant changes may take position by altering the curriculum and establishing lesser classes whereby student gets enough attention from their trainers. In addition, antiracist education for student teachers and reciprocated respect among adults and youth will also form a very good base to eliminate society and cultural constrain. Schools that are reorganized in this way would help in bringing new meaning to the Black masculinity (235).

Make Educating Girls a Priority Essay

Make Educating Girls a Priority Essay

The article emphasizes on providing education to every eligible girl in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. It highlights that a girl who takes birth in South Asia or sub-Saharan Africa has to undergo desperate hardships such as poverty, disease, war or famine. Apart from that, she will also have to confront the disadvantage of being a girl.

There is no culture, country and continent that are destitute of inequality. The root cause of girls not getting education is the cultural norms and economic hardships, which parents face.

There is a norm of single-sex schooling in poor Muslim countries like Pakistan, Yemen, and Morocco and in the problem is that rural areas of those countries can afford only one public school that can be set for girls only.

The inequality between girls and boys exist heavily in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa and almost all of those countries come under the category of ‘Least Developed Countries’ (LDCs). One way for these countries to head towards economic development is by ‘making educating girls a priority’.

Making separate schools in places where girls and boys are educated separately is one solution. It is believed that by building girls’ schools, the education gap can be eliminated to a great extent.

Policymakers can strengthen the incentives for parents to send their daughters to school by setting the no-fee policy. However, in economics, nothing is for free. There is always someone or something that pays for it. A no-fee policy may be brought about by taking a portion of the people’s taxes. Another thing the policymakers can do is provide stipend for girls who enroll in girls’ school. This would surely increase the girls’ enrolment rate as the graph below indicates that the fall in fees from ‘f’ to ‘f1’ will lead to an increase in the enrolment rate from ‘e’ to ‘e1’.

Providing every eligible girl in South Asia and Sub-Sahara Africa would contribute towards the country’s development because major studies of growth conclude that improved knowledge, higher efficiency, and better education play a vital role in the functioning and productivity of an economy. The World Bank has pointed towards human development which they believe better education, and family planning can promote development as effectively as capital investment in physical plant.

As the article states that 99% of the 529,000 women who die annually from pregnancy related hurdles come from developing countries and the reason for that is the lack of education for women in those countries. Uneducated women do not know the severe malnutrition and prenatal care during pregnancy which puts both the child and the mother at serious risk.

Expenditure on human capital – better educated, health, and nutrition – tends to reduce birth-rates and infant mortality. The women will be educated and will be able to effectively take part in family planning as she will be aware of the consequences. Having a controlled population means a positive result in the GNP per capita which is the result of subtracting the population growth rate from the GNP growth rate.

Educating the girls will privilege them to be able to raise their child effectively in a civilized manner. Educated women will be aware of dangers such as HIV/AIDS, poor sanitary habits and poor dietary habits. So basically they will be aware of the environment around them and above all they will know their rights and therefore fully stand up for themselves.

So, educating the girls would not only benefit themselves but the society as a whole as well. So education helps the overall population and on a larger scales the whole world. Apart from giving a country an efficient work force, education makes the individual able to read, write, and communicate. When the people in a society are capable to bring forth their views, opinions and debates, it brings a social change and the changing attitudes of people may achieve a number of developmental aims.

Providing education to the girls would also add to the country’s labor force which would definitely lead to an increase in economic growth. Therefore an economic development would shift the country’s Production Possibility Frontier (PPF) curve to the right as shown in the graphs below.

In my opinion, I would say that providing education to girls in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa by building single-sex schools is a much appreciated step because of the numerous benefits it will contribute to the world. However it has to be taken into consideration that in some parts of the world providing co-education is unacceptable for example the northern areas of Pakistan. Therefore single-sex education will be a much better choice as it will be acceptable and also appreciated. However, single sex education is said to be not as beneficial as the co-education because in co-education pupils of both gender get to interact with each other and learn much more than they can in single education. But single sex education will be the only choice that can be perused in areas where co-education is not allowed.

Although building single-sex schools will have an opportunity cost as the government will have to sacrifice something in order to afford the cost of building schools, but I would say it is all worth it. When the girls of a country are educated they will definitely add to the country’s work force and educating girls means educated women in the country which means that they will know how to properly raise their children and nurture them. There are many benefits which the country will have from providing education to the girl.

There are short term benefits as well as long term benefits. More emphasis will be on the long term benefits as you know that it will take time before the women of the country will all be educated and it will take time to have an impact of providing education to girls on country’s women literacy rate. I also found the idea proposed in the article by the policymakers about handing the money to the mother of the school-going girl, instead the men. Handing the money to the women is a very effective and well-thought idea as mothers are more concerned about their children’s health and nutrition.

Computer education Essay

Computer education Essay

Computer education is two sides of a coin, there are several advantages and disadvantages which are listed below:


1. Information is available at the click of a button, the internet is very useful and gives a huge support to the teacher to enhance her curriculum 2. The students themselves can learn a lot about the topics taught in class through the internet 3. Children find the lessons interesting since teachers have access to a vast pool of information. 4. Children can submit homework etc via computer, thus saving of time 5.

Saves a lot of stationery, paper wastage is minimal since students can submit their projects via computer. 6. Also, today everywhere a computer is used children become computer savvy and better prepared to face the world.


1. Computer tends to make the children lazy, reason being that a computer is a one stop shop. Everything is available at a click of a button, they do not have to strive to collect information. 2. Children lose their power the think since just by putting in one word on the search engine a whole treasure of information opens up, everything is available without trying very hard, children lose their imagination power and ingenuity.

3. Children do not have to learn spellings, calculation, tables they become totally dependant on computers and their skills for memorising, application, quick thinking are not developed.

4. A computer is a very cold way of teaching, earlier live examples and objects were used which were far more exciting, we could touch, smell objects like earlier if a teacher wanted to teach about an orange a live orange was brought and shown, today everything is shown via power point presentations on screen which does not have the same effect on children, since a live thing is so much more exciting. 5. Children lose touch with the real world and live in a virtual world which is not good. 6. Children become loners, lose friends, since all the time they are stuck to the computers 7. They do not sleep on time since chatting, emailing,

Communication Sources of Education Essay

Communication Sources of Education Essay

The objective of education should be to encourage the search for answers, since it is the only way to advance. Within the aim of advancement in knowledge, various facets incorporated within the teaching portfolio ensure the success of professional educators. To achieve success, educators have to lean on certain ideals to enable them better perform their duties as required. One of the main inclinations that would be crucial to the success of an educator would be showing concern about students. Apart from just teaching them, educators must show interest on aspects such as social, physical, emotional, and cognitive well-being (Capuzzi, 2012).

Being alert to these facets not only help the educator teach effectively, but also enables the learning process to be smooth for students. In addition, students can better their current knowledge in given subjects, especially with support from their individual educators. Moreover, the practice accords the educators the opportunity to look in to, in an explorative manner, and challenge the existing educational policies.

Literature Review

A number of learning theories offer information, which can be quite instrumental in understanding the ability of students to learn within a classroom setting. Social cognitive theory by Albert Bandura was developed purposely with the aim of comprehending how students learn (Murphy, 2010). He felt that initial belief of rewards and behaviorism could not provide an understanding of the full process of human comprehension. His feelings were that people could learn through observation of actions of the others in certain situations. It was realized that his beliefs affect the modern classroom. The modern classroom is full of many factors, which affects students learning. The social cognitive learning theory by Bandura states that a student’s personality is modeled by the environment, thought and behavior.

Educators should attempt to identify themes that emerge from teaching and make a decision on whether these themes a coherent pattern. Evidently, at the outset, that by way of example than percept, educators impart more (Capuzzi, 2012). Students are extremely perceptive in recognizing when the instructor does not put into practice what he preaches. Both in actions and in words, educators should always teach several values students. These include; importance of preparation, organization, and homework; respect for people’s view; and the value of effective and clear exchange of information both in written and oral form.

To cater for more than just teaching the students, educators should come up with strategies to incorporate other aspects of life into the class. Students may become defensive if they feel that the teacher is prying on their privacy. In this, an educator should approach this subject with care, otherwise he or she may risk losing the trust altogether. The theme of inclusiveness ensures diversity is taken into account in all teaching. According to (Gould, 2010), educators should attempt to create a positive atmosphere. When students are called upon to answer questions, mistakes should be treated as opportunities in exploring misconceptions, rather than a reflection of the abilities of the students. Educators should create a fair playing field to teach students that, in their current world, there is no easy way out. With a class of almost many students, it is hardly easy to know each student by their names, let alone know about their emotional, physical, or cognitive experiences. To counter this, Capuzzi (2012) suggests that educators work with the policy of an openness, where they are available for consultation and assistance at working hours.

There exists a gap between students and educators needs to be bridged if the educators are to effectively teach and guide their students. Koshy & Koshy (2010) realized that a modified approach that teachers use in teaching from question-answer to answer-question approach provides a bridge between teachers and learners, and fosters self-evaluation and self-efficacy. Self-evaluation and self-efficacy provide the perfect opportunity for the educator to get to know his or her student on a personal note. In this, the educator is now able to evaluate the student’s emotional, physical, and cognitive aspects of life.

Bandura, a renowned theorist, attained fame after his social-cognitive learning theory. The theory is based on individual self-efficacy and modeling. Despite having a number of ideas on learning, Bandura chose social cognitive learning theory. Through the process of modeling, students were required to account for diverse forms of learning. It was Bandura’s belief that through modeling, students are capable of making significant gains in self-motivation, action, and thought. Psychologists, until that time, had exclusively focused on learning through the consequences of actions. Bandura demonstrated that through the hazardous and tedious process of trial and error learning could be a short cut through modeling of competencies and knowledge exhibited by a variety of model (Murphy, 2010). Bandura’s belief was that students’ learn through experiences of watching others, which lead to self-efficacy or self-motivation. The theorist is credited for developing the social cognitive learning theory.

While applying this theory, educators should guide their students by being role models, and by observing their behavior as Bandura suggest. Murphy (2010) observes that at that point in time, educators are able to mentor, advice and teach their students more effectively. Knowing the students’ is emotional, cognitive, and physical situation can be very instrumental in understanding the problems facing them or better still, the methods one can use as an educator to teach them effectively. The important part of advising, mentoring, and teaching student, is caring. Being attached to students begins by caring for them and what they are to become in the future. They have strengths and weaknesses, likes and dislikes, wants and needs, hopes and dreams. Educators should be party to these dreams and hopes, since they facilitate the learning process that they have factored into their futures (Zunker & Osborn, 2012). What becomes on them and the leap-of-faith on their part should increase interest regarding their futures.


In conclusion, having better and more knowledge of students than just their classroom performance make educators better mentors, better teachers, and better persons. Educators should share reality with students to ensure they feel they are relating to a genuine person, who is willing expose his/her values, feelings, and distinctive perception about the world and the society. It is imperative to increase skills and knowledge in the application of instructional techniques to teaching philosophy by aiming at professional development in the subject matter. Additionally, educators should enhance their knowledge on how problem-solving strategies are related to student assessment. They should voluntarily sit in on their school training meetings to compare results with those of other educators. Educators should target increasing the abilities of students in all aspects of life, since it is an important part of the national, local, and state dialogue on educational achievement.


Capuzzi, D. (2012). Career counseling foundations, perspectives, and applications (2nd ed.). New York: Routledge.

Gould, J. (2010). Learning Theory and Classroom Practice in the Lifelong Learning Sector. Exeter: Learning Matters.

Koshy, V., & Koshy, V. (2010). Action research for improving educational practice: A step-by-step guide (2nd ed.). Los Angeles: SAGE.

Murphy, M. (2010). Habermas, critical theory and education. New York: Routledge.

Zunker, V., & Osborn, D. (2012). Using assessment results for career development: Career counseling: A holistic approach (8th ed.). Belmont, Calif.: Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning.

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Media Effects on School Shooting Victims Essay

Media Effects on School Shooting Victims Essay

The participants of this study were students of Jokela High School, the school which experienced the shooting, and a control group of students from Pirkkala High school, which had not experienced a shooting. Jokela High School, at the time, had 474 students enrolled. All 474 of these students were asked to partake in the study. Participation in this study was voluntary and of the 474 students, 231 accepted the invitation to participate in the study, 180 students declined, 34 students could not be reached and 29 students consented to participate but never did.

526 students agreed to participate in the study from the control group school, Pirkkala High School. The participants were a mixture of both male and female students ranging from ages 13 to 19 years of age. Large portions of the families of the students from Pirkkala belong to the upper middle-class compared to Jokela, but there were no major differences in sociocultural background or crime rate between the two communities.

The data in this study was collected by dispensing a questionnaire in a school setting in March of 2008.

If a student was absent from school the questionnaire was mailed home along with the consent forms. The questionnaire started out asking basic background questions, such as socioeconomic status, living arrangements, previous psychological support or exposure to shootings. Next, students were asked to take a 36-item General Health Questionnaire to measure psychological and psychosocial symptoms. Students were also asked to complete The Impact of Event Scale to map symptoms into two categories, Intrusion and Avoidance.

Students were then asked to rate their exposure to the shooter as either no exposure (control students), mild, moderate, significant, severe, and extreme. Each of these categories had descriptions to help the student choose the right option that applied to them. Lastly, students were asked questions about the media’s interactions with them. They were asked if the media interacted with them after the shooting, if they cooperated with the media, if the questions had an effect on their feelings after the shooting, and how the reporter approached them. Then they were asked if they followed the news coverage on the event over the next couple days and what type of effect the coverage had on their feelings.

The Wall in Robert Frosts “Mending Wall” As A Symbol of Division Essay

The Wall in Robert Frosts “Mending Wall” As A Symbol of Division Essay

The ordinarily mundane takes a thought arousing spin in one of Robert Frost’s earlier works, “Mending Wall”. This poem is a striking take on an otherwise commonplace ritual between two farmers in the spring. Because the poem is in blank verse, it carries a casual folksy feel throughout, contradictory to its deeper message and paradoxical tone. “Good fences make good neighbors. ” This line is a paradox when compared with the previous statement, “Something there is that doesn’t love a wall.

” Fences equate to walls, and what are walls but provisional boundaries?

The boundary in this story is a fence made of stone that separates the properties of two neighboring farmers. This wall is the focal point of the poem, the subject that brings to attention the divide between individuals. The speaker one day finds the wall broken from what appears to be the after effects of winter. He calls his neighbor to meet with him to fix the wall and does so annually.

The wall is ironic in that although it separates the two individuals, it brings them together once a year.

The two live united, but separated. The wall is a metaphor for the separation between the speaker and the neighbor and perhaps even a greater analogy for the division of people as a society. These divisions could include a division of thought, which we see is different for the two characters. The speaker believes that the wall is unnecessary when he asks his neighbor, “Why do they make good fences? Isn’t it where there are cows? But here there are no cows. ” His neighbor replies with the same old adage he stated before.

It is apparent that the neighbor and speaker are of differing opinions and backgrounds. We might even assume that the neighbor and speaker are of different ages, meaning there may be a generational gap between the two that creates this difference of opinion. “Something there is, that doesn’t love a wall That sends the frozen ground swell underneath it. ” A reversal of syntax in the first line paints the narrative in a decidedly ambiguous manor and leaves it up to the reader to interpret what “something” could be.

We find out later that that something likely is nature, or the natural forces of winter. The wall is portrayed as an unnatural thing, something that is not a part of nature, something that does not fit in with the natural environment. This notion is supported when he later states, “To each the boulders have fallen to each. And some are loaves and some are so nearly balls we have to use a spell to make them balance”. Frost suggests that there is a natural force tearing down the walls because the walls are not natural.

The narrator stresses that the rocks that make up the wall fit together so unnaturally and so imperfectly that they need a “spell” to help them balance. Spells are unnatural and are magical, so it is as if the wall is held up by spells. We can garner from the text that this particular wall has many forces out to destroy it(eg. natural tolls, animals, hunters, etc. ) and its destruction is an annual occurrence. Even its reoccurring destruction implies its unnaturalness and that nature does not agree with it.

Perhaps nature itself is intent on destroying the wall, as it is an unnatural extension of man and all unnatural extensions of man(eg. skyscrapers, buildings, cities) are meant to fall down to nature at some point. The paradox again is that the wall is made of stone, or natural elements, and this wall is destroyed each year. Perhaps the destruction is a reflection of the speaker’s desire to break down the physical and imaginary boundary between the two neighbors that the wall represents.