Categories for Childcare

Policies for the Promotion of Child Rights

IDENTIFY ONE PIECE OF LEGISLATION, WHICH PROMOTES THE CHILDREN’S RIGHTS IN YOUR SETTING

One piece of legislation that promotes the children’s rights in my setting is the Data Protection Act 1998. This legislation gives everyone the right to know what information is held about them and it provides a framework to ensure that personal information is handled properly. One of its purposes is to safeguard the fundamental rights of individuals.

The Act works in two ways, firstly it states that anyone who processes personal information must follow the eight principles below to make sure that the personal information is:

  • Fairly and lawfully processed
  • Processed for limited purposes
  • Adequate, relevant and not excessive
  • Accurate and up to date
  • Not kept for longer than is necessary
  • Processed in line with your rights

Secure

Not transferred to other countries without adequate protection

Secondly, the Act provides everyone with important rights; these include the right to find out what personal information is held about them on computers and most paper records. It also gives the individual the right to complain if they are denied access to their personal information or feel that their information has not be handled according to the eight principles I have stated above.

The Data Protection Act 1998 affects the way I run my setting. I have to ensure that:

Any personal information I have is kept confidential and stored in a locked filing cabinet and I only can access it.

I am careful when discussing with parents anything confidential that no-one is around to overhear our conversation, including in person or on the telephone

All personal information I hold is relevant to my setting and is kept up to date

I do not keep any information longer than necessary

No data that I hold can be used or passed onto other parties without written consent from the parent

Parents have the right to request access to my records at any time, but they can only see the information held about themselves and their children

My confidentiality policy covers the above please see Appendix 1

Every organisation that processes personal information must notify the Information Commissioner’s Office (ICO) unless they are exempt; failure to notify is a criminal offence. I am exempt because no personal information I keep is stored on a computer. The only information I store on the computer is my accounts. If you had to notify they have now made changes to the notification fee structure that came into effect on 1st October 2009, it is now a tiered fee structure to reflect the costs of the ICO regulating data controllers of different sizes.

DESCRIBE THE ROLE OF PRACTITIONER IN MEETING THE INDIVIDUAL NEEDS OF ALL CHILDREN

It is important that the practitioner meets the individual needs of all the children. To do this the practitioner first needs to know what the children’s individual needs are and this can be found out by talking to the parents and getting them to fill in ‘My Special Book’, any observations that you carry out, any other professionals involved with the child and liaising with any other settings that the child attends. If the child is old enough they may also be able to tell you.

It is important to speak to the parents regularly and keep updated in any changes to the children’s interests and needs or home life. The ways that I use are:

Email – an effective way to send a quick message, but some parents may not have access to a computer.

Newsletters – can be a great way to keep parents informed of some of the activities the children have been doing; events and festivals planned; holiday dates and any other information the practitioner wants to tell the parents.

Letters to the Parents – if there are things you need to inform them of privately a letter would be best. In addition, the parents may have a hearing impairment and may not be able to use another form of communication.

Telephone conversation – this is best done at the end of the day when the practitioner and the parents have uninterrupted time to discuss things. You will need to make sure who can overhear the conversation so that you can maintain confidentiality.

Face-to-Face – you can arrange a meeting on neutral territory to discuss any concerns but again you need to maintain confidentiality and make sure you are not overheard.

Daily diary – keeping the parents informed of the activities the child has done during the day, along with sleep times, healthy food, snacks and drinks, nappy changes and any other information the parents need to know. The parents can also add anything to the diary that has happened at home that you need to know e.g. any accidents, broken night’s sleep, teething, whether they have had breakfast etc.

Text – the quickest way to communicate, it can also be invaluable to someone with a hearing impairment. Most people nowadays have a mobile phone.

It is also important to find out and respect the views of all the children to make them feel valued and not ignored this in turn promotes their self-esteem. I talk to the children about what interests them and what they think of things. We often play games that allow the children to air their views and opinions and I use this knowledge to enhance their learning and development.

To be able to meet all the children’s needs you first need to understand what their rights are. There is a lot of legislation that promotes children rights but quite simply every child has a right to have their basic needs met for food, warmth and hygiene, but you also need to provide a nurturing environment where the children can rest, play and develop to their full potential.

Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs is one of the best-known descriptions of needs. It identifies five basic needs and shows how higher needs are not considered until the lower level needs have been met.

Self-actualisation

(Achieving individual potential)

Esteem

(Self-esteem and esteem from others)

Belonging

(Love, affection, being a part of groups)

Safety

(Shelter, removal from danger)

Physiological

(Health, food, sleep)

Diagram copied from Maslow’s Hierarchy at Changingminds.org

It is important to know the difference between a want and a need. A Need is something that we cannot do without, like sleep, food and love. A Want is something that is desired at the time but is not essential and we can in fact do without.

To make sure I meet all the children’s individual needs I take into consideration the ages of the children, their stage of development and abilities and whether they need to sleep or have quiet time when planning my daily routine, I make sure that I incorporate all their needs into my daily routine. The children need a daily routine to help them feel secure and they get to know what is happening next and this promotes their development. I adapt my routines depending on which children I have in the setting at the time.

It is important that all the children are given a choice as much as possible, because this will help them as they grow and they need to be independent and make decisions for themselves. I give children a choice of snacks, they can choose from milk or water to drink and they can also decide for themselves what they would like to play with and with whom.

It is my professional responsibility to:

  • Safeguard and promote the welfare of all the children
  • Make sure that people they come into contact with are suitable
  • Ensure I have safe and suitable premises, environment and equipment

Organise my setting so that every child receives an enjoyable and challenging learning and development experience that is tailored to their individual needs

Maintain records, policies and procedures to ensure safe and efficient management of my setting and to meet the needs of the children

Practice Guidance for the Early Years Foundation Stage (2007, pg 6) states, “Practitioners should deliver personalised learning, development and care to help children to get the best possible start in life.

DISCUSS HOW YOUR DAILY ROUTINES SUPPORT CHILDREN’S WELL BEING

I have a basic daily routine that includes school runs, child-initiated play, adult-led activities, sleep/quiet time, snack and meal times and home time. The children begin to learn the structure of the day and what comes next. The times of the routine is never set in stone and it allows us to experience spontaneous events like playing in the snow, or taking your lunch to the park on a nice sunny day.

For example for snack time the children know that after the mornings child-initiated play we have snacks and they help to clear the table and lay out the plates and cups, which are kept in a low cupboard which the children can easily access independently and this promotes their self-esteem and confidence to help and do things for themselves and others. They know that they are to wash their hands before eating and I have a stool so they can reach the sink which enables their independence and they all sit at the table waiting for the snacks. They have a choice of drink – milk or water and they can choose what they want to eat from the choice of snacks on the table. There is always a selection of seasonal fruit, a carbohydrate toast, crumpet or muffin and dairy – hard or soft cheese. Allowing the children choice enables them to start the process of thinking for themselves and this gives them a skill that they will need in life.

I also need to consider individual children cultures and religions when providing food as some food is not allowed. We also try and incorporate food from around the world and learn about the food from different countries.

Snack time is also a social time where we all sit together including myself. We talk about anything and everything, they tell me about things at home or school, where they are going on holiday, what there siblings have been doing, their favourite toys etc. It is a great time to learn more about them and I can use this information to inform my planning according to their current interests. Afterwards the children help to tidy up and clear the table.

School drop off and collection times are also very social times. We talk as we walk to school; we often play games like eye spy, count how many red cars we see and look out for various different items along the way to use in our craft work. It is a time when the children learn about their environment and the world we live in. We also talk about stranger danger; how to cross the road safely and why we must all walk together and not run off.

Because we carry out the same basic routine everyday the children feel safe and secure in my setting and know what happens next. A good routine develops their self-esteem and promotes independence, allows them to learn about their health by knowing when they have to wash their hands and allows the children to socialise and make healthy choices. The Importance of Routines – Helping Children grow, feel secure and flourish states, “Children need and crave routine. Routine helps establish security and peace in a child’s life.”

DISCUSS HOW YOUR DAILY ROUTINES COULD MEET THE DEVELOPMENTAL NEEDS OF PRE-SCHOOL AND SCHOOL-AGED CHILDREN IN YOUR HOME BASED SETTING

My daily routines meet the developmental needs of all the children in my care because I adapt depending on the age and stage of development of the children in attendance each day.

The school-aged children are not here for morning snacks but we have snacks when we return from the afternoon school run. The older children know that when we get home to wash their hands and they help to set the table, the younger children see what the older children do and try to copy them. As I said before all the children plates, cups and cutlery are kept in a low cupboard which the children can easily access independently. The older children enjoy showing the younger ones what needs to be done to prepare for snacks and the older children gain self-esteem and self-confidence is being able to do things independtly for themselves and others. The younger children like to learn from the older children and this boots their self-confidence is learning to helkp others.

Snack time is a time where we all talk about our day and share what we have been doing and what we enjoyed or disliked.

School drop off and collection time can be a time of learning, as I said above we play different kinds of games. We also collect leaves and other items to use in our creative work later eg leaves, sticks, do some bark rubbings.

We often include a trip to the playground on the way home from school, the younger children benefit from getting fresh air and observing from the comfort of the pushchair and watching the older children. The older children benefit from having the opportunity to run around in a great big space and practice their gross motor skills on the large play equipment.

DISCUSS HOW YOU PROMOTE CHILDREN’S SAFETY

Promoting children’s safety is paramount. I ensure the children’s safety by providing a secure and welcoming environment and I take proper precautions to prevent accidents by carrying out daily risk assessments of my home and garden and any outings that we may go on. I also comply with my Local Safeguarding Children Boards procedures to ensure the safety and welfare of the children in my care. I have a thorough knowledge and understanding of the signs of possible abuse and neglect. Please see my Safeguarding Children Policy (Appendix ) and my Health and Safety Policy (Appendix ).

I hold a current Early Years First Aid for Children and Adults certificate and Emergency Life Support for Adults certificate and have completed Safeguarding Children and Health, Hygiene and Safety Awareness training courses. I ensure that I am up to date with my knowledge by attending regular training throughout the year.

I also have house rules, which the children know and follow – these include taking off their shoes when indoors, sitting at the table or in a highchair to eat and drink, respecting the furniture, toys and each other. The rules are basic but are there to protect the children. The house rules are displayed at all times in pictures and words for the children to refer to.

I make sure that all equipment and resources I provide are age and stage appropriate and that they are safe and clean. They are checked daily before and after use. Children are also taught how to safely use the equipment eg how to hold and use scissors.

I use activities to help the children to learn about safety and we talk about how accidents can happen and how to prevent them. If an accident does happen I keep full records including details of the child/children involved, the treatment I provide and parents are given a carbon copy of this information, they also sign to confirm they have been told what happened.

My premises are secure at all times: the front door is kept locked and the key is kept on a high shelf so only the adults can reach it. My back garden has a 6ft fence on three sides with no gate. The children are only collected by authorised adults or if it is necessary for someone else to collect them we use a password provided by the parents and they notify me in advance if this is going to happen.

All the children are taught about road safety according to their age and developmental stage. With the older children, we talk about stranger danger and how they can keep themselves safe from people they do not know. The children know what to do if there is a fire by regularly practising fire drills and they know why it is important to follow what they have learnt. Please see my Emergency Evacuation Procedure (Appendix )

The children know to tidy up their toys to keep the playroom safe and free from hazards and we do this in a fun way so to maintain the children’s interest and their continued participation in learning to how to keep safe.

I check the identify of visitors and keep accurate records of when and why visitors are here and I also record when my two assistants are on the premises. Myself and my assistants (Husband and Mother) have all had enhanced CRB checks, ensuring our suitability to look after the Children.

The Children feel safe whilst they are in my care because they know that I will listen to any concerns they may have and respond to them appropriately. The parents know that I operate clear child safety procedures and they have copies of all my policies and permission forms.

I make sure that I am a good role model for the Children at all times and I provide a good balance in promoting children’s freedom to explore and play whilst learning and developing and ensuring that they are safe. Children need to have the opportunity to take risks and to make mistakes but within safe limits, that way they learn to be alert to potential danger and how to keep themselves safe. Ofsted Early Years Safe and Sound (2006, pg 9) states, “Children should have the freedom to make discoveries and enjoy experiences within safe limits, while learning how to protect themselves from harm.”

IDENTIFY STRATEGIES FOR COMMUNICATING WITH CHILDREN

There are many ways that you can communicate with children but it is important to remember that children are still learning and developing so you need to communicate with them on their own level according to their age and interests. It is imperative to use vocabulary that the children understand eg they may not understand ‘uncomfortable’ but may know what you mean when you say ‘feeling funny’. You also need to use a calm tone and body language that will not send mixed messages. You also need to be aware of children whose mother tongue is not English and that they will find it harder to communicate in English to begin with. Some children may have speech impairment or learning difficulties and this will make it harder for them to communicate effectively. It is also important to be patient and give the children time to respond to your questions. Communicating Effectively with Children states, “By paying attention to and communicating regularly with children, you can help children create a view of themselves and the world that is positive and healthy.”

Use the Childs name first – this will get their attention and they are more likely to listen to you.

Eye contact – shows respect and allows you to gauge how much of the conservation is being understood.

Calm tone – children are sensitive to anger and do not like raised voices because they can focus solely on the fact that your voice is raised and they may be in trouble, rather than what you are saying.

Thumbs up – is a simple and easy way of showing approval.

Body language – avoid all confusion and communicate your message consistently through both words and actions, be aware that different cultures use and interpret body language in different ways.

Listening and showing an interest – a very important part of communication because if you do not listen and appear interested then it is just a one-way conversation and the child will not feel valued.

Non-verbal communication – Be aware that some children do not communicate verbally, and that it is important to adapt styles of communication to their needs and abilities eg sign language, lip reading etc.

Questioning – use open-ended questions to check understanding and acknowledge that they have heard what is being said.

Speak slowly and clearly – the child may have a hearing impairment and will need you to speak slowly and clearly, so they can understand you, also be aware of the level of background noise.

Painting – This may seem a strange way but children can communicate their feelings through creativity and may talk to you whilst they are painting without thinking about it.

Picture books – I am in the process of taking pictures of all my resources and making books that the children can look through and decide what activities they want to do. This is a great way to communicate their needs without being able to speak.

Picture cards – Can be used for asking children basic things like milk or water to drink. If you have children who use English as a second language then you can make/use picture cards to ask them things in their own language but also have the English word along with the picture and their mother language so they learn new words as they progress.

DISCUSS ONE FACTOR THAT AFFECTS CHILDREN’S BEHAVIOUR

There are many factors that can affect children’s behaviour but I am going to focus on divorce.

Any change in a Childs home life will have an effect on their behaviour but when one parent moves out it can be distressing for the child, as they may not know what has happened or when they will see that parent again. It is important for us as practitioners to listen to any concerns that the child has and respond to them according to their age and stage of development. You need to find a way to help them understand appropriate to their level of understanding.

A pre-school child may show regressive behaviour. This means that the child may return to an earlier stage of development and, for example, start to wet themselves again. A pre-school child may become confused, irritable or worried.

Children between six and nine are very vulnerable. At this age, a child is still not mature enough to understand what is going on, but is old enough to understand that something very unpleasant is taking place. They still depend very much on their parents and will have a hard time talking about their emotions. They may react with anger, or by not concentrating or making progress at school or by having learning difficulties.

Children between 9 and 13 may have started having important relationships with other people besides their parents and family. When their parents’ divorce, it will often be good for a child to talk to someone outside the family about their problems and feelings.

All Children can become very insecure. Insecurity can cause children to behave as if they are much younger and therefore bedwetting, ‘clinginess’, nightmares, worries or disobedience can all occur. This behaviour often happens before or after visits to the parent who is living apart from the family. Teenagers may show their distress by misbehaving or withdrawing into themselves. They may find it difficult to concentrate at school.

It is normal for a child to feel lost, upset, angry and grieve for the family they once were. A child who does not show any feelings or reactions needs help to express what is going on inside. Otherwise, they are very likely to suffer depression and other problems later. Helping Children adjust to Divorce states, “Children whose parents divorce are at greater risk for problems such as aggression, depression, lower self-esteem and poorer school performance.”

Children can express themselves in other ways than with words. Play is very important. You can play with the child and let them act out their feelings using role-play and puppets. Children may need to work off tension through energetic games; you can spend some time at the park or go to an indoor play centre.

Drawing may help some children as they often draw things that are important to them. You can ask about the drawings and this can be a good way to start the child talking about what is going on inside, especially if they are not the type of child to talk openly.

The child still needs to have established routines in their lives and whilst things are changing at home you can continue with your normal routine and this will give the child some stability and comfort during all the other changes, they feel more safe and secure when they know what to expect next.

DESCRIBE STRATEGIES FOR CHALLENGING PREJUDICE AND DISCRIMINATION WHEN WORKING WITH CHILDREN AND FAMILIES

I operate an inclusive Childminding setting, where all children are welcome regardless of their race, religion, culture, sex, ability or disability, social background etc. I encourage the children to value everyone as a unique individual, to respect each other’s differences, and to learn from each other. Centre for Studies on Inclusive Education states, “…inclusion is founded upon a moral position which values and respects every individual and which welcomes diversity as a rich learning resource.”

I always challenge any instances of prejudice, unfair discrimination and harassment whether it is a comment a child has made or a parent. I will explain to the child or parent why what they have said is wrong and how their words have hurt another person. I make sure that I am a good role model for the children. Please see my Equal Opportunities Policy (Appendix ).

I have toys and resources that show different cultures from around the world and people with different types of disabilities/impairments. We also recognize different festivals and religious occasions from a variety of religions worldwide to give the children a greater understanding of the World around them.

I invite the parents to come and take part in story/singing time to enable the children to hear different languages, and stories from around the World.

For example, if a Child called another person four-eyes because they wear glasses, I would explain to the Child how they have hurt that person’s feelings and that they have to wear glasses because they help then to see as their eyes don’t work as well as their eyes. I would also ask the Child how they would feel if someone had called them names. I would encourage the Child to say sorry (depending on their age and level of understanding).

Another example is a child is a wheelchair and another child telling them that they can’t join in and play with them at the sand and water table because they are in a wheelchair. I would explain to the child that yes they can join in we just need to adapt the position of the tray so that the wheelchair can fit around it and everyone can enjoy the same activity.

If I have any children with additional needs in my setting I always talk to all the children about their impairments or disabilities (using the correct medical name) as it provides me with an opportunity to teach basic information about our bodies, health and possible illnesses. It also helps to get rid of any fears about disabilities and helps to influence children’s attitudes in a positive way.

I make sure that I am a positive role model for the children and I update my knowledge regularly. I have just completed deaf awareness training and I am booked on other awareness courses.

EXPLAIN HOW TO IMPLEMENT CHILDREN’S RIGHTS IN THE HOME BASED SETTING

I have explained in E2 my role in meeting the individual needs of the children and now I will explain how I implement the children’s rights in my setting.

I make sure that I keep my knowledge of children’s rights updated through regular training courses and research through the library or internet. Children’s rights are about the obligations of all adults to protect the best interests of children, and to create the conditions under which they can develop and thrive.

Children’s rights are embedded in my policies and I offer resources and activities to ensure that the children can learn about their rights for example we have an activity on diversity where the children look at pictures of children from around the world and we discuss our similarities and our differences and what they would like. Please see my Diversity Activity Planning sheet (Appendix )

I have used some of the Articles of the United Nations Convention on Rights of the Child to show how I implement children’s rights into my setting:

Article 1 – Everyone under 18 has these rights

I ensure that all children in my setting know what their rights are. I use age appropriate resources such as games that we play, books that we read and just talking to each other.

Article 2 – You have the right to protection against discrimination

All children are treated with equal concern and learn to treat each other with respect through the activities I provide eg. Learning about each others differences in a positive way, respecting each others cultures.

Article 3 – Adults should do what’s best for you

Everything that I do in my setting is always in the best interests of the child. I always take into consideration their views, feelings and rights when carrying out day to day activities.

Article 7 – You have the right to have a name and a nationality

On the wall in the playroom we have pictures of everyone that attends the setting with their name underneath, so that we can easily learn each others names. We learn about each others nationality through stories and visits to the library and in the food we eat.

Article 11 – You should not be kidnapped

I make sure that all the children are safe and secure in my care whether we are at home or out and about. The children know to stay close to me and not run off or talk to strangers. I never release a child into the care of someone that I don’t know unless a parent has authorized it in times of emergency and we always use a password system.

Article 12 – You have the right to an opinion and for it to be listened to and taken seriously

The children know that I will always listen to their opionions and take them seriously. We always discuss as a group and listen to each other.

Article 19 – You have the right to be protected from being hurt or badly treated

I know the signs and symptoms of abuse and what to do if I am concerened about one of the children. The children know that they can talk to me about anything at anytime.

Article 23 – If you are disabled, either mentally or physically, you have the right to special care and education

I run an inclusive setting and the children in my care am treated with equal concern with individual needs regardless of any disablilites. It is important to treat each child as an individual and not label them by their impairment or condition.

Article 24 – You have the right to the best health possible and to medical care and information

I provide home cooked healthy meals and snacks to all children, including healthy drinks (milk and water). If I feel a child needs medical care then I have their parents’ permission to take them to the doctors or hospital in an emergency or with their written permission I am able to take the children to routine appointments.

Article 29 – You have the right to education which develops your personality, respect for other’s rights and the environment

All children in my setting are taught appropriate to their age and stage of development. I use all the information I have gathered to provide a challenging and enjoyable experience across all the areas of learning and development, which allows each individual child to develop to their full potential.

Article 30 – If you come from a minority group you have the right to enjoy your own culture, practice your own religion and use your own language

We all learn about each others cultures, religion and languages by the games that we play, books that we read, resources that we play with. We find out about different festivals and celebrations during the year eg Halloween, Christmas, Easter, Hanukkah, World Religion Day, Chinese New Year and many others. By getting to know all the children and their families I can meet the cultural needs for everyone and make sure that all the children feel valued.

Article 31 – You have the right to play and relax by doings things like sport, music and drama

The children a

Policies for the Promotion of Child Rights

IDENTIFY ONE PIECE OF LEGISLATION, WHICH PROMOTES THE CHILDREN’S RIGHTS IN YOUR SETTING

One piece of legislation that promotes the children’s rights in my setting is the Data Protection Act 1998. This legislation gives everyone the right to know what information is held about them and it provides a framework to ensure that personal information is handled properly. One of its purposes is to safeguard the fundamental rights of individuals.

The Act works in two ways, firstly it states that anyone who processes personal information must follow the eight principles below to make sure that the personal information is:

  • Fairly and lawfully processed
  • Processed for limited purposes
  • Adequate, relevant and not excessive
  • Accurate and up to date
  • Not kept for longer than is necessary
  • Processed in line with your rights

Secure

Not transferred to other countries without adequate protection

Secondly, the Act provides everyone with important rights; these include the right to find out what personal information is held about them on computers and most paper records. It also gives the individual the right to complain if they are denied access to their personal information or feel that their information has not be handled according to the eight principles I have stated above.

The Data Protection Act 1998 affects the way I run my setting. I have to ensure that:

Any personal information I have is kept confidential and stored in a locked filing cabinet and I only can access it.

I am careful when discussing with parents anything confidential that no-one is around to overhear our conversation, including in person or on the telephone

All personal information I hold is relevant to my setting and is kept up to date

I do not keep any information longer than necessary

No data that I hold can be used or passed onto other parties without written consent from the parent

Parents have the right to request access to my records at any time, but they can only see the information held about themselves and their children

My confidentiality policy covers the above please see Appendix 1

Every organisation that processes personal information must notify the Information Commissioner’s Office (ICO) unless they are exempt; failure to notify is a criminal offence. I am exempt because no personal information I keep is stored on a computer. The only information I store on the computer is my accounts. If you had to notify they have now made changes to the notification fee structure that came into effect on 1st October 2009, it is now a tiered fee structure to reflect the costs of the ICO regulating data controllers of different sizes.

DESCRIBE THE ROLE OF PRACTITIONER IN MEETING THE INDIVIDUAL NEEDS OF ALL CHILDREN

It is important that the practitioner meets the individual needs of all the children. To do this the practitioner first needs to know what the children’s individual needs are and this can be found out by talking to the parents and getting them to fill in ‘My Special Book’, any observations that you carry out, any other professionals involved with the child and liaising with any other settings that the child attends. If the child is old enough they may also be able to tell you.

It is important to speak to the parents regularly and keep updated in any changes to the children’s interests and needs or home life. The ways that I use are:

Email – an effective way to send a quick message, but some parents may not have access to a computer.

Newsletters – can be a great way to keep parents informed of some of the activities the children have been doing; events and festivals planned; holiday dates and any other information the practitioner wants to tell the parents.

Letters to the Parents – if there are things you need to inform them of privately a letter would be best. In addition, the parents may have a hearing impairment and may not be able to use another form of communication.

Telephone conversation – this is best done at the end of the day when the practitioner and the parents have uninterrupted time to discuss things. You will need to make sure who can overhear the conversation so that you can maintain confidentiality.

Face-to-Face – you can arrange a meeting on neutral territory to discuss any concerns but again you need to maintain confidentiality and make sure you are not overheard.

Daily diary – keeping the parents informed of the activities the child has done during the day, along with sleep times, healthy food, snacks and drinks, nappy changes and any other information the parents need to know. The parents can also add anything to the diary that has happened at home that you need to know e.g. any accidents, broken night’s sleep, teething, whether they have had breakfast etc.

Text – the quickest way to communicate, it can also be invaluable to someone with a hearing impairment. Most people nowadays have a mobile phone.

It is also important to find out and respect the views of all the children to make them feel valued and not ignored this in turn promotes their self-esteem. I talk to the children about what interests them and what they think of things. We often play games that allow the children to air their views and opinions and I use this knowledge to enhance their learning and development.

To be able to meet all the children’s needs you first need to understand what their rights are. There is a lot of legislation that promotes children rights but quite simply every child has a right to have their basic needs met for food, warmth and hygiene, but you also need to provide a nurturing environment where the children can rest, play and develop to their full potential.

Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs is one of the best-known descriptions of needs. It identifies five basic needs and shows how higher needs are not considered until the lower level needs have been met.

Self-actualisation

(Achieving individual potential)

Esteem

(Self-esteem and esteem from others)

Belonging

(Love, affection, being a part of groups)

Safety

(Shelter, removal from danger)

Physiological

(Health, food, sleep)

Diagram copied from Maslow’s Hierarchy at Changingminds.org

It is important to know the difference between a want and a need. A Need is something that we cannot do without, like sleep, food and love. A Want is something that is desired at the time but is not essential and we can in fact do without.

To make sure I meet all the children’s individual needs I take into consideration the ages of the children, their stage of development and abilities and whether they need to sleep or have quiet time when planning my daily routine, I make sure that I incorporate all their needs into my daily routine. The children need a daily routine to help them feel secure and they get to know what is happening next and this promotes their development. I adapt my routines depending on which children I have in the setting at the time.

It is important that all the children are given a choice as much as possible, because this will help them as they grow and they need to be independent and make decisions for themselves. I give children a choice of snacks, they can choose from milk or water to drink and they can also decide for themselves what they would like to play with and with whom.

It is my professional responsibility to:

  • Safeguard and promote the welfare of all the children
  • Make sure that people they come into contact with are suitable
  • Ensure I have safe and suitable premises, environment and equipment

Organise my setting so that every child receives an enjoyable and challenging learning and development experience that is tailored to their individual needs

Maintain records, policies and procedures to ensure safe and efficient management of my setting and to meet the needs of the children

Practice Guidance for the Early Years Foundation Stage (2007, pg 6) states, “Practitioners should deliver personalised learning, development and care to help children to get the best possible start in life.

DISCUSS HOW YOUR DAILY ROUTINES SUPPORT CHILDREN’S WELL BEING

I have a basic daily routine that includes school runs, child-initiated play, adult-led activities, sleep/quiet time, snack and meal times and home time. The children begin to learn the structure of the day and what comes next. The times of the routine is never set in stone and it allows us to experience spontaneous events like playing in the snow, or taking your lunch to the park on a nice sunny day.

For example for snack time the children know that after the mornings child-initiated play we have snacks and they help to clear the table and lay out the plates and cups, which are kept in a low cupboard which the children can easily access independently and this promotes their self-esteem and confidence to help and do things for themselves and others. They know that they are to wash their hands before eating and I have a stool so they can reach the sink which enables their independence and they all sit at the table waiting for the snacks. They have a choice of drink – milk or water and they can choose what they want to eat from the choice of snacks on the table. There is always a selection of seasonal fruit, a carbohydrate toast, crumpet or muffin and dairy – hard or soft cheese. Allowing the children choice enables them to start the process of thinking for themselves and this gives them a skill that they will need in life.

I also need to consider individual children cultures and religions when providing food as some food is not allowed. We also try and incorporate food from around the world and learn about the food from different countries.

Snack time is also a social time where we all sit together including myself. We talk about anything and everything, they tell me about things at home or school, where they are going on holiday, what there siblings have been doing, their favourite toys etc. It is a great time to learn more about them and I can use this information to inform my planning according to their current interests. Afterwards the children help to tidy up and clear the table.

School drop off and collection times are also very social times. We talk as we walk to school; we often play games like eye spy, count how many red cars we see and look out for various different items along the way to use in our craft work. It is a time when the children learn about their environment and the world we live in. We also talk about stranger danger; how to cross the road safely and why we must all walk together and not run off.

Because we carry out the same basic routine everyday the children feel safe and secure in my setting and know what happens next. A good routine develops their self-esteem and promotes independence, allows them to learn about their health by knowing when they have to wash their hands and allows the children to socialise and make healthy choices. The Importance of Routines – Helping Children grow, feel secure and flourish states, “Children need and crave routine. Routine helps establish security and peace in a child’s life.”

DISCUSS HOW YOUR DAILY ROUTINES COULD MEET THE DEVELOPMENTAL NEEDS OF PRE-SCHOOL AND SCHOOL-AGED CHILDREN IN YOUR HOME BASED SETTING

My daily routines meet the developmental needs of all the children in my care because I adapt depending on the age and stage of development of the children in attendance each day.

The school-aged children are not here for morning snacks but we have snacks when we return from the afternoon school run. The older children know that when we get home to wash their hands and they help to set the table, the younger children see what the older children do and try to copy them. As I said before all the children plates, cups and cutlery are kept in a low cupboard which the children can easily access independently. The older children enjoy showing the younger ones what needs to be done to prepare for snacks and the older children gain self-esteem and self-confidence is being able to do things independtly for themselves and others. The younger children like to learn from the older children and this boots their self-confidence is learning to helkp others.

Snack time is a time where we all talk about our day and share what we have been doing and what we enjoyed or disliked.

School drop off and collection time can be a time of learning, as I said above we play different kinds of games. We also collect leaves and other items to use in our creative work later eg leaves, sticks, do some bark rubbings.

We often include a trip to the playground on the way home from school, the younger children benefit from getting fresh air and observing from the comfort of the pushchair and watching the older children. The older children benefit from having the opportunity to run around in a great big space and practice their gross motor skills on the large play equipment.

DISCUSS HOW YOU PROMOTE CHILDREN’S SAFETY

Promoting children’s safety is paramount. I ensure the children’s safety by providing a secure and welcoming environment and I take proper precautions to prevent accidents by carrying out daily risk assessments of my home and garden and any outings that we may go on. I also comply with my Local Safeguarding Children Boards procedures to ensure the safety and welfare of the children in my care. I have a thorough knowledge and understanding of the signs of possible abuse and neglect. Please see my Safeguarding Children Policy (Appendix ) and my Health and Safety Policy (Appendix ).

I hold a current Early Years First Aid for Children and Adults certificate and Emergency Life Support for Adults certificate and have completed Safeguarding Children and Health, Hygiene and Safety Awareness training courses. I ensure that I am up to date with my knowledge by attending regular training throughout the year.

I also have house rules, which the children know and follow – these include taking off their shoes when indoors, sitting at the table or in a highchair to eat and drink, respecting the furniture, toys and each other. The rules are basic but are there to protect the children. The house rules are displayed at all times in pictures and words for the children to refer to.

I make sure that all equipment and resources I provide are age and stage appropriate and that they are safe and clean. They are checked daily before and after use. Children are also taught how to safely use the equipment eg how to hold and use scissors.

I use activities to help the children to learn about safety and we talk about how accidents can happen and how to prevent them. If an accident does happen I keep full records including details of the child/children involved, the treatment I provide and parents are given a carbon copy of this information, they also sign to confirm they have been told what happened.

My premises are secure at all times: the front door is kept locked and the key is kept on a high shelf so only the adults can reach it. My back garden has a 6ft fence on three sides with no gate. The children are only collected by authorised adults or if it is necessary for someone else to collect them we use a password provided by the parents and they notify me in advance if this is going to happen.

All the children are taught about road safety according to their age and developmental stage. With the older children, we talk about stranger danger and how they can keep themselves safe from people they do not know. The children know what to do if there is a fire by regularly practising fire drills and they know why it is important to follow what they have learnt. Please see my Emergency Evacuation Procedure (Appendix )

The children know to tidy up their toys to keep the playroom safe and free from hazards and we do this in a fun way so to maintain the children’s interest and their continued participation in learning to how to keep safe.

I check the identify of visitors and keep accurate records of when and why visitors are here and I also record when my two assistants are on the premises. Myself and my assistants (Husband and Mother) have all had enhanced CRB checks, ensuring our suitability to look after the Children.

The Children feel safe whilst they are in my care because they know that I will listen to any concerns they may have and respond to them appropriately. The parents know that I operate clear child safety procedures and they have copies of all my policies and permission forms.

I make sure that I am a good role model for the Children at all times and I provide a good balance in promoting children’s freedom to explore and play whilst learning and developing and ensuring that they are safe. Children need to have the opportunity to take risks and to make mistakes but within safe limits, that way they learn to be alert to potential danger and how to keep themselves safe. Ofsted Early Years Safe and Sound (2006, pg 9) states, “Children should have the freedom to make discoveries and enjoy experiences within safe limits, while learning how to protect themselves from harm.”

IDENTIFY STRATEGIES FOR COMMUNICATING WITH CHILDREN

There are many ways that you can communicate with children but it is important to remember that children are still learning and developing so you need to communicate with them on their own level according to their age and interests. It is imperative to use vocabulary that the children understand eg they may not understand ‘uncomfortable’ but may know what you mean when you say ‘feeling funny’. You also need to use a calm tone and body language that will not send mixed messages. You also need to be aware of children whose mother tongue is not English and that they will find it harder to communicate in English to begin with. Some children may have speech impairment or learning difficulties and this will make it harder for them to communicate effectively. It is also important to be patient and give the children time to respond to your questions. Communicating Effectively with Children states, “By paying attention to and communicating regularly with children, you can help children create a view of themselves and the world that is positive and healthy.”

Use the Childs name first – this will get their attention and they are more likely to listen to you.

Eye contact – shows respect and allows you to gauge how much of the conservation is being understood.

Calm tone – children are sensitive to anger and do not like raised voices because they can focus solely on the fact that your voice is raised and they may be in trouble, rather than what you are saying.

Thumbs up – is a simple and easy way of showing approval.

Body language – avoid all confusion and communicate your message consistently through both words and actions, be aware that different cultures use and interpret body language in different ways.

Listening and showing an interest – a very important part of communication because if you do not listen and appear interested then it is just a one-way conversation and the child will not feel valued.

Non-verbal communication – Be aware that some children do not communicate verbally, and that it is important to adapt styles of communication to their needs and abilities eg sign language, lip reading etc.

Questioning – use open-ended questions to check understanding and acknowledge that they have heard what is being said.

Speak slowly and clearly – the child may have a hearing impairment and will need you to speak slowly and clearly, so they can understand you, also be aware of the level of background noise.

Painting – This may seem a strange way but children can communicate their feelings through creativity and may talk to you whilst they are painting without thinking about it.

Picture books – I am in the process of taking pictures of all my resources and making books that the children can look through and decide what activities they want to do. This is a great way to communicate their needs without being able to speak.

Picture cards – Can be used for asking children basic things like milk or water to drink. If you have children who use English as a second language then you can make/use picture cards to ask them things in their own language but also have the English word along with the picture and their mother language so they learn new words as they progress.

DISCUSS ONE FACTOR THAT AFFECTS CHILDREN’S BEHAVIOUR

There are many factors that can affect children’s behaviour but I am going to focus on divorce.

Any change in a Childs home life will have an effect on their behaviour but when one parent moves out it can be distressing for the child, as they may not know what has happened or when they will see that parent again. It is important for us as practitioners to listen to any concerns that the child has and respond to them according to their age and stage of development. You need to find a way to help them understand appropriate to their level of understanding.

A pre-school child may show regressive behaviour. This means that the child may return to an earlier stage of development and, for example, start to wet themselves again. A pre-school child may become confused, irritable or worried.

Children between six and nine are very vulnerable. At this age, a child is still not mature enough to understand what is going on, but is old enough to understand that something very unpleasant is taking place. They still depend very much on their parents and will have a hard time talking about their emotions. They may react with anger, or by not concentrating or making progress at school or by having learning difficulties.

Children between 9 and 13 may have started having important relationships with other people besides their parents and family. When their parents’ divorce, it will often be good for a child to talk to someone outside the family about their problems and feelings.

All Children can become very insecure. Insecurity can cause children to behave as if they are much younger and therefore bedwetting, ‘clinginess’, nightmares, worries or disobedience can all occur. This behaviour often happens before or after visits to the parent who is living apart from the family. Teenagers may show their distress by misbehaving or withdrawing into themselves. They may find it difficult to concentrate at school.

It is normal for a child to feel lost, upset, angry and grieve for the family they once were. A child who does not show any feelings or reactions needs help to express what is going on inside. Otherwise, they are very likely to suffer depression and other problems later. Helping Children adjust to Divorce states, “Children whose parents divorce are at greater risk for problems such as aggression, depression, lower self-esteem and poorer school performance.”

Children can express themselves in other ways than with words. Play is very important. You can play with the child and let them act out their feelings using role-play and puppets. Children may need to work off tension through energetic games; you can spend some time at the park or go to an indoor play centre.

Drawing may help some children as they often draw things that are important to them. You can ask about the drawings and this can be a good way to start the child talking about what is going on inside, especially if they are not the type of child to talk openly.

The child still needs to have established routines in their lives and whilst things are changing at home you can continue with your normal routine and this will give the child some stability and comfort during all the other changes, they feel more safe and secure when they know what to expect next.

DESCRIBE STRATEGIES FOR CHALLENGING PREJUDICE AND DISCRIMINATION WHEN WORKING WITH CHILDREN AND FAMILIES

I operate an inclusive Childminding setting, where all children are welcome regardless of their race, religion, culture, sex, ability or disability, social background etc. I encourage the children to value everyone as a unique individual, to respect each other’s differences, and to learn from each other. Centre for Studies on Inclusive Education states, “…inclusion is founded upon a moral position which values and respects every individual and which welcomes diversity as a rich learning resource.”

I always challenge any instances of prejudice, unfair discrimination and harassment whether it is a comment a child has made or a parent. I will explain to the child or parent why what they have said is wrong and how their words have hurt another person. I make sure that I am a good role model for the children. Please see my Equal Opportunities Policy (Appendix ).

I have toys and resources that show different cultures from around the world and people with different types of disabilities/impairments. We also recognize different festivals and religious occasions from a variety of religions worldwide to give the children a greater understanding of the World around them.

I invite the parents to come and take part in story/singing time to enable the children to hear different languages, and stories from around the World.

For example, if a Child called another person four-eyes because they wear glasses, I would explain to the Child how they have hurt that person’s feelings and that they have to wear glasses because they help then to see as their eyes don’t work as well as their eyes. I would also ask the Child how they would feel if someone had called them names. I would encourage the Child to say sorry (depending on their age and level of understanding).

Another example is a child is a wheelchair and another child telling them that they can’t join in and play with them at the sand and water table because they are in a wheelchair. I would explain to the child that yes they can join in we just need to adapt the position of the tray so that the wheelchair can fit around it and everyone can enjoy the same activity.

If I have any children with additional needs in my setting I always talk to all the children about their impairments or disabilities (using the correct medical name) as it provides me with an opportunity to teach basic information about our bodies, health and possible illnesses. It also helps to get rid of any fears about disabilities and helps to influence children’s attitudes in a positive way.

I make sure that I am a positive role model for the children and I update my knowledge regularly. I have just completed deaf awareness training and I am booked on other awareness courses.

EXPLAIN HOW TO IMPLEMENT CHILDREN’S RIGHTS IN THE HOME BASED SETTING

I have explained in E2 my role in meeting the individual needs of the children and now I will explain how I implement the children’s rights in my setting.

I make sure that I keep my knowledge of children’s rights updated through regular training courses and research through the library or internet. Children’s rights are about the obligations of all adults to protect the best interests of children, and to create the conditions under which they can develop and thrive.

Children’s rights are embedded in my policies and I offer resources and activities to ensure that the children can learn about their rights for example we have an activity on diversity where the children look at pictures of children from around the world and we discuss our similarities and our differences and what they would like. Please see my Diversity Activity Planning sheet (Appendix )

I have used some of the Articles of the United Nations Convention on Rights of the Child to show how I implement children’s rights into my setting:

Article 1 – Everyone under 18 has these rights

I ensure that all children in my setting know what their rights are. I use age appropriate resources such as games that we play, books that we read and just talking to each other.

Article 2 – You have the right to protection against discrimination

All children are treated with equal concern and learn to treat each other with respect through the activities I provide eg. Learning about each others differences in a positive way, respecting each others cultures.

Article 3 – Adults should do what’s best for you

Everything that I do in my setting is always in the best interests of the child. I always take into consideration their views, feelings and rights when carrying out day to day activities.

Article 7 – You have the right to have a name and a nationality

On the wall in the playroom we have pictures of everyone that attends the setting with their name underneath, so that we can easily learn each others names. We learn about each others nationality through stories and visits to the library and in the food we eat.

Article 11 – You should not be kidnapped

I make sure that all the children are safe and secure in my care whether we are at home or out and about. The children know to stay close to me and not run off or talk to strangers. I never release a child into the care of someone that I don’t know unless a parent has authorized it in times of emergency and we always use a password system.

Article 12 – You have the right to an opinion and for it to be listened to and taken seriously

The children know that I will always listen to their opionions and take them seriously. We always discuss as a group and listen to each other.

Article 19 – You have the right to be protected from being hurt or badly treated

I know the signs and symptoms of abuse and what to do if I am concerened about one of the children. The children know that they can talk to me about anything at anytime.

Article 23 – If you are disabled, either mentally or physically, you have the right to special care and education

I run an inclusive setting and the children in my care am treated with equal concern with individual needs regardless of any disablilites. It is important to treat each child as an individual and not label them by their impairment or condition.

Article 24 – You have the right to the best health possible and to medical care and information

I provide home cooked healthy meals and snacks to all children, including healthy drinks (milk and water). If I feel a child needs medical care then I have their parents’ permission to take them to the doctors or hospital in an emergency or with their written permission I am able to take the children to routine appointments.

Article 29 – You have the right to education which develops your personality, respect for other’s rights and the environment

All children in my setting are taught appropriate to their age and stage of development. I use all the information I have gathered to provide a challenging and enjoyable experience across all the areas of learning and development, which allows each individual child to develop to their full potential.

Article 30 – If you come from a minority group you have the right to enjoy your own culture, practice your own religion and use your own language

We all learn about each others cultures, religion and languages by the games that we play, books that we read, resources that we play with. We find out about different festivals and celebrations during the year eg Halloween, Christmas, Easter, Hanukkah, World Religion Day, Chinese New Year and many others. By getting to know all the children and their families I can meet the cultural needs for everyone and make sure that all the children feel valued.

Article 31 – You have the right to play and relax by doings things like sport, music and drama

The children a

Causes of Stillbirth

Abstract:

Feto-infant mortality is increasing worldwide. Stillbirth is defined as uterofetal death at 20 weeks of gestation or greater. Stillbirths contribute as a primary factor to the growing magnitude of feto-infant mortality. The reasons for stillbirth are usually not reported. In many cases, the specific cause of fetal death remains unknown. The key risk factors include smoking, increased maternal age, being overweight, fetal-maternal hemorrhage.

Even though there has been remarkable development in prenatal and intranatal care, stillbirths have been consistently increasing and remain an important problem in obstetrics and gynecology. Current research studies focus mainly on the epidemiology of stillbirths. I review the known and suspected causes of stillbirth. It also describes the recommended diagnostic tests to evaluate definite cause of stillbirth. In this paper, I also review analysis of stillbirths in the United States (US). The National Center of Health Statistics recorded 26,359 stillbirths in 2001. The number of stillbirths can be greatly reduced if the specific reasons for stillbirth are understood.

Introduction:

A pregnancy ending in stillbirth can be mentally devastating to a patient and her family. The most widely accepted definition of stillbirth is death of the fetus inside the uterus at 20 weeks of gestation or greater (Cartlidge et al., 1995). Much information is available on protocols for evaluating other types of postmortem examination but little work has been done on the evaluation of the causes of stillbirths (Mirlene et al., 2004). No universally followed protocol is available to guide the evaluation of stillbirths.

In part because a wide variety of causes can be involved in stillbirths and it can be difficult to designate a specific cause of death. A stillbirth might result from various diseases, infections, trauma or genetic defects in the mother or fetus (Gardosi et al., 2005). In many cases, a specific reason is not known. Even though stillbirths are a serious problem, few resources have been focused on them and most obstetricians lack a sound method of evaluating of stillbirths (Petersson, 2002). In this document, I will review the accepted causes of still birth and the suggested diagnostic tests for evaluating the reason behind stillborn infants. In the year 2001 in the US, the National Center of Health Statistics recorded 26,359 stillbirths (Ananth et al., 2005).

When compared to 27,568 infant deaths were reported in the same year. More than half of the stillbirths are before 28 weeks of gestation and almost 20% are close to the term. If a history of stillbirth exists then there is a 5-fold increase for subsequent stillbirth to occur. Prominent racial discrimination occurs in the rates of stillbirths. Stillbirths are almost three times more prevalent in African Americans when compared to whites (Puza et al., 2006). In 2001, the rate of stillbirths among white mothers was 5.5 per 1000 live births and 12.1 per 1000 among the black mothers.

According to an analysis of U.S. vital statistics between 1995 and 1998, the increased risk of black, compared with white, stillbirths is greatest among singleton stillbirths (Puza et al., 2006). Reduction of proportion of fetal deaths at gestation of 20weeks or longer to 4.1 per 1000 live births and also reduction of fetal deaths for all racial and ethnic groups are the objectives of U.S. National Health for 2010.

Categorization of Stillbirths:

Different attempts were made in order to classify causes of stillbirth. Baird and his colleagues were among the first to classify the causes of perinatal death from the available clinical information. Depending on the British perinatal mortality survey, in 1958 Butler and Bonham designed a classification scheme that included the results of postmortem examinations. The most widely used is the 9 category classification system formulated by Wigglesworth and his coworkers (Wigglesworth, 1980).

A new classification scheme which does not include neonatal deaths was proposed by Gardosi and his colleagues known as the ReCoDe Classification which focuses on the relevant conditions at the time of death in the uterus. It includes factors which affect the fetus followed by the factors which affect the mother (Gardosi et al., 2005). When compared with the Wigglesworth classification, a remarkable decrease in the number of unclassified stillbirth was achieved using this classification.

One of the most vital aspects is to develop a proper definition of the factors that lead to death of the fetus. The basic definition for the “cause of death” is injury or disease responsible for a death. Froendefined cause of death in stillbirth as “an event or condition of sufficient severity, magnitude, and duration for death to be expected in a majority of such cases in a continued pregnancy in the clinical setting where it was observed” (Froen, 2002). When the definition of “cause of death” is reviewed, it is observed that only a few disorders are directly responsible for fetal death while many others are not.

Causes of Stillbirth:

Infection: Infections such as viral, protozoal and bacterial are linked with stillbirth.

Almost 10-25% of stillbirths result from feto-maternal infections in the developed countries where as bacterial infections are common in developing countries (Goldenberg et al., 2003). Stillbirths that result from infection might be due to various factors which include direct infection, placental damage, and severe maternal illness. Usually the stillbirths in the initial weeks of gestation are linked with infection. Bacterial infections caused by Escherichia coli, group B streptococci, and Ureaplasma urealyticum are a cause of stillbirth in developed countries (Goldenberg et al., 2003). If syphilis epidemic occurs in an area then it might be the cause of a considerable proportion of stillbirths.

If women come in contact with a parasite like malaria for the first time then stillbirth might be attributed to it. Toxoplasma gondii, leptospirosis, Listeria monocytogenes, Q fever, and Lyme disease are associated with the occurrence of stillbirth (Goldenberg et al., 2003). The magnitude of stillbirths due to viral infections is not known mainly due to the absence of a well defined systematic evaluation of infections in stillborn infants. The problem lies behind the fact that these viruses are difficult to culture and moreover, a positive viral serological diagnostic test identifying the DNA or RNA of the virus in the fetal tissue or placental tissue does not definitely determine that infection was the reason behind death. In most of the cases, infection is linked with stillbirth in early gestational weeks around twenty weeks. If molecular diagnostic technology (DNA and RNA polymerase chain reaction [PCR]) is utilized, it will help in diagnosis of viral infections without any error.

Parvovirus B-19 appears to have the strongest association with stillbirth. According to a Swedish survey, in 8%of stillbirths B-19 PCR positive tissues were observed (Enders et al., 2004). In the United States, less than 1% of all stillbirths are reported to be due to parvovirus infection Parvovirus B19 moves across the placenta spreading the infection to fetal erythropoetic tissue resulting in fetal anemia leading to fetal death (Wapner et al., 2002). Myocardial damage may also occur due to Parvovirus B19.

Here the virus directly attacks the fetal cardiac tissue. Parvovirus infection that leads to stillbirth usually occurs before 20 weeks of gestation (Wapner et al., 2002). Enteroviruses which include Coxsackie A and B, echoviruses and other enteroviruses are associated with stillbirth. Coxsackie viruses can cross the placenta and lead to villous necrosis, inflammatory cell infiltration, calcific pancarditis, and hydrops. Echovirus infection begins with severe maternal illness and finally ends with stillbirth. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) belongs to herpesvirus family and it is a congenital viral infection. Initially, the mother is infected and then it is transmitted to the fetus. CMV causes placental damage leading to intrauterine fetal growth restriction, but an association with stillbirth remains controversial (Goldenberg et al., 2003). Viral infections in the mother like rubella, mumps and measles are linked with stillbirth. If the vaccinations are administered on time then the proportion of stillbirths occurring due to infections can be reduced greatly.

Genetics:

Genetic causes are responsible for a considerable magnitude of stillbirths. 6- 12% of stillbirths attributed to genetic etiologies are due to karyotyping abnormalities. Due to the fact that in some of the cases cells cannot be cultured, karyotyping is not possible. Such factors alter the exact estimate of stillbirths resulting from chromosomal abnormalities. In stillborn fetuses which show apparent structural defects the probability of chromosomal abnormality is much higher when compared to normal stillborn fetuses.

The usually focused abnormalities include monosomy X (23%), trisomy 21 (23%), trisomy 18 (21%), and trisomy 13 (8%). There are many instances where the karyotype of the stillborn is normal yet the cause of death is a genetic abnormality. Indeed, 25-35% of stillborn infants undergoing autopsy have intrinsic abnormalities (Wapner et al., 2002) .These include single malformations (40%), multiple malformations (40%), and deformations or dysplasia (20%) (Wapner et al., 2002). Almost 25% ofstillborns due to intrinsic defects show an abnormal karyotype whereas the rest of the 75% may have genetic defects which are not identifiable by the regular cytogenetic tests. This holds good for fetuses with multiple abnormalities.

Single gene mutations may be responsible for death of the fetus in early weeks of development. Stillbirths in the midgestational weeks might be due to abnormal placental growth, development, or angiogenesis. Some autosomal recessive disorders including glycogen storage diseases and hemoglobinopathies have been reported as the cause of stillbirth (Wapner et al., 2002). In male fetuses, X-linked disorders may prove to be fatal. Many other genetic defects that are not recognized by the conventional cytogenetic diagnostics may lead to stillbirth.

For example, conventional karyotype cannot identify chromosomal microdeletions that are linked with unexplained mental retardation. Confined placental mosaicism has also been associated with fetal growth impairment and stillbirth (Kalousek et al., 1994). Heritable Thrombophilia is another probable etiology of stillbirth.It is thought that placental infarction occurs due to thrombosis in the uteroplacental circulation leading to death. This poses concern over other thrombophilic defects and their effects on stillbirth.

It is noteworthy that many heritable thrombophilias are common in normal individuals without a history of thrombosis or pregnancy loss (Rey et al., 2003). Even though many studies relate thrombophilias to fetal loss, most of the women with thrombophilias have healthy pregnancies with no lethal complications. It can be said that in the absence of any previous obstetric problems, thrombophilia will not result in stillbirth.

Feto-maternal Hemorrhage:

Feto-maternal hemorrhage has been linked to almost 3- 14% of all stillbirths which implies that it is responsible for a considerable number of stillbirths. Obstetric procedures such as external cephalic version and cesarean section lead to fetal maternal hemorrhage. Hemorrhage can also result due to placental abruption and/or abdominal trauma during pregnancy. Fetal maternal hemorrhage must be identified and quantitated using a proper dependable diagnostic test to attribute this reason behind the death of fetus. Hypoxia and anemia are indicators of death due to fetal hemorrhage. So, they should be confirmed by autopsy as in some normal cases too, few fetal cells can be seen in maternal blood.

Maternal Features:

Delayed child bearing or increased maternal age, prepregnancy obesity and stress are found to have their effects on the occurrence of stillbirth. The underlying mechanisms of action are unknown; however, with both obesity and delayed child-bearing on the rise, their importance as potential causes of stillbirth deserves greater attention (Cnattingius et al., 2002). Women whose only risk factor is being overweight have about a 2-fold increased risk of stillbirth (Nohr et al., 2005).

Likewise, compared with women younger than 35 years of age, the stillbirth rate is increased 2- fold for women 35-39 years of age, and 3- to 4-fold for women aged 40 years old or olderwhereas some age-associated risk is due to higher rates of maternal complications, in uncomplicated pregnancies there may be a 50% increased risk associated only with maternal age 35 years or older (Nohr et al., 2005). Stress is a suspected cause of stillbirth which might occur as a result of a major life event (such as loss or poverty) (Huang et al., 2000) or through unexplained health changes related to adverse childhood experiences (Hillis et al., 2004). Different exposures are attributed to stillbirth. One of the most prevalent and preventable cause of stillbirth is cigarette smoking (Hillis et al., 2004).

Smoking negatively affects fetal growth and oxygen supply to the tissues as it produces high levels of carboxyhemoglobin and decreases blood supply to the placenta. Smoking is also associated with increased risks of placenta previa and placental abruption and women who stop smoking in the first trimester have stillbirth rates equivalent to women who never smoked which indicates that quitting smoking in early pregnancy may significantly reduce the chances of occurrence of stillbirth (Hillis et al., 2004). A variety of complications result due to continuous exposure of different recreational drugs. Consumption of cocaine during pregnancy is also linked with stillbirth because it causes fetal growth restriction and/or abruption.

The use of meth amphetamines leads to premature deliveries and stunted growth but its association with stillbirth remains unknown. In some cases, alcohol consumption during pregnancy has been associated with an increased risk of stillbirth (Mary et al., 2006). According to a study in Scandinavia, for women who consume less than 1 drink per week, the rate of stillbirth is 1.37 per 1000 births while the rate increases to 8.83 per 1000 births in women who consume 5 drinks or more per week.

If smoking habits, caffeine intake, prepregnancy body mass index, marital status, occupational status, education, parity, and fetal gender are considered, the risk of stillbirth for women consuming 5 drinks or more per week was 2.96 (95% confidence interval 1.37 to 6.41) (Mary et al., 2006). Some studies show a protective effect on both stillbirth and fetal growth restriction rates if small amounts of alcohol are consumed during pregnancy (Mary et al., 2006). A link between pesticide exposure and stillbirth was observed by Pastore and his colleagues in 1997.

Occupational exposures prove to be deleterious compared to residential exposure because the occupational exposures cause congenital abnormalities in addition to risk of stillbirth. A noteworthy fact is that the use of fertility drugs is also associated with stillbirths. This finding is problematic due to the fact that many women make use of fertility treatments to conceive. However, data on stillbirths due to exposures is obtained from retrospective studies which are prone to bias. The link between exposures and stillbirth should therefore be dealt with great attention and care.

 

Maternal Diseases: Diabetes:

There is always an increased danger of stillbirths in second and third trimester for mothers who are affected with type I or type II diabetes mellitus (DM) pregestationally. Even with modern obstetric care and diabetes management, stillbirth rates in women with type 2 DM have been reported to be 2.5-fold higher than nondiabetic women (Mary et al., 2006). The rate of stillbirth is the same between women with gestational diabetes (GDM) as well as normal women when the whole population is taken into account.

The magnitude of danger involved with fetal death in women with type II DM is identical to women with GDM who in fact entered the pregnancy with undiagnosed type II DM. Therefore, women with GDM who have an undiagnosed type II DM are usually at a greater danger of encountering stillbirth. Examples of women with undiagnosed type II DM include history of GDM in previous pregnancies, high fasting glucose values;random glucose values greater than 200mg/dL or diagnosis of GDM early in pregnancy.

The reason behind fetal death in late gestation in diabetic women is not known precisely. In addition to an increased risk of fetal death in diabetic women, there also exists a higher magnitude of danger associated with fetal abnormalities in these women compared to healthy women. Stress, hypertension and obesity complement each other in DM patients. In women with DM, there is a higher risk of stillbirth as it may lead to fetal abnormalities which may be either abnormally increased growth rate or retarded growth.

To maintain the physiological range of the plasma glucose level, tremendous amounts of insulin is produced by the fetus resulting in fetal hyperglycemia. This fetal hyperglycemia is acquired from maternal hyperglycemia which finally results in fetal death due to excessive growth. The precise limit of plasma glucose level which poses a threat to the fetal life is not well defined.

The most that could be done is to detect and deal with it using needed medications to lower the incidents of stillbirths.Many other maternal diseases have been linked to stillbirth, including thyroid disease, cardiovascular disease, asthma, kidney disease, and systemic lupus erythematosus (Simpson, 2002). These are subclinical diseases which in many cases has not been proven to be direct causes of stillbirth and women had normal pregnancies giving birth to healthy babies.

Multiple Gestation and Stillbirth:

Nearly 3% of all births and 10% of all stillbirths result from multiple pregnancies. According to national vital statistics, 1.8% of twin, 2.4% of triplet, 3.7% of quadruplet, and 5.6% of quintuplet fetuses suffered intrauterine fetal deaths (Salihu et al., 2003).

The stillbirth rate among singleton pregnancies is approximately 0.5%. The reason behind fetal death in multiple pregnancies is difficult to be resolved when compared to singleton pregnancies. The broad causes of fetal death in multiple pregnancies include fetal growth retardation, preclamsia, abruption and cord accidents. It is vital to determine the chorionicity of multiple gestations as the rate of stillbirth is higher in monochorionic multiple gestations (Salihu et al., 2003) (Lynch et al., 2007). Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) is an essential aspect in the occurrence of multiple pregnancies and stillbirth (Helmerhorst et al., 2004).

Complications in Fetus:

Fetal Growth Restriction:

Some stillbirths result from fetuses which are smaller for a particular gestational age (SGA) compared to normal fetuses. Birth weight and risk of stillbirth are inversely proportional. If one increases, the other decreases. The main fact behind stillbirths in this condition is retardation of fetal growth and not the small size of fetus.

An obstacle that occurs in determining the precise time of death of fetus due to SGA is the fact that the death might have occurred a long time before but the gestational age at the time of delivery is considered to be the time of death. This gives a false implication of the magnitude of stillbirths resulting from SGA. This problem can be solved by analysis of early and mid pregnancy placental hormones which are very specific for gestational periods (Smith et al., 2004). An evaluation of the amounts of these hormones relates directly to the time of death.

Umbilical Cord Accidents:

An increased number of stillbirths are due to “accidents” of umbilical cord like cord occlusion or blockage due to true knots, nuchal cords and compression of the cord. In almost 30% of normal healthy infant deliveries, nuchal cord and true knots in umbilical cords are observed.

According to a study in Sweden, 9% of stillbirths were due to cord accidents (Petersson, 2002). Determination of cord accidents leading to fetal death by autopsy is smaller in proportion (up to 2.5%) (Horn et al., 2004). This difference indicates that in the absence of a proper cause, many times fetal death is attributed to cord entanglement.

Due to the increased load of complications with live infants, little concern is expressed towards dead fetuses. In order to precisely relate a fetal death to cord accident, a clear indication of either hypoxic tissue injury or cord occlusion must be observed in autopsy. As nuchal cords are observed in normal deliveries also, the exact proportion of stillbirths due to cord accidents is biased.

Obstetric Complications:

Some of the obstetric complications are preclampsia, preterm premature rupture of membranes, preterm labor, cervical insufficiency, abruption, placenta previa, and vasa previa. These may either be direct or primary causes or may be indirect or secondary causes of stillbirth. Almost 10-19% of stillbirths occur due to abruption. Since cervical insufficiency or preterm labor lead to neonatal death, their role in causing stillbirth is not well defined.

Evaluation of Stillbirth

Stillbirth in itself may be emotionally devastating to many patients and their families. There the likelihood of carrying out genetic testing or autopsy on the fetus may not be readily agreeable from the family and culture. Lastly the procedures for evaluation must be cost effective and within reach. The two important facts that should be kept in mind while deciding which tests would prove as the most useful ones are primarily the consideration of cost of that test. It should not be beyond limits.

Secondarily, if this test would be helpful in prevention of recurrent or sporadic stillbirths. In recurrent stillbirths, medical interference may prove helpful by preventing them in future. Analyzing the etiology of sporadic stillbirths might lead to reassurance and avoid irrelevant diagnostic tests in future pregnancies. The single most useful diagnostic test is a fetal autopsy (Peterson et al., 1999). Not only does the visible genetic and structural abnormalities but also an autopsy would be of great help in relating specific etiologies to stillbirth.

The frequency of fetal autopsy is very less due to the fact that it is costly, not many trained pathologists are available and also it may be of great discomfort to the family and clinicians to deal with such a case. If autopsy is refused, partial autopsy or postmortem magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans may provide the necessary data. Embryonic membranes, placenta and umbilical cord must be physically and histologically examined while evaluating stillbirth etiology.

This would give a precise cause of fetal death and might also provide clues for death due to secondary causes like infections, thrombophilia, and anemia. In most cases, families do not object on placental evaluation. In the cases where autopsy is not performed karyotyping the fetus would prove helpful. Cells and tissues from placenta (especially chorionic plate), fascia lata, skin from the nape of the neck, and tendons can be isolated and cultured and used for diagnostic tests like karyotyping.

Comparative genomic hybridization shows tremendous promise for the identification of chromosomal abnormalities in stillbirths wherein fetal cells cannot be successfully cultured (Silver et al., 2006). An autopsy followed by a careful histological examination might help in relating stillbirths that result due to infections from the bacteria or virus. Parvovirus serology may be useful because this virus has been implicated in a meaningful proportion of cases (Erik et al., 2002).

Diagnostic tests are performed for the detection of syphilis also since it contributes to the list of accepted causes of stillbirth. For various viral and protozoal agents like toxoplasmosis, rubella, cytomegalovirus (CMV) and herpes simplex virus (HSV) {TORCH}, serological screening is carried out. For bacterial and viral infections in the fetus, nucleic acid based tests are more helpful when compared to tissue cultures. Feto-maternal hemorrhage can be detected using Kleihauer – Betke test (KBT). Most laboratories use manual KBT which is prone to error. It has been found that flow cytometry is a better tool in detecting fetal erythrocytes in maternal blood. In order to eliminate red cell alloimmunization as an etiology of stillbirth, an indirect Coomb’s test is performed.

Autopsy and examination of placenta are helpful in this situation. During the initial prenatal visits, if the antibody screen comes out to be negative then there is a need for recurrent testing. Diagnostic tests for conditions like diabetes and heritable thrombophilias must be carried out on a regular basis to prevent any complications which may lead to stillbirth. The treatment of such conditions at the appropriate time may prevent similar complications in subsequent pregnancies. Heritable thrombophilia might be of concern in the cases where there is recurrent fetal loss or there is a history of thrombosis or with complications involving placental insufficiency like placental infarction and intrauterine growth restriction.

Administration of illicit drugs through various modes may be a cause of stillbirth in many cases. Toxicological examination may reveal the results for women who are subjected to such exposures. A simple urinary examination may prove helpful. The advanced and cost effective technology like ELISA (Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay) can be used to detect a variety of metabolites like steroids in various tissues like blood, hair, and homogenized umbilical cord.

Conclusion:

Many medical and nonmedical agents govern the best approach to evaluate a stillbirth. The obstacles faced by obstetricians in solving these issues include the fact that in most of the cases the reason behind fetal death is unknown. Also the magnitude of stillbirths resulting from a single cause is not known precisely. Here there arises a need for population based studies to attribute stillbirths to their specific etiologies. There is a clear cut need of experts in the field of perinatal pathology and the required funding should be provided at the national level to promote it.

Moreover, the clinician should be aware of the history of pregnant women in better evaluation. In cases where the local clinicians cannot reach a conclusion, the tissue samples must be sent to senior pathologists who have a thorough command on the subject and can help in reaching decisive conclusions. A universally accepted protocol is required for a systematic evaluation of stillbirths. Due to its absence a difference of opinion occurs among the obstetricians and gynecologists. The institutions like Stillbirth Collaborative Research Network should formulate guidelines for the proper judgement of stillbirth etiologies.

The responsibility lies in the hands of the clinicians to do the best they can to reach a definite conclusion from the available data. It is noteworthy that the proportion of stillbirths that are “explained” is much higher in centers using systematic evaluations for recognized causes and potential causes of stillbirth (Petersson, 2002) (Horn et al., 2004). In conclusion, autopsy, placental evaluation, karyotype, Kleihauer-Betke, antibody screen, and serologic test for syphilis are useful in evaluating the etiologies of stillbirth. Depending on the case, other relative tests should be performed. The approach towards the testing of potential causes of stillbirth is not clear if it should be very specific and sequential or should it be comprehensive which means that it is targeted towards a broad spectrum of causes.

Each of these has its own advantage. Sequential testing avoids false positive results and is directed to a specific cause and more over, it is cost effective. Comprehensive testing may prove helpful in cases where more than one factor is responsible for stillbirth. The problem with autopsy, placental evaluation, karyotype, screen for fetal-maternal hemorrhage, and toxicology screen is that they are dependant on time, that is, these tests should be performed immediately after the delivery. Autopsy cannot be delayed because death of the fetus already occurred and this would lead to physiological changes in the whole body and decay begins. The necessary evidence for stillbirth is easily available from fresh samples of placenta and also for toxicology screen.

As the time since death increases, the physiology of fetus also changes leading to false positive or false negative results. If the time of fetal examination is delayed, fetal hemorrhage may be mistaken for postmortem lividity. Therefore a serious call for action is expected from institutions like Stillbirth Collaborative Research Network (SCRN) which would help in creating the most applicable diagnostic setting for evaluation of stillbirth (Silver et al., 2006). SCRN was developed by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development to target the range of etiologies of stillbirth in the U.S. The aim of SCRN is to focus on the following objectives. The use of standardized surveillance in a geographic catchment area will show that the stillbirth rates are greater than those reported in the vital statistics catchment.

The use of a prospectively implemented, standardized, postmortem, and placental examination protocols will improve diagnosis of fetal or placental conditions that cause or contribute to stillbirth. Maternal biologic and environmental risk factors in combination with genetic predisposition increase the risk for stillbirth. This is a population based study which is carried out in different counties of different states in the U.S. This study would take into account all the stillbirths and live births occurring in rural as well as urban areas in different racial groups. Even though occurrence of stillbirths cannot be stopped completely, yet attempts of such sort can be made atleast to prevent them to a maximum extent.

Glossary

  • Abruptio placenta totalis – A placental abruption is a serious condition in which the placenta partially or completely separates from the uterus before the baby is born.
  • Achondrogenesis – Dwarfism characterized by various bone aplasias and hypoplasias of the extremities and a short trunk with delayed ossification of the lower spine.
  • Alloimmunization – Development of antibodies in response to alloantigens; antigens derived from a genetically dissimilar animal of the same species.
  • Angiogenesis – The formation of new blood vessels.
  • Anomaly – abnormality
  • Autosome – a chromosome other than the X and Y sex-determining chromosomes.
  • Camptomelia – bending of the limbs that produce a permanent curving or bowing.
  • Cholestasis – a condition caused by rapidly developing or long-term interruption in the excretion of bile (a digestive fluid that helps the body process fat).
  • Chondrodysplasia – Congenital dwarfism similar to but milder than achondroplasia, not familial and not evident until mid-childhood, in which the skull and facial features remain normal.
  • Chorioamnionitis – Inflammation of the fetal membranes.
  • Dystocia – Difficult delivery or parturition.
  • Impact of Child Protection Regulation on Practices

    Introduction:

    Supporting children means working for the development of the care systems, development of the education of the of the children around the world. Saving children from the disability problems and making an environment of nondiscrimination of gender and other aspects. Through giving supports to the children for expressing their opinions and views freely we can support the children. There are several legislative policies and procedures issued for the betterment of the children but the successful imposition and make those policies and procedures come in to force is much important than only issuing those policies and procedures. When you are going to make those legislative issues come into force you have to take it into mind that how those should be implemented and how successfully they works for the betterment of the children.

    1. Describe the main legislation which relate to working with children.

    Some main legislation that relate to working with children are as follows:

    United Nation Convention on the Rights of a Child-1989

    The United Nations Convention based on the Rights of a Child that was signed by the UK in the year 1991. This convention sets out the principles for a legal framework to justify all the aspects for the care system, development and education of all the children around the world. The articles made on that convention cover: disability, nondiscrimination of gender, nondiscrimination on the grounds of religion, language, social or ethnic origin; economic, social care, cultural and all other protective rights related to children.

    Protection of the Children Act 1999

    The Protection of the Children Act 1999 had come into force in October 2000 and this act gives the Secretary of any State the power to keep a list of people who are not suitable to work with children and vulnerable young people. All authorized childcare organizations have a statutory duty to refer particular individuals for the inclusion in the list they have to keep.

    Special Educational Needs and Disability Act 2001

    An amendment to the DDA act 1995 is the Special Educational Needs and Disability Act 2001, that amendment extends the requirement for making some reasonable adjustments for the people who are disabled to include schools, colleges and other education providers as well.

    Every Child Matters: Change for Children act 2003

    In the year 2003, the Government had published a green paper called ‘Every Child Matters’. This paper was published including a wide consultation with the people who are working in children’s services and with their parents, children and young vulnerable people as well people. Following that consultation, the Government also published ‘Every Child Matters’: the Next Steps, and passed the Children Act 2004 later on.

    Children Act 2004

    Children Act 2004 is an update of the Children Act 1989 but it does not supersede the Children Act 1989. Children Act 2004 provides a legislative base for a wider strategy that will improve the children’s living standard. This also covers those universal services which every child must accesses, and provides more targeted services for those people with additional needs.

    This updated Children Act 2004 also placed a new duty on the local government to promote the educational achievement for looking after the children.

    The other legislations that relates with the working children are as follows:

    • Working Together to Safeguard Children 2006, updated 2010
    • Safeguarding Vulnerable Groups Act 2006
    • Childcare Act 2006
    • Equalities Act 2010
    1. Discuss the ways that different pieces of legislation determine and influences the working practices.

    There we got several legislations on the working practices with children around the world. There are some ways that different pieces of legislation determine and influences the working practices.

    Safeguarding the children: Different legislations on working with children underpins the laws to safeguard the children from being exploited. Those legislations make the local authorities compel to take care about the children in their area.

    Understanding of rights: A better understanding of rights and power relationships has been established by different legislative programs for many years. Those act and laws that are established by the governing body of any country helps to determine the rights the vulnerable children must acquire.

    Anti-oppressive and anti-discriminatory practice: Different pieces of legislation determine and influence the working practices with children in the way that helps children being oppressed and discriminated. Anti-oppressive and anti-discriminatory practices are established and came into force by the grace of those different pieces of legislation.

    Working with diversity: Working with diversity is not just about gender, sexual orientation or race. In our communities there we see many factors that make each of the individual responsible for the roles they must have to play; the role of values, culture, attitudes and social power are all important in the field of working with children. Different pieces of legislation are able to determine accomplish those roles.

    2.1 Describe how policies and practices can reflect fair, just and inclusive strategies.

    Children and young people need to know what to expect when they are with us. This means you need to be fair and consistent in your behavior to the children. To be fair and consistent in behavior to the children you need to follow some strategies which can be established by you or any expertise in practice. The policies and practices described in the laws and acts regarding working with the children can reflect fair, just and inclusive strategies need to be precisely established for working with the children. Policies and practices require the services providers to make reasonable and accurate adjustments so that disabled children can access their services to the best level. Policies and practices gave the authorities a duty to promote and reinforce equality for disabled and vulnerable children. Policies and practices can reflect fair, just and inclusive strategies because it make compel all regulated and authorities childcare organizations have a statutory duty to appoint individuals for the inclusion in the list and must not appoint individuals and volunteers, in posts that policies bring them into contact for working with the children, whose names are included in the list they made. The policies of Children Act 2004 aims is to encourage integrated planning regarding the children, commissioning and delivery of the services as well as improve the multi-disciplinary working systems, remove duplication of the policies, increase accountability of the service workers and improve the coordination of individuals working within the same grounds and joint inspections in the local authorities.

    3.1 Describe some ways that settings may use to ensure that practitioner can access policies.

    Practitioners can access policies regarding working with children. The practitioner must need to know some information that may help them to access policies. They must acquire knowledge about

    • How to deal with those children who often face stereotyping and prejudice problem for a wide variety of reasons.
    • How to treat children who need to have valued their cultures and customs and understand the importance of culture to children.
    • How to introduce culture and customs to the children for their everyday learning.
    • Parents and careers who often don’t want to highlight issues of discrimination that happens to them.
    • Children who often suffer issues of discrimination in silence and never make claims to get out of those discriminations.
    • About the prejudice incidents they don’t hear/see, that does not mean that they are not happening to the children.
    • About the parent’s abuse and prejudice language incident is not acceptable.
    • About the new arrivals to the setting or this country often suffer from culture shock.

    Stereotyping on any grounds is not acceptable particularly regarding to work with the children. Acquiring knowledge about all the cultures and customs need to be embraced. The practitioner need to know how children experience the world differently depends on their background. Knowing about their religion, belief and dress can also help the practitioner to get access to the policies regarding the working with children. If practitioner needs to get access to the policies they to know how to support the literacy and language needs of parents and careers, how to respect all families and the children of those families, how to support staff to build up a working knowledge of diverse communities for the betterment of the children.

    Going through those tasks a practitioner who is going to work to with the children can get access to the policies relating to the children’s safeguard and development.

    3.2 Apply knowledge of a wide range of procedures for safeguarding children to show understanding of the appropriate ways to follow these procedures.

    Determining the needed procedures for safeguarding children is just the first step for working with the children. Here we applied knowledge of a wide range of procedures for safeguarding children to show understanding of the appropriate ways to follow these procedures.

    1. Communication to staff, parents and children. The career must consider different communication needs and methods. They need to tell everyone why procedures are needed for working with the children and answer any questions they may have.
    2. Training and awareness for all the service providers at the initial stage and then they have to update their staff’s knowledge on a continuous basis. Specific training for those with lead or named responsibility for child safeguarding.
    3. Induction new workers need to know safeguarding procedures and their responsibilities included in their induction system before they start to have contact with the children.
    4. Monitoring and supervision of the application used in the procedures. Workers also need to be asked about safeguarding issues and awareness when discussing their progress and review of their work regarding children’s development.
    5. Recording and information sharing are those procedures that will examine is everything accurate and within the guidelines of your established procedures? Do service providers need any support or additional training programs to be arranged in recording and sharing information with each other and other agencies?
    6. Recruitment and vetting states; do all the recruitment processes take safeguarding of the children into account?
    7. Managing allegations or prejudice incidents within your organization; after an allegation or suspicion about a child safeguarding concern has been investigated thoroughly, there could be strong feelings from the service providers, parents and children and possibly within the wider society, which will need to be addressed first. There could be some other issues around the workplace: communication rumor or fact guilt or blame; if suspicions have been around for a long time impact on children, of the nature of what have occurred and to whom there have gaps in the organization in terms of roles and posts held. There should be some plan opportunities for sharing information, support and debriefing about the children. Your communication strategy should include responding to possible media enquiries relating to the children.

    4.1 Evaluate one theoretical perspective which underpins the development of strategies for empowering children.

    Here we have evaluate one theoretical perspective named ‘Contemporary Childhood Theory – Beyond the Boxes’

    This paper we made here has been drawn from recent a ‘Childhood Theory’ as set out by Alan Prout (2005). Alan argues that childhood period is heterogeneous and complex in nature. He also suggests that the time has come for the new social studies of working with the children to move beyond the promoting of the notion that the child is an agent to recognizing that different paradigms each have something to offer the analysis the behavior of the children. He urges us on his paper not to produce any normalized description but to ‘keep the question of what children is open’. He suggests the impact of technology on children is widely exaggerated and that we need to move away from false dichotomies in our analysis of childhood of the children

    Specifically he challenges in his theoretical perspective the nature and culture divide drawing from a number of authors to argue we cannot separate out technology/science from culture in which children lives. He suggests that the future of children is dependent on writers coming to terms with that notion ‘nature & culture’. Pout also states, ‘Thus I want to argue that only by understanding the way in which childhood of children is constructed by the heterogeneous elements of nature and culture, which in any case cannot be easily separated, will it be possible to take the field forward’.. He further traces the emergence of Childhood Studies in the 19th and 20th century concluding that this period is characterized by writing that promotes false divisions between the social and biological and that these must be overcome if childhood studies of children is to continue to advance as a discipline. It is argued that the variables in the social life are in constant interplay and that small variables at a point in time can change the history of a system. The central of this discussion is the belief that different systems with similar starting points can end up radically different. Indeed, Prouts has promoted of the concept of bifurcation – the idea that some changes are non-reversible gives much hope for the application of Childhood theory of the children of practical settings.

    Prout also makes a aware and courageous decision to moves away from his contemporaries in the children’s Childhood Studies who still reify the social.

    This discuss of theoretical perspective underpins the development strategies for empowering children.

    4.2 Assess the effectiveness of the strategies which empower children to develop self-confidence and self-reliance.

    Following a daily routine is a strategy which has most preferences in use to empower children. The daily routine for children provides with a consistent and predictable sequence of daily events that gives all the children a sense of control over what happens in their day to day life. Different types of settings develop different routines depend how long children do stay in the premises and their age limit, but most of the daily routines contain basic components such as: a) outside routine, b) large group time, c)small group time, d) register time, e) art/craft time, f) tidy up time and g) snack/meal time. During following the daily routine the children learns to make their choices and discovers their consequences. This system creates sort of secure environment for the children, because children know what to expect and this appropriate allows them to be more involve in the tasks and more co-operative with the practitioner in charge.

    The second strategy for empowering children is planning and providing different activities and experiences for children. This strategy is suggested by the EYFS because this strategy allows for adventure, exploration and gaining new experiences through different activities. Different activities, which provide developed range of skills and abilities to the children. Taking part in different activities allows children learn social interactions and behaviors’ such as sharing equipment, taking turns

    5.1 Explain the key issues which relate to the practice which support children to prepare for transfer and transitions.

    When preparing children for transfer and transitions some key issues will need to be addressed to support them. Information through research indicates that there are some specific essential components for supporting successful transfer and transitions in children, including the following:

    1. Ensuring basic needs are met properly.

    2. Maintaining and encouraging positive relationships.

    3. Providing basic support and resources to children in their new environment and modify or adapting daily routines, as appropriate.

    4. Providing choices and involving the children in the transfer and transition process to promote and support self-advocacy.

    5. Supporting the need for increased independence and helping children create their own identity.

    6. Ensuring that all transfer and transition plans are well coordinated and integrated and information is shared with parents and across sectors.

    Supporting the child through the transfer and transition can be vital for their successfulness, if the correct support is put in the correct place the children will be more comfortable with the changes that are happening in their life.

    6.1 Discuss the causes and effects on children of discrimination in society in ways that show a clear understanding of the nature of discrimination.

    If the children are in contact with discrimination they often want help of participating others, that time they become less confident around others and also isolate themselves to reduce the risk of being upset or hurt by others.

    Causes are:

    Social separation; if someone seems socially not confident then they may not seclude themselves from social situations; this can be happened to the children also.

    People’s opinions; we know that everyone has their own views and opinions on different things happened around them; however in practical life you should be able to share everyone’s opinions and provide equal opportunities for everyone as well.

    Differences; if someone can point out differences in a person then other people, especially children, they can pick up on this leading to the discrimination they face .

    Religions; do you a setting educate and celebrate different religions? Celebrating different events exist in various religions to educate everyone on the difference of the world.

    Effects are:

    Becomes isolated; this is lonely and cheerless for the children that it’s effecting them, their self-confidence will be lower than the normal stage, therefore they also separate themselves from others to avoid contact which may make them upset which can stump their social development as well.

    Opinions can be relayed onto others; if someone talks about their own opinion enough then other people can start to agree with them, or may be pressured into thinking the same as, this can mean more severe discrimination will be caused against children because of their new views.

    Conclusion:

    In confine we can state it that supporting children is a task that has to carry out very carefully. To support the vulnerable children first off all you have to go through all the legislative issues relating to supporting children around the world. Those legislations work in different ways in the practice. Those legislation must be drawn out and implemented in a way that they can give fair, just and inclusive view to the strategies the practitioner follows to guide the children under him/her. The practitioner who works with the children must have the ability to understand the policies related to the supporting the children.

    Identifying Risk of Harm to Child

    Child Protection Scenario

    What indicators of risk of harm can you identify in the scenario?

    • Georgia appears rather agitated when her brother comes to pick her up
    • Georgia pulls away when her eldest brother Peter goes to pick her up
    • Staff members are noticing that Georgia is seeming withdrawn from activities lately
    • Staff members have noticed that for the past two weeks Georgia has been regressing in toilet training has been wetting her bed every day
    • When having a conversation with Georgia she tells you how she doesn’t like when Peter comes into her room at night when she’s asleep

    What would you say to Georgia in response to the above conversations?

    What action would you take based on the scenario?

    Talk to your director about what you have observed and conversations you have had with Georgia. Keep written documentation on everything you have observed kept in a locked cupboard in the child’s file. Access the Mandatory Reporters Guide and answer the questions and from there it will direct you on what to do next. Always follow the correct steps and remember that best interest of the child is paramount. Protecting a child’s wellbeing is a shared issue between a number of different organisations and individuals. (Council of Australian Governments, 2010)

    What are the key points to remember in responding to a child’s disclosure (verbal and non-verbal)?

    When responding to a child’s disclosure keep your facial expressions calm and don’t act shocked. Always listen very closely, getting down to eye level and thank the child for confiding with you. Let the child know that she/he isn’t the first person this has happened to and always talk age appropriately. (Child Wise, 2012). Never ask direct questions and wait for the child to come to you first. Ensure that you don’t pass any of your own personal judgement onto the child and respond in ways that make her feel safe and that you genuinely care about her. (Briggs and Buttrose, n.d, pp. 238-239)

    According to the policy, outline the steps you would take in response to the situation;

    The Make Believe Pre-School has a duty of care and obligation to defend the child’s rights to care and protection. The Pre-School must abide by all relevant Child Protection Legislation and must have procedures in place to ensure this and by promoting child protection awareness in the community through support of parents. There are various legislative requirements that the Make Believe Pre-School management committee can use to help them to develop a framework for the protection of children and also to ensure that staff know what needs to be done in relation to child protection. Their Child Protection Policy clearly states that;

    • All staff have the responsibility to report to Department of Community Services (DoCS) for suspected Risk of Significant Harm (RoSH).
    • Observe and document all signs of RoSH and keep in a locked file in the childs folder
    • Report to the authorised supervisor
    • Refer to the MRG to determine what process to follow
    • Ensure children know that they never deserve to be harmed or abused

    What record keeping and documentation would be necessary in this situation?

    Take extreme care that all documentation for a child at risk of significant harm is kept confidential and in a locked file under the child’s name. Observe the child closely and document any further conversations always including a clear description, date and time. Any personal opinions or judgement should not be included in documentation. (Farrell and Sheringham, n.d, p. 186). If you have any telephone conversations with outside agencies be sure conversation is on speakerphone with another person present. Consult with your director on a regular basis on the situation of the child and print off any MRG decisions and keep in a confidential folder.

    Identify the potential ethical concerns. How might you respond to this concern? Who would you seek support from?

    There is clearly a cultural and family issue in this scenario. There is also a language barrier as an interpreter is needed for the mother. This has the potential for information to be misunderstood and the correct information not to be communicated successfully. The Early Years Learning Framework (EYLF) encourages diversity and respecting cultures. Georgia belongs to two different cultures, Australian and Chinese and as educators we need to respect the diversity of the child. (DEEWR, 2009, p. 13) We also need to understand the long term concerns for the child and the family, if it is found that Georgia is being abused. The (Early Childhood Australia, 2006) Code of Ethics encourages us to learn as much as we can about the culture, customs, lifestyle and language of our children. The school should express its concerns to the Department of Education’s Children’s Wellbeing Unit or a Family Referral Service (Farrell and Sheringham, n.d, p. 191). We should seek support from the local church which the family attend, other family members, other people in the community who know the family well and a Chinese language interpreter. We must ensure that all information regarding the child remains confidential and any information passed on is on a ‘need to know’ basis.

    What strategies would you put in place to protect the rights of the child and maintain your professional relationship and duty of care with Georgia and her family?

    As the (Australian Children’s Education and Care Quality Authority, 2012), expresses in Standard 2.3, Element 2.3.4, that “every educator, co-ordinator, family dare care educator assistant and staff member has legal and ethical obligation to act and protect any child who is at risk of abuse or neglect.” Australia is a part of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child and as signatories to this, we recognize that every child has the right to protection and never to be hurt by others, also to always have the best interests of the child first (The United Nations, 1989). To maintain a professional relationship and duty of care to Georgia we need to remember to never be judgemental and that Georgia knows she is respected and trusted in the Pre-School. The privacy of Georgia and her family is essential in any discussions regarding Georgia’s safety and wellbeing. If the child is deemed to be RoSH the family may not be informed of the process as it could cause risk to the child and it’s their interest which are a priority. As Georgia’s family has a. high status in the community there is potential for disbelief of the proposed sexual abuse. (Briggs and Buttrose, n.d, pp. 238-239). Staff are not allowed to become overly involved or emotional in this situation, follow the correct process, act when you need to and always keep information clearly documented.

    References

    Briggs, F. and Buttrose, I. (n.d). Child Protection: The Essential Guide for Teachers & Other Professionals Whose Work Involves Children. Australia: JoJo Publishing.

    Child Wise (2012). Wise up to sexual abuse. Available at: http://childwise.blob.core.windows.net/assets/uploads/files/Online%20Publication/W iseUp_to_Sexual_Abuse_Booklet.pdf (Accessed: 26 March 2015)

    Council of Australian Governments (2010). Protecting children is Everyone’s Business. Available at : http://www.dss.gov.au/site/default/files/documents/pac_annual_rpt_0.pdf (Accessed: 30 March 2015)

    Department of Education, Employment and Workplace relations (DEEWR) (2009). Belonging, Being & Becoming: The Early Years Learning Framework for Australia. Canberra: DEEWR

    Early Childhood Australia (2006). Code of Ethics. Available at http://www.earlychildhoodaustralia.org.au/wp-content/uploads/2014/07/code_of_ethics_-brochure_screenweb_2010.pdf (Accessed: 28 March 2015)

    Farrell, M. and Sheringham, M. (n.d). Protecting Children and Young People: Identify and Respond to Children and Young People at Risk. Australia: TAFE NSW Divisions Resource Distribution Centre.

    Australian Children’s Education and Care Quality Authority (ACECQA) (2012). Guide to the National Quality Standard. Sydney, N.S.W.

    The United Nations (1989). Convention on the Rights of the Child. Available at: http://www.ohchr.org/en/professionalinterest/pages/crc.aspx (Accessed: 28 March 2015)

    M Lyons1 of 5

    Developing Positive Relationships for Child Wellbeing

    Recognise how positive relationships promote children’s well-being.

    Developing and maintaining positive relationships with parents and other professionals is imperative as children pick up on behaviours they have observed around them because are very impressionable and pick up on their surroundings. By professionals working together they can provide the best quality of service to children. Practitioners should build up a mutual trust and respect with all parties within an early year setting.

    Children observe the people around them behaving in various ways. This is in Individuals that are observed are called models. In society children are surrounded by many influential models, such as parents within the family, characters on children’s TV, friends within their peer group and teachers at school. These models provide examples of masculine and feminine behaviour to observe and imitate. (http://osclinks.com/624).

    There are many different relationships that need to be built within the early years setting.

    Children’s friendship- It’s important that children are encouraged to build friendships within an early years sitting this will allow them to feel more comfortable and enjoy learning and developing as individuals. Children are more confident when surrounded by other pupils as they are able to relate to them and build up a support system within their group of friends, this will help them develop into well rounded individuals and provide them vital skills for socialising which will help them later in life.

    Key worker relationship- Children should have a close relationship with their practitioners so they feel at ease knowing that they have someone they can trust and turn to, if a child feels comfortable with their key worker they will be able to go to them with any hardship they may feel, for example if a child is upset about anything within the setting they should be able to go to their key worker.

    Partnership with parents- The relationship between practitioners and parents is essential, communication is key between both parties and they will need to work closely in order to achieve the best possible outcome for all children. By practitioners and parents having a good relationship this makes it easier for the parents and children in being honest with each other. Parents will not feel at ease leaving their children unless they are completely satisfied and feel that the staff that their children are left with are honest and reliable. Vital information can be passed between parents and practitioners if there is a strong relationship and this will help with the development of the child should there be anything of concern that needs more attention, such as a child’s aversion to a certain toy due to fear.

    Colleague relationship- All the staff members within an early years setting need to have a good relationship in order to communicate and pass around information that is needed. For example when a key worker is not in for their shift, they will need to ensure that another staff member will need to be informed about the children’s needs that is in their care. All practitioners will need to trust each other in order to have an effective environment to work in.

    Multi-agency and integrated working- It’s essential that everyone working with the children and their families communicates well and understands their roles and responsibilities. A multi-agency is when professionals from different settings work together. A multi-agency approach is beneficial as professionals can share their information about the family’s needs with each other. It is fundamental that all professionals treat each other, parents and children with respect, make them feel welcomed and also comfort them if they are going through difficulties. A multi-agency is there to help parents and families through difficulties.

    An early years setting should cater for every parents needs as well as the children’s, for example if a parent has hearing impairments and can only communicate through sign language, it would be important to locate a key worker to their child who can use sign language if not have another member of staff that is able to sign. Also there may be parents to whom English will be their second language so to have someone interoperate will be necessary, this should be done both through verbal and written communication.

    Analyse the importance of the key worker system for children.

    A key person has the responsibility for working with a small number of children, giving them the reassurance to feel safe and cared for with the absence of their parents. At such an early age children are dependent on their parents, it is vital that the key worker develops a close relationship with their key children because they will be the first point of contact for the child and the family.

    Starting an early years setting can prove to be distressing for children, they are introduced to a new environment and new people this can be a lot to take in for children. Furthermore being left in the setting without their parents/guardians can result in the child experiencing separation anxiety, which can leave them feeling anxious, Erik Erikson, devised a theory of psychos social development. The first stage of his theory relates to children in their first years of life. Erikson believed that the quality of the care children in this age group receive depends on how well they develop trust in their carer. (Early Years Level 3-V1.0 page 32). In order for the practitioner to build trust with the child they will need to find out the child’s interest and know how to engage with them, make them feel comfortable, If a child is having difficulties settling in, they key worker should work alongside the child’s parents and have them in the classroom while the child can familiarise themselves with the setting and develop a bond with their key worker.

    If a child feels at ease with their key worker, it’ll help them become independent. Children’s independence is most obvious when they’re comfortable with their surroundings, such as when they are in their own home with family, or with friends and family and familiar carers such as a key person. (Practice Guidance for the Early Years Foundation stage) When the practitioner is first introduced to their key child they will usually lead the ‘settling in session’. This is the period where the parents get introduced to the key worker, this will give them a chance to discuss their child and any important information. This can vary from what the child can and cannot have to due to religious or health reasons, any medical problems and what procedures may need to be carried out, if the parents of the child are not in a relationship the key worker will need to be informed of the routine on who will collect the child on what day and who to contact in case of emergency.

    Some children may not respond well to settling in, many different circumstances can result in a child being distressed during this period. This is where the practitioner will have the duty to comfort them and make them feel at ease ‘Family linked in the literature to unemployment, divorce, financial difficulties and other stressors in family life, any and all of which can interfere with sensitive and consistent parenting’. (Child Development-Theory and Practice 0-11 Jonathan Doherty and Malcolm Hughes).

    Explain the benefit of building positive partnership with parents for children’s learning and development.

    One the most important relationship within an early years setting is the relationship between the practitioner and the parents, it is essential that they work together to achieve the best possible outcome for the child. Practitioners should regularly be communicating with the parents of their key child, this can be done in many different ways such as Open days, Parents evening, workshops and activities that involve the parents. It is imperative that every parent attend at open day, this will allow the parents to explore the environment their child will be in, get familiar with the staff in the setting, especially the key worker for their child. This will also allow the practitioner to familiarise themselves with the parent or carer of the child. All families are different some children may live with both or one of their parents, some may live with a foster parent or a carer or relatives and some with the same sex parents. This will give the practitioner an insight of the child’s background as well.

    Practitioners should consistently be communicating with the parents of their key children to ensure an effective way of working. For example if the child is struggling on a certain aspect of their activities in the classroom, the practitioner should discuss this with the parents and advise them on how to motivate and guide the child at home. Both the practitioner and the parent should concentrate specifically on bettering the skills of the child when approaching the activity that they may lack confidence in. Parents and practitioners can interlink to achieve a more productive and enthusiastic attitude from the child.

    A practitioner should welcome parents and inform them about all the activity is going to take place. If there any leaflets the practitioner has to give them to parents so that the parents are then aware of what is going on in the nursery. It is also very important that the practitioner and parents work as a team and provide a quality service for children for example if the teacher is planning out an activity for the children they can involve the parent in with the activity, as the parents have a better understanding of their children. They can work together and combine their knowledge in order to receive the best possible outcome for the children. It also paramount that practitioners respects all parents decisions on how they want to raise their child, practitioners should have a relationship where they can be open and honest with the parents but need to understand that the parents have the final say even though practitioners may not agree.

    Describe how to develop positive relationships within the early years settings, making reference to principles of effective communication.

    A multi-agency approach is beneficial as professionals can share their information about the family’s needs with each other. It is fundamental that all professionals treat each other, parents and children with respect, make them feel welcomed and also comfort them if they are going through difficulties. A multi-agency is there to help parents and families through difficulties. Professionals must respect parent’s spiritual beliefs, religion and accept them for who they are. Also ensuring there are no judgemental comments specified. A multi-agency is obliged to keep all information confidential and must remain between the professionals and parents and must not be discussed to an outsider. It is also important for practitioners to work together with the multi-agency team so they can identify the child’s needs through common assessments and then work together and take action on what services need to be provided to meet the child’s identified learning needs and in some cases some of the children’s needs cannot be met then they will have to decide what action needs to taken from there and then set a review date.

    In an early years setting it should be the staff’s main priority to have a good relationship with other settings such as doctor surgeries, social services, health visitors. Forming a relationship with external settings will allow the practitioners to communicate in any issues to achieve the best possible result, for an example, if a practitioner becomes aware of bruising on a child consistently and the parent is not responding to the practitioner’s concerns then they should consider contacting social services.

    As professionals it is required skill to understand and communicate with another member and share information for example if another organisation is offering some information then as a professional you are allowed to share it with individual, families, carers, groups and communities, it is a professionals job to make the parents feel comfortable with leaving their child in a child’s centre. Confidentiality is essential within the multi-agency team because the professionals have to keep the parents word confidential and make sure that they do not break the confidentiality policy. The EY requires that, ’confidential information and records about staff and children must be held securely and only accessible and available to those who have a right or professional need to see them’ By remaining professional and having good communication with everyone that has a part in the child’s life or development is essential. Confidentiality policy has to be maintained by all care setting practitioners. If parents are to be spoken to about their child’s progress or needs, then this must take place in a separate room to maintain confidentiality. Personal information about the children should not be left in an area where others can have access to it. However if information is to be breached the practitioner must ask the parents if they can pass this information on. A practitioner should always strive for high standards of care by following policies and procedures. The EYFS states the positive relationships and parents as partners. The practitioner should respect and achieve the best of their ability to provide a safe and welcoming environment.

    Risks and Benefits of Children Using the Internet

    INTRODUCTION

    Technology tools such as radio, television, telephones, computers, and the Internet can provide access to knowledge in sectors such as entertainment, education and human rights, offering a new realm of choices that enable the person to improve their knowledge for future needs. The curiosity of the Internet makes children and young people to try to know or learn as much as possible about new things to be more advanced than adults in using the Internet. Optimists view the emergence of the Internet as a chance for democratic and community-based participation, for creativity, self-expression and play, and to enhance the expansion of knowledge, whereas pessimists lament the end of childhood, innocence, traditional values and authority (Livingstone, 2002)

    Children are being described as the “ICT generation” or the computer generation in information and communication with this technology. Now, many children know more than or as much as their parents or teachers know about these technologies. This scenario shows that internet can be one of the tools to develop the children knowledge in this new urban life.

    When a child has a project or homework to do, the internet is a portal to extensive amounts of information, a superb resource for children nowadays. There are many useful sources to be found, such as libraries, bookstores, news room and even virtual school. While the Internet is an amazing resource, parents have reasonable concerns about how they can secure a wholly beneficial Internet experience for the children.

    There are few risks for children who use online services such as internet. Children are particularly at risk because they often use the computer unsupervised and because they are more likely than young people to participate in online discussions regarding companionship, relationships, or social activities. In another survey, it was disclosed that 9 out of 10 children and teenagers between 8-16 years old had seen pornographic websites accidentally while searching for information for their school home-works (Utusan Malaysia, 2005)

    Maximizing the benefit of the internet for children may require more than just controlling what they have access to but to monitor how much time their child spends online, whom the child come in contact with online, and what is viewed. In a newspaper column, a journalist relates the flow of harmful information in the Internet with escalating numbers of murder and rape by young juveniles in the year 2003 in Malaysia (Abdul Malek, 2004).

    Some solution can be implemented to balance the abundant educational value with the need for security and protection. Something entirely new is the idea of a web browser with filtering because children are anxious to explore cyberspace, so parents need to supervise their children and give them guidance about using the Internet. Filters can give parents and guardians a false sense of security to believe that children are protected when they are not around. However, did the use of this web filters provide more benefits in the development of knowledge or it just constrain for children learning process through internet.

    For these such of reasons, the aim of this study is to examine the kind of monitor the children that participate in the activities by using web filter software and to know how the use give a significant or effect to development of children knowledge in learning process through internet. The underlying of these reasons also, there are several questions that need to be resolved in order to answer some questions that may arise in this paper:

    1. Can be internet be beneficial to development of children knowledge?
    2. Can we allowing the children to make full use of internet outweigh the risks of exposing to harmful or inappropriate content to them?
    3. How dangerous exactly is the internet for unsupervised children?
    4. Do the benefits of using web filter in controlling children activities through internet?
    5. Is it practical/ necessary to monitor the availability of internet content to children?
    6. Who should responsible for this?

    Method

    In this study also involved a survey aimed at obtaining a general view of the concern about the development of children’s knowledge through the Internet. Target respondents for this paper is in an area of housing in urban areas of the Taman Bukit Kemuning, Section 32 Shah Alam that most residents here have the internet as a tool as one way of living.

    The survey involved responses via questionnaire to be answered by the parents of 20 families who have children under the age of 6 to 17 years and have Internet service at home. This range of ages had been chose because most of children at these ages are fascinating in using internet seeking materials or information for homework while they currently still study in school. Of the total respondents, 12 of which are made up by mothers and the rest are among fathers. From the survey results will conclude a few questions and the actual scenario happens and also about topics discussed through the feedback given by them.

    Development of Children Knowledge through Internet

    The participation of children and young people in the Internet is considered a positive development towards enhancing their educational skills and knowledge. This type of skills is more than accessing an online encyclopedia and looking up a subject. It is making use of sites that are designed specifically to help them with their homework. Some online services provide specific areas to assist with homework given by teachers, including the ability to send questions or homework problems through e-mail to the experts in that subject area and receive responses within seconds.

    In Malaysia, the full support and encouragement from the Malaysian government to the use of ICT in schools can be seen from the development of Multimedia Super Corridor (MSC) and other programs related to ICT such as provide and increase the number of computer laboratories to facilitate schools in Malaysia whether in urban or rural areas(Syahirah, 2006).

    A total of 70% of respondents said they provide Internet service at home is to facilities for their children to develop their learning process. Only 25% said it was for equipment for their own work and 5% were said to provide Internet services because it is considered a mandatory tool in every home today. This shows that parents today are also aware of the importance of the Internet as a learning tool for children in exploring their knowledge to be more advance than others.

    Many of people communicate through e-mail with family and friends around the world and use the social network website and chat engine to make new friends who share common interests and children are not excluded.

    The Potential Risks of the Internet on Children

    The Internet has changed the way we communicate, learn and live by opening up our world to endless possibilities. The Internet has an amazing potential as a learning and communication tool, but it also contains hidden threats to the safety and well-being of children, including online gaming sites that can result in unhealthy addiction, cyber bullying and victimization through mobile phones that can bring about severe consequences to a child’s self-confidence and personal development, as well as exploitative marketing that may have financial consequences on the child and his parents.

    Another threat that may not be immediately obvious but is of great concern is the potential for children to be exposed to sexual harassment, exploitation and pornography through online chats and social networking sites. Children are also vulnerable as targets of fraudsters who try to gain knowledge about them to abuse, terrorize, blackmail, steal or even kidnap them.

    Besides, they also expose to inappropriate and potentially dangerous contact. The predators may use the Internet to befriend vulnerable children and teens by pretending to be another child or a trustworthy adult, or by playing on teens’ desire for romance and adventure, and then trying to persuade kids to meet them in person.

    The children are also potential risk by the cyber bullies. Most people play nice online, but some use the Internet to harass, belittle, or try to intimidate others. Attacks may range from name calling to physical threats and are rarely seen by parents.

    Furthermore, the children are also invasion of their privacy and online fraud. Children may innocently share photographs or personal information about themselves or their families on personal Web pages, when playing games, or in registration forms. Such information could put children at risk from Internet thieves or child predators.

    To counter these threats, parents and caregivers are primarily responsible for protecting their charges, by supervising their access to cyberspace, coaching children in personal safety and installing parental control software. Schools, public authorities, community groups, Internet service providers, media industries and regulatory bodies also have a responsibility to ensure that children are properly advised on the benefits and perils of cyberspace and equipped with the skills to safeguard themselves.

    Web Filter to Monitor Child Safety on Internet

    A Web filter is a program that can screen an incoming Web page to determine whether some or all of it should not be displayed to the user. The filter checks the origin or content of a Web page against a set of rules provided by company or person who has installed the Web filter. A Web filter allows an enterprise or individual user to block out pages from Web sites that are likely to include objectionable advertising, pornographic content, spyware, viruses, and other objectionable content. Vendors of Web filters claim that their products will reduce recreational Internet surfing among employees and secure networks from Web-based threats.

    Web filters have been around since the early days of the Web and they can play an important role in preventing young children from accessing inappropriate content. But they’re not a replacement for parental involvements.

    Before installing and configuring a filter, parents need to decide if their child needs to have software controlling how they can use the Internet and, if so, how the filter should be configured. Filters can be a convenient way to keep young children from stumbling onto material that might gross them out or disturb them. Young children generally seek out a limited number of sites, but it’s certainly possible for them to stumble onto inappropriate ones.

    The Responsible Party of these Issues

    Keeping children safe on the Internet is everyone’s job. Parents need to stay in close touch with their kids as they explore the Internet. Teachers need to help students use the Internet appropriately and safely. Community groups, including libraries, after-school programs, and others should help educate the public about safe surfing. Kids and teens need to learn to take responsibility for their own behavior – with guidance from their families and communities. It’s not at all uncommon for kids to know more about the Internet and computers than their parents or teachers. If that’s the case in your home or classroom, don’t despair. You can use this as an opportunity to turn the tables by having your child teach you a thing or two about the Internet. Ask her where she likes to go on the Internet and what she thinks you might enjoy on the Net. Get your child to talk with you about what’s good and not so good about his Internet experience. Also, no matter how Web-literate your kid is, you should still provide guidance. You can’t automate good parenting.

    Just as adults need to help kids stay safe, they also need to learn not to overreact when they find out a child or teenager has been exposed to inappropriate material or strayed from a rule. Whatever you do, don’t blame or punish your child if he tells you about an uncomfortable online encounter. Your best strategy is to work with him, so you both can learn from what happened and figure out how to keep it from happening again.

    The challenges posed by the Internet can be positive. Learning to make good choices on the Internet can serve young people well by helping them to think critically about the choices they will face. Today it’s the Internet; tomorrow it may be deciding whether it’s safe to get into the car of someone a teen meets at a party. Later it will be deciding whether a commercial offer really is “too good to be true” or whether it really makes sense to vote for a certain candidate or follow a spiritual guru. Learning how to make good choices is a skill that will last a lifetime.

    References:

    1. N.a. (2005) 90% sekolah layari laman lucah. Utusan Malaysia. 27th July
    2. Livingstone, S. (2002). Young People and New Media, Childhood and the changing media environment, London: SAGE Publications,p 2.
    3. Abdul Malek, Yusri. (2004). Laman Web-Rogol-Boleh pengaruhi remaja jadikan kanak-kanak mangsa seks ganas. Op cit., n. 12.
    4. Syahirah Abdul Shukor (2006). Protecting Children s Rights in the Internet: Challenges A Preliminary Study Based on the Malaysian Experience, UK: Keele University, Staffordshire.
    5. Educational Cyber Playground (1997), Internet Safety Rules For Parents learn how to keep children safe on the Internet.

    Impact of Cushioned and Ball Chair on Classroom Behaviour

    The Impact of Air Sit Cushioned and Ball Chair on Classroom Behavior of Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

    Nader Matin Sadr1, Hojjat Allah Haghgoo2, Sayyed Ali Samadi3, Mehdi Rassafiani2, Enayat Allah Bakhshi 2

    1. Ph.D Candidate of Occupational therapy

    2. PhD

    3. Ph.D University of Ulster

    Abstract

    Introduction: Educational achievements are disturbed in autistic students because of their repetitive restlessness and disruptive behaviors. Therefore the effectiveness of sitting on ball and cushion instead of simple chairs was investigated on classroom behavior of students with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD).

    Methods: Class behavior of four students was monitored in a single-subject A-B-A-C design study during four weeks. Students behavior was recorded by camera in three phases; sitting on their 1) Own chairs during A phases, 2) Air cushioned chairs in B phase and 3) Ball chairs in C phase. Sitting times and on task behavior were quantified by momentary real-time sampling every 10 seconds compared during different phases for relevant changes. Social and communication skills evaluated by GARS II and Vineland tests before and after intervention.

    Results: Findings demonstrated increases in on task behavior for four students when seated on air cushioned and increase in-seat behavior for two students with ASD when seated on therapy balls. Social validity findings indicated that the teacher preferred use of ball and air cushion chairs for some of the students in class.

    Conclusion: The results showed unique responses per student with ASD. Therapy balls/cushioned chairs for students with ASD may facilitate in-seat and on task behavior.

    Keywords: Stability ball, Sit cushion, Ball therapy, Autism, Attention, Classroom engagement.

    Introduction: Increasing number of children with autism spectrum disorder is 1 case per 110 Students is a great challenge for education system (1). Difficulty in engagement in class tasks, low attention span, and inappropriate behaviors are common in these students, which interfere with student’s ability to participate in the educational mainstream (2).

    One reason that children with ASD have limited success in educational improvement with some intervention strategies is that these strategies do not address the sensory issues that may underlie the disruptive behavior (Ayres, 1972; Dunn, 2000). In an extensive research on 200 children with autism, %95 had difficulties in sensory modulation. Physiological need for proper sensory stimulation leads to spending most of student time on stereotype and repetitive movements to adjust their sensory system. Therefore, their attention would not be concentrated on learning and assignments in class. Greenspan and Wieder argued that the decrease in sensory processing may resulted in social isolation and inattention to class tasks (2).Viola and Noddings stated that children with low sensory sensibility require additional sensory stimulation to accomplish the tasks which require attention and concentration (3). Therefore, one of the prominent approaches to address the behavioral problems in these children is sensory integration approach.

    Sensory integration approach includes integration of three essential sensory systems: the proprioceptive, the vestibular, and the tactile systems. These systems, regulate the awareness of the body in space, joint and limbs positions, control sensations of gravity and movement, and perceives the sense of touch (4). Sensory Integration theory is focused on these special key sensory systems which are useful in person’s interpretation and application of sensory information. Proper sensory integration is a gate to successful educational learning through successful application of sensory and perceptual systems which would lead to forming vital skills for doing on task behaviors (4). Occupational therapists who work in school often use sensory techniques to increase students’ levels of attending, on-task behavior, and performance in the classroom. Many clinicians perceive these approaches to be successful in promoting functional classroom behavior. According to previous findings, 99% of occupational therapists use sensory integration techniques (5). Smith and Miller had been in contact with 292 occupational therapists in 1992 and found that Sensory Integration based-therapy was the most common applied technique among all of them (6). The effects of proper sensory integration, improve students ability to educational achievements and success by goal directed use of sensory and perceptual systems. This method can lead to success in learning (Gilman). Furthermore, formal research conducted on sensory-based interventions has supported this belief (Schilling, 2004; Schilling & Schwartz, 2004; Schilling, Washington, Billingsley, & Deitz, 2003).

    Hemmingsson and Borel in their investigations emphasized on lack of environmental modification in the classroom that directly refers to the limitation of student’s engagement. So, lack of proper changes in environment can lead to restriction in learning. Furthermore, previous emphasis in pediatric occupational therapy has been on modifying the individual’s behavior with less emphasis placed on changing the environment, but focus is now shifting to ergonomic and sensory modifications to promote academic success (Asher, 2010). Various sensory-based strategies, including the use of alternative seating devices, have been examined by researchers and in many cases have been found to promote functional classroom behavior (Fertel-Daly, Bedell, & Hinojosa, 2001; Schilling et al., 2003; Schilling & Schwartz, 2004; Zissermann, 1992). Two of these functional methods are the using of balls and air cushions rather than common chairs. The use of therapeutic balls have been lead to marked improvements in the in-seat behavior and legible word production, in school age children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; Schilling, 2004; Schilling et al., 2003) and to increase in engagement and in-seat behavior of preschoolers with ASD (Schilling & Schwartz, 2004) (7). Clinicians have been using dynamic seating systems such as the Disc ‘O’ Sit cushion for many years to assist students to increase their attention span. While clinical evidence that these systems can lead to desired results, but very little research has been completed and published to support their use.

    Sitting on a ball allows the child to pay more attention to activities while receiving stimulation in a passive form, rather than seeking stimulation from disruptive activities. Gamache-Hulsmans (2007) stated that students said they feel better when sitting on ball chairs. Students also felt more comfortable and said their backs did not hurt when sitting. The ball chairs are soft compared to regular classroom seats and are more fun to sit on (3).

    To what extent, dynamic seating chairs will effect on attention to on task behaviors and in-seat behavior? Therefore, in this research, the effects of sitting on ball and air cushion were investigated. With regards to thousands of special students with difficulty in sitting and classroom performance, these devices may be optional selection for solving the mentioned class behavior problems.

    Materials and Method

    1. Research Design: A single subject multiple treatments withdrawal design A-B-A-C was used to investigate the effects of 3 seating options including common chairs, therapy balls, & air cushions on the in-seat, on class task behavior, communication and social behavior of four students with ASD. During the 2 A phases students were sitting on common chairs, in B phase on air cushions, and during C phase they were sitting on therapeutic balls.
    2. Participants: This investigation performed in an especial school for ASD students. A convenience sample including four participants was recruited from the Preschool students in autism elementary school in Mashhad, Iran. Participants were diagnosed as ASD by specialists and taking their own medications regularly throughout the study. According to teachers’ report, all children were identified as having difficulty with in-seat behavior and on task behavior.
    3. Procedures: Informed consents were obtained prior to experiment and contents were comprehended and signed by students’ legal representative.

    Data collection: Gilliam Autism Rating Scale-Second Edition (GARS II) and Vineland testes were given and were used to examine social and communication skills of students in the first and final of research for all students of class. To assess the students’ class behavior, staff was instructed to give no additional feedback on students’ sitting behavior either positive or negative throughout the duration of the study. But, if a student exhibited behavior that could be potentially harmful to him, peers, or the staff must have been prevented by staff. To remove any novelty effects, students were introduced with stability balls and air cushion instead of their chairs for 2 full days, before baseline data collection.

    1. Video recording: Setting camera recorders in class, Students’ behaviors during class task (sitting period and attention performance related to class tasks) were recorded all the day-time. Students’ behaviors were quantified three times per week, one day after another, with an overall of 12 sessions. Two occupational therapists were trained as observer of videos. In-seat data were collected via momentary real time sampling (MTS); the observers coded the student’s behavior on the basis of several behavioral classifications. The mean score across raters was used to calculate weekly on-task and in seat behavior. Videos were regularly checked throughout the study to determine inter and intra rater reliability agreement. Observers individually, watched videos every 10-s intervals, stopped it and marked the observation on each child’s designated worksheet, thus resulting in 60 observations per session per participant. This MTS interval would serve to make the observations more valid and representative of the child’s behavior throughout the baseline and interventions periods. Additionally, GARS II and Vineland testes were given and were used to examine social and communication skills of students in the first and final phases of research for all students of class. Students’ class behaviors during two intervention phases (each 1 week) were compared with class behavior during baseline and withdrawal phases (each one week).
    2. Teacher Social Validity Scale: Social validity questionnaire was used at the end of the study to evaluate teacher opinion regarding the intervention. The questionnaire consisted of 8 questions and assessed effects of intervention on sitting and activity participation as well as the extent of preference of stability balls or air cushion instead of chairs. Questions were answered on a 5-point Likert scale that ranged from strongly disagree (1) to strongly agree (5).
    3. On-Task Behavior:” Engagement was defined as “oriented towards appropriate classroom activity or teacher and either interacting with materials, responding to the speaker or looking at the speaker” (Schilling & Schwartz, 2004, p. 427). This definition included reading, and writing as well.
    4. In-Seat Behavior: Data on in-seat behavior was defined according to Schilling and Schwartz (2004) and quantified during video review. “Any portion of the child’s buttocks in contact with the seat portion of the chair” (Schillling & Schwartz, 2004, p. 427) and “the four legs of the chair in contact with the floor” (p. 427). For the intervention phase (B), any portion of the participant’s buttocks in contact with the air cushion, air cushion in contact with the chair and the four legs of the chair in contact with the floor. For the intervention phase (C), in-seat behavior was defined as “any portion of the participant’s buttocks in contact with the ball, the ball in contact with the floor, and at least one foot in contact with the floor” (Schilling & Schwartz, 2004, p. 427).
    1. GARS-2: The GARS is a screening instrument used for the assessment of individuals’ ages 3–22 years old who exhibit behavioral characteristics that may be indicative of autism. This is a standardized instrument, which consists of 42 items divided into three subscales that describe specific, observable and measurable behaviors. The items included in this instrument are based on the definition of autism adopted by the Autism Society of America (2003) and on the diagnostic criteria for autistic disorder published in DSM-IV-TR.
    2. Vineland

    Materials:

    Therapy balls: The selected therapy balls to be used in classroom use, had 55-cm-diameter (‘n’ Sit ball by …) with five little feet to prevent it from moving or rolling when used as a sitting ball. Therapy balls were individually fitted with air pressure into the ball (at different degrees of inflation) that confirm the student could sit comfortably with his feet flat on the floor with knees and hips flexed at 90 degrees.

    Air cushion: The Disc ‘O’ Sit cushion is a round and widely available. The Disc ‘O’ Sit, are instability cushions, strong enough to sit. It is designed to fit on a classroom chair and provide movement while seated (7).

    Chair: A general wooden with iron frame classroom chair without armrests (height, 72 cm; depth, 34 cm; width, 39 cm; seat height, 36 cm).

    1. Participant 1, speak with himself slowly and repeatedly with low attention and cannot tolerate sitting on chair.

    Participant 2 an 8-yr-old boy, he has low level endurance for performing occupation and sitting. He was hyperactive.

    Participant 3 an 8-yr-old boy, he has visual perceptual problem with low attention and endurance.

    Participant 4 a 11-yr-old boy, auditory problem, he likes,

    Results:

    During Phase A1 the number of times Hossin was on seat ranged from 11 to 18 (mean [M] = 14). During Phase B, the range was 30–36 (M = 34). During Phase A2, (chair) 15-38 (M = 23). During Phase C, (ball) the range was 2-10 (M = 6). The number of on seat for Hossin shows increase on air cushion and decrease in sitting on ball.

    During Phase A1 the number of times Hossin was on task ranged from 23 to 32 (mean [M] = 27.5). During Phase B, the range was 42-56 (M = 50). During Phase A2, (chair) 33-44 (M = 39). During Phase C, (ball) the range was 47-51 (M = 48). The number of on seat for Hossin shows increase on air cushion and decrease in sitting on ball.

    Each child’s data are presented in separate graphs in Figure

    (A) Total number of times that Hossin was on seat each phases.

    (B) Total number of times that Hassan was on seat and engaged each session.

    (C) Total number of times that Parsa was on seat and engaged each session.

    (D) Total number of times that Amir was on seat and engaged each session.

    Films was regularly checked throughout the study for determining inter and intra rater reliability agreement. Final inter rater agreement percentages ranged from 93% to 100% for in-seat behavior and from 80% to 90% for on-task behavior. They had a mean age of 8.75 ± 1.9 years, mean height 132.5 ± 9 cm, and mean weight 29.25 ± 8.5 kg.

    Each child demonstrated a unique response to the use of the therapy ball chair and air cushion.

    Discussion:

    Conclusions: This investigation suggests that dynamic seating in the classroom, increases in-seat behavior & on task behavior for children with ASD. However no one type of seating was found appropriate for all children with ASD. For some forms of classroom behavior, the use of dynamic seating appears proactive, serving as a positive behavior support strategy to assist in creating an opportunity for learning.

    References

    1.Koegel L, Matos-Fredeen R, Lang R, Koegel R. Interventions for children with autism spectrum disorders in inclusive school settings. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice. 2011.

    2.Schilling DL, Schwartz IS. Alternative seating for young children with autism spectrum disorder: Effects on classroom behavior. Journal of autism and developmental disorders. 2004;34(4):423-32.

    3.Horgen KM, Kathryn M. Utilization of an Exercise Ball in the Classroom:

    Its Effect on Off-task Behavior of a Student with ADHD [thesis]: University of Wisconsin; 2009.

    4.Wu W-L, Wang C-C, Chen C-h, Lai C-L. Influence of Therapy Ball Seats on Attentional Ability in Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. 2011.

    5.Tunstall H.R. Effects of Alternative Seating on the Academic Engagement of Children With Autism 2010.

    6.Lang R, O’Reilly M, Healy O, Rispoli M, Lydon H, Streusand W, et al. Sensory integration therapy for autism spectrum disorders: A systematic review. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders. 2012;6(3):1004-18.

    7.Schilling DL. Alternative seating devices for children with ADHD: Effects on classroom behavior. Pediatric Physical Therapy. 2006;18(1):81.

    Child Learning Styles and Factors that Influence Them

    In a nursery setting there are different types of learning styles:

    Now I will discuss the learning styles:

    Reference 1

    Visual learning is a very good learning style and helps key workers understand every child’s learning method. This learning style is for children who get distracted by sound and talking easily, children often find it difficult to concentrate when there is a crowd around them. These types of children enjoy art and drawing and learn more from diagrams, they love to learn from a picture which gives children knowledge of the world.

    When I discuss more on Auditory learning style, I learn that this is more about thinking and listening. Children like to learn from listening to nursery rhyme tapes and tapes which helps them to think just as sounds. I found out children who are in the auditory category this helps children be more clever.

    Children like to listen to staff members reading to them and they like to choose interesting and long books so they can listen and look and think most of the day in the nursery environment.

    Finally when I discuss kinaesthetic learning style I find that this is more about children who cannot keep still at all, key workers have to keep them still during activities. These types of children are very active and enjoys playful all the time and never listens to anything else. They love activities where no one bothers them, such as playing physical for example running slow but not so fast.

    These learning styles are based on the early year’s foundation curriculum stage one of which is knowledge of the world, other one which is numeracy, literacy and so on.

    Visual learning activities can be:

    1. Listening to a story book but the child concentrating on other staff members cleaning after children’s playtime.
    2. One child distract from listening to nursery rhymes, as the key worker was communication with a parent outside.

    Auditory learning activities:

    1. A child can be distracted by another child shouting while playing a guessing game of thinking what instrument sound it could be.
    2. Child cannot think of what to play with because of so much shouting

    Kinaesthetic activities:

    1. Cannot keep still during an outdoor play activity, such as practising how to stand straight in a line.

    As a key worker we ensure children can concentrate when they join an activity, we help children by reminding children to play, we ask children questions on what children are playing. If there is a crowd around children we ensure we settle children down and stop children from crowding around children who are sitting down and playing. We also ensure we give children confidence to speak up when they cannot concentrate.

    We also give children time to think when we ask children questions. This is why we tell all children to listen. We support children’s listening and thinking by providing children with activities such as games so that they learn how to think and we read story books so they learn how to listen. We ask children to have silent time to think and listen to nursery rhymes quietly.

    If children never listen we keep a naughty chair for them to sit on. We help children who are very playful. We make sure we give these types of children different types of activities, we also help them by telling them please behave. We give behaving activities and songs to help children behave. If children behave we give them a well done star when they listen.

    Analyse the effect that detrimental issues can have on learning:

    Reference 2: study guide

    The meaning of detrimental issue is if a child is having difficulties in every day learning such as numeracy the child might need professional support a personal key worker to teach numbers. 1-10.

    Detrimental issues can be things like a child having mental health problem:

    The child will need a special caring key worker who is always with this child, the child will need to be observed to help the child with his development, the child will also need activities based on sam’s age, Sam will need to carry out same activities until he has mastered these activities to help sam reach to school and his higher studies. If we do not help sam, sam will loose his confidence and will become like no one cares.

    Sam might need professional help because he can be clever but sufferining from illness such as he might not be hearing well and this can make him weak. The key worker’s ensure all children are aware of Sam’s illness and give children knowledge on his illness so that Sam himself feels confident and so does children who play with Sam. Sam can sometimes loose his confidence, Sam can lose his self esteem, Sam can come across tiredness, and Sam can lose his high quality work to poor quality work as Sam looses confidence. Sam might also worry about what children can think of him this can also make him weak in his learning. To help sam we talk louder, use sign language and write words and sentence down to help sam understand.

    Sam can also have disability, sam still would need a key worker to support him, if it is extreme then sam will need his parent to stay with him and his key worker to ensure sam is in safe hands. Until sam is not confident he can not be left alone.

    Diabetics: if sam was to have this issue then his parent will have to tell every information to the person in charge and his key worker will need to be fully trained in how to care for sams health.

    If sam is on any medication the key worker needs to know asap such as if he has aathma, then the key worker will need to know when sam needs to take his medication.

    We as a nursery help Sam to be very confident when Sam start’s primary school. We give him as much support we can to build his confidence; we also help Sam know he will have this support during his school life. As a nursery we are very professional as we can be when it comes to a child being ill in their health. We ensure we train all our key worker’s and support all other staff member to help the key workers.

    These issues can lead a child to lose of confidence, less of self esteem, tiredness and poverty if they are not properly cared for.

    Evaluate the positive effect that differentiation has in the nursery setting:

    Differentiation – Difference’s of children

    Differentiation comes under different categories:

    Reference 3

    1. Place learning intention
    2. Behaviour and vocabulary modelling
    3. Adaption of equipment
    4. Peer teaching
    5. Differentiated equipment depending on needs
    6. Outcome

    When I read all my information my finding of this question is that a child liking one thing and another child liking another thing, or one child doing one thing and another child do the other thing.

    I have also been to a few nurseries to learn so that I can carry out my research on this question. I learnt that a girl called Esha enjoyed talking so much and a boy called Siyan hated talking he loved to be quiet. I asked Esha so many question’s and she answered to every the question however Siyan was still sitting their quietly. I found out that Siyan needed more support in communication so I organised more activities based on communication, I noted down to pass on to my manager that he improved on talking to me more as the days went by. It is important that we help children reach their goals because talking gives children confidence and socialise with other children and play with other children. We organised alphabet activities and number activities and also brought interesting books from the libraries, to help children be around me and talk to me as a new member of staff. We have talking out loud activities such as saying out words loud for children to speak more. Children that speak so much we provide them with silent times to help them speak less and help them to control their talking.

    I also so that children were left handed and some were using normal right handed so I supported these children by giving them the correct scissors and helped children to cut and give children the confidence and more paper. As children got good with cutting I provided children with difficult cutting such as dot to dot picture cuttings. This is most important as children can lose their confidence and their emotions can change. If the correct resources is not provided then children will not be able to improve and will be left with no playful activities. Children develop from their age and what they are able to do. If they feel they can go up a level they go up a level if they cannot they do not go up a level. It is important to put children straight up as some children might feel lonely as they are left handed and they see other children as normal.

    I find that Children can also be working at different goals in their work books; this can be based on how fast children are at their learning and also shows who needs support and who does not need support. Some children may pick things up straight away in a group activity of vocabulary and assessing of behaviour, some children may be left behind in speaking out loud when they have to answer to questions some might shout the answers out some might be polite and wait.

    When working in a nursery i also found that children needed one to one support during I.T as some children pressed any key on the computer. We give one to one tutoring on computer for left handed children

    I also went to the activity cupboard to pick out easy play activities for children who need development as they are still weak and pick out difficult activities for the clever children.

    The result I found was that some children needed improvement some needed to be pushed up to the higher level. I had written a report of all children and passed on to the Management to help the children with their development.

    Discuss the positive effect that planning can have on learning and the ways in which formative and summative contribute to this:

    Planning can be brilliant for a child’s learning and would help a child learn better and help children with their development.

    Positive

    • Children will gain good marks
    • Children will concentrate more
    • If we add more pre-school images children will learn more from looking at pictures
    • Helps children to reach their goals
    • Helps children to make improvements
    • Helps children understand their weaknesses
    • Helps children with encouragement to learn more
    • To keep the child’s learning up to date

    Reference 4

    To give children confidence we use:

    Formative assessment

    Summative assessment

    Now I will discuss the two assessments:

    As a nursery we use formative assessment:

    This helps the nursery to see how children are improving on their development in childcare. A child can be playing with Lego and other toys that are laid out. We use coloured paper to observe children.

    We write down how children play, we write down everything children play with, we write down what children talk about as they play, we write observations according to the curriculum.

    We also take pictures on what the child has played with for the day and everything they have done. We write down as much as we can to help children improve on the development in a nursery. We even organise a video to take of every child so that we can see how to develop children to a higher level.

    Observing could be gathering in your mind what you see from a child as their key worker then discussing this at the meeting how to improve the child’s development.

    Summative assessment – we gather all the above information from formative assessment and write up reports to discuss with parents. The above information will help the nursery stand out from others. It will keep the nursery organised, well presented, will bring clever children, will give smart and clean children and help the nursery be more lively.

    To do all the above we plan, we do this by organising every day morning meetings. Staff are fully trained to carry out these jobs.

    As a nursery we ensure our planning is well organised to help children reach their goal at the correct time and correct level for children.

    References:

    Reference 1 : http://learningguide.org/learningstyles.htm – I used the meaning and also wrote in my own words.

    Reference 2: study pack – page 72 and 73

    Reference 3: I used the hand book page 76 – 78 for meaning of what they are then wrote into my own words.

    Reference 4: I used the hand book page79-80 to find the meaning and wrote into my own words.

    Reflection on Multi-Agency Working

    Multi-agency working

     

    Introduction

    In this report it will be discussing a case conference that has previously taken place and reflect using the Gibbs cycle, (Eggers, 2002) on how the group work was and how the conference went. It will reflect on what happened, how could it of been better, what could be changed for future conferences. Next will be the challenges of multi-agency working that arise in a case conference and how you can overcome these. Then it will discuss the legislation on multi-agency working and how this can affect the people involved and what laws all people working with children must follow.

    Reflecting on working in a group

    Working in a group, I thought would make the assignment much easier and as a group I thought would help us all get different opinions into our work and by listening to each other’s views would give us a incite to what we could say in the conference and write about. This however was not the case I found this assignment one of the hardest as we had people in our group that did not live locally and also most of us have children, this being the case made it near impossible to get the group together outside of university. We did however try to overcome this as best as possible by meeting up with who we could when we could and by communication through email and text messaging with updates or with ideas for the scenario. If I had to work within a group again I would possibly change who I work with so that I am with people I know will be on the same working level as myself and that live more locally to make it easier to overcome not being able to meet up when needed.

    Reflecting on case conference

    In the case conference I feel that it went quite well, everything that was said linked to each other’s report where necessary. We had a main spokesperson at the meeting this was the social worker as she had all knowledge from all other members of the multi-agency team. Each person involved described a brief of what had been said and what they had already noted as part of the case. In the meeting we did not have Jasmine herself present as she was felt to be too young and venerable to be in the meeting with her mother present so we have an advocate on her behalf who was the Family support worker she described what she had assessed of Jasmine and her older brother had felt about the situation at home and how it was effecting them. Both the Safeguarding officer and the head teacher of the school explained what was disclosed to raise the awareness of a safeguarding and child protection issue. They also stated that there was a meeting with Jasmine and her mother previous to this case conference and even more issues were raised regarding not only Jasmines sexual experience but also that she is left at home a lot to look after a very young baby. As the safeguarding policy states that we must protect children from maltreatment, prevent bad health or development, making sure that children are growing up in safe and effective care and to take action to enable all children to have the best possible outcome. (Evans, 2012)

    The health visitor for Jasmines mother was also at the case conference to explain that when she goes to the house it is dirty with not much food in. It may not have been relevant for the health visitor to be in the conference as she had already reported her concerns before the school was aware of this current concerns and the social worker had already been notified about this previously.

    The mother of Jasmine had previously had a meeting with the social worker before the case conference and had agreed to attend the conference as well parenting classes and follow up meetings. The Social worker gave everyone the pre-arranged care plan and the mother had agreed to all of the care plan and another meeting was arranged to follow up these actions. A care plan is to make sure the children do not suffer from any more neglect and so they can assess that they are in suitable and stable family home environment. A plan of care is something that describes a straight forward way that the services and support being provided. It will be put together in agreement with the person who needs the support and services by planning and reviewing their needs. (Dubowitz and DePanfilis, 2000)

    Overall I think the case conference went well there could have been better communication leading up to the conference and we could of suggested further opportunities to help aid Jasmine and her family into the care plan. If I had to attend another case conference, I would look into services to support the children more and help the mother so that she can get financial help to better her living conditions and also help the food needs of the family such as food banks.

    Challenges of multi-agency working

    The challenges that arise within the multi-agency team, that were in the case conference were lack of communication. It was hard to contact everyone when needed this slowed down the process of gathering all information needed before the case conference. This is a problem that happens within all multi-agency, the issue of lack of communication happens across all various agencies and voluntary organisations, although it seems to be worse in the education sector. Atkinson (2002) This can be overcome by making phone appointments with the agency’s involved or booking appointments to have meetings every few weeks but as they may have many case this may not be possible this is why I think phone appointments would be quite sufficient. The other challenge we had within working as a multi-agency team was the responsibilities of the people involved and them understanding the roles of themselves as well as others. Some agencies didn’t seem to know who is responsible for what tasks and some moved beyond their existing roles in the case conference. This again comes down to the lack of communication within the group.

    Legislation

    In multi-agency working all members of all the different agencies, will have had a Disclosure and Barring Service check done also known as DBS, which used to be called Criminal Record Bureau (CRB) this is a checking system so that the suitability of professionals and volunteers who work with students are safe to work with students and also make sure all staff have the qualifications needed. (Gov.UK, 2014) Raising awareness of the student’s protection and making sure all students have the ability required to make them safe. Developing and implementing procedures for noticing and reporting cases, or possible cases, of abuse. Supporting students that are in or have been abused in accordance with his/her in agreement pre-arranged protection arrangement. Finally establishing a secure surroundings where all students will learn and develop in.

    Settings recognise that as the professionals who are in regular and frequent contact with the children and are well trained to look out for signs of abuse. The Setting in which they work are responsible that make sure all members of staff no and are trained in safeguarding to protection all students from abuse and from inappropriate and inadequate care. Therefore, the setting is committed to reacting in accordance should any problem arise.

    The Children Act 2004 presents the legal basis for the way social services and other groups maintain issues on the subject of children. These laws had been laid down so that all individuals who are worried about the wellbeing of children, within their home, schools or any childcare setting, are aware of how children and young people must be taken care of within the eyes of the legislation. The Children Act 2004 was planned to make children to be healthy and so that they are safe in their environments at all times. It also helps children to succeed and be the best they can be. They also help achieve economic permanency for our children’s futures. (Legislation.gov.uk, 2015)

    Management styles

    Social Worker

    Successful management of social workers involves an ability set that is somewhat vast and difficult. The manager needs to be highly qualified in many arenas and ought to be ready to make important life changing decisions.

     

    Evidence to work effectively as a multi-agency team

    Effective multi-agency working depends on four key areas: clarifying roles and responsibilities, engendering trust, mutual respect and understanding between agencies. An advantage of working effectively in a multi-agency team improved services, direct outcomes and prevention of child cases. It also improves access to services which helps families early on and can potentially stop any fatalities or neglect to children. The benefits of effective multi-agency work gives them a broader point of view, a greater figuring out of the issues. Multi-agency teams state that working with experts from other backgrounds is profitable and motivating. (Moran et al., 2007)

    How to improve multi-agency working

    To improve multi-agency working is combined working as well as getting best outcomes. This can be achieved by better information sharing between the agencies and raising awareness and understanding of other agencies. In addition, the promotion of a shared responsibility between the agencies. They need to supply more services to improving outcomes for children and families and improving educational achievement. This could be done, by working with other agencies and using their expertise so targets can be achieved.

    References

    Atkinson, M. (2002) multi-agency working: a detailed study, National Foundation for Educational Research: Berkshire

    Dubowitz, H. and DePanfilis, D. (2000). Handbook for child protection practice. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.

    Eggers, H. (2002). Project Cycle Management: A Personal Reflection. Evaluation, 8(4), pp.496-504.

    Evans, M. (2012). Safeguarding and Welfare Requirements, part 1: Child protection. Nursery World, 2012(5).

    Gov.uk, (2014). Disclosure and Barring Service (DBS) checks (previously CRB checks) – GOV.UK. [Online] Available at: https://www.gov.uk/disclosure-barring-service-check/overview [Accessed 13 Dec. 2014].

    Legislation.gov.uk, (2015). Children Act 2004. [Online] Available at: http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2004/31/contents [Accessed 10 Jan. 2015].

    Moran, P., Jacobs, C., Bunn, A. and Bifulco, A. (2007). Multi-agency working: implicationfor an early-intervention social work team. Child & Family Social Work, 12(2), pp.143-151.