Categories for Animation

Information Technology and Animation

Introduction:

Information technology (IT) plays a key role in creating knowledge [1] and supporting management towards decision making[2] and Visualization tools are computer applications that produce graphical representations that aid decision making. Visualization tools are used in IT based decision support systems (DSS) like the simple spreadsheets to complex computer-based systems like business intelligence system, enterprise resource management and reporting system, knowledge management systems, and expert systems; to help decision makers to solve structured ,unstructured and semi structured problems. In the digital era, decision makers have access to large amount of digital data which can be used by visual analytics software to support decision making. Well structured problem has clear path to solution but for solving ill structured problem, external representation of the data and the problem can reduce the effort in reaching an accurate solution[3]. Chief economist of Google Inc predicts that need for data visualization will be growing rapidly in the next few years. He writes. “the ability to take data—to be able to understand it, to process it, to extract value from it, to visualize it, to communicate it—that’s going to be a hugely important skill in the next decade…. because now we really do have essentially free and ubiquitous data. So the complimentary scarce factor is the ability to understand that data and extract value from it… Managers need to be able to access and understand the data themselves [4].

Independent researchers have predicted high future demand for visualization tools. Gartner’s research reports that in spite of global recession businesses are interested in investing in business intelligence (BI) platforms that are expanding their capabilities towards advanced data visualization, scorecards and interactive dashboards. It predicts BI market’s compound annual growth rate (CAGR) through 2012 to be 7.0% for stand-alone BI platforms ([5].

Review of the literature on computer graphics as decision aid reports that the format in which data is presented to decision makers is critical to provide information for making decision[6]. As per the dual coding theory, cognition consists of two sub systems: Visual and Verbal[7-9]. The theory specifies that when information is represented visually, the recall is easier and the human brain can process changes in shape, color and motion parallely. As per the Central Capacity theory humans have limited working memory [10] and visualization of data (e.g. chart, diagram, graph) activates the visual component of the short-term working memory (visual working memory) to hold the visual objects for immediate attention. Both the theory recommend visual data representation to provide information to the users for making decisions as visual information is easier to store and recall.

Visualization aids in perceptual information processing to identify exceptions, trends, patterns, relationship in the data (clusters, associations, causality etc), detect outliers and to summarize data perceptually [11]. Many complex business decision making need insight and insight is a sudden discovery of a solution to a problem which results in a subjectively catastrophic experience[12]. As competition in the knowledge economy gets fiercer, organizations are constantly trying to get new insights to gain competitive advantage. Effective visualization tools acts as external aids that supports thinking and building insight by providing graphs that represent information primarily through position, shape, color, size, location, movement and symbols, and that viewers decode that information by taking it in, organizing it, analyzing it and detecting patterns and structures perceptually[13]. Human brain is a powerful pattern-finding engine and effective graph make behavioral patterns, temporal trends, correlations, clusters, gaps, and outliers visible in seconds and data graphics should amplify cognition and complement what humans do well[14]. Effective visualization tools are of great importance in supporting decision making as it amplifies cognition, perceptual information processing and facilitates knowledge generation. When visualization tools are inadequate decision making performance is impaired.

A review of literature on computer graphics as decision aids has demonstrated that decision performance is effected by information presentation format[6]. Compared to static graph (SG) , Dynamic Graph (DG) facilitates in faster retrieval and recall of information [15, 16], information comprehension [16] required for decision making. One author writes “If learners are in control of the speed of animation and can view and review, stop and start, zoom in and out, and change orientation of parts and wholes of the animation at will, then the problems of veridical perception can be alleviated” [17]. However the use of dynamic interactive graph has increased in business decision making, its impact on decision making has not been explored extensively in the IS field. Both the IS literature and Accounting literature has emphasized the need for studying the role of presentation format in the efficiency and effectiveness of decision-makers’ decision quality in order to provide empirical evidence on the effect of presentation format on decision quality [18] [19].

Previous research so far in the IS domain has extensively studied 2D, 3D graph, combining 2D-3D graph and animation with low data volume that are easily comprehensible in tables or graph. Gaining insight from high volume of business data can be challenging because the high density of the data makes it difficult to view all the data at once. On a typical computer screen the high volume data cannot be seen at once, the data has to be sliced to visually represent it on screen. A study done on functional mechanisms of online product presentation and its effect on online shopping reported that interactivity of product presentations is a design feature that influence (1) the efficacy of the presentations; (2) consumers’ perceptions of the diagnosticity of websites, their perceptions of the compatibility between online shopping and physical shopping, and their shopping enjoyment derived from a particular online shopping experience jointly influence consumers’ attitudes toward shopping at a website; and (3) both consumers’ attitudes toward products and their attitudes toward shopping at a website contribute to their intentions to purchase the products displayed on the website[20].Thus Interactive display has a positive influence on decision making thus the first objective of this study is extend the work done in the past by studying whether the use of display which has bother interactivity and is dynamic impacts decision making, including reducing information overload when dealing with high volume of data. While indicating a positive l effect from the use of DID, on the basis of the theory of Cognitive Fit, which identifies that better performance results when the external representation corresponds to the nature of the task to be accomplished [21] this study argues that it is most effective when the qualities of the display corresponds to the salient features of the task. On Time is also an important component of information load[21] where information load is the volume of the data to be processed over the unit of time available for the task.

The second objective of this study is to examine weather and how the effect of visualization tools on decision taking may be contingent on the time constraints- available time available for information processing. A prior study on 2D graph Vs table to examine the joints effects of presentation format and color on decision accuracy and efficiency under different time constraints [22] concluded that under low time constraints (15 min), tabular reports are better for accurate decision making and 2D graphs are better for faster processing. The combination of Table and graph were better than graph alone for decision accuracy. Under High time constraint (5 min)s color coding led to improved decision making. Decision makers are sometimes pressed for time which can result in information overload, which is the point at which information processing demands exceed the information processing capacity of the individual. This study investigates the moderating effect of time constraints on DID effectiveness on decision making in terms of the quality of the decision that the decision makers are able to make. This study uses the term High Time constraint (HTC) task to characterize the task that needs to completed in an environment when the decision makers are under time pressure and to distinguish it from Low time constraint (LTC) task where the decision makers are not under any time pressure to complete the decision making task.

Next section contains the review of past work on DID and decision making done to arrive at the hypothesis on the overall impact of DID on decision making. The subsequent section presents a review of the previous litreature on the theory of Cognitive Fit which provides the foundation for our theories on the relationship between different task types and DID. Then the different task types with time constraints is explained along with the prediction about the moderating effects of task type on decision making. The research method for the proposed research is explained including the measurement of independent and dependent variables and the experimental design. Finally this paper concludes with the significance of this proposed study to both researchers and practioners.

Theory and Hypothesis.

The research model developed for this proposed study is shown in figure 1. The figure illustrates that DID enhances decision making. The effect of DID is more pronounced when the task is less time critical where the decision makers are not pressed for time and the effect of DID is limited when the task is time critical. The hypotheses supported by theory are developed below.

Dynamic Interactive Display

Businesses today are commonly using Dashboards, which is a combination of visualization tools that provide summarized and details reports of current status and alerts and creates situational awareness. The array of visualization tools that available today includes Tree Maps, [23], Node-Link diagram /Network diagram[24], Parallel coordinate Graph [25], Spark lines- Integrates text, and chart [26],Motion chart[27]. The present study focuses on visualization tools that provide dynamic and interactive display (DID) because in the recent time there has been staggering advances in visualization tools that are interactive and dynamic to support taking decisions and solving information-intensive problems in business. The DID chosen for this study is Google’s Motion Chart, which is a flash based visualization tool that delivers dynamic chart with high level of interactivity for multidimensional data[28].

Motion charts are dynamic. The graph is said to dynamic when the graph consists of series of single frames, each showing incremental changes in the position, brightness, shape, color of the variables; shown in a sequence which give the illusion of movement[29, 30]. Graph Dynamism consist of two types of change : position or form [31, 32]. Translation change refers to change in position (from one location to another) and transformation change refers to the change in form ( in size, shape, color, brightness)[33]. Motion chart reflect both translation change and transformation change. It is dynamic as it has several indicators which show incremental change in color, location and shape over time.

Graphical excellence consists of complex ideas communicated with clarity, precision and efficiency and are accurately perceived [14]. Animations are often not clear and complex or efficient ( too fast) to be accurately perceived and judicious use of interactivity may overcome this disadvantage [17]. Motion Chart provide high level of interactivity (i.e., the extent to which users can manipulate and transform the form and content of the graph in real time[34]. Interactivity is achieved when the users can control the speed of animation and can view and review, stop and start, can transform (change the way representation is rendered, such as zooming, panning or resizing), or manipulate (control the parameters during the process of image generation, i.e. filtering, visually encoding the variables based on color, shape).

Decision Making

Previous study on online shopping website has indicated that dynamic , interactive presentation of information has a positive effect on the shopping decisions ( intend to purchase, revisit the shopping website) of the consumers [20]. Decision making includes problem solving[2]. Problem solving involves mentally working to overcome obstacles that stand in reaching a goal and arriving at the solution to the problem involves identifying the problem, defining and representing the problem, formulating the strategy , organizing and reorganizing information, allocating resources, monitoring and evaluation[3]. Prior research has indicated that (1) task type, (2) individual characteristics, and (3) information presentation format have effects on cognitive processing for making decisions [6]. Decision accuracy, problem comprehension and satisfaction will be used to measure decision making performance. Decision accuracy is probably the most commonly used criterion for measuring decision making performance [22, 35-48]. It is suggested that compared to DG, Dynamic Interactive Graph should facilitate performance [49]. Therefore, this study proposes that DID can enable decision makers to be more accurate when evaluating high volume of data than Dynamic Display.

H1. Compared to Dynamic Display, DID increases users Decision Accuracy

Research in the Management field has not examined different types of visuals and its effect on graph comprehension in detail[6]. The effect of x-y and y-z relationship encoding on the time to comprehend information was studied with respect to2D and 3D line graph [50].

As per Pinker’s theory of Graph Comprehension[51], different types of display are suited for extracting different classes of information, primarily because of two contrasting types of encoding mechanisms governing the graph comprehension process: (1) automatic conceptual message lookup processes and bottom up processing, and (2) inferential and top-down encoding processes. Simplified Flow diagram of the graph comprehension process is shown in Figure 2.

Automatic conceptual message lookup is the acquisition of information using the bottom-up encoding processes where the required information is obtained from the graph easily from the graph by means of salient cues. For example the theory indicated that that trend in a line graph is encoded via the bottom-up encoding processes because the human eye can automatically extract the change perceptually. On the contrary, information that are encoded via the inferential and top-down encoding process , needs execution of deliberate and capacity-limited computations that requires effort and use of both short-term and long-term memory processing. Fulfilling comprehension tasks, such as making inferences and drawing conclusions about the data in the graph and selecting and organizing the information from the graph, requires integration of the retrieved and encoded new information. This study proposes that more scan and search operations are needed to visually locate and organize the new information represented in the dynamic graph for both conceptual message lookup process and inferential process. The DID possesses interactivity and hence retrieving the information from the graph will be easier for the users by manipulating the data using overview, zoom, filter features of the display. Therefore, in response to the comprehension task, DID will be better than dynamic display.

H2a. Compared to Dynamic Display, DID increases users graph comprehension for automatic conceptual message lookup process
H2b Compared to Dynamic Display, DID increases users graph comprehension for inferential and top-down encoding process
Next from the perspective of affective dimension, users form positive, neutral or negative attitude towards the perceived usefulness of the visualization tool in decision making. The study predicts that DID with interactivity and dynamic display of the multi dimensional data affects decision maker’s attitude regarding perceived usefulness of the tool more significantly in favor of the tool than dynamic graph.
H3 Users attitude towards the perceived usefulness of the DID display differ from their attitude towards the perceived usefulness of the dynamic display.

Theory of Cognitive Fit and Time constraints

The theory of Cognitive Fit suggest that a match between External representation and users’ tasks is important for the realization of positive results from the display format [52]. While DID generally influences decision making, the degree to which DID affects decision making varies contingent upon the task types being examined. Decision makers may be faced with different types of tasks. Tasks for Problem solving can be retrieval, Communication of facts, Comparison of alternatives, Trend analysis, Recognition and recall, Problem finding, Problem comprehension and Problem solving[36]. When time in money decision makers have to make decisions fast and thus decision task can be time critical. In prior studies terms ‘‘time pressure’’ and ‘‘time constraint’’ are most commonly used interchangeably [53]. Prior research so far has not investigated the time-constraint tasks that are best supported by DID. For this study High Time Constraint (HTC) tasks are those that force the decision makers to perform under high time pressure. It is different from Low time-constraint (LTC) task for which the decision makers are not under any time pressure to perform.

These types of task types moderate the degree to which DDI affects decision making. Research suggests for HTC task , decision makers accelerated their processing, are more selective in processing and instead of evaluating one alternative at a time (depth based) the decision makers concentrate on attribute based ( breadth wide) pattern of processing[54]. Dynamic Interactive display (DID) have features that lets the users manipulate the data and retrieve details on demand but DID are complex because it provides access to several layers of data which the users can slice and dice. Therefore when DID is used with HTC task , decision makers are unable to accelerate processing as the complexity of the graph makes the users experience information overload , which affects their performance negatively. However when DID is applied to LTC task, then the interactivity is useful because access to several layers of information and availability of time lets the decision makers process information in depth. Thus DID for HTC task does not contribute as much to decision making accuracy, problem comprehension and perceived usefulness as it does for LTC task.

H4. Increases in Decision accuracy, effected by DID, are more significant for LTC task than HTC task.
H5a. Increases in users graph comprehension for automatic conceptual message lookup process, effected by DID, are more significant for LTC task than HTC task.
H5b. Increases in graph comprehension for inferential and top-down encoding process, effected by DID, are more significant for LTC task than HTC task.
H6. The impacts of DID on perceived usefulness towards decision making are more
significant for LTC task than HTC task.

Research Method

The proposed study will employ a controlled laboratory experiment to empirically test the effects of DID on Decision making and the moderating effect of time-dependent task types to achieve a high degree of internal validity [55]. To simulate experimental display close to real experiences and to increase the generalizability of the findings, instead of developing a prototype of DID , we selected Motion Chart owned by Google Inc for the visualization tool to produce DID . Motion chart is a commercial product used in business.

 

Experimental Design

For this proposed study a within-subject factor along with a between-subject factor, 2X2 factorial design will be used. The within-subject factor, Display format, will have two levels: DID and Dynamic Graph. The between-subject factor, Task Type will have two levels: HTC and LTC (Refer fig 2). The within-subject design for the presentation format will enable control over individual differences like spatial ability[56], cognitive style, comprehension abilities, which could confound the results [6] and also economize on the number of participants required for this study.

Fig 2 2X2 Factorial Design
Because display format was a within-subject factor, different task type were employed for each display format. The different task will have the same difficulty level so that this study can control for difference in task difficulty to have an effect on decision performance. Different task will control for the learning effect that could happen by repeatedly making the same type of decision with same task using different display format under different time dependent task. The participants might not use the interactive features provided in the DID even though it is provided to them. To control for that, the task assigned to DID will require manipulation of the data to arrive at the correct solution and the participants with the correct result will be rewarded with Bonus gift certificate to motivate them to use the interactive features of DID to arrive at the optimum result. Prior use and practice with a display format has an effect on performance [57] hence to control for that this study will allow participants to have experience with the visualization tool by giving them a brief 15 mins hands on training with the product.

As discussed earlier this study uses the term First, the pretest will be conducted with a pilot group that will be demographically similar to the experiment participants to determine the average time required by the subject to reach the optimum solution. Based on this average time the two limits will be chosen to arrive at the High time constraint and low time constraint condition. HTC task is a financial decision making task that will be given to the subjects which involve both bottom up encoding and inferential processing under the High Time constraint in an environment when the decision makers are under time pressure. When there is insufficient time to complete a task, decision performance becomes unpredictable[58] and to control for that the subjects in the HTC treatment will be given a time limit which will be close to the average time required to reach the optimum solution so that they get sufficient time. Low time constraint (LTC) task is a different financial decision making task that will be given to the subjects which involves both bottom up encoding and inferential processing where the decision makers are not under any time pressure to complete the decision making task. Half of the participants were assigned to Dynamic graph with HCT task and DID with LCT task and the other half in reverse order. Participants were assigned randomly to each condition to reduce potential extraneous effects in the experiment.

Participants

For the main experiment the participation will be voluntary and the subjects will be selected from the pool of graduate and undergraduate students taking courses in finance, economics or business in a large university. To motivate the subjects to participate in this study they will be offered gift certificates. to encourage their participation in the experiment. The participants will have to fill out a standard form about their demographics, if they have experience with Motion charts, number of years at the university. For the results to have external validity, this study proposes to conduct the experiment with handful of executives from the industry who are entrusted with the task of decision making to increase the generalizability of results.

Measurements

The study will use the decision accuracy to measure the decision quality of the decision making performance. As discussed earlier this is a common measure used to measure decision making performance. To measure the problem comprehension this study will employ a validated comprehension study which has been used in prior studies on effects of information formats [59, 60]. To measure perceived usefulness of the display this study will use the validated survey used in prior studies to predict system usage [61].

Data Analysis

Cronbach’s Alpha will be used to assess the reliability of the constructs. A repeated measure ANOVA will be run to analyze the effects of information display on decision making. Separate t-test will be conducted to compare the mean difference between DID and dynamic display for each of the task type to examine the nature of interaction effects.
Significance of this Research

The proposed study can contribute to both theory and practice. By a controlled laboratory experiment , it will empirically test the impact of Dynamic Interactive Display (DID) in decision making performance for high volume of data. Although DID today are available in a number of areas like accounting and finance (Electronic financial statements using XBRL – eXtensible Business Reporting Language), geography (E.g. Active Maps), education (E.g. web based active textbook with animated interactive figures), medicine (E.g. Medical imaging), architecture (Floor plan, building plan) but the review of the literature suggests that the impact of DID has not been explored intensively in the IS field. This proposed study aims to provide empirical test of the theory of Cognitive Fit, in supporting that the impact of IT is limited which is contingent on whether a particular IT application, such as DID, is a good match with the requirement of processing high volume of data to complete a given task. The current study provides useful guidelines for design and use of dense, interactive visualizations towards effective business decision making. If Business want to want to improve decision making performance with high volume of data they can do it with DID. However, because there are so many visualization tools available for use that it is difficult to select the one that is useful for decision making under different time pressure. This proposed study will provide guideline for the usefulness of use DID for HTC and LTC task. These suggestions might help the decision makers and Visualization tool to enjoy the benefits of DID for the appropriate time-dependent task.

The proposed study in crucial to understand whether DID has positive effects on decision making and if yes then under what conditions. Interaction can becomes become a powerful tool where users need to filter and zoom on subset of data. There might be information overload and the users might feel lost in the data. There can be added cost in giving access to several levels of data. We also need to understand if providing interactive display is appropriate for tasks which need to be completed under high time pressure and requires processing of high volume of data. This proposed study attempts to imply that DID might not be usable for all decision making context and it is important to understand when it is the most appropriate and use it accordingly to support decision making.

References:

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8. Kahneman, D., Attention and effort. 1973: Prentice-Hall Englewood Cliffs, NJ.
9. Carpenter, P. and P. Shah, A model of the perceptual and conceptual processes in graph comprehension. JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY APPLIED, 1998. 4: p. 75-100.
10. Weisberg, R., Metacognition and insight during problem solving: Comment on Metcalfe. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 1992. 18(2): p. 426-431.
11. Cleveland, W. and R. McGill, Graphical perception: Theory, experimentation, and application to the development of graphical methods. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 1984: p. 531-554.
12. Tufte, E., The visual display of quantitative information. 1983. Envisioning information, 1990.
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A History Of American Animated Cartoons Animation Essay

Rotoscoping was invented by Max Fleischer in the year 1915 with the help of his brother Dave Fleischer. The first character created using the rotoscoping technique was KOKO the clown in 1917, with live reference being taken from his brother who dressed in clown suit. After his success in rotoscoping they started a company called Fleischer Studios.

Fleischer Studios

Initially, Fleischer started by producing his films for The Bray Studios and later in 1921, Max and his brother Dave established Fleischer Studios to produce animated cartoons and short films; Max was the producer in the beginning. Koko and Fitz are their outcome series from Fleischer Studios. Later it was Fleischer studios who invented even the bouncing ball technique. They used this technique for their animated series “KoKo Song Car-Tune”, in which a ball bounces from word to word to sing along the series. Fleisher made a 40-minute educational feature film for explaining Charles Darwin’s Theory of Evolution and Albert Einstein’s Theory of Relativity in the year 1923 using live action animation and special effects.

Fleischer Film Studioslocated at 1600 Broadway overlooking Times Square in New York City.

In his several cartoons, he had soundtracks featuring live or rotoscoped image of the leading jazz performers of the time, most notably Cab Calloway, Louis Armstrong and Don Redman. After that, they used rotoscope in many of their later cartoons like Betty Boop in 1930 – they did Cab Calloway dance using this technique. In Gulliver travel, 1939, they did Gulliver’s character using rotoscope technique, and in Superman cartoon, they animated Superman and the other characters in realistic movement.

Betty boops

Betty Boop made her first appearance on August 9, 1930 in the cartoon Dizzy Dishes, the sixth episode of Fleischer’s Talkartoon series. The character was modelled after a combination of the famous singer, Helen Kane and popular actress, Clara Bow of 1920. Clara became trademark of Betty because of her strong Brooklyn accent. Betty Boop became the star of the Talkartoon by 1932, and was given her own series in that same year beginning with Stopping the Show. Betty appeared in the first colour classic cartoon in Poor Cinderella ‘Betty only theatrical colour appearance’ in 1934.

Betty Boops was created by Fleischer studios and distributed by paramount star.

Betty Boop as sex symbol

Betty Boop is the first and most famous sex symbol on the animated screen. Betty’s popularity was largely from adult audiences. It contains many sexual elements in the series like Talkartoon, Minnie and Moocher, Cab Calloway and his orchestra. The Talkartoon was replaced by the Betty boop series, which continued for 7 years. Betty Boop is the one of the important characters in the history of animation for being the first cartoon character to represent fully as sexualized woman.

Betty boop wore short dresses showing cleavage, high heels and greater belt, with a certain girlish quality. In Betty Boop’s Bamboo Isle, she dressed hula topless, wearing only a lei and a grass skirt, which she repeated in her cameo appearance in the first Popeye cartoon, Popeye the Sailor (1933). Her “Bamboo Isle” performance was also included in the short Betty Boop’s Rise to Fame, featuring a staged interview with Max Fleischer.

Walt Disney used the rotoscoping technique for their movie Snow White and the Seven Dwarf in 1937. After success of Snow White, the Disney used rotoscoping technique in many of their movies like Cinderella in 1950, in which they used the human character to animate Cinderella. Later on, they used this technique mainly to study human motion, animal motion, etc.

Digital Rotoscoping

The digital rotoscoping technique was invented by smoking car productions in the year 1994 for the creation of ‘The last express’ adventures video game.

The interpolated rotoscoping was invented by Bob Sabiston in the mid 1990’s. He was an animator and a computer scientist at MIT media lab. Later director Richard Linklater used that technique to produce his feature film, Walking Life in 2001 and a scanner Darkley in 2006. He is the first director to use digital rotoscoping to create an entire feature film.

When they first introduce the rotoscoping technique, a lot of animators opposed because they believed that the process stiffened the animation. A few believed that it could change the proportion of the animation, by giving a live action for the actors in it, to make the characters realistic and exaggerated.

Reference

  1. Fleischer, Richard (2005): Out of the Inkwell: Max Fleischer and the Animation Revolution, University Press of Kentucky, ISBN 0-8131-2355-0
  2. Maltin, Leonard (1987): Of Mice and Magic: A History of American Animated Cartoons. Penguin Books.
  3. http://bettyboopspenthouse.com/home.html

Image reference

  1. In 1914,Max Fleischerinvented therotoscope http://www.animationarchive.org/labels/upa.html
  2. Popeye and Max Fleischer, animation genius. http://4.bp.blogspot.com/_WriF8m2mVt0/R2tkqfSdVCI/AAAAAAAAA3A/K-wR_IFvF-U/s1600-h/popeye.jpg
  3. Fleischer Film Studios located at 1600 Broadway overlooking Times Square in New York City. http://bettyboopspenthouse.com/images/bettys_studio.jpg
  4. http://www.toondoctor.com/rotoscope01.htm

Animation in TV Commercials

The effectiveness of animation in TV commercials

Bryant & May were the first British company to utilize animation for advertising purposes. In 1899 animator Arthur Melbourne-Cooper was hired to produce a stop-motion short in which matchstick men move along a ladder and paint an appeal on a wall. This appeal read `For one guinea Messrs Bryant & May will forward a case containing sufficient to supply a box of matches to each man in a battalion with the name of the sender inside.'(www.bfi.co.uk) It is easy to be cynically dismissive of what is obviously a clever, if extremely crude, ad campaign disguised as a patriotic act of charity during the Boer war. However it is not as easy to be as dismissive of the extent to which animation has been adopted from these humble beginnings as a prevailing force within modern advertising strategy.

The 22nd September 1955 gave birth to commercial television broadcasting in the United Kingdom. Right from the outset advertisers where quick to seize upon the opportunity and advertising possibilities that animation put in front of them. During these early years up to a third of television advertising was animated such as the “Murray Mints, the too-good-to-hurry mints,” or Snap, Crackle an Pop,” for Kellogg’s Rice Krispies which both debut in 1955. The Kellogg ads brought to life hand drawn characters that had been used on the packaging of cereal boxes since 1928 and the campaign still runs to this day. The Murray Mints commercial, which featured soldiers in bearskin hats march in time to a jingle, won best ad of the year in the inaugural year of British television advertising. (Robinson, 2000, p35) J Walter Thompson who had handled the Guinness account since 1929 set about bringing to life; through the process of animation, the extremely popular Gilroy posters that had become an institution and started a ‘Guinness culture.’

If advertisers were keen to use animators in their campaigns then animators where certainly keen to encourage receive the work. The two industries formed a symbiosis which was characterised by the overnight emergence of a whole new market in the advertising industry meant that there were a lot of new opportunities for young animators to set up new companies with the minimum of capital and experiment with new techniques. Companies such as biographic which was set up by Bob Godfrey who produced ads for various companies such as Shipams fish paste and Nestle. (Threadgould, 2005)

The use of animation in commercials certainly proved popular with advertisers, and with home viewers but it was the “Homepride flour men” who proved that it could also be an effective tool. The “Homepride flour men” ad debut in 1965. The ad featured two men in black business suits and bowler hats standing in between two packets of flour. A sieve is placed over the head of one of the men and flour poured into it. The processes is repeated with Homepride flour which sieves much quicker as it is graded and the second man is instantly covered in flour turning his black suit white. The reason is explained by the man in the hat; voiced by Dads Army star John Le Mesurier; and his words produced the slogan ‘GRADED GRAINS MAKE FINER FLOURS.’

The campaign succeeded in making Homepride a market leader within four months. These characters became so popular that a leader (Fred) was named by the advertising brains to give a name to the uniform faces. Merchandise such as aprons, peppermills, fridge magnets and various other kitchenalias were produced as ‘collectors’ items. Fred’s image spurned a whole range of sub products for the company and it is still used to sell a variety of Homepride products today. To keep up with changing times made retain a sense of tradition; various comedians such as Richard Briers and Paul Merton have voiced Fred, he is today voiced by Nick Frost from Spaced.

Homepride have managed to infuse their brand identity with that of Fred, their iconic mascot. They have used his effigy on other products such as sauces and kitchen utensils to place the home pride brand firmly into people’s kitchens. However the runaway success of a particular ad campaign does not guarantee an increase of sales of the product it is supposed to promote.

Creature Comforts began life as a short film. It was an incredibly engaging short due to the interaction between fantasy and reality with which it presented the viewer. In his book Understanding Animation Paul Wells describes the relationship between the diegetic narrative and the characters surroundings as fabrication and suggest that it is a narrative strategy. This is to say that ‘fabrication essentially plays out an alternative version of material existence, recalling narrative out of constructed objects and environments, natural forms and substances, and the taken for granted constituent elements of the everyday world.’(Wells, 1998 p90)  This means that there is a relationship between the abstract expression of character through the model and the ‘constituent elements of the everyday world,’ which lends itself more towards mimesis. Despite the fact that animation is an abstract form of expression, these ads have a ‘documentary feel’ that lends a voice of authority to their claims.

 Nick Parks Creature Comforts and the electricity adverts that followed it present a world in which highly stylised models of animals are animated with the voices of members of the British public. The opinions and the voices of the public and then perfectly matched to appropriate animals. The most memorable example being Frank the jogging tortoise. Frank chats to a locked off camera about how nice it is to come back from a ten mile run into a warm flat, and how it is important that the boiler is easily “turn off and onable.” The world being presented to the consumer is instantly recognizable; frank is discussing the simple pleasures of modern life. He is an everyman despite the fact that he is a talking animal.

The affinity between model animation and the physical world in which it is filmed means that it is to a certain extent confined by the physical laws of our world in order to remain recognizable and believable. Of course these laws can are being flouted, model characters can talk and discuss everyday matters like members of the general public, but the relationship between the animated models and the world they inhabit means that when physical law is flouted a sense of the uncanny or the fantastic is achieved.

This is why the shorts or so engaging but it is also why they failed as ads. Despite the fact that the campaign reached number 4 in a 2000 poll of ‘The 100 greatest TV ads,” the common misconception is that the ads were selling gas. As Nick Park himself explains it, “People still refer to them as ‘the gas adverts.’” (Robinson, 2000, p124) Although the ads were highly memorable they failed to link the commercial and the product.

Successful animalised advertising campaigns are based entirely on the same principles as successful live action campaigns. “Advertising’s central function is to create desires that did not previously exist.” (Dyer, 1982 p6) A miss-judged campaign such as the creature comforts campaign may not be deemed successful if it does not stimulate within the consumer a desire to consume a given product. Where as the Kellogg animated mascots for frosties, rice krispies and coco-pops have succeeded in becoming intrinsically infused with the products that they are selling.

One of the main advantages of using animation in advertising is the ability of animators to create environments and worlds that could not be accessed or reproduced by a live action camera crew. These artificial environments can be used to stimulate imagination and desire, to create a fantastical world of possibility, which can then be realised by the purchase of a given product. Coco-pops are advertised by a variety of jungle characters that inhabit a fantastical world of imagination and fun that is extremely appealing to young children.

Also when advertising medical products such as toothpaste, animated medical presentations can be employed. These usually take the form of a split screen with the advertised product on one side of the screen and a leading competitor on the other. The animation will then demonstrate just how the product works and is more effective than a rival brand.

Another appeal of animation to the ad man is the classlessness of the form. (Threadgould, 2005) characters such as the Homepride’s Fred and the Fairy liquid baby are free from the class constraints of traditional British society. They bridge the class gap and appeal to proletariat and privileged alike.

Animation can also be a relatively inexpensive process. Pioneers such as Peter Sachs of Larkin studios and Bob Godfrey of biographic, found quicker cheaper animation methods than the traditional fluid aesthetic style of Disney. They employed jagged and rough stylings that borrowed from German expressionism. The theory being, to use limited animation to maximum effect.  (Threadgould, 2005) By emphasising certain details advertisers can allude to certain qualities that can be associated with the product. For example the Michelin Man’s rounded tyre body alludes to the strength and durability of the tyres but also their malleability.

The problem facing animating advertisers is a problem, which faces animators in general. The immediately obvious thing about animation is that it is an overtly fake diegetic form; that is unlike live action, which is often concerned with replicating the real world to achieve mimesis; the artificial process of creating narrative form is emphasized by the fact that the viewer is witnessing inanimate drawings brought to life through motion. The difficulty here is that advertising is the process of creating desire within the consumer; it suggests that there is a more desirable reality available to its audience through the consumption of a product. Successful animated adverts must therefore reconcile the fact that they are presenting to the consumer a fiction by alluding to an underlying truth.

This is not necessarily problematic; Aesop’s fables were moral tales that spoke of ethical truths through anthropomorphic parable. Stories like the lion and the mouse or the wolf in sheep’s clothing took well-known anthropomorphic traits of certain animals and moulded them into cautionary tales about how one should live their life. In the same way animation selects certain details to present to the viewer to create abstract meaning that a consumer can readily identify with.

The concept of the Jolly Green Giant for example is ludicrous; none of sound mind would actually believe that a giant green man lives in cornfields overseeing the quality of the corn. However symbolically he is representative of the qualities that the company wish to associate with there corn. He is a symbol of strength and power that come from nature. The corn he promotes is healthy strong and wholesome and this health can be acquired by those who consume it. He is jolly and friendly, a gentle giant who cultivates top quality product with a deft touch. We is also bright green the colour of nature, a symbol of health and vitality, the essence of life itself. Through these associations meaning is abstracted rather than dictated. It is the art of gentle persuasion as opposed to ‘the hard sell.’

Many people have preconceived ideas about animation as a whimsical medium suitable only for humour and children’s entertainment; however there are many examples of animation as serious political statement. Halas and Batchelor produced Animal Farm in 1954 as an adaptation of George Orwell’s novel. Scholars have often studied it as an allegory about the rise of Stalinism and the threat of communism, but it is no know that American backer Louis DeReochemount was a front man for the American CIA and the film was purposely used as anti Russian propaganda.  Like any other medium with an understanding of its aesthetic qualities can be used seriously and to devastating effect.

A recent charity advertisement on behalf on the NSPCC depicted an animated child being sadistically and habitually beaten by his father. The ad showed the child being burnt with cigarettes, thrown down stairs and chocked. Humorous sound effects and cartoon clichés along the same style of Tom and Jerry where used. This was a visual and aural aesthetic that the viewers were used to associating with harmless and enjoyable children’s cartoons. However the tension in play between the diegetic aesthetic of the animated child and the mimetic aesthetic of the father and the background environment served to unease, and unsettle to the point of disturbing the viewer. The viewer was left to imagine the results of such violence on a real child and the commercial’s effectiveness at highlighting the concerns of the NSPCC was undeniable.

So why has animation become an effective tool in animation? The answer to this question lies within the concept of brand and brand identity. If the aim of the advertiser is to communicate the identity of a given brand as quickly and as succinctly as possible, then animation is an ideal medium.

 In his book ‘Ad worlds: Brand, media, and audiences.’ Greg Myers defines branding as “the attachment of meanings to a labelled product.” (Myers, 1998, p33) That is to say that semiotic associations are associated with a given brand through the way it is produced, placed, promoted and priced. For example Guinness is a uniquely produced stout that is ubiquitously placed in almost every pub of the nation. It has a history of promoting itself through humour as a traditional drink to unwind and relax with and it is priced at a slight premium to give it a hint of exclusivity.

Wally Olins suggests that a modern world that has become saturated with advertising, branding has become an essential tool in order for the consumer to quickly decipher to advertisers message before they are distracted by a competitor. In the words of Olins; “Why are brands such a clear and unique manifestation of our time? Simply because in a world that is bewildering in terms of competitive clamour, in which rational choice has become almost extinct, brands represent clarity, reassurance, consistency, status, membership –b everything that enables human beings to define themselves. Brands represent identify.” (Olins, 2003, p27)

Getting consumers to empathise with a brand identity, and to desire to become a part of that identity can be extenuated through the use of a brand character. From Tony the Tiger to Joe Camel and the re-imagination of the milky bar kid to animated form, drawn and animated characters have been used to sell everything from children’s toys to cigarettes. These characters become intrinsically linked to the qualities of the product that they are selling. So what is it about the process of creating an animated character that is so effective in advertising? 

In his book ‘Understanding Animation;’ Paul Wells sums up the basic principles of characterization as a narrative strategy in animation as; “the character may be understood through its costume or construction, it’s ability to gesture or move and the associative aspects of its design.” (Wells, 1998, p105)

Regardless of if an animated character is an animal or human, animators rarely try to completely reproduce natural form. As such the problem is that they are presenting viewers with unnatural looking beings. If the viewer is to accept the characters shown before them, the characters themselves must be presented as believable.  This is why animators rely on exaggeration of individual features to suggest certain character types. Halas and Manvell describe this in their book ‘the technique of film Animation. ”Characterization is achieved by the distortion of shapes and forms – big eyes, big mouth, big nose, large head small body etc.” (Halas and Manvell, 1968, p65) What the animators are stressing are the gesturing parts of the body, particularly the features of the head. The eyes, nose, mouth and ears are all vital in creating the illusion of human emotion. Anthropomorphic qualities in animals such as the strength of Tony the Tiger can be used promote a product as healthy or enabling strength.

There is a general rule of thumb with regards to which shapes go with what characters: kind gentle characters tend to have soft rounded faces with wide smiles and large rounded eyes. The Pillsbury Dough Boy is a great example of this principle. He is the embodiment of the jolly fat man. Generalizations such as this one serve as visual shorthand for the viewer; they optimise the impact of the character through economy and allow the viewer to make semiotic connections and process narrative information about the characters more quickly. In the words of Wells, animation “manages to compress a high degree of narrative information into a limited period of time through a process of condensation.”(Wells, 1998, p76)

This method of economy and condensation in animation characterisation was born out of functionality as much as anything. Partially it was due to the fact that advertisements are extremely short. As such narrative information has to be delivered with great speed. In the medium of the television commercial, advertisers have anywhere between ten and thirty seconds in order to convey their message. As such the visual shorthand that animation design employs is perfect for the fast and accurate communication of the advertisers message.   With television being the dominant domain of the animated short, characters have to be easily recognizable on a small screen. It’s much easier to do this by recognizing one or two strong individual characteristics than several small ones. Most importantly however the simpler that a character is to draw, the quicker they become to reproduce.They rely on caricature and stereotype to relay narrative information quickly and succinctly.

The Homepride flour men discussed earlier in this essay are a great example of how an understanding of characterisation in animation can give rise to a successful marketing campaign. They had a simple uniform design that was all at once, striking, memorable, unique and simple. The business suits and bowler hats stood for a business like British attitude, that at the same time was overly extravagant for selling flour and as such was self mocking. The characters were taken to the heart of the nation. With the effigy of Fred on all sorts of kitchen utensils his rightful place became the kitchens of British homesteads, and as such so did the Homepride brand.

The twin process of animated character development and product branding both strive towards condensing as much narrative information into the least amount of detail possible and the shortest amount of time available.  Animation is an intrinsically imaginative medium. The human mind goes through a thought process of abstracting meaning from an animated diegetic aesthetic. It inspires thought in the way that advertisers wish to inspire thoughts of desire. It can be a pleasing experience in the example of Homepride’s Fred commercials, or it can be disturbing in such a way that the NSPCC have employed, either way the reaction provoked is one of individual thought and identification which in turn promotes the consumer to consume.

Bibliography

Bordwell and Thompson. (2001) Film Art: An Introduction, New York: McGraw Hill.

Canemaker, J. (ed.) (1988) Storytelling in Animation: The Art of the Animated Image Vol. 2, Los Angeles: AFI.

Dyer, Gillian. Advertising as Communication. London, Routledge, 1982.

Griffin, H. (2001) The Animators guide to 2D Computer Animation, Oxford: Focal Press,

Halas, J and Manvell, R. (1968) The Technique of Film Animation, Norwich: Focal press Limited.

Kline, S. (1993) Out Of The Garden: Toys, TV and Children’s Culture in the age of Marketing, London: Verso.

Myers, Greg. Ad Worlds: Brands, Media, Audiences, Arnold, 1998.

Ollins, Wally. On Brand, Thames & Hudson, London, 2003.

Robinson, M. (2000) 100 Greatest TV Ads, London: Harper Collins.

Wells, P. (1998) Understanding Animation, New York: Routledge.

Williams, R. (2001) The Animators Survival Kit, New York: Faber and Faber.

Websites
(All accessed 27/11/05)

www.bcdb.com
www.bfi.co.uk
http://business.timesonline.co.uk/article/0,,9071-1560670,00.html
www.kellogs.com

Filmography

Animation Nation: The art of persuasion (Dir Merryn Threadgould, 2005, UK)
Four Mations: Electric Passions (Dir Paul Madden, 1996, UK)
100 Greates TV Ads (Dir Mark Robinson, 2000,  UK)

Characterisation in 2D Animations

The main problem that animation faces is that it is an overtly fake diegetic form. The viewer is presented with a constructed reality of drawings and paintings, which may represent the real world, but unlike photographic film, does not look like it. The challenge therefore is to create characters that may believably inhabit their particular diegetic reality. Animators have strived to find a way to resolve this issue through their character design and an awareness of how to deliver narrative information through their characters. This essay will illustrate the solutions that animators have found to make their audiences believe what is put in front of them.

In 1914 Winsor McCay took up the (self-imposed) challenge of making dinosaurs live again via animation. The result was Gertie the Dinosaur a semi-live act with McCay performing onstage with the projected film behind him. Gertie herself was obviously an animated projection and to make her believable she had to have a strong individual character.

McCay achieved this through his own ‘interactions’ with the character of Gertie. He talks to her and asks her to perform tricks, which she obliges to do. We are also drawn attention to the fact that she is thirsty and she drains a lake. The performance would climax with her picking up McCay (as he exits the stage.) and bounding of the screen with him on his back.

Through this series of call and response between the live action McCay and the animated Gertie, McCay creates the illusion of human understanding within the animated dinosaur. There is also at one point a look of glee in her face after a fight scene when she throws the defeated mammoth into a lake. Through the human interaction and the animation McCay has anthropomorphically endowed the animated creature with human emotions: he has made her believable to the audience by giving her recognizable human traits.

In his book ‘Understanding Animation’ Paul Wells recognizes that the use of attributing animated animal characters anthropomorphic characteristics has become a mainstay of character development. It will be discussed in further detail later in the essay.

The basic principles of characterization as a narrative strategy in animation have been summed up by Wells. The character may be understood through its costume or construction, it’s ability to gesture or move and the associative aspects of its design. It is pertinent at this point to discuss these aspects of character design.

Regardless of if an animated character is an animal or human, animators rarely try to completely reproduce natural form. As such the problem is that they are presenting viewers with unnatural looking beings. If the viewer is to accept the characters shown before them, the characters themselves must be presented as believable. This is why animators rely on exaggeration of individual features to suggest certain character types. Halas and Manvelldescribe this in their book ‘the technique of film Animation. Characterization is achieved by the distortion of shapes and forms big eyes, big mouth, big nose, large head small body etc.

What is stressed by animators is the gesturing parts of the body, particularly the features of the head. The eyes, nose, mouth and ears are all vital in creating the illusion of human emotion. There is a general rule of thumb with regards to which shapes go with what characters: kind gentle characters tend to have soft rounded faces with wide smiles and large rounded eyes. Porky Pig is a great example of this principle. He is the embodiment of the jolly fat man. Villains on the other hand are much more angular. They often have a rather sharp chin and small eyes and a crooked mouth that somehow lends itself to a wicked smile. They are often presented as grotesque, much like the Evil queen in Snow White and her incarnation as the old crone. These generalizations serve as visual shorthand for the viewer; they optimise the impact of the character through economy and allow the viewer to make connections and process narrative information about the characters more quickly. In the words of Wells, animation manages to compress a high degree of narrative information into a limited period of time through a process of condensation.

This method of economy and condensation was born out of functionality as much as anything. Partially it was due to the fact that cartoons are usually very short. As such narrative information has to be delivered with great speed. Also when television became the dominant domain of the animated short, characters had to be easily recognizable on the small screen. It’s much easier to do this by recognizing one or two strong individual characteristics than several small ones. Most importantly however the simpler that a character is to draw, the quicker they become to reproduce. They rely on caricature and stereotype to relay narrative information quickly and succinctly.

Halas and Manvell go on in their book to describe the visual style of Tom and Jerry in terms of the aesthetic principles of animation: The drawing and coloring have an economy and a visual impact that matches the overwhelming vitality and sometimes the crudity of the action and characterization. This highlights the importance of economy. Extraneous details can confuse the situation and detract from overall characterization. What is needed is a just a couple of well-chosen details.

In 1917 Max Fleischer invented the rotoscope. This device allowed animators to successfully mimic natural movement by blowing up still frames of photography and allowing the animator to copy them exactly. Max and his brother Dave were both inspired by the work of Winsor McCay and between them were instrumental in the development of both technological and character development of animation.
The rotoscope worked by using a drawing board with a frosted glass center. One frame of photography at a time was shone onto the glass and the image was traced. It provided an accurate reference of movement and articulation so that on screen movement could be replicated with a lot more fluidity. By doing this animators were able to draw more complicated figures in a believable and convincing way.
Richard Willams has drawn examples of some of these more complicated characters in his book ‘the animators survival kit.’ The examples that will be discussed here are the representation of the young and old woman as drawn by Williams. By taking two examples of opposing but similar characters, we can see how the rotoscope paved the way for the development of characterization in animation.
The young woman is characterized mainly be her curvaceous figure. She has a strong convex curve along her back and an hourglass figure that extenuates her breast, slim waist and shoulders. She stands upright and tall. She also has sleek long legs and flowing long hair. This form communicates her youth vitality and energy. The old woman by contrast has a much rounder concave curve of the back, which seems to curve round into her body giving her a rounded torso. The breast is also molded into this rounded torso that desexualizes her. Her hair is also shorter. She is hunched forward making her look tired and weary. The lower body is also rounded and she wears a long skirt to cover the legs. In contrast we see only the ankles and feet of the old woman and she is given short dumpy legs.
These two examples show the importance of form and shape in delivering character information. These two figures could represent the same character at different ages but the presentation of form provides us with completely different information about the characters.

Williams also stresses the importance of movement to illustrate character. As stated earlier this art of animation was greatly enhanced by the development of the rotoscope. The way that a character moves can be fluid and smooth which would suggest grace or elegance. Alternatively movements can be jerky or plodding, which will in turn infer characteristics of weakness or foolishness. Again he uses examples to discuss and illustrate the main differences between the masculine and feminine walk.
The feminine walk is smooth and elegant. She keeps her legs close together and as such the footsteps run straight along the line of action. As a result there is very little up and down body movement. The feminine walk seems to glide along the line of action. The masculine walk however is much more aggressive. The feet are kept well apart, far out from the line of action. The masculine walk is a full on stride, which makes the character as wide as possible. There is much more up and down movement on the body. This makes the walk much more kinetic and at the same time suggests power and strength.
Much like the generalizations about character form, these conventions can be subverted to comic effect or to deliver more information. For example a Masculine walk may become a drunken walk if the feet are allowed to cross the line of action. (I.E. if the right foot passes across the center of the body and steps down on the left and vice versa.) Through these examples it is clear that the way that the animator makes the character move is vital to characterization.

The Fleischer brothers were also responsible for two of the most beloved cartoon characters of the thirties: Popeye and Betty Boop. These two characters are archetypes of hero and heroine character traits. It seems only fitting therefore to discuss how these characters are so distinct, and the methods used to give them such strong individual identities.

Popeye originally appeared in Comic strip form some years before his screen debut in 1933. During this time of American economic depression he was a figure of aspiration for the workingman. As a navy man he had a career that stood for American strength and pride; this also made him stand out as the champion of the just causes. As such he was the embodiment of the strong everyman in times of hardship.

He is identified as a sailor by the uniform that he wears with style and pride. He embodies the macho sailor stereotype by striding along with a sailor’s walk, feet apart rocking from side to side. He also has the iconic tattoo of an anchor on his arm; this marks him out as a man who figuratively wears his heart on his sleeve. His physical appearance is defined by the exaggeration of his muscle; importantly however Popeye’s strength comes from eating spinach. Although he is always strong and muscular, it is not until he eats the spinach that he has the strength needed to defeat Bluto. After he has eaten the spinach his forearms are inflated to appear three times the normal size. As Wells points out Popeye’s masculinity is predominantly defined by the association between his own organic expansion and the strength of hard metal or machines. As his muscles grow they either transform shape into anvils or air brakes or we see moving pictures of locomotives or battleships on his form arms. Popeye’s physical strength therefore is amplified by the imagery but he also associated with American mechanical or military strength.

Popeye is remembered for his fights with Bluto but the important thing to bear in mind is that he is not a troublemaker and is usually a very amiable character. He has the characteristic rounded face of the jolly fat man. He walks around with a smile making jokes to himself and being generally full of life. There is also his voice that characterizes him as a salty old piece of seaweed. It is only when his girlfriend Olive Oil is put in jeopardy that he is called into fight; thus he is characterized as a rescuer rather than a man of violence.

Betty Boop first appeared in 1930 in the cartoon Dizzy Dishes. Her Face and body defined her femininity; she has a large head with huge childish doe eyes and full red lips. She also has the typical hourglass figure with a full bust that shows of a lot of cleavage. She was also a dancer and her movement and walk were characterized mainly by the feminine swing of the hips. After the first cartoon her skirts got smaller and smaller and she became much more overtly sexualized. She was an embodiment of femininity – or at least the male fantasy of femininity. The blend of sexual charge and childlike innocence that came through mainly from her eyes and her distinctive voice disturbed the censors. Her raunchiness was toned down after the Hayes code of 1934.

Now that the development of human characterization has been addressed; it is important at this point to addresses the role of anthropomorphism again. The rise and success of the animation of Walt Disney, Chuck Jones and Tex Avery are prime examples of how the lending of human characteristics to animals and vice versa has created some of the must vivid and enduring icons of animation. Bugs Bunny, Daffy Duck, Mickey Mouse, Donald Duck et al have become such fixed images in the popular psyche that it is important to understand what made these characters so memorable.

When dealing with animals we must bear in mind the association that people already have with those particular beasts. Any given animal will have a mythology and literary tradition that comes with it; by being away of these traditions animators have been able to associate these ancient traditions with their own creations. For example foxes are sly and cunning; sharks are ferocious and unforgiving; horse and lions are heroic and noble creatures both ferocious yet majestic. When an animator is devising a character they tend to marry the preconceived ideas that people have about a particular beast with the traits they desire for their character. This is what wells calls ‘associative relations’ and opens the form of animation into a narrative dialectic that requires an extra-textual understanding on behalf of the viewer.

A good example of how the principle of associative relations works would be Kaa from The Jungle Book. The snake has a literary history that dates back to the story of Adam and Eve. It was the seductive yet untrustworthy snake that facilitated mans fall from paradise. The snake is sly; professing friendship but always has his own agenda. The snake glides along the flow in a smooth fluid motion, which is at once deadly and seductive. Kaa is attributed with these characteristics through legend and association. This is further illustrated by his ability of hypnotism, which is of course a human discipline. He talks to Mowgli and soothes him to sleep with soft words and hypnosis in order to eat him. In dealing with associations that are so deeply rooted in the common psyche the characters themselves become instantly memorable.

Animal characteristics can also be applied to human characters. Heroes are often seen riding horses; the horse itself is a creature of nobility and heroism; and the tradition of the hero on horse back is one that has permeated every folklore around the globe. The human therefore basks in the reflective glory of its animal companion. The best way to summarize the use of anthropomorphism in characterization is to say that the human in the animal identifies the human character within. In turn the animal in the human illustrates and enriches the character of the human.

Animators create artificial worlds and diegetic domains for characters to inhabit. As mentioned at the outset of this essay the problem is that the animated world we are presented with is so overtly fake that it is a challenge to make the characters believable. Animators exploit the fantasy element of their work; they draw attention to the fact that we are presented with talking pigs and indestructible heroes through comic exaggeration of their abilities and their follies. However what Animators do manage to do; is insert enough natural movement and recognizable human emotion into their creations that we except them fully as real believable characters within their own right.

Bibliography

Bordwell and Thompson. (2001) Film Art: An Introduction, New York: McGraw Hill.
Canemaker, J. (ed.) (1988) Storytelling in Animation: The Art of the Animated Image Vol. 2, Los Angeles: AFI.
Griffin, H. (2001) The Animators guide to 2D Computer Animation, Oxford: Focal Press,
Halas, J and Manvell, R. (1968) The Technique of Film Animation, Norwich: Focal press Limited.
Wells, P. (1998) Understanding Animation, New York: Routledge.
Williams, R. (2001) The Animators Survival Kit, New York: Faber and Faber.

Human Resource Planning Paper Assignment Animation Essay

Human Resource planning is a process of developing the strategies of skills of the employees to reach the organizational needs. The role of the Human Resource Planning in a organization is to recruit the right person for right work, and work to meet organizational objectives and make the employees to respond to changes that made in the organization as well as changes made in the outside of the organization. Training and retraining strategies are also including in the Human Resource Planning Process.

Most of the organization wants Human Resource Planning Systems which is simple to understand, where the assumptions that can modified, also which are not take long time. To run such systems organization needs good monitoring action processes, approximate demand models, and an understanding how the resource that works in that organization.

Human Resource Activities:

Staffing: Attract the best Professional and Technical talents which are really organization needs to reach the organization Objectives.

Compensation: To attract that needed talent they should set and give the good salary that will meet or some extra of market rates.

Training and Development: This is the important activity of the Human Resource Team. HR activity is to tell employees about the skill requirements that needed to reach the organization goals and start giving the training needed to improve the skills of the employees in their particular fields.

Employee Relation: Maintaining the good relation between the all employees is very important and to maintain that relation HR has to set Some Basic Employee relation Rules of organization.

I have chosen Vodafone Company to Discuss about Human Resource Planning In this paper. The Role of the Human Resource Planning Team is to create a plan of action to supply the demand. The main 4 steps of the Human Resource Planning Team is to

  1. Set Objectives
  2. Generate Alternatives
  3. Assess Alternatives
  4. Choose Alternative

ABOUT VODAFONE

Vodafone is one of the world’s leading company in mobile telecommunication, with a great presence in Asia, Europe, and the United States. Vodafone is an truly international mobile network company with having more than 260 million customers across the 2 markets and also partner networks in 42 more countries. In the United States this group operates as Verizon Wireless. Vodafone is 1st in UK and 11th globally in the Brands most powerful brands ranking.

VODAFONE OVER THE YEARS

Vodafone was started in 1984 under the name of Racal Electronics Plc. After in September 1991 it is demerged from the Racal Electronics Plc and changed the name to Vodafone Group Plc. Again after merging with the AirTouch Communications, Inc., Vodafone Changed its name to Vodafone AirTouch Plc on 29 June 1999. On 28 July 2000 it changed to the former name Vodafone Group Plc.

KEY MILESTONES OF VODAFONE

  • In January 2007 Vodafone reaches their number of customers to 200 million.
  • In March 2006 Vodafone customers with 3G is reached to 10 million.
  • In 2004 Vodafone launches their first 3G service in Europe.
  • In 2002 Vodafone starts global mobile payment in Germany. This helps customers to buy goods by using the Vodafone mobile.
  • Also in 2002 only Vodafone Starts the GPRS roaming Service, it helps customers to access e-mails on their phone.
  • In 2001 Vodafone Introduces SMS.
  • Vodafone makes the first 3G roaming call in world in between Japan and Spain.

The role of the mobile phone in the society has changed tremendously over the years. Vodafone is having 1,150 directly owned stores, which sell services to new customers upgrade or renew for existing customers and also Vodafone having 6,500 branded stores, which sell Vodafone’s products and services exclusively. And also Vodafone is planning to open 90 more stores in Spain and 21 more stores in Romania during this year.

“Mission Statement/Statement of Values

Vision and Values

Our Vision and Values guide the way we act.

Our Vision

To be the world’s mobile communication leader enriching our customers’ lives through the unique power of mobile communications.

Our Values

Our Values are about the way we do things. They describe the way Vodafone people are expected to behave within the business, to help turn our vision to reality.

  • Passion for customers: “Our customers have chosen to trust us. In return, we must strive to anticipate and understand their needs and delight them with our service.”
  • Passion for our people: “Outstanding people working together make Vodafone exceptionally successful.”
  • Passion for results: “We are action-oriented and driven by a desire to be the best.”
  • Passion for the world around us: “We will help the people of the world to have fuller lives – both through the services we provide and through the impact we have on the world around us (csr globe)”.

In Vodafone they are providing very good training for their employees to reach their

Goals. The few tasks of the HR Training Developer in Vodafone are:

  • Perform development, of training materials and user documentation within HR
  • Perform delivery of super user/train the trainer/end user sessions
  • Produce training needs analysis as required for HR
  • Owner of the Finance element of the core training library
  • Liaison with transformation, and the transition team (vodafone careers)”.

For the “Excellent HR Initiative Award” Vodafone Malta has been selected by the Foundation for Human Resources Development. This award tells that the company’s encouragement for employees towards their career growth and as well as company’s growth. And it tells about the good training that Vodafone is providing to their employees to reach the organization goals.

Vodafone conducts the Performance Management Process to rate the employees. Calibration is an important step in the Performance Management Process to rate the employees in a fair throughout the organization.

Martin Gregory, Vodafone Malta Head of Human Resources, said: “Our people have a big impact on how we perform as a business and on our success. We are proud to be recognized by the Foundation for Human Resources Development for our accomplishments in this area.”

“Matthew Brearley, Director of HR, Comms & Property for Vodafone Ltd talks about building staff momentum and leading through budget cuts in this most modern of giants.

Matthew Brearley was appointed UK HR Director at Vodafone in 2006 having previously worked at British Foods, B&Q and Marks and Spencer. At M&S Matthew’ Brearley’s role involved overseeing the People Strategy and transformation of HR for a workforce of 57,000 employees across 320 stores.Matthew is currently applying his skills and experience to drive performance and efficiencies at Vodafone.

Matthew Brearley holds a key role on the UK board working closely with Vodafone’s UK CEO Nick Read. Matthew Brearleyis truly focussed on HR at the heart of business, how Vodafone must drive through change in an increasingly tight economy, and the critical role of leaders (meettheboss, 2009)”.

The purpose of the HR function in Vodafone is they take the real company strategy and it’s bring into the live organization to the people to build the capabilities and creating the environment and culture. The main Steps in the Human Resource Planning are Forecasting, Inventory, and audit.

“Short-Term Human Resource Planning

Many I/O psychologists work on activities related to designing and implementing programs (e.g., recruitment, selection systems, and training programs) to meet shortterm organizational needs. Such activities generally involve an element of planning in that they are future-oriented to some extent. Even projects for which objectives are expected to be achieved in as little time as a few

months have, ideally, been designed with an understanding of how the short-term objectives are linked to the achievement of longer term objectives. For example, an aeronautics company engaged in a recruitment campaign to hire 100 engineers should have a clear understanding

of how this hiring goal will help the company achieve long-term goals such as becoming the world’s most innovative company in that industry. This hypothetical company also might have a college recruiting drive designed to find 75 college graduates to enter a trainingprogram in recognition of the fact that a growing company needs to prepare for the middle managers it will

need 5 to 7 years hence, as well as the top level managers it will need in 10 to 15 years. As this hypothetical example highlights, in order for a clear linkage to exist between human resource planning and strategic business planning, it is essential that an organization’s top executives have

a fully articulated vision for the future, which has been communicated and accepted by managers throughout the organization.

Long-Term Human Resource Planning:

Increasingly, long-term human resource planning (for beyond three years) is becoming critical to the effective functioning of organizations. The rapidly changing and highly competitive worldwide marketplace is causing firms to turn to their human resources for survival and competitiveness. Because there is a greater understanding that an organization’s work force cannot be turned around

on a dime, long-term human resource planning is gaining currency. It is an activity that demands integration of the skills and knowledge of the human resource planner and all the other executives responsible for strategic planning. Although there are many types of long-term planning efforts, we use succession planning as our primary example of the process (HRPlanning pdf)”.

Japanese animation and how its been influenced by American culture in the 20th century

Introduction

In this essay I shall investigate to what extent twentieth century American culture has influenced Japanese animation. I shall examine the history of Japanese film, paying close attention to the rise of animation as an independent art form; determine what facets of American culture have appeared and influenced Japanese animation, including language, pop culture and consumerism; present two case studies of Japanese animated productions that adhere to the American influence; and draw conclusions from my findings.

For my research I shall be referencing literature on Japanese animation, American culture and film history. The case studies shall consist of films by Osamu Tezuka and Mamoru Oshii.

History of Japanese Animation

The Japanese film industry was born out of the fascination with Edison’s Kinetoscope. The Kinetoscope had been first shown in New York in 1894, and two years later the Japanese imported several to their cities. This was a period of celebration and novelty as the Sino-Japanese war had been won in 1895 with Japan forcing the Chinese invasion out of Korea; proving that Japan could adjust to the modern civilization [sic] which less than fifty years earlier had arrived knocking at the closed gates of the country in the person of Commodore Perry. It was the reign of Emperor Meiji, spanning 44 years from 1868 to 1912, which welcomed an era of rapid commercial expansion. In 1897, the Lumière brothers’ Cinématographe arrived with a mixed bill of films including ‘Baignade en Mer’ and ‘L’Arrivée d’un Train en Gare’. This was followed by the Edison Vitascope and its films ‘The Death of Mary Queen of Scots’ and ‘Feeding Pigeons’. These innovative projectors were extremely popular with the Japanese, including the future Emperor Taisho. The public were arriving in their thousands to watch these films and continued to do so for another twenty years. Throughout this period the Japanese were importing films from Europe and the United States.

It was only in 1912 that Japan founded its first production company; Nikkatsu Motion Picture Company. Established as an independent company under the title Japan Cinematograph Company, Nikkatsu started mass distribution and production of films in the 1920s. This meant that Japan was still dependant on films produced in the West to exhibit in its cinemas in the 1910s. During the First World War (1914-1918) European films were unavailable and to fill the void Japan began to heavily import films from Hollywood. One particular film that was to change the way the Japanese read film narrative was D.W. Griffith’s 1916 feature, ‘Intolerance’. Perhaps the director nost influenced by Griffith in this early period of Japanese film was Norimasa Kaeriyama. Kaeriyama introduced advanced film technique into Japan and helped establish the ‘Film Record’, the country’s first motion picture magazine. His films were heavily inspired by the Hollywood narrative structure and were dedicated to: the introduction of long-, medium-, and close-shots, together with editing principles; the conversion to realistic acting; and the use of actresses in women’s roles instead of oyama (oyama impersonators were previously used instead of actresses for female roles).

After the death of Emperor Taisho in 1926 Japan’s new Emperor, Showa (Hirohito), began to reject the liberal attitudes towards Western influence of his predecessor. There was more emphasis on creating greater armies and a more powerful navy than building diplomatic relations. Before the Great Depression rocked the United States and Europe, Japan had already suffered; this was accelerated by the population boom across the country. Japan now put emphasis into its manufacturing and exportation of goods. Japan’s foreign policy had become one of aggressive expansion; they had seized control of the railways in Shandong, China, but were forced to withdraw after China boycotted Japanese exports. There was unrest in the country as labour unions were growing and dissatisfaction bred. Strikes and boycotts were rife, and this was reflected in the films of the time. Period drama films afforded the public the luxury of escapism while, on the other end of the scale, left-wing ‘tendency films’ that “sought to encourage, or fight against, a given social tendency” played to the nation. This period of filmmaking in Japan proved that the industry had grown up from its humble origins and was establishing its own themes.

The influx of the ‘talkies’ from Hollywood finally pushed Japanese filmmakers to produce their own sound filmes. In the early 1930s sound became the norm for Japanese productions and therefore pushed the boundaries of the industry; allowing directors such as Teinosuke Kinugasa to create lavish dramas that were adored by the public. Suddenly the door was open for filmmakers to adapt historic tales dramatically. These dramas were singled out by the Emperor who saw them as an important tool to boost the nation’s morale, showing the masses how important history was; and how important it was to actually make their own history. The second Sino-Japanese war was not unexpected. The film industry had to develop the skills to produce the war genre. The first Japanese war movie was Tomotaka Tasaka’s 1938 feature, ‘Five Scouts’ (Gonin no Sekkohei). It is interesting to note that this film does not include the pride, nationalism or propaganda that was being released in the United States, Britain or Germany. The story dealt with the lives of five soldiers caught up in a battle that they know they must fight. This narrative development of character over plot is still used in modern cinema, most recently in Sam Mendes’ ‘Jarhead’ (2005).

After the destruction of the Second World War, Japan was forced to rebuild as a nation. The Emperor saw the need to keep the cinemas open (at least those that still remained). Production continued, some unfinished films were abandoned due to their military narrative, and projects that had been discarded before the outbreak of war were completed. The occupying Allied interim ‘government’ announced a list of prohibited subjects, these included militarism, revenge, nationalism, religious or racial discrimination, feudal loyalty, suicide, cruelty, exploitation of children and opposition to the occupation. Editorial power had been taken away from the filmmakers and left with a foreign military presence. Out of this period two important directors were to emerge; Kurosawa and Kinoshita.In 1950, Akira Kurosawa’s ‘Rashomon’ was released. The film introduced new ideas to Japanese, and world, cinema. It was the first film to use flashbacks that disagreed with the action they were flashing back to. It supplied first-person eyewitness accounts that differed radically; one of which came from beyond the grave. The final scene saw no Hollywood resolution with three self-confessed killers and no explanation. His later films included ‘Seven Samurai’ (Shichinin no samurai) (1954), ‘The Hidden Fortress’ (Kakushi-toride no san-akunin) (1958) and ‘Yojimbo’ (1961). Keisuke Kinoshita directed Japan’s first colour film in 1951 with ‘Carmen Comes Home’ (Karumen kokyo ni kaeru). Kinoshita’s work is much lighter than that of Kurosawa and his influences seem to come from French comedies; most notably in the two Carmen movies featuring the ‘stripper-with-a-heart-of-gold’ Carmen. Both these and other films explore the need for a character to leave the countryside and head to the new cities. This was echoed in Japan’s successful attempts to join the United Nations in 1956.

In 1958 the first cartoon feature from Japan was released from the Toei studios. ‘Panda and the Magic Serpent’ (Hakuja den) was directed by Kazuhiko Okabe and Taiji Yabushita and tells of two lovers in ancient China who must battle evil to find happiness. The film combines bizarre supernatural sequences, psychedelic montages and instantly likeable songs. Even though it can be argued that this is the Japanese interpretation of Disney’s 1940 classic ‘Fantasia’, ‘Panda and the Magic Serpent’ heralds the beginning of the Japanese animation industry (anime).

Anime is the term used to describe Japanese animation. Since the 1950s Japan has been at the forefront of not only producing animation but is a world-leader in comic book art, or ‘Manga’. It is best described by Gilles Poitras: “Anime (pronounced ah-nee-may), as defined by common non-Japanese fan usage, is any animation made in Japan. In Japan, the word simply means ‘animation’. While anime is sometimes erroneously referred to as a ‘genre’, it is in reality an art form that includes all the genres found in cinema or literature, from heroic epics and romances to science fiction and comedy.” Whereas anime is what people would refer to as cartoons, Manga is the illustrated storyboards that the reader animates in his or her head. The fact that Manga is read by a whole cross-section of society is notable because it is; simply too fascinating, colorful [sic], and rich a literary medium to be left solely to children”.

The 1960s saw a host of anime films released. In ‘The Enchanted Monkey’ (Saiyu-ki), directed by Daisaku Shirakawa, Taiji Yabushita and Osamu Tezuka in 1960, the story is a retelling of part of the epic Chinese classic, ‘The Journey to the West’, written by Wu Cheng-En in the sixteenth century. This technique of updating early stories was a popular theme in anime and is still used today. However, it was not only the cinema that was releasing anime productions. Japanese television aired ‘Mighty Atom’ (Tetsuwan Atomu) from 1963 to 1966. ‘Mighty Atom’ was the creation of Dr Osamu Tezuka, an influential figure in the early development of Manga. It was the first animated series produced by Tezuka’s television and film production company, Mushi Studios. The initial episode was shown as a television special on New Year’s Eve (one of the most widely viewed evenings on Japanese television) and became an instant success. When the series was shown in the United States the character’s name was changed to ‘Astroboy’ due to DC Comics already owning a character called ‘The Mighty Atom’. The series proved to be extremely popular with children, and sparked controversy amongst parents who, even though the translation was greatly softened and sometimes edited for juvenile audiences, complained that the often dark subject matter was not suitable for impressionable young minds. Some episodes exhibited increasingly dreamlike and surreal imagery. This argument still persists today with the debate on whether graphic violence in cartoons (or anime) can prove detrimental to a young audience.

The 1970s was a time of consolidation for the animation studios. The worldwide popularity of anime had afforded hundreds of studios to be set up to produce a plethora of films and television series. The moon landing in 1969 fired the imagination of the world with more emphasis on science fiction; and that is what the audience wanted. Fans of anime, or ‘otaku’, from around the world demanded new productions from these studios, and in turn the studios delivered new and advanced films. Otaku derives from the Chinese character for ‘house’ and the honorific prefix ‘o-‘. This translates as ‘your honourable house’. It is an extremely polite way of saying ‘you’ when addressing another person in conversation; the writer Akio Nakamori proposed that the term be applied to the fans themselves. Another interpretation, as used by the Japanese media, is that of ‘extreme fixation’, which is probably closer to the truth. Either way it is the fans of anime that have been the driving force behind its success.

In 1971 an animator directed 24 episodes of an anime series called ‘Lupin III’ (Rupan sansei). It was the start of a very important career for perhaps the most important animator to come out of Japan. This man was Hayao Miyazaki. The series ran from 1971 to 1972 and was so successful that a number of sequels were made as well as theatrical releases. ‘Lupin III’ describes the life of gang members in 1970s society. The action targeted the adult audience with its violence, sex, dark humour and contemporary soundtrack. Eight years later Miyazaki went on to direct ‘The Castle of Cagliostro’ (Rupan sansei: Kariosutoro no shiro). The film is a continuation of the Lupin franchise that started with the television series in 1971. The emphasis is on the characters rather than the plot; a trait that Miyazaki develops over the course of his career. Even though the film is far from being one of the best examples of anime from the 1970s, the pace, comedy and willingness to show anti-heroes captures the feeling of the decade. Another example of an anime series that became global was ‘Gatchaman Science Ninjas’ (Kagaku ninja tai Gatchaman). This series originally ran from 1972 to 1974 in Japan before being renamed ‘Battle of the Planets’ when it aired in the United States in 1978. Yet again the re-dubbed, re-edited version was toned down for the Western audience, so much so that the series was moved from Earth to outer space; sequences with a robot (7-Zark-7) were added to patch the ‘safer’ storylines together, make up for the lost (edited) footage and jump on the ‘Star Wars’ R2-D2 bandwagon; exploding planes and ships were always ‘robot-controlled’ and Spectra forces constantly ejected. The original ‘Gatchaman’ series introduced characters that had feelings and motivation; there was character development and ongoing sub-plots. They sought revenge, felt jealousy and fear, had relationships, and got hurt. The villains were unabashedly evil, not misguided. The heroes didn’t always win, at least not completely.It was as if the West was still not ready to embrace anime and Manga as an art form that was acceptable for adults to enjoy. Anime was still widely seen as cartoons for children in the 1970s.

The Japanese animation industry went from strength to strength in the 1980s. It was the decade that saw the Western world finally succumb to the power of anime. This was a two-pronged attack; a Manga pincer movement. For those that still believed animation was for children there was the extraordinary global phenomenon that was ‘Transformers’, and for those that were looking for an alternative cult classic there was ‘Akira’. In 1984, American toy manufacturer Hasbro bought the rights to produce transforming robots from Japanese company Takara. To bolster the sales of their new line Hasbro decided to use anime as the frontline attack on the target audience (children). The result was the extremely successful ‘Transformer’ series. This series led to the production of the 1986 feature film, ‘Transformers: The Movie’. This was the first real evidence of American culture, in its consumer form, influencing Japanese animation. In stark contrast of the ‘animation-as-advert’, Katsuhiro Ôtomo directed the 1988 classic ‘Akira’. The film was soon to become a benchmark for anime in Japan, and across the world. This was a film that was aimed at adults with dark, subversive themes. The futuristic settings of ‘Neo-Tokyo’ were apocalyptic and tinged with doom. After ‘Akira’ it was widely accepted that anime was not just for children.

The 1990s saw anime reach mass appeal as the release of such films as ‘Patlabor’ (Kidô keisatsu patorebâ) (1990), ‘Patlabor II’ (Kidô keisatsu patorebâ 2) (1993) and ‘Ghost in the Shell’ (Kôkaku kidôtai) (1995) by Mamoru Oshii found an international audience; Hideaki Anno and Kazuya Tsurumaki’s 1997 feature ‘End of Evangelion’ (Shin seiki Evangelion Gekijô-ban: Air) followed on where the original Japanese television series left off; and of course Hayao Miyazaki’s ‘Crimson Pig’ (Kurenai no buta) (1992) and ‘Princess Mononoke’ (Mononoke-hime) (1997). The American influence was still rife as the toy industry, in particular the computer and video game market, provided the plotlines to a number of films and television series including ‘Street Fighter II: The Movie’ (1994), ‘Battle Arena Toshinden’ (1997) and the original series of the ‘next big thing’, ‘Pokémon’ (1998 onwards). In 1999, Michael Haigney and Kunihiko Yuyama directed the feature length version of the popular ‘Pokémon’ series; ‘Pokémon: The First Movie’. Whereas the 1980s saw Transformers flood the children’s market, the beginning of the new millennium saw the Japanese revenge. Pokémon originally began as a video game, on the Nintendo Gameboy: The Pokémon game was the platform for the Pokémon brand to kick-start what would become the world’s largest success story in the game-licensing card-collecting business. The video game gave the characters identities, the collection cards gave them powers, the movie added life to the brand, and word-of-mouth spread the news. The Pokémon invasion is still evident nearly ten years later as the television series is still in production, with two feature film sequels having followed the original cinematic release. The consumerism powers of America had truly influenced anime.

American Cultural Invasion

The cultural invasion from the West began in earnest at the turn of the twentieth century. Japan’s industrial revolution had been slow to start but quickly gathered momentum. By 1890 there were two hundred large steam factories where twenty years earlier there had been none; steamship tonnage increased from 15,000 to over 1,500,000 tons in the period between 1893 and 1905; and by 1896 things Western were in full fashion… derbies or straw boaters were worn with formal kimono, the big gold pocket-watch was tucked into the obi, and spectacles, whether needed or not, were esteemed as a sign of learning.” Ironically, the period when Japan found itself bowing down to the pressure of American influence was directly after fighting a war against it. When the atom bombs were dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki it was not just the radiation that remained in Japan. Any country that has been invaded will always have traces of the invader’s culture embedded into the normal life of its habitants. The Allied (most notably the American) control of Japan directly after the war was to allow Western influences to develop into the Japanese way of life. This influence was both highly visual as well as subliminal. America saw the clandestine operations there were not only as part of an effort to defeat Japan but also as the ‘opening wedge for post-war Southeast Asia. The Japanese were suspicious of the Western approach to education and the governing of their homeland. The Occupation, they thought, had destroyed traditional Japanese virtues and unleashed a wave of selfishness and egotism. In an interview with the elderly president of a real estate company in Oita City, author Jeffrey Broadbent discovered the feelings of the former owbers of the land: Due to American influence, the heart of our people has been lost – our way of thinking that, if it’s good for the progress of the whole, it’s good to sacrifice yourself… The Japanese strength from group unity has been lost. The other side of the coin is the very noticeable, consumer-led American cultural assault on Japan.The way in which American culture has seeped into the Japanese way of life is what Koichi Iwabuchi writes as: strategies that incorporate the viewpoint of the dominated, who long ago learned to negotiate Western culture in their consumption of media products imported fro the West. Depending on the viewpoint of the individual, culture and life in Japan, and especially that in the densely populated areas, are influenced by the same commercial culture that defines the American way of life today. Japanese streets are now littered with the flashing neon signs that are found (admittedly all over the world) adorning the pavements of any American town or city. Western branding has left its mark on Japan. The American phenomenon of the fast-food culture such as McDonald’s, Burger King, Dunkin’ Donuts, Kentucky Fried Chicken, Baskin-Robbins, and other outlets dominate the Japanese urbanscape more than in America. As a matter of fact the first Disneyland outside the United States was built in Japan. Even when taking into consideration the immense popularity of Japanese culture (for example, the growth of Yo! Sushi restaurants in the UK) and the West’s embracing of Eastern philosophies (in this case Shinto and Buddhism), it is safe to say that Japanese culture has been more extensively shaped by its American counterpart than vice versa. If it is indeed true that Japan’s exports of products and manufactured goods far outweighs its imports, then it is also true that Japan imports vastly more information about or from the United States than the other way round.

Japan is today regarded as one of the leading powers in the world especially in the representation of its national media; the Japanese population of more than 120 million people and its economic wealth make the Japanese audiovisual market, along with that of the United States, one of the only two self-sufficient markets in the world. However, this does not mean that foreign popular culture is no longer consumed in Japan; American popular culture has continued to strongly influence and saturate Japan. Japan is one of the biggest buyers of Hollywood movie and many Japanese television formats and concepts are also deeply influenced by and borrowed from American programmes; yet the format is quite often changed to make it more suitable to a Japanese audience: “What was marked as foreign and exotic yesterday can become familiar today and traditionally Japanese tomorrow”. Kosaku Yoshino writes that although Japan has developed a ‘relative maturity’ of its cultural industries, it still hasn’t found itself fully expanding on the exportation of its television programming and films to other regions of the world. This ‘unexportability’ of Japanese media can be explained by the term ‘cultural discount’: “A particular programme rooted in one culture and thus attractive in that environment will have a diminished appeal elsewhere as viewers find it difficult to identify with the style, values, beliefs, institutions and behavioural patterns of the material in question. Included in the cultural discount are reductions in appreciation due to dubbing or subtitling. The biggest media products that the Japanese have managed to export, despite cultural discount, is Manga and anime; but is this due to American cultural influences shaping the genre into a more Western-friendly medium?

Case Study 1 – ‘Alakazam the Great’ (Saiyu-ki)

A Review of Chuck Jones ‘Duck Amuck’

Chuck Jones ‘Duck Amuck.’

Cartoons all across the Hollywood Studios at this time resembled those of Disney, with their connection of editing and using an accelerating gag structure in their narrative. But with these cartoons being considered as a comic fantasy genre, animators could experiment with the medium. Warner Bros. were a big believer in this, creating situations where their cartoon characters would talk to the audience or refer to the animator or studio executives. These cartoons compared to Disney were very different, the action was often more violent and faster paced, changing the situations regularly. Chuck Jones reached past expectation with his cartoons, extending the limits and shocking the audience. One of the greats being ‘Duck Amuck‘ where he used every bone in his body to create which is now known as one of the master pieces of animation, using every element to create a 7minute film just using Daffy and the unseen animator. By using these elements he was able to manipulate Daffy in any situation, creating an expectancy with the audience that anything could happen next.

Duck Amuck, a cartoon subject to its own deconstruction. The cartoons conventions are constantly challenged, using the colour, costume, sound scenery and all the essential elements need to create the cartoon, often without the awareness of the audience. Daffy’s first appearance as a musketeer, a cavalier waving his sword around with such confidence soon realises he has been betrayed by the animator, that the background of the scene has disappeared and he as well as the audience is left uncertain to the context we were accustomed to. Daffy rapidly drops character and addresses the camera, reacting in a rather professional way as if he were a part of any live-action movie and enthusiastically pushes the animator to carry on. A farmyard scene is drawn, although not what Daffy was expecting, he continues on, changing to suit the scene. But once again as he’s just about adjusted to the scene, an arctic layout is displayed in the background. Throughout the piece there is a constant battle between foreground and background, and above all the relationship between the character and the forever changing environmental context. All of Daffy’s actions are dominated by his reaction to the area he occupies. Tensions like these help the basic structure of narrative in most cartoons. With all the changes, Daffy’s main thought is for the animator to make up his mind. By using Daffy’s body, each environment is shown through a number of iconic cultural illustrations – the dungarees and the straw hat in the farmyard scene, the grass skirt and banjo in the Hawaiian setting. While the white space is defined as the empty context of the cartoon, although there is unlimited space, Daffy’s sense of awareness becomes isolated and helpless. To make things worse he is then erased from the page, where all that remains is his voice. Chuck Jones intensions when he created his characters where for them to be recognized in any situation, to exist as a body without a voice, or a voice without a body. Especially in this scene, a programmed perception of Daffy as a character is known, where he can be understood by any of his parts. Perhaps, the only element the animator is unable to get rid of is Daffy’s personality. If this was to be taken, the cartoon would no longer be a Daffy Duck picture. Even though, the elements are frequently altering and manipulated, the audience is still able to recognise its a Daffy cartoon. Daffy is shown as eager to please and entertain, but is easily provoked and angered by any slight change, and to top it off has a rather obsessive behaviour, especially if he doesn’t get his way. Duck Amuck shows all his traits as a character through the use of his body and actions, using the limitation of any control Daffy thought he had. As the viewer it is easy to watch an animation and forget the effort applied to design the background scenery. it’s almost insignificant. Are attention is continuously on the characters and their actions. Duck Amuck reminds us that there is more then what meets the eye, and in this case on the screen – and only by eliminating the background, can we realize and appreciate this.

Daffy is endlessly alienated, trying to keep his image and self-respect, but contradicts himself by constantly losing his temper. As soon as Daffy is repainted back on the screen as a cowboy with a guitar, we as the audience establish music will be played or daffy will sing. Daffy modestly opens his mouth and strums the guitar, but with the shock on his face acknowledges there is no sound. He holds up a small sign saying “Sound Please.” As the audience we are drawn to the fact that anything could happen, and Daffy would not be expecting it. He snobbishly goes to strum the guitar, to find it creates the sound of a machine gun, then a horn and a donkey. The use of mismatching image and sound, is yet another comedic element used within this film, helping create a sense of alienation towards Daffy, with every action he is restricted by the animators command. He breaks the guitar with frustration, and tries plea to the animator, to discover he has been given the voice of chicken and a few other different birds. After many attempts he slowly loses his will, so with one last try he endeavours to speak, but at an extreme volume his voice returns. Embarrassed, Daffy is once again revealed helpless to the animator. Daffy’s traits are explicitly shown, especially his willingness. He stresses for a scenery and colour, but is given a child like drawing background, and is painted in many colours and patterns. This is followed by a mini tantrum by Daffy. Daffy is constantly challenged by the world around him, but his reactions to the events increase the likely hood of the next action made by the animator. If he was not such a drama queen and self absorbed, the constant bad luck happening would most likely be lowered. But clearly, the circumstance of the cartoon remains issued to the desire of the animator. These series of occurrences only cause added anticipation from the spectators who want to further witness the amount of knockbacks the character can take. Chuck Jones gives Daffy centre stage, but at the same time controls every part of him during the animation, meanwhile breaking the fourth wall and highlighting the construction of the animations art form. With a simple idea of concept of fate, the audience are able to gather a small meaning from the piece – that no matter what life throws at you, one should adjust and accept what nature has planned for you, instead of find fault.

Throughout the whole animation, whatever Daffy’s expectations are or wishes to receive, he is given the complete opposite. Several times he tries to take control of the situation, to find himself being manipulated even more, but at the same time the audience are able to witness his anger levels rising. A great example of this is when he finds himself on a small deserted island in the distance, he calls for a close up, which the audience can hardly hear. But instead of receiving the camera to come closer, the frame of the screen shrinks to frame him, Daffy’s first response is quite sarcastic but soon explodes with frustration. The camera quickly zooms in to reveal just Daffy’s aggravated eyes. Daffy tries to gain an understanding between himself and the animator, but he is soon interrupted by a black material weighing him down, eventually tearing up the ‘screen’. He then returns to suggesting the cartoon should begin even though it has already been running for several minutes. Throughout the piece Daffy continuously tries to regain his strength and control, but time and time again he is interrupted by some kind of gag narrative. Daffy is soon appointed as a pilot, but this is purely to launch a series of gags, including an off screen air crash, the fall, his parachute turning into a weight, the explosion of the weight which becomes a bomb. At this point Daffy is left helpless, a loss of all control, but with one finally attempt to regain some dignity, he demands to know “Who is responsible for all of this? I demand that you show yourself!” The enclosed boarder that the audience is now accustomed to is broken as the camera pulls away to reveal the animator – Bugs Bunny. The whole piece is a series of independent gags, no relevance to one another except to torment Daffy. But with such shock and surprise to the biggest gag of all, that it was his arch-enemy Bugs Bunny who was the master mind the entire time. Chuck Jones great skill was creating a comic suspense, planting a joke and letting the audience wait for the evitable outcome. By doing this, it created a build up for laughter, the fulfilment of a gag. Duck Amuck demonstrates this immensely, practically every ‘rest’ point in the animation is the start of a gag. While Daffy is reassuring himself possibly after a gag, he is yet unaware of the next gag about to begin.

Real life elements are incorporated throughout Duck Amuck, from film strips, to paint brushes, to erasers, used to manipulate the character’s environment and appearance. But these are all cleverly used to show the interactivity between the creation and the creator. Elements like these create another dimension to the story, that we as the audience, to an extent can believe we are with the animator as they makes their decisions. Characters like Bugs Bunny and Daffy were wise cracking cynics rather than innocent altruists like Mickey Mouse. But although the Warner Brother characters are similar this animation wouldn’t have worked with anyone else except Daffy. His loss of control and humiliation is what creates the piece, his frantic ways, and his self pity of being unable to negotiate, or come to terms with the higher power destroys Daffy leaving him speechless, and in the end becomes more of a subject defined by a gaga. The animators at Warner Brothers experimented over many years trying to push to the extreme, but perhaps none were so extreme as Duck Amuck, although it was made within the Hollywood system, the sense of it almost feels more experimental film, with the request to the audience to be a part of the exploration of techniques in the cel animation.

 

Olivia Farrar

 

References

  • Furniss, M. (2005). Chuck Jones: Converstations. United States: University Press of Mississippi.
  • Jones, C. (1999). Chuck Amuck: The Life and Times of an Animated Cartoonist. United States: Farrar Starus Giroux.
  • Kenner, H. (1994). Chuck Jones: A flurry of Drawings, Protraits of American Genius. United States: University of California Press.
  • Klein, N.M. (1996). Seven Minutes: Life and Death of the American Animated Cartoon. United Kingdom: Verso Books.
  • Wells, P. (1998). Understand Animation. United Kingdom: Routledge.

BIM-Based 3D Reconstruction Technology

Optimization Model of BIM-based three-dimensional reconstruction technology and engineering model of visual perception

Keywords: Three-dimensional reconstruction, visual perceptual model, engineering optimization, modeling, analysis.

Abstract.Vision-based reconstruction is still there is a big limitation. Through its research-based approach introduces the primary visual three-dimensional reconstruction techniques, advantages and disadvantages of various methods were compared, it is desirable in this area can have a more comprehensive grasp, to further clarify the direction of future research. In order to improve the efficiency of the design and construction of bridge engineering, building information modeling (BIM) is introduced into the bridge project in the past. By analyzing the characteristics of bridge design and construction and the problems proposed bridge design and construction BIM-based optimization solutions, including preliminary design optimization, optimization of construction design, construction process optimization, optimization of the construction schedule and construction management optimization, combined with practical engineering project the applicability and effect analysis. Case application shows, BIM Bridge Project is applicable, can provide effective support for the bridge design and construction, thereby reducing rework and improve efficiency. The study may be large or complex bridge engineering BIM improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the design and construction of reference.

Introduction

The relevant information and data building information model is based on building projects as the basis for the model, building model were established by the real information of the digital information simulation building has, it has the visibility, coordination, simulated sex, optimality and showing of five characteristics. The BIM technology in the field of bridge engineering construction is currently in the early stages, preliminary exploration in the design, construction, and post-operation maintenance and repair of the entire life cycle of how to use BIM technology to improve design efficiency, improved design quality, strengthen the construction organization and post operations management, specific method and the application of BIM technology can bring benefits, hoping to BIM in bridge engineering to develop ideas.

In recent years, domestic construction projects in the field of non-BIM is none other than the hottest technology in the construction industry has achieved good results after the application, the state began to vigorously promote the railway, highway, water conservancy and hydropower industry application of BIM technology in fields such as engineering, and bridge engineering in the construction field and a large proportion, especially high-speed railway, mountain railway, roads, bridges, often accounting for a larger significance in bridge engineering applications BIM technology on the entire major project, the paper will design, three stages of construction, operation and maintenance of the latter part of the project life cycle are the practical application of research needs and the effect of BIM technology.

In recent years, should the needs of economic development, large, extra large bridge project more and more, such as China, Hangzhou Bay Bridge, the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge, which bridge design and construction of a higher requirement. Bridge construction project not only involves complex geographical environment, and involves a number of complex projects, the most typical is the Steel Bridge. Currently, the design of large bridge projects usually rely on the traditional two-dimensional drawings and graphs to analyze the design by closing existing in conflict; construction planning is largely dependent on the experience of project managers to develop and implement, and is also a two-dimensional drawings to show. However, since the bridge project their own characteristics, its design complexity, component many rely solely on the traditional two-dimensional drawings difficult to detect in advance or found conflicts existing in the design; these design problems usually can be found in the construction phase, thus affecting the construction schedule and cost, will also affect construction safety. At the same time, in order to resolve the problem of engineering design and construction, we had to deploy more staff, which is also a significant increase in management costs. Therefore, to ensure the feasibility of the bridge may be constructed of engineering design and construction programs for efficient implementation of the bridge project is very important.

Preliminary design stage is divided into two stages of design and post-design, including pre-design project approval, feasibility studies and scheme comparison and other parts, three-dimensional solid model of the bridge by using parametric modeling tools can be easily established according to the actual need to adjust the size, and the actual effect of the bridge into the real-time dynamic display, to achieve WYSIWYG, can intuitively design concept, design effects directly model the three-dimensional visualization of the project as a carrier to deliver policy-makers, which greatly facilitate the adjustment of the design, be revised in accordance with amendments and rendering, and cost control by adding information to keep abreast of changes after the investment increases and decreases, so that the bridge-bridge quickly determine preliminary program is very convenient and efficient. Figure 1 is a railway bridge stayed Bridge main bridge model, we need to establish a special bridge structure according to the characteristics of the family library for complex bridge structure using three-dimensional expression of BIM model than the traditional two-dimensional drawings clearer and easier to understand.

The Proposed Methodology

Three-dimensional modeling techniques.The use of modeling software for three-dimensional modeling is commonly used method, but modeling the need to spend a lot of manpower and material resources are often prohibitive, reconstruction effect is often unsatisfactory. Vision-based reconstruction technique to solve this problem and provides a new way of thinking.

Three-dimensional vision-based three-dimensional reconstruction technology, which uses computer vision methods of three-dimensional model reconstruction of the object, is the use of a digital camera as the image sensor, the integrated use of image processing, visual computing technologies such as non-contact dimensional measurement, obtaining object using a computer program information. The advantage is that the shape of the object is not restricted to rebuild faster, can achieve automatic or semi-automatic modeling, three-dimensional reconstruction is an important direction of development, can be widely used, including autonomous mobile robot navigation systems, remote sensing and aerospace, industrial fields of automation systems, etc., the economic benefits generated by this technology is very impressive.

As an important branch of computer vision technology, vision-based three-dimensional reconstruction of Marr visual theoretical framework is based on the formation of a variety of theoretical approaches. For example, according to the number of cameras can be divided into monocular vision method, binocular vision method, three monocular vision or monocular vision method; according to different principles, vision-based method can be divided into regions, feature-based visual method , model-based and rule-based visual methods; according to the obtained data the way, can be divided into active and passive visual method visual method.

Figure.1 Three dimensional reconstruction technique

According to research at home and abroad in recent years, were selected based on visual presentation of three-dimensional reconstruction of research and practical application of several methods and more comparative analysis, pointed out the main challenges for the future and the future direction of development. Depending on the number of cameras to use, this article will be divided into three-dimensional reconstruction method based on the visual method of monocular vision, binocular vision trinocular vision method and three methods were introduced, focusing on the monocular vision method.

Monocular vision method.Monocular vision method is the use of a camera for three-dimensional reconstruction method. Images used can be a single point of view of single or multiple images can also be a multi-view multiple images. The former is mainly characterized by a two-dimensional image depth information deduced, these features include two-dimensional shading, texture, focus, contour, etc., it is also referred to as X shape recovery method. This simple device structure class methods, the use of single or small number of several images can be reconstructed three-dimensional object model; less than that normally required conditions more idealistic, practical application is not very satisfactory, the effects of reconstruction in general. The latter by matching different images of the same feature points matching using these coordinates in space constraint obtaining information in order to achieve a three-dimensional reconstruction. This method can be implemented in the reconstruction process of camera calibration, to meet the needs of large-scale reconstruction of three-dimensional scene, and in the case of resource-rich image reconstruction is better; the downside is that a greater amount of computing, a long time to rebuild. The following describes several major monocular vision method.

Shading method.Shading method, that the brightness of the shape recovery method (SFS). This approach by analyzing image brightness information, using reflected light model, restore the normal to the surface of three-dimensional reconstruction information. Horn in 1970 first proposed the concept SFS methods, and gives a non-linear relationship between the two-dimensional image showing the brightness of each pixel in the corresponding three-dimensional point of law to the reflectance of light and the direction of Partial Differential Equations , the brightness of the equation.

However, this method is a SFS under-constrained problem and needs to solve other constraints. Therefore, the traditional method of SFS also based on three assumptions. The main advantage of the brightness of the method is that it can recover from a single image in a more precise three-dimensional model can be applied in addition to mirror the object almost all types of objects. However, the brightness of the reconstruction of relying solely on mathematical calculations, results are poor, but because of the lighting conditions more stringent requirements, the need to know the precise position and orientation of the light source and other information, so that the brightness of the method is difficult to apply in the case of an outdoor scene lighting and other complex three-dimensional reconstruction on.

Photometric stereo.Although the shading method to support the reconstruction of three-dimensional model from a single image, but less information is available in a single image, the actual reconstruction of the general effect. So Woodham of SFS method is proposed to improve the photometric stereo.

Photometric stereo by a plurality of non-collinear light source to obtain multiple images of the object, and then a different image brightness simultaneous equations, solving the surface normal direction of the object, and ultimately restore the shape of the object. Technically, the use of two light sources can be obtained method object to the information, but the use of multiple sources of data redundancy can be resolved by the shadows and specular reflections caused by such factors can not solve the problem, better robustness, reconstruction effect It can be improved, so the current method basically using a plurality of (four to six) three-dimensional reconstruction of the light source.

Photometric stereo advantages and brightness of the same law, the use of multiple images at the same time avoids the problems of ill shading method, and the use of multiple light sources also increased constraints, to improve the accuracy and robustness of the method; it the disadvantage is difficult to apply a mirror surface object and three-dimensional reconstruction of outdoor scenes and objects.

Texture law.Humans can surface texture by projection on the retina perceive three-dimensional shape of the object, so the visual image information gradient texture can be used as information for Shape and depth cues. Based on this theory, the analysis can be repeated by surface texture unit image size, the shape, the recovery of the normal object, the depth information to obtain three-dimensional geometric model of the object, i.e., texture profile method for recovery.

Texture is the basic theory of law: For a smooth surface and having a repeating texture units covering the object of which, when projected on the two-dimensional image, texture unit on which will be deformed, this deformation is divided into projection distortion (projective distortion ) and perspective shrinkage. Projection distortion so the farther away from the image plane texture unit looks smaller foreshortening distortion and image plane makes an angle greater texture unit looks shorter. Because these two variants can be measured from the image, so it can be analyzed after deformation texture units, reverse strike the surface normal and depth of information, three-dimensional reconstruction.

Profile method. This method of contour images of objects through a plurality of angles to give a three-dimensional model of the object. Profile method can be divided based on voxel cone prime three methods based on visual and shell.

Figure.2 Visual perception model

Conclusion

Reconstruction of 3D Vision technology is still in the exploratory stage, the practical application of the various methods is still some distance away from a variety of application needs to be urgently met. Therefore, in the future for a long period of time, we also need to do more intensive research in this field. This study shows that, BIM can provide effective support for the bridge design and construction. This study was expected to provide reference for increasing large, complex bridge design and construction efficiency and effectiveness, as well as assist in the promotion and application of BIM in the field of civil engineering. I believe that with the continuous promotion of theory and technology of BIM, BIM applications in civil engineering will become increasingly widespread, so as to improve their quality, efficiency and management level. Safety-critical structural bridge engineering, maintenance and repair of the late, operations management, file management can take advantage of powerful information technology BIM, visualization capabilities to achieve.

Drug development

DRUG DEVELOPMENT:

Developing safe and effective drugs is a process that should include an understanding of clinical, legal, and regulatory matters.

New drug development has revolutionized the practice of medicine, converting many once fatal or debilitating diseases into almost routine therapeutic exercises. For example, deaths from cardiovascular disease and stroke have decreased by more than 50 % in the USA over the past 30 years. This decline is due in part to the discovery and increased use of anti hypertensive, cholesterol synthesis inhibitors, and drugs that prevent or dissolve blood clots. The process of drug discovery and development ahs been greatly affected by investment in new technology and by governmental support of medical research.

In most countries, the testing of therapeutic agents is now regulated by legislation and closely monitored by governmental agencies. This chapter summarizes the process by which new drugs are discovered, developed and regulated. While the examples used reflects the experience in the USA, the pathway of new drug development is generally the same world wide.

One of the first steps in the development of a new drug is the discovery or synthesis of a potential new drug molecule and correlating this molecule with an appropriate biologic target. Repeated application of this approach leads to this compounds with increased potency and selectivity. By law, the safety and efficacy of drugs must be defined before they are marketed.

In addition to in vitro studies, most of the biologic effects of the molecule must be characterized in animals before human drug trial can be started. Human testing must then go forward in three conventional phases before the drug can be considered for approval for general use. A fourth phase of data gathering and safety monitoring follows after approval for general use.

Enormous costs, from $150 million to over to over $800 million, are involved in the research and development of a single successful new drug. Thousands of compounds may be synthesized and hundreds of thousands tested from existing libraries of compounds for each successful new drug that reaches the market. It is primarily because of the economic investment and risks involved as well as the need for multiple inter disciplinary technologies that most new drugs are developed in pharmaceutical companies. At the same time, the incentives to succeed in drug development are equally enormous. The world wide market for ethical (prescription) pharmaceutical in 2001 was $ 364 billion. Moreover it has been estimated that during the second half of 20th century, medications produced by the pharmaceutical industry saved more than 1.5 million lives and $140 billion in the cost of treatment for tuberculosis, poliomyelitis, coronary artery disease and cerebrovascular disease alone. In the USA, approximately 10% of the health care dollar is presently spent on prescription drugs.

New Chemical Entities (NCEs) (also known as New Molecular Entities (NMEs)) are compounds which emerge from the process of drug discovery. These will have promising activity against a particular biological target thought to be important in disease; however, little will be known about the safety, toxicity, pharmacokinetics and metabolism of this NCE in humans. It is the function of drug development to assess all of these parameters prior to human clinical trials. A further major objective of drug development is to make a recommendation of the dose and schedule to be used the first time an NCE is used in a human clinical trial (“first-in-man” (FIM) or First Human Dose (FHD)).

In addition, drug development is required to establish the physicochemical properties of the NCE: its chemical makeup, stability, solubility. The process by which the chemical is made will be optimized so that from being made at the bench on a milligram scale by a synthetic chemist, it can be manufactured on the kilogram and then on the ton scale. It will be further examined for its suitability to be made into capsules, tablets, aerosol, intramuscular injectable, subcutaneous injectable, or intravenous formulations. Together these processes are known in preclinical development as CMC: Chemistry, Manufacturing and Control.

Many aspects of drug development are focused on satisfying the regulatory requirements of drug licensing authorities. These generally constitute a number of tests designed to determine the major toxicities of a novel compound prior to first use in man. It is a legal requirement that an assessment of major organ toxicity be performed (effects on the heart and lungs, brain, kidney, liver and digestive system), as well as effects on other parts of the body that might be affected by the drug (e.g. the skin if the new drug is to be delivered through the skin). While, increasingly, these tests can be made using in vitro methods (e.g. with isolated cells), many tests can only be made by using experimental animals, since it is only in an intact organism that the complex interplay of metabolism and drug exposure on toxicity can be examined.

The process of drug development does not stop once an NCE begins human clinical trials. In addition to the tests required to move a novel drug into the clinic for the first time it is also important to ensure that long-term or chronic toxicities are determined, as well as effects on systems not previously monitored (fertility, reproduction, immune system, etc). The compound will also be tested for its capability to cause cancer (carcinogenicity testing).

If a compound emerges from these tests with an acceptable toxicity and safety profile, and it can further be demonstrated to have the desired effect in clinical trials, then it can be submitted for marketing approval in the various countries where it will be sold. In the US, this process is called a New Drug Application or NDA. Most NCEs, however, fail during drug development, either because they have some unacceptable toxicity, or because they simply do not work. As this drug discovery process becomes more expensive it is becoming important to look at new ways to bring forward NCEs. One approach to improve efficiency is to recognize that there are many steps requiring different levels of experimentation. The early phase of drug discovery actually has components of real innovation, components of experimentation and components that involve set routines. This model of Innovation, Experimentation, and Commoditization ensures that new ways to do work are adopted continually. This model also allows the discipline to use appropriate internal and external resources for the right work.

DRUG DISCOVERY:

Most new drug candidates are launched through one or more of five approaches:

1. Identification or elucidation of a new drug target

2. Rational drug design based on an understanding of biologic mechanisms, drug receptor structure, and drug structure.

3. Chemical modification of a known molecule

4. Screening for biologic activity of large number of natural products; banks of previously discovered chemical entities; and large libraries of peptides, nucleic acid and other organic molecules

5. Biotechnology and cloning using genes to produce larger peptides and proteins. Moreover, automation, miniaturization and informatics have facilitated the process known as “high through-put screening” which permits millions of assays per month.

Major attention is now being given to the discovery of entirely new targets for drug therapy. These targets are emerging from studies with genomics, proteomics and molecular pharmacology and are expected to increase the number of useful biologic or disease targets ten-fold and thus be a positive driver for new and improved drugs.

In the fields of medicine, biotechnology and pharmacology, drug discovery is the process by which drugs are discovered and/or designed.

In the past most drugs have been discovered either by identifying the active ingredient from traditional remedies or by serendipitous discovery. A new approach has been to understand how disease and infection are controlled at the molecular and physiological level and to target specific entities based on this knowledge.

The process of drug discovery involves the identification of candidates, synthesis, characterization, screening, and assays for therapeutic efficacy. Once a compound has shown its value in these tests, it will begin the process of drug development prior to clinical trials.

Despite advances in technology and understanding of biological systems, drug discovery is still a lengthy, “expensive, difficult, and inefficient process” with low rate of new therapeutic discovery. Currently, the research and development cost of each new molecular entity (NME) is approximately US$1.8 billion.

Information on the human genome, its sequence and what it encodes has been hailed as a potential windfall for drug discovery, promising to virtually eliminate the bottleneck in therapeutic targets that has been one limiting factor on the rate of therapeutic discovery. However, data indicates that “new targets” as opposed to “established targets” are more prone to drug discovery project failure in general. This data corroborates some thinking underlying a pharmaceutical industry trend beginning at the turn of the twenty-first century and continuing today which finds more risk aversion in target selection among multi-national pharmaceutical companies.

Generic Conventions of Documentary

The Purpose of this Essay is to explore the Generic Conventions of Documentary and Documentary photography, comparing the two and to explore how street photography has evolved since its introduction in the late 19th century. This essay’s primary purpose is to Examine How Street Photography came about and how it has changed since it was revolutionised in the early 20th Century, then it will explore and compare two photographers who forever changed the way that street photography is perceived, The secondary purpose of this essay will be to debate the question, unlike documentary photography, which sets out to record historical events and everyday life, does street photography need a subject in the image – in particular with Eugene Atget, who went around photographing various street corners and shops in Paris without a person in the photo.

First of all, one must ask the question, exactly what is a photograph? In The Photograph, Graham Clarke Describes the word “Photograph” as “Light Writing”, he goes on to say that “it also speaks as an underlying concern to control light and time and that the photograph not only signals a different relationship to and over nature, it speaks very much to a sense of power in a way that we seek to construct the world around us” – Clarke, (1997, P11).

In most photographs it’s left up to the viewer on how they read and perceive a photograph, Graham Clark continues by saying “The photograph has a multiple existence which informs its multiple meanings, its seeming simplicity of form and function belies an implicit problematic of sight and representation” – Clarke, (1997, P11) What Clarke is suggesting to the viewer is that photographs have multiple layers of text conveyed within one image, Clarke wants the viewer to look closer and determine what the photograph means to each person individually and why it’s being represented in this way In relation to street photography this is the main question to be explored in the second part of this essay.

So how does one read a photograph? A picture is worth a thousand words, but how does one interpret them? Every time the viewer sees an image he or she has their own personal view of that image so it falls to the photographer or artist to put their own messages/meanings behind their images and leave the interpretation open to the viewer, Photographic Art Generally falls into four main types of photographic genres, Landscape, Portraiture, Fine Art, and Documentary, each picture in each genre gives off a different emotional response In Particular Eugene Atget and Cartier Bresson’s Photographic styles would fall into the Landscape & Documentary categories.

So let’s look at what these two categories are, in photography; The Key Concepts, David Bate describes documentary photography as “Telling a story with pictures, Documentary photography gave new life and social function, Documentary aimed to show in an informal way the everyday lives of ordinary people, to other ordinary people” -  Bate, (2009, P45). This emerged as popular practise following the First World War, and began to develop through the 20th century, after the horrors of the First World War, more and more photographers went out and photographed everyday events happening to normal everyday people out in the streets, this social documentary work went on to dominate the early 20th century with people undertaking projects based on the after effects on war and how it changed the lives of everyday people’s lives forever, One such example would be the 1972 accidental napalm attack in the Vietnamese war, one of the most reproduced images of that time, Robert Haeberle’s “People about to be shot” which Clarke describes as “An anonymous war machine raining down napalm ‘accidentally’ on innocent children but such a narrative cannot deflect us from the presence of intense agony” – Clarke (1997, P160) By looking at this photo the reader is invited to feel all the emotions these children went through, screams, cries and sorrow, but the photographer is trying to invite the reader to understand that although we can see visually how horrible the events were, that there’s nothing more horrible than what the innocent subjects were going through, The Photographer Robert Haeberle’s statement himself “guys were about to shoot these people I yelled hold it and shot my pictures, M16’s opened up and from the corner of my eye I saw bodies falling but I did not turn to look” – Rovert Haeberle – Clarke, (1997, P160).

Next there’s Landscape Photography, there are many different narratives that landscape photography could fall in to, but the main thing to think about with street photography in landscapes is what is the photographer attempting to show the reader in a landscape picture? Is it just the environment, the place, or is it perhaps a landscape being dominated by the presence of humans in the photograph, In David Bate’s Photography, the key concepts, Bate goes on to say “what this means is that whatever is seen is always coded via the picture. Therefore HOW the material is seen in the picture, the way it is pictured, is as critical as what is shown” – Bate, (2009, P90) the photographer is encouraging the reader to think of the bigger picture of what the landscape photograph represents, Roger Fenton, one of the early Pioneers in photography was one of the first to make the reader question and think about what they were viewing, his approach was to places that had been established as tourist areas, places that people already had a view on, places of great beauty and social harmony “In his approach to landscape Fenton both reflects a highly specific cultural vocabulary based on literature and painting, this sense of the photographer as privileged tourist is underscored by the way Fenton often photographed tourist areas which had already been depicted in painting and literature – his images reflect the leisurely assumptions of a class of people who looked upon landscape scenery in aesthetic and philosophical terms” – (Clarke, 1997, P56). The photograph often gives off a hint of a unified Britain, but Fenton, a war photographer, is trying the challenge the readers views and make you see the bigger picture, look beyond the picture and think of problems that may have been going on around that area at the time.

This brings the essay on to Part two, firstly unlike Documentary Photography, does Street Photography need a person in the photo? As mentioned earlier in the essay this is left very open to the viewer to make their mind up, Eugene Atget didn’t think it did, Eugene Atget was one of the main pioneers in 20th century street photography, and most of his work was done on the streets of Paris, his photos that do have people are very surreal, questioning our perception of what is dream and what is reality, looking at one of Atget’s pieces of work, A Corner, rue de seine, As quoted by Clive Scott in Street Photography, From Atget to Cartier Bresson “Perhaps the most celebrated photograph of this street is the one that Atget took on an early May morning in 1924, a photo of a wedge shaped building at the corner of the rue de seine, The oblique view shown here emphasizes the rapid foreshadowing created by the wide angle lens, the distortion produced by the lens also gives the building a marked precariousness, is this tilting to the right a consequence of intoxication or old age? The building has open eyes, only on the third and fourth floors at the near end, everywhere else in the building is sealed in somnolence or death” -(Scott, 2007, P178/P180) The Photograph is a very surreal image which is challenging the reader to try decode its many layers, The viewer sees it as an image with a lot of gothic potential, the mist adds to this effect, and the building is shown to be in disrepair, so although the image is shown without subjects, there’s a much deeper hidden meaning, a very dark and dreary meaning that could perhaps signal a change in cultures, the building is old, very pre-World War One, perhaps this image also trying to indicate a struggle to adapt to the new world after war, also although most of the text in image is left blurred or too small to read, we can clearly read the words “petit bouif” which is actually a shoe repair shop, which Atget is also well known for photographing,  we also see the pictures of what we assume are lost family pets, again we can relate this back to the time, 6 years after the world war ended what exactly has Paris become.

Moving on to Cartier Bresson,  much of his work is not actually considered documentary photographer, he was a revolutionary photographer who couldn’t really be placed into any single genre, he did almost every type of photography you could do, but although he wasn’t a documentary photographer, one of his most well-known images that I’m going to look at is, the photo was taken outside the train station saint – lazar, although colour camera did not exist at this time Bresson noticed the rain in the foreground, and the beautiful mist like feature blocking the houses in the background, and by chance he saw a man jumping over the picture which he then snapped on his black and white camera, we can see from the picture that the man was caught in mid motion, the blur that has appeared from the mans speed but also the contrast makes the picture stand out more, so we have to ask the question, had the man not been there jumping over the ladder when Bresson snapped him, would this have become arguably Bresson’s most well-known photograph? Although there is still a lot going on in the picture, such as the ladder and rubble in front of it, the railowsky sign clearly visible in the midground, and even the other person visible near the background, at least in this case although Bresson may not have been a documentary photographer, this picture is a documentary photograph

Reference List:

Scott, Clive. Street Photography. London: I.B. Tauris, 2007. Print.

Bate, D. (2009). Photography. Oxford: Berg.

Clarke, G. (1997). The photograph. Oxford: Oxford University Press.