Posted: October 26th, 2022

Can someone do my Week 4 Discussion in Organizational Development?

 

Prior to beginning work on this discussion forum, carefully read and review Chapters 7, 8, and 9 in the course textbook, review the

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  • Change Designs (Links to an external site.)
  • website, and watch the

    How Can You Influence Others?

    video.

    Let’s have some fun during this week’s discussion. Prior to beginning the response to the discussion, familiarize yourself with the activities that occur during the various types of change intervention. Consider the variables of working with leaders versus teams, groups, or the entire organization. Once you have a solid understanding of how inventions look and the requirements to successfully deploy an OD interaction, you can move forward to the actual research for the discussion post.

    There are numerous companies that develop and market support tools and activities for learning and development. There are tools for individual, team, group, and organizational activities. Your job is to first decide on the type of intervention you will facilitate. Then, you will search online for a tool to use during your intervention.

    Refer to the table below for guidance during your search:

    DO

    DO NOTDo decide on a specific type of intervention.Do not decide on a specific change.Do research various companies and the tools they offer for development and collaboration.Do not select the first thing you find. Be choosy and understand how the process works and if it fits your needs for interaction.Do select a tool that will work well with your intervention choice.Do not select a process that is beneath or above the understanding level of the audience.

    For your initial post, 

    • Identify your selected intervention.
    • Explain why you chose that type of intervention.
    • Describe the tools and activities selected to facilitate the interaction.
    • Determine how you will use the tools and activities.
    • Formulate the desired outcome of the process.

    Here are a few resources to get you started and provide you with keywords and ideas for further exploration of the possibilities:

      Change Designs (Links to an external site.)

    • S&S Worldwide (Links to an external site.)
    • Snack Nation (Links to an external site.)
    • TeamBonding (Links to an external site.)
    • Trainers Warehouse

    Individual Interventions 7

    Learning Outcomes
    After reading this chapter, you should be able to:

    • Describe learning and development interventions, including reflective practice; T-groups;

    training, education, and development; and action learning.

    • Identify when management and leadership development is indicated and discuss values clarifi-
    cation and coaching interventions.

    • Distinguish three types of assessments and explain why it is essential that they be adminis-
    tered by certified professionals, effectively debriefed, and used ethically.

    • Discuss various ways individual careers can be supported through performance management,
    career plan development, assessments, and developmental relationships.

    • Explain how jobs can be better developed with the use of job design, job descriptions, and
    policy development.

    fizkes/iStock/Getty Images Plus

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    Lindsey was laid off from her job in a financial institution during an economic downturn.
    Although it was difficult for her to be without an income, she had not liked her work; she was
    often unfulfilled and unchallenged. The layoff gave her an opportunity to think hard about what
    she wanted to do next. She had no dependents, little debt, and enough savings to cover the tran-
    sition, so she had some flexibility in her next steps.

    To begin exploring her options, Lindsey made an
    appointment with a consultant, Jennifer, who spe-
    cialized in career counseling. Prior to their first
    meeting, the consultant gave her a couple of assess-
    ments to identify her personality preferences and
    key interests. During their first meeting, Jennifer
    shared the results of the assessments and asked
    Lindsey several challenging questions, such as
    “Where do you want to be in 5 years?” What excites
    you?” and “What is your biggest challenge?” They
    also worked on a values clarification exercise to
    identify Lindsey’s key values. After each counseling
    session, Lindsey was given homework that
    prompted her to explore what opportunities might
    interest her.

    After much soul searching, Lindsey decided to
    return to school for an accelerated master’s degree
    in instructional design; this would merge her inter-
    ests in technology and education. Upon graduation,
    she was hired by a consumer products company to
    develop learning and development programs.

    When Lindsey started her new position, she under-
    went an intensive training program that included an orientation and an introduction to the
    organization’s training and technology platforms. Her direct supervisor worked with her to
    develop a career plan within the company. Lindsey joined a national professional organization
    that had a regional chapter in her metropolitan area. She began attending meetings and devel-
    oped relationships with several of her peers and seniors in her field. She struck up a conversation
    with the keynote speaker, Jo, at one of the events. Jo was a vice president of learning and develop-
    ment at a technology company. They continued corresponding after the meeting and developed
    an informal mentoring relationship.

    Jo became a mentor to Lindsey, and she was a good sounding board not only for some of the
    technical problems she encountered, but also for political issues. Jo recommended books, confer-
    ences, and other people from whom to seek advice about issues and opportunities. Jo also helped
    Lindsey make decisions about which opportunities and positions to pursue within her company.
    Lindsey received high marks during her performance evaluations and continued to evolve her
    career plan. Eventually, Jo recommended Lindsey to another company, which recruited and
    hired her into a managerial position.

    Wavebreakmedia/Thinkstock
    Lindsey attends a training session for
    her new position.

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    This book has focused on accomplishing OD using the action research model. It has moved
    through the three action research phases of planning, doing, and evaluating. This chapter is
    devoted to profiling several interventions that might be appropriate at the individual level of
    analysis. For the purposes of this chapter, it is assumed you have followed the action research
    process up to the point of intervention and carefully selected an intervention in collaboration
    with the client.

    Interventions are generally decided during the discovery or planning that occurs in Phase 1
    of the action research model. They are implemented in Phase 2, doing or action, and assessed
    in Phase 3, checking or evaluating. Chapter 5 defined OD interventions as the actions taken
    on the problem or issue that is the focus of the OD process. Intervention is the culmination of
    the OD process—it is what OD intends to do from the start.

    The interventions covered in this chapter are not comprehensive, but rather representative of
    the many options available. We could include dozens, as the range and potential of OD inter-
    ventions are nearly endless. Rather than get lost in a sea of interventions, we will present the
    most common individual interventions with descriptions of their definition, why consultants
    use them, and how to implement them.

    The three intervention chapters in this book have organized interventions according to the
    levels of individual, group or team, and organization. Although these interventions have been
    categorized by level for ease of understanding their scope, some interventions, such as leader-
    ship development interventions, may fall under more than one category. A leadership devel-
    opment program similar to the one described in the Leadership Academy vignette crosses all
    three of these levels, because potential leaders receive individual development that affects
    their interactions with groups and the whole organization.

    Another example of interventions that cross all levels would be the implementation of a per-
    formance management system. Individual development and change is usually affected when
    performance is appraised, and this in turn affects other people, groups, and the organization
    itself. See Table 7.1 for examples of interventions according to level of analysis.

    Table 7.1: Levels of OD interventions

    Individual-level interventions Group-level interventions Organization-level interventions

    • Learning and development
    • Leadership or management

    development
    • Career development
    • Assessment
    • Job development

    • Group or team process and
    development

    • Diversity and inclusion
    • Conflict management
    • Problem solving and

    decision making

    • Vision and mission
    development

    • Strategic planning
    • Organization design
    • Culture
    • Talent management
    • Large-scale interactive events

    (LSIEs)

    The purpose of this chapter is to profile selected interventions according to the individual
    level. Individual interventions usually accomplish one or more of the following: learning and
    development, leadership and management development, assessment, career development,
    and job development (see Table 7.2).

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    Section 7.1Learning and Development

    Table 7.2: Categories of individual OD intervention

    Category Intervention

    Learning and development • Reflective practice
    • Laboratory training (T-group)
    • Training, education, and development
    • Action learning

    Leadership or management development • Values clarification and integration
    • Coaching

    Assessment • Values clarification and integration
    • Coaching

    Career development • Performance management
    • Career plan development
    • Assessments
    • Developmental relationships

    Job development • Job design
    • Job descriptions
    • Responsibility charting
    • Policies

    7.1 Learning and Development
    Learning and development interventions ensure organization members have the knowl-
    edge, skills, and abilities needed to do their jobs effectively and help the organization per-
    form optimally. These activities affirm not only that employees are fully trained but also that
    they remain engaged in ongoing learning, which helps create and sustain the organization’s
    culture, enables the organization to remain competitive, and promotes employee retention.
    As we have already discussed, learning and change are intricately related, and this category
    of interventions helps employees implement change. Learning and development interven-
    tions also help new knowledge be shared throughout the organization. Key interventions in
    this area include reflective practice; laboratory training, or T-groups; training, education, and
    development activities; and action learning.

    Reflective Practice
    When was the last time you stopped and gave thoughtful consideration to a decision, experi-
    ence, or idea? Or had a deep, engaging, and thoughtful conversation with another person?
    When you engage in these pauses to contemplate, you are engaging in reflective practice.

    What Is Reflective Practice?
    Whenever you think critically about your experiences and actions, you are engaged in reflec-
    tive practice. Donald Schön introduced reflective practice in his books The Reflective Practi-
    tioner (1983) and Educating the Reflective Practitioner (1987). Schön distinguished two types
    of reflective practice according to when they occur. Lindsey, who lost her job in the vignette,
    engaged in reflective practice with her career counselor, who asked her to think about what
    she wanted in the next chapter of her life.

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    Section 7.1Learning and Development

    • Suppose Sarah facilitates a meeting. During the meeting, she might think, “I need to
    be more pragmatic about keeping everyone focused and on point,” “I didn’t manage
    the disagreement between team members about the best solution to the problem,”
    or “Maybe if I restate the issue, we can solve this problem.” These musings about an
    experience while it is happening are reflection in action. That is, Sarah assesses
    an experience, her thoughts about the experience, actions she has taken, or actions
    she might take, in the moment. Perhaps as a result, she adjusts her actions in the
    moment.

    • Once the meeting is finished and Sarah thinks about what happened and imagines
    how she could have handled things better or what she will do next time, she is
    engaging in what Schön (1983) called reflection on action. Sarah is using what she
    learned from the experience to shape future thoughts and actions.

    Why Do OD Consultants Encourage Reflective Practice?
    When OD consultants ask an organization
    member to change, they are putting that
    person into a learning situation. A learner’s
    ability to critically reflect on and in action
    signals their adeptness at learning. Reflec-
    tive practice is one of the hallmarks of adult
    learning (Brookfield, 1987; Merriam & Bier-
    ema, 2014) and helps individuals adopt
    change more effectively and permanently.

    In the opening vignette, Lindsey engaged
    in reflective practice activities under the
    guidance of her career counselor. This
    helped her assess her situation, interests,
    and opportunities. Unfortunately, time to
    reflect is largely lacking in the contempo-
    rary workplace, because organizations tend
    to be focused on action at its expense. Your clients may have a difficult time slowing down to
    reflect; they may feel it is a waste of time. On the contrary, reflection can help clients accept
    change and be more mindful as they implement it. The more consultants can help their clients
    think critically, avoid error, and learn from experience, the more effective the intervention.

    How Is Reflective Practice Done?
    Brookfield (1987) pointed out how critical reflection is used in strategic planning, effective
    decision making, creative problem solving, situational leadership, entrepreneurial risk taking,

    Consider This
    Think about instances when you engaged in reflection in action and reflection on action. How
    has taking a reflective pause helped you learn and engage with your colleagues?

    JGalione/E+/Getty Images Plus
    Reflection helps us learn from our experiences.
    How would you encourage reflective practice
    as an OD consultant?

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    Section 7.1Learning and Development

    research and development activities, and organizational team building. OD consultants who
    foster reflective practice in their clients on these and other organizational processes will
    more effectively help them understand the assumptions that underlie their own thoughts and
    actions.

    A key way to get clients to reflect is to help them recognize contradictions between thought
    and action. For example, a manager may claim to treat all employees fairly but show favorit-
    ism toward certain people. This behavior is what Argyris and Schön (1974) called espoused
    theory versus theory in use. The familiar adage “Do as I say, not as I do” aptly captures these
    kinds of inconsistencies, which are usually rampant in organizations. Helping clients recog-
    nize these discrepancies is the first step toward helping them make their behavior more con-
    sistent with their espoused values. See Assessment: The Left-Hand Column Exercise to examine
    contradictions between what people say and what they do.

    OD consultants might ask an individual to reflect on the impending change, a career move, or
    feedback; they might also build in structured reflection time when planning for other inter-
    ventions such as training. Consultants can send clients on an individual retreat with reflection
    assignments. Reflection is also a key component of coaching and T-groups.

    Assessment: The Left-Hand Column Exercise
    Organization theorists Chris Argyris and Donald Schön (1974) developed the left-hand col-
    umn (LHC) exercise as part of their work in action science (a process of action research that
    generates useful information about practical problems in organizations, usually by examining
    contradictions between what people say and what they actually do). Steps to creating an LHC
    include the following:

    1. Pick an important conversation you have recently had.
    2. Use the following worksheet to document the conversation.
    3. Write down the actual words you and your conversant used in the right-hand column.
    4. Write down what you were actually thinking and feeling during the conversation as

    the words were being said.
    5. Compare both columns.
    6. What differences, if any, exist between what you said and what you thought?

    a. If there were discrepancies, how can you begin to productively raise some of your
    left-hand column thoughts?

    b. How can you prompt your conversant to be more forthright about some of their
    left-hand column thoughts?

    LEFT: What I really thought RIGHT: What was really said

    I was hoping he wouldn’t notice we were late. YOUR BOSS: Let’s meet this week. We are
    behind with the budget and we need to get
    these items finalized. Jim, I’d like to come down
    there next week. We’re a few weeks behind,
    and I think we might all benefit from a meeting
    at your office.

    (continued on next page)

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    Section 7.1Learning and Development

    Laboratory Training and T-Groups
    Laboratory training, or T-groups, provides opportunities for individuals to reflect on their
    own behavior and how it affects the group.

    What Are Laboratory Training and T-Groups?
    We introduced T-groups in Chapter 1. Also known as laboratory training or training groups,
    T-groups are small groups of organization members that provide in-depth feedback to
    one another about perceptions and how individual behaviors affect the group. Recall that
    T-groups stimulated the creation of OD and grew in popularity through the 1960s and 1970s.
    They are less popular today because of the risk of being unable to maintain amicable work
    relationships after significant self-disclosure and sharing. Also, their results can be difficult to
    transfer back to the work context. Frank disclosure may also put employees at risk with their

    Assessment: The Left-Hand Column Exercise (continued)

    LEFT: What I really thought RIGHT: What was really said

    I need to make it clear that I’m willing to take
    responsibility for this, but some of this is out of
    my control.

    ME: Yes, the deadlines are of concern. As you
    know, some of the estimates we need to com-
    plete the budget have not come in on a timely
    basis, although we are working as hard as we
    can to get them. When do you want to meet?

    He always seems to offer help after the crisis
    has already occurred, not when I really need it.
    Now, it is too late to do anything but wait.

    YOUR BOSS: It seems to me that we could
    have better communication and coordination
    between the two of us as we establish the bud-
    get. I might be able to help.

    The changes he keeps making to the renovation
    plans are the real reason we’re late. Getting
    estimates takes time.

    ME: I’m always open to better ways to build the
    mousetrap.
    YOUR BOSS: I hope you have some better ideas
    about what we can do here.

    I wish I could just level with him that he’s the
    reason we are delayed. If we can just get him
    to hold off a bit longer, we should be able to get
    the estimates.

    ME: If we can push off our meeting until next
    week, I think we can have the budget by then
    and also brainstorm improved processes.

    Your Turn . . .

    Visit your e-book to download an interactive version of this assessment.

    LEFT: What I really thought RIGHT: What was really said
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    Section 7.1Learning and Development

    organizations if management were to retaliate. Refer back to Chapter 1 for a full description
    of T-groups.

    Why Do OD Consultants Do Laboratory Training and T-Groups?
    T-groups are beneficial interventions because they provide fodder for reflective practice,
    as discussed in the previous section. Specifically, they help group members reflect on their
    interpersonal interactions and thereby deepen their self-awareness. Often, individuals fail to
    consider where their assumptions come from or how their behaviors and comments affect
    others. T-groups provide a platform for reflection and disclosure that leads to deeper levels
    of consciousness.

    How Are Laboratory Training and T-Groups Done?
    A T-group is rather fluid, usually lacking an explicit agenda beyond enhanced awareness
    and understanding. The goals of a T-group include increasing members’ self-awareness and
    improving their understanding of how their individual interactions affect the group. T-groups
    usually yield useful insights about oneself, others, and the group. T-groups may use the con-
    versation to solve problems, share feedback, or role-play.

    T-groups require eight to 15 participants. The consultant’s role is to guide the group and
    encourage participants to share emotional reactions (e.g., anger, fear, warmth, or envy) to
    the other participants’ actions and statements. The group should focus on sharing emotions
    rather than making judgments or drawing conclusions. The T-group helps participants see
    how their words and actions trigger emotional responses in the other individuals and ideally
    makes participants more mindful of how they behave in group settings.

    T-groups can be uncomfortable for members because significant self-disclosure and open-
    ness are required. Moreover, participants’ feelings may be hurt because of the feedback’s
    highly personal nature. Experienced facilitators help mitigate these risky dynamics.

    Training, Education, and Development
    A key individual intervention is to ensure that employees have the necessary knowledge,
    skills, and attitudes to effectively do their jobs. Training, education, and development make
    that possible.

    What Are Training, Education, and Development?
    Training, education, and development are appropriate interventions when new skills, knowl-
    edge, or attitudes are needed in areas such as new technology implementation, diversity and
    inclusion initiatives, machine operation, product safety, and new employee orientation. In the
    opening vignette, Lindsey pursued all three of these. In this text, these three interventions
    will be referred to as training. You will recall that Lindsey elected to pursue higher education
    training and then received further training when she joined her new company.

    Davis and Davis (1998) offered a comprehensive definition of training. Among their key
    points are the following:

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    Section 7.1Learning and Development

    • Training is always a process, rather than a program to be completed.
    • Training develops skills, shares information, and nurtures attitudes.
    • Training helps the organization.
    • Training usually contributes to workers’ overall development.
    • Training helps workers qualify for a job, do the job, or advance to a new job.
    • Training is essential for enhancing and transforming a job.
    • Training facilitates learning.
    • Learning is not only a formal activity; it is also a universal activity, and many types of

    people facilitate it formally and informally.
    • Training should always hold forth the promise of maximizing learning.

    Why Do OD Consultants Do Training, Education, and Development?
    It is easy to associate OD interventions exclusively with training programs, but not all OD
    problems require a training solution. When training programs are required, it is important
    that they be well designed and facilitated in ways that meet the intended goals. Training is
    most effective when it is explicitly linked to organizational strategy and when it targets a
    problem that can be resolved by training. Thus, training may be used to improve current
    employee job performance, such as by teaching employees new skills, software, or processes
    that help them do their jobs with more speed and accuracy. Or it may be a means of orienting
    new employees to the policies and expectations of the company. In the opening vignette, Lind-
    sey went through extensive orientation training. Training may also be used to prepare employ-
    ees for advancement. For instance, leadership training may be offered to develop manage-
    ment potential, or tuition reimbursement programs may be provided to help employees build
    technical and administrative skills. See Tips and Wisdom: Resources on Training.

    How Are Training, Education, and Development Done?
    Training, education, and development are achieved through formal knowledge-building
    efforts (McLean, 2006; Nadler, 1970):

    • OD consultants provide or arrange for training via on-site demonstrations, classes,
    courses, and programs that help employees accrue job-related knowledge. For
    example, you may have attended computer class or conflict resolution training. New
    technical and interpersonal skills help you do your job more effectively. Consultants
    get asked to provide training most often, as it is often selected as an intervention.

    Tips and Wisdom: Resources on Training
    As well as promoting both professional and personal growth, training helps the organization
    enhance its performance. To learn more about training, see Caffarella and Daffron’s (2013)
    Planning Programs for Adult Learners: A Practical Guide, Lawson’s (2016) The Trainer’s Hand-
    book, or Silberman and Biech’s (2015) Active Training: A Handbook of Techniques, Designs, Case
    Examples, and Tips. You can access multiple training resources by joining the Association for
    Talent Development (ATD) at the following website: https://www.td.org/.

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    Section 7.1Learning and Development

    • When you learn how to become an analytic problem solver and use reasoning, you
    are receiving education. Education is not necessarily job related. Learning how to
    critique classic texts, for example, may not be specific to your job in health care or
    manufacturing, but it may be helpful in carrying out your job because it sharpens
    your reasoning and writing skills. Consultants do less work in this area, although
    they may refer clients to higher education programs or offer programs in their own
    area of expertise. For example, if a consultant were an expert writer, she might help
    the client’s employees develop in this area.

    • When you cultivate your interests, perhaps by taking martial arts or a cooking
    course, you are engaged in development. Development is sometimes considered
    more personal and less job related, but like education, it enhances your ability to do
    your job and makes you more well rounded. Consultants might recommend develop-
    ment programs as part of an intervention, especially ones that are focused on
    organization learning and employee satisfaction.

    Action Learning
    Action learning arose in the 1990s as a reaction to formal learning interventions (such as
    training) that were viewed as ineffective because of the difficulty of transferring knowledge
    back to the workplace and their lack of relevance or support to use the new learning.

    What Is Action Learning?
    Action learning deliberately accelerates people’s education about real work problems and/or
    desired outcomes within the actual work context. It is a continuous cycle of learning by doing,
    followed by reflecting on the doing. Action learning involves getting relevant people together
    to work on organizational issues in a fashion that leads to learning throughout the process.
    For example, suppose a new product is launched and a group of relevant stakeholders comes
    together to ask questions raised by the launch, reflect on problems and solutions that arise
    in the launch, share assumptions about the project, make necessary changes, reflect on how
    the changes worked, and consider the learning that transpired in the launch process. Action
    learning creates a structure for reflective practice among individuals or groups.

    Why Do OD Consultants Facilitate Action Learning?
    Consultants favor action learning because, rather than taking people to an unnatural location
    to teach them unnatural acts about abstract concepts (as training often does), it involves the
    real people working with the real problem in its real setting. In other words, action learning
    involves getting people who have a particular problem together in the workplace to undergo
    cycles of learning and action. This makes the process relevant, timely, and completed by the
    people who own the problem.

    Consider This
    Identify the types of training, education, and development you have experienced. How have
    they differed? What did you take away from each of these activities?

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    Section 7.2Leadership and Management Development

    Lawrence (1991) observed that action learning not only is learning by doing, but also involves
    reflection with the explicit goal of learning from experience. According to Lawrence, there are
    three essential characteristics of action learning:

    1. Real work: Suppose a certain scheduling process creates problems for multiple
    workers—there is too much overlap at times and not enough coverage at others.

    2. Questioning process: The team gets together and begins to question how the sched-
    ule is being made; the team members suggest changes.

    3. Implementation: New scheduling procedures are put in place, and the group recon-
    venes to evaluate how the changes are working and what was learned.

    Lawrence (1991) recognized that action learning has the following outcomes: visible progress
    on solving problems, individual development, and change. Unlike some process-improvement
    tools, action learning is open ended, dynamic, and fluid. Although the purpose of engaging in
    action learning may be clear, the results are often unexpected. Action learning helps partici-
    pants understand their internal decision and action processes and makes them aware of how
    these patterns affect their environment.

    How Is Action Learning Done?
    Action learning is accomplished by six to eight people who come together to work on a prob-
    lem. This group is known as an action learning set. There are several variations on steps
    taken, but generally the process is as follows:

    1. Establish an action learning set.
    2. Identify a project, task, or problem the set intends to work on.
    3. Engage in a process of questioning, reflection, and inquiry into the problem.
    4. Decide on and implement a course of action.
    5. Reconvene to evaluate whether the action resulted in a satisfactory outcome and to

    identify key learning.

    Action learning tends to favor asking questions that prompt new thinking, learning, and solu-
    tions. For more information on action learning, see Marquardt, Banks, Cauweiler, and Choon
    (2018) or Revans (2017).

    7.2 Leadership and Management Development
    Learning and development interventions are common across all levels of the organization.
    They affect not only individuals, but also teams and the organization itself. A more specialized
    type of development is targeted at current and potential leaders and managers of the organi-
    zation and is therefore known as leadership and management development.

    An Overview of Leadership and Management Development
    Both leaders and managers are needed to effectively run an organization. Different approaches
    are taken for developing each skill type:

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    Section 7.2Leadership and Management Development

    • Leadership development involves helping people to guide the organization, cre-
    ate long-term vision, develop strategy, staff the organization, communicate, and
    motivate people toward the vision (French & Bell, 1999). Leadership development is
    applicable across levels (McLean, 2006). It is fairly common to send potential lead-
    ers off to leadership development programs such as those offered by the Center for
    Creative Leadership (http://www.ccl.org/Leadership).

    • Management development involves equipping people to execute day-to-day prac-
    tices of organizing, staffing, planning, budgeting, controlling, directing, and problem
    solving. Management development tends to be position specific. For example, the
    general manager of an automotive company might need to learn very different skills
    than a city planning manager.

    Management and leadership development
    programs are key ways consultants help
    individuals and organizations become more
    effective in day-to-day activities and prob-
    lem solving. Organizations that lack strong
    managers and leaders will underperform
    and have difficulty responding to the chal-
    lenges that continually arise both inside and
    outside the organization.

    Management and leadership development
    can be accomplished in multiple ways at lev-
    els ranging from the individual to the team
    to the organization. Individual development
    involves targeting individuals who show
    management and/or leadership potential
    or people who are challenged in their cur-
    rent leadership role. These individuals might be sent to leadership development programs,
    which are usually offered by consulting firms. Organizations sometimes provide a group of
    individuals with a more formal leadership development program, similar to the example in
    the Leadership Academy vignette. The organization may also take on management and lead-
    ership development on a large scale and roll out various activities across multiple locations.
    Such activities could include mentoring, formal training programs, and so forth.

    Two interventions—values clarification and integration, and executive coaching—are com-
    mon in management and leadership development. They are discussed in more detail in the
    following sections.

    Values Clarification and Integration
    Values drive thought and action and influence the decisions people make. Providing individu-
    als the opportunity to reflect on what they value and why can help them clarify their life and
    career goals and identify areas of potential conflict with others who might prioritize different
    values. In the vignette, Lindsey worked with her career counselor to clarify her own values as
    she planned her next career steps.

    fizkes/iStock/Getty Images Plus
    Leadership and management development
    programs help individuals take steps to ensure
    effectiveness in their roles.

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    Section 7.2Leadership and Management Development

    Exercises that help individuals articulate their key values and incorporate them into their
    thoughts and actions are known as values clarification and integration. Such exercises are
    helpful at all organizational levels.

    Engaging in values clarification can help leaders gain clarity around why they make certain
    decisions. It can also help them understand why they experience conflict with others whose
    values differ. Values clarification is particularly helpful for managers and leaders to engage in
    before they have to communicate the organization vision to employees. It can help them clar-
    ify what is important about the vision, which makes it easier for them to motivate employees.

    Values activities can also help build stronger teams by revealing which values are shared by
    team members. Values clarification and integration can help tie individual values to organiza-
    tion values.

    Consultants can also help individuals explore mismatches between what they value and what
    the organization values. For example, if a client highly values autonomy but works in a highly
    structured environment that has little autonomy, the consultant might help the client explore
    this contradiction and find ways to cope.

    Values clarification can be undertaken with individuals, groups, or organizations. An example
    is profiled in Assessment: Values Clarification—What Is Important? Visit your e-book to access
    an interactive version of the assessment.

    Assessment: Values Clarification—What Is Important?
    The following exercise takes 15 minutes to 1 hour to complete, depending on the size of the
    group and how much discussion the experience yields. The OD consultant should provide a list
    of values the participant can choose from, as well as spaces for additional values to be added.
    Time should be built in for the participant to talk about the values identified and why they are
    significant.

    Instructions: Identify your top 10 values. Then narrow them down to five and write them in
    the right-hand column.

    Tip: Cross out the values that do not resonate with you to make narrowing the list easier.

    Values Prioritize

     1. Accomplishment (mastery and
    achievement)

    1.

     2. Advancement (progress up the ladder)

     3. Adventure (new and challenging
    experiences)

     4. Competitiveness (winning, taking risks)

    (continued on next page)
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    Section 7.2Leadership and Management Development

    Executive Coaching
    Coaching is becoming increasingly popular, not just in organizations, but in multiple facets of
    life. Although business-related coaching such as executive coaching is relatively well known,
    there are also career coaches, life coaches, spiritual coaches, health and wellness coaches,
    transition coaches, grief coaches, renovation coaches, team coaches, and relationship coaches.
    This section focuses on the business realm and examines executive coaching.

    What Is Executive Coaching?
    Coaching has been defined as “a personal and frequent one-on-one meeting designed to pro-
    duce specific, positive changes in business behavior within a fixed time frame” (Corbett &
    Colemon, 2006, p. 1). Roberts (2000) described it as “the act of being directly concerned with
    the immediate improvement of performance and development of a skill by a form of tutoring
    or instruction” (p. 159). See Tips and Wisdom: Coaching Programs for more information about
    coaching competencies and programs.

    Why Do OD Consultants Recommend Executive Coaching?
    OD consultants who work as coaches take on the daunting task of integrating individual and
    organization goals. That is, they help the coachee connect his or her individual work with that
    of the broader organization (values clarification can also help make this connection). Consul-
    tants who are not trained as executive coaches would be responsible for hiring a reputable
    one.

    Corbett and Colemon (2006) identified specific times when individuals might need a coach.
    These include when (a) a promotion is involved, (b) a job is at stake, or (c) a new perspective
    is needed. Complete Assessment: Do You Need a Coach? to see if you need a coach.

    Assessment: Values Clarification—What Is Important?
    (continued)

    Values Prioritize

     5. Contribution (assisting others, improving
    society)

    2.

     6. Cooperation (teamwork, getting along)

     7. Economic security (steady, adequate income)

     8. Family balance (family members are
    satisfied)

     9. Freedom (independence, autonomy) 3.

    10. Friendship (close relationships with others)

    11. Health (physical and mental well-being)

    12. Honesty (truth)

    13. Integrity (sincerity, standing up for beliefs) 4.

    14. Order (tranquility, stability, conformity)

    15. Pleasure (fun, laughter, comfort)

    16. Power (control, authority, influence)

    17. Recognition (respect from others, status) 5.

    18. Spirituality (strong religious or spiritual
    beliefs)

    19. Wealth (making money)

    20. Wisdom (understanding life)

    Source: Adapted from The Sherpa Guide: Process-Driven Executive Coaching (pp. 96–98), by B. Corbett and J. Colemon,
    2006. © Cengage Learning.

    After the exercise, ask the client the following questions to stimulate reflection and
    conversation:

    • What did you learn about yourself? About others?
    • Was it hard to express disagreement with another person’s values? Why or why not?
    • Were there times when you felt uncomfortable or unsafe? What helped you stand by

    your values at that time?
    • Were there any times you felt unable to stand up for your values? Why do you think that

    was so?
    • What would support people at times when they feel unable to stand up for a value they

    believe in?

    Tips and Wisdom: Coaching Programs
    The International Coach Federation (ICF) started in 1995 as a nonprofit organization to sup-
    port coaches and grow the profession. The ICF created core coaching competencies and a code
    of ethics. The ICF also defined curriculum standards to ensure consistency in coach train-
    ing and developed a credentialing system for coaches. Today, the organization is global, with
    membership exceeding 25,000. You can find reputable information on coaching programs and
    much more at the following link: http://www.coachfederation.org.

    Assessment: Do You Need a Coach?
    The following questions can help you (or your client) determine if coaching is the right inter-
    vention at this time.

    I need expert consulting services to help me solve a complicated business problem.

    (continued on next page)
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    Section 7.2Leadership and Management Development
    Executive Coaching
    Coaching is becoming increasingly popular, not just in organizations, but in multiple facets of
    life. Although business-related coaching such as executive coaching is relatively well known,
    there are also career coaches, life coaches, spiritual coaches, health and wellness coaches,
    transition coaches, grief coaches, renovation coaches, team coaches, and relationship coaches.
    This section focuses on the business realm and examines executive coaching.
    What Is Executive Coaching?
    Coaching has been defined as “a personal and frequent one-on-one meeting designed to pro-
    duce specific, positive changes in business behavior within a fixed time frame” (Corbett &
    Colemon, 2006, p. 1). Roberts (2000) described it as “the act of being directly concerned with
    the immediate improvement of performance and development of a skill by a form of tutoring
    or instruction” (p. 159). See Tips and Wisdom: Coaching Programs for more information about
    coaching competencies and programs.
    Why Do OD Consultants Recommend Executive Coaching?
    OD consultants who work as coaches take on the daunting task of integrating individual and
    organization goals. That is, they help the coachee connect his or her individual work with that
    of the broader organization (values clarification can also help make this connection). Consul-
    tants who are not trained as executive coaches would be responsible for hiring a reputable
    one.
    Corbett and Colemon (2006) identified specific times when individuals might need a coach.
    These include when (a) a promotion is involved, (b) a job is at stake, or (c) a new perspective
    is needed. Complete Assessment: Do You Need a Coach? to see if you need a coach.
    Assessment: Values Clarification—What Is Important?
    (continued)
    Values Prioritize
     5. Contribution (assisting others, improving
    society)
    2.
     6. Cooperation (teamwork, getting along)
     7. Economic security (steady, adequate income)
     8. Family balance (family members are
    satisfied)
     9. Freedom (independence, autonomy) 3.
    10. Friendship (close relationships with others)
    11. Health (physical and mental well-being)
    12. Honesty (truth)
    13. Integrity (sincerity, standing up for beliefs) 4.
    14. Order (tranquility, stability, conformity)
    15. Pleasure (fun, laughter, comfort)
    16. Power (control, authority, influence)
    17. Recognition (respect from others, status) 5.
    18. Spirituality (strong religious or spiritual
    beliefs)
    19. Wealth (making money)
    20. Wisdom (understanding life)
    Source: Adapted from The Sherpa Guide: Process-Driven Executive Coaching (pp. 96–98), by B. Corbett and J. Colemon,
    2006. © Cengage Learning.
    After the exercise, ask the client the following questions to stimulate reflection and
    conversation:
    • What did you learn about yourself? About others?
    • Was it hard to express disagreement with another person’s values? Why or why not?
    • Were there times when you felt uncomfortable or unsafe? What helped you stand by
    your values at that time?
    • Were there any times you felt unable to stand up for your values? Why do you think that
    was so?
    • What would support people at times when they feel unable to stand up for a value they
    believe in?
    Tips and Wisdom: Coaching Programs
    The International Coach Federation (ICF) started in 1995 as a nonprofit organization to sup-
    port coaches and grow the profession. The ICF created core coaching competencies and a code
    of ethics. The ICF also defined curriculum standards to ensure consistency in coach train-
    ing and developed a credentialing system for coaches. Today, the organization is global, with
    membership exceeding 25,000. You can find reputable information on coaching programs and
    much more at the following link: http://www.coachfederation.org.
    Assessment: Do You Need a Coach?
    The following questions can help you (or your client) determine if coaching is the right inter-
    vention at this time.
    I need expert consulting services to help me solve a complicated business problem.
    (continued on next page)
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    Section 7.2Leadership and Management Development

    How Is Executive Coaching Done?
    Coaches should be certified by a reputable coaching institution. In addition to having cre-
    dentials, the coach should also follow a process that has a beginning, middle, and end. It is
    important to research a coach’s training and process before you hire him or her. You may also
    want to check references. A reputable coach will do the following:

    1. Establish entry. A coach should offer a contract of services that details the cost, num-
    ber of meetings, and other expectations.

    Assessment: Do You Need a Coach? (continued)
    YES Do not hire a coach. Instead, hire a business consultant.

    NO Continue

    I need to discuss a deeply personal matter about my sense of well-being.

    YES Do not hire a coach. Instead, locate a licensed psychologist, psychiatrist, or counselor.

    NO Continue

    I need to discuss the internal politics of my organization and how it affects my career path.

    YES Do not hire a coach. Instead, find a trusted person who is familiar with your organization
    who is willing to serve as a mentor.

    NO Continue

    I need to learn and practice specific new skills that I lack.

    YES Do not hire a coach. Instead, find an appropriate skill development course that offers
    many opportunities to practice the new skills, perhaps using videotaped feedback.

    NO Continue

    I need to acquire a specific type of knowledge.

    YES Do not hire a coach. Instead, consider your own learning style and purchase the infor-
    mation in the form of books, tapes, or classes. Set aside time to study and internalize the
    information.

    NO Continue

    I need to evaluate whether I am in the right career and explore options for changing my career
    or profession.

    YES Do not hire a coach. Instead, hire an expert in career counseling who can administer apti-
    tude and interest testing and who will assist you in this transition.

    NO Continue

    I need structured planning and support to help in the accomplishment of a new way of leading
    or managing others.

    YES Hire a coach!
    Source: Adapted from Riddle, D. Leadership Coaching: When It’s Right and When You’re Ready. Copyright © 2008,
    Center for Creative Leadership. All rights reserved.

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    Section 7.3Assessments

    2. Set expectations and describe the process initially. The first meeting between a
    coach and coachee should focus on sharing information about the process, setting
    expectations, and agreeing on ground rules for the encounters.

    3. Establish accountability. If an organization has hired a coach to work with an
    employee, the coach should regularly communicate with the person’s boss (or other
    stakeholder, like a mentor) about the areas needed for development and the prog-
    ress being made. Usually, this contact would occur at the beginning, midpoint, and
    endpoint. If an individual has hired a coach independently, it is up to the coach and
    coachee to determine how accountability will be held for progress.

    4. Establish a baseline. Coaches need to understand information about their coachees’
    behavior, values, interests, and performance. Most coaches use assessments, conduct
    values clarification, and seek feedback from other organization members in order to
    get a full picture of their coachee at the beginning of the process.

    5. Identify areas to improve. Once the baseline is established, the coach and coachee
    mutually agree on an area for improvement. The coach helps the coachee develop
    strategies and new behaviors to make the agreed-upon improvement.

    6. Help the coachee solve his or her problems. Effective coaches rarely give advice.
    Rather, they use questioning and reflection exercises to help their clients solve their
    own problems and build confidence and capacity in their own skill set.

    7. Share blunt and direct feedback. Good coaches do not mince words and will serve
    as a mirror to reflect the coachees’ behavior and challenge them. Good coaches hold
    their coachees accountable.

    8. End the coaching when the coachee has met the goal. Once the coachee has made
    the agreed-upon improvements, the coach should move toward ending the coaching
    engagement and ensure the coachee has the capacity to maintain the change. The
    coach should remain available for future issues and occasionally check in with the
    coachee to see that the changes have been maintained.

    7.3 Assessments
    Instruments that measure myriad aspects of individual attributes are known as assessments.
    Assessments are useful for helping individuals gain new insights about themselves but can
    also be helpful when working with groups and teams. Assessments have great potential to
    stimulate individual reflection and change when used appropriately and ethically. There are
    dozens of assessments available for almost any topic. This section profiles some popular ones
    and their uses.

    Before you use assessments, you should be aware of the research behind them, or if any exists.
    Many assessments were developed using White male college students in the 1960s and may
    not be representative of the diverse ways of knowing and being in the world. Others are not
    validated. The U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) (https://www.eeoc.
    gov/policy/docs/factemployment_procedures.html) has provided guidelines for the use of
    assessments in employment decisions. Finally, you should keep in mind that although useful,
    assessments have a very narrow focus and the results should not be used to make assump-
    tions or result in discrimination.

    Here is a summary of the guidelines for using assessment from the EEOC:

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    Section 7.3Assessments

    • Assessments should be administered without regard to race, color, national origin,
    sex, religion, age (40 or older), or disability.

    • Employers should ensure that assessments are job related and properly validated
    for the positions and purposes for which they are used.

    • If an assessment screens out a protected group, the employer should determine
    whether there is an equally effective alternative assessment that has less adverse
    impact and, if so, adopt the alternative procedure.

    • To ensure that an assessment remains predictive of success in a job, employers
    should keep abreast of changes in job requirements and should update the assess-
    ment specifications or selection procedures accordingly.

    • Employers should ensure that assessments are not adopted casually by managers
    who know little about these processes.

    An assessment attempts to quantify certain aspects of individual personality or behavior,
    from learning styles to ethical orientation to leadership style. Assessments measure what
    energizes you, how you behave in certain situations, what your colleagues think of you, how
    you learn, what side of the brain you favor, and what strengths you possess. Hundreds of
    assessments exist, as evidenced by the numerous results that appear from an online search
    for “free personality assessment,” for example.

    Consultants juggle multiple variables in their efforts to implement change. Human beings
    are complex and require different approaches. Assessments yield rich data with regard to
    how individuals and teams interact. They provide information on how people will engage
    interpersonally, where they get their drive and motivation, what type of style they employ in
    multiple situations, how they problem solve and make decisions, how they manage pressure
    and stress, and how they handle and accept change.

    When you ask organization members to learn and change, they need pertinent information.
    There is nothing more timely and relevant than an assessment to help bridge understand-
    ing or point out opportunities for learning and growth. That is why consultants reach for
    them readily.

    We have included assessments in every
    chapter of this book precisely because they
    provide immediate feedback or insight into
    preferences, traits, or behaviors in a way
    that helps people understand themselves in
    relation to others. Assessments can be taken
    with pencil and paper, scanned by comput-
    ers, or completed electronically.

    Although assessment tools can help both the
    client and the consultant develop insights,
    they should be administered only by a
    trained or certified professional. In addition,
    their limitations need to be fully disclosed
    and their results not taken as a definitive
    statement on the person. Assessments are

    Moodboard/Thinkstock
    Assessments help individuals gain perspective
    on a large range of issues, from behavioral
    style to learning style to conflict style and
    more.

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    Section 7.3Assessments

    more helpful when used in conjunction with other interventions such as training, feedback,
    coaching, and leadership development.

    This section will profile three commonly used assessments in OD: 360-degree feedback,
    DiSC (dominant, influential, steady, and conscientious), and the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
    (MBTI). Like all assessments, they have limitations but offer an additional tool that may be
    useful as you go about the work of OD on an individual level. Additional links to assessments
    are included at the end of this chapter. In the opening vignette, Lindsey’s career counselor
    helped her take several assessments.

    360-Degree Feedback
    In simple, geometric terms, 360 degrees means “full circle.” A 360-degree feedback assess-
    ment, then, is one that seeks input from everyone in the leader’s circle. That includes direct
    supervisors, mentors, peers, subordinates, customers, suppliers, and any other stakeholders
    who can provide relevant input.

    What Is 360-Degree Feedback?
    During a 360-degree feedback process, an OD consultant seeks feedback about an individual
    from multiple sources and levels, such as peers, subordinates, supervisors, self, and customers
    (McLean, Sytsma, & Kerwin-Ryberg, 1995). The technique is also known as multirater feed-
    back. The feedback gained is usually used to cultivate an organization’s leaders and managers.

    Several companies, such as Hogan Assessments and the Center for Creative Leadership,
    administer electronic assessments and provide extensive documented feedback to the indi-
    vidual. These assessments can cost hundreds of dollars. To save money, OD consultants may
    design their own 360-degree evaluation or find software that runs these analyses, such as
    15Five, one of the most highly rated programs of 2019 (https://www.15five.com/).

    Why Do OD Consultants Use 360-Degree Feedback?
    A consultant may use 360-degree feedback because it helps validate what the consultant has
    already observed and is trying to convey to the client. When feedback is confirmed in multiple
    ways, it receives greater validity. For example, imagine you are working with a client who
    does not listen. You repeatedly observe this behavior and share this feedback with the client,
    who brushes it off. When lack of listening shows up in a 360-degree evaluation and is men-
    tioned by almost everyone, it usually gives the leader pause and reason to take the feedback
    more seriously.

    How Is 360-Degree Feedback Done?
    There are at least two approaches to 360-degree feedback. The first is low budget, although
    it requires time and experience. In this method, the consultant and client identify key infor-
    mants whom the consultant interviews about the client’s performance. A consultant must be
    skilled and experienced enough both to identify good interview questions and to manage the
    interview session so that it yields rich, constructive data. This typically involves identifying

    © 2020 Zovio, Inc. All rights reserved. Not for resale or redistribution.

    Section 7.3Assessments

    three or four people and determining questions in advance that will give the client useful
    feedback. It is not useful to ask, “What are this person’s main strengths and weaknesses?”
    Better questions might be, “What is the key thing this person could do to really take it to the
    next level?” or “How does this person derail?”

    The second approach is to use a validated instrument that sends confidential questionnaires
    to participants identified by the client. The instrument is scored to show how groups—such
    as subordinates and peers—rate the client. Also, feedback from the client’s boss is identi-
    fied. To use these instruments, a consultant should be certified, or a certified vendor should
    be used to provide feedback to ensure that the product is legitimate and that there has been
    training in how to share feedback. The consultant should be trained in facilitating the session,
    interpreting the formal feedback, and framing the feedback in a constructive manner. As noted
    already, the organization may opt for a software program that produces generic 360-degree
    feedback. Still, the administrator should be trained in and skilled at using such tools.

    DiSC
    The DiSC is a popular assessment that measures behavioral tendencies. It is useful for under-
    standing how you or others will typically behave.

    What Is DiSC?
    Understanding the motives behind behavior can offer valuable insight into both individuals
    and teams, improving the ability to work together and resolve conflict. The DiSC assesses a
    subject’s attitudes, values, beliefs, and behaviors and identifies a behavioral style as domi-
    nant, influential, steady, or conscientious.

    1. Dominant: Tends to be a direct, driving, demanding, determined, decisive doer. This
    style is fiercely independent and persistent about tasks. Dominant individuals tend
    to focus more on the goal or task than the people.

    2. Influential: Tends to be relational, interactive, imaginative, energetic, inspiring, and
    friendly. This style is highly social and relational and can be persuasive. Influential
    individuals tend to focus more on the people than the task, which can cause them to
    be poor time managers.

    3. Steady: Tends to be submissive, stable, supportive, shy, accommodating, and peace
    seeking. This style is a helper and will provide listening and support. Steady indi-
    viduals may sacrifice their wishes for the good of the whole.

    4. Conscientious: Tends to be cautious, compliant, careful, contemplative, and a critical
    thinker. This style prefers logic, facts, and step-by-step procedures. Conscientious
    individuals are very private and unemotional.

    Why Do OD Consultants Use DiSC?
    The DiSC is appropriate when examining behavior, especially during coaching, leadership
    development, or team-building exercises. Understanding behavior helps depersonalize reac-
    tions as individuals or groups go about problem solving, decision making, and implementing
    change.

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    Section 7.3Assessments

    How Is DiSC Done?
    You can take the DiSC free here: http://www.123test.com/disc-personality-test. You can
    also administer a longer, more expensive test or become a certified vendor through Inscape
    (http://www.internalchange.com), which is a provider of the original instrument.

    Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)
    The MBTI is a very popular assessment of personality preferences based on Jungian psychol-
    ogy. It is used worldwide.

    What Is MBTI?
    Understanding personality preferences is useful for self-introspection and interpersonal
    dynamics. The MBTI measures personality preferences according to four areas, as outlined
    in Table 7.3.

    Table 7.3: MBTI preferences

    Description Preference Description

    E: Extroversion
    This preference draws essential
    stimulation from the environ-
    ment: the outer world of people
    and things.

    How you accumulate energy I: Introversion
    This preference draws essential
    stimulation from within: the
    inner world of thoughts and
    reflections.

    S: Sensing
    The sensing function takes in
    information by way of the five
    senses: sight, sound, touch, taste,
    and smell.

    How you gather data N: Intuition
    The intuiting function processes
    information by way of a “sixth
    sense” or hunch: a few pieces of
    data, then, a quantum leap.

    T: Thinking
    The thinking function decides
    on the basis of logic and objec-
    tive considerations. Usually
    dispassionate.

    How you make decisions F: Feeling
    The feeling function decides on
    the basis of personal, subjective
    values. Logic is used, but the
    impact of the decision on others
    is added.

    J: Judging
    A judging lifestyle is decisive,
    planned, orderly, and structured,
    with a strong need for closure.

    How you order life P: Perceiving
    A perceptive lifestyle is flexible,
    adaptable, and spontaneous. It is
    free and flowing.

    Why Do OD Consultants Use MBTI?
    Consultants use MBTI to understand how clients prefer to accumulate energy, gather data,
    make decisions, and order their lives. The MBTI also helps individuals see how they are simi-
    lar to and different from other colleagues. The MBTI is often used for team building, so it is a
    common intervention at both individual and team levels.

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    Section 7.4

    Career Development

    As with any assessment, the administrator should be trained and certified in the use of the
    MBTI. Clients should also be cautioned about the instrument’s limitations. The MBTI has been
    widely critiqued. Psychologists question its validity. Another problem with the MBTI is that
    people tend to read too much into the results and dichotomizing types, rather than stay mind-
    ful of its limitations and applicability. This is in part due to the MBTI’s use of binaries to type
    people—that is, identifying someone as either introverted or extroverted. The MBTI has also
    been critiqued for its use in hiring decisions. This is considered an abuse of the instrument,
    because it has also been criticized for having a short test–retest interval, meaning that the
    result of the personality type might change over time, depending on the life circumstances of
    the test taker. Additionally, it violates the EEOC guidelines presented earlier in this chapter.
    This misuse would render its application in hiring decisions questionable at best. It can also
    be inappropriately applied to work teams when types become overused to explain behavior
    and enforce stereotypes about colleagues (Burnett, 2013).

    How Is MBTI Done?
    There are several versions of the MBTI. Official instruments cost money to administer and will
    be more thorough and valid. You can access a free assessment at the following link: http://
    www.16personalities.com/free-personality-test.

    7.4 Career Development
    Many of the individual interventions dis-
    cussed in this chapter facilitate clients’
    career progress by helping them be more
    effective in their current job or preparing
    them for advancement opportunities.

    Brown and Lent (2013) defined career
    development as a process that begins in
    childhood and continues into adulthood
    in terms of choices and how a career pro-
    gresses across the life span as people deter-
    mine their talents, interests, and values and
    navigate career challenges, transitions, and
    ultimately retirement. They suggested that
    managing one’s career demands both self-
    awareness and understanding of the occu-
    pational context. Career development is heavily influenced by values and role models. This
    influence is visible in how people make career decisions, how they prepare for careers, how
    their careers unfold, how careers influence identity, and how people integrate their careers
    with their lives. Career development interventions are intended to help people set career-
    related goals and make choices. Such interventions might include developing self- and occu-
    pational awareness, refining job-searching skills, adjusting to occupational choices, and cop-
    ing with job stress or loss.

    People are an organization’s most important resource. Organizations that are not focused on
    hiring, developing, and retaining a talented work force will have difficulty competing. Career

    Andresr/E+/Getty Images Plus
    Career development involves helping clients be
    more effective in their current jobs or preparing
    them for advancement opportunities.

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    Section 7.4Career Development

    development practices help ensure that people in organizations are prepared to perform at
    high levels. In Career Development Interventions for the 21st Century, Niles and Harris-Bowls-
    bey (2017) suggested that clients need to develop the following competencies to be most
    effective at planning for and managing their careers:

    1. using both rational and intuitive approaches in career decision making;
    2. being clear about the importance attached to each life role and the values one seeks

    to express through participating in these roles;
    3. coping with ambiguity, change, and transition;
    4. developing and maintaining self-awareness;
    5. developing and maintaining occupational and career awareness;
    6. developing and keeping one’s occupationally relevant skills and knowledge current;
    7. engaging in lifelong learning;
    8. searching for jobs effectively, even when one is not job seeking;
    9. providing and receiving career mentoring; and

    10. developing and maintaining skills in multicultural awareness and communication.

    This section will profile some common career development interventions such as perfor-
    mance management, career plan development, and developmental relationships.

    Performance Management
    Lipman (2014) reported on a study by Towers Watson, “Tracking People Priorities and
    Trends in High-Performance Companies,” which explored trends in employee opinions over
    a 5-year period. The high-performing group, which was a cross-section of diverse industry
    sectors, included 26 organizations that outperformed peers in “financial performance” and
    “employee opinion scores.” Lipman described the findings this way:

    Loyalty. Long-term career opportunities. Corporate cultures that allow
    employees to speak their mind. Senior leaders who lead by example. A study
    of how high-performing companies motivate their people shows that some old
    values—as in sound management practices—never go out of style. Because
    they work. (2014, para. 1)

    The study showed that four specific areas contributed to these organizations’ success:

    1. Career development: Particularly companies that put an emphasis and value on
    talent development and providing long-term career development opportunities and
    training

    2. Empowerment: Providing open, supportive cultures that cultivate innovation and
    empower staff

    3. Rewards and recognition: Offering compensation packages that satisfy employees,
    including benefits and nonmonetary recognition. Of high importance was having a
    supervisor who values employee contributions.

    4. Leadership: Delivering leadership that satisfies employees, particularly with regard to
    communication and making decisions that are consistent with company values

    The importance of feedback was underscored in a new study of more than 5,000 profession-
    als across several industries. The Predictive Index (2018) found that 44% of managers do not

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    Section 7.4Career Development

    give enough feedback. Employees indicated that they valued feedback but were not receiving
    enough; managers failing to share feedback were rated significantly lower in effectiveness.
    The study also found that people rated as “bad managers” were viewed as self-centered and
    lacking in awareness of employee needs by not communicating clear expectations, playing
    favorites, and lacking concern for career and personal development. Top organizations are
    high performing on multiple levels, including how they manage and develop people, as shown
    by these studies.

    What Is Performance Management?
    Performance management is the process of aligning organization resources, systems, and
    people with business goals and strategy. Performance management can involve parts of the
    organization, such as departments, people, or even products. This chapter is concerned with
    performance management as it relates to individuals. It focuses on individual goal setting and
    performance appraisal systems and how they are aligned with reward systems. For example, an
    organization that takes a strategic approach to performance management would articulate its
    key goals and ask employees to identify ways they can link achieving them to their own goals.

    Why Do OD Consultants Facilitate Performance Management?
    “Errors in managing people always add to the cost of a product or service” (Daniels, 1985,
    pp. 225–226), which is why companies use performance management to help identify per-
    formance problems, determine a baseline, make an intervention, and evaluate results. OD
    consultants commonly encounter performance issues; helping organizations address them
    can significantly improve organization outcomes. Aubrey Daniels originated modern perfor-
    mance management, and his ideas are still relevant today. Current trends in performance
    management include thinking holistically about employees across their career span using the
    concept of employee lifetime value, or the total net value an employee brings to the organi-
    zation across his or her lifetime (Cardy & Lengnick-Hall, 2011). The labor market is currently
    characterized by low unemployment, which puts pressure on organizations to compete for
    talent. Organization cultures built around employee engagement—the emotional connec-
    tion and care workers feel about their work and organization—will be more successful at
    recruiting and retaining talent (Shuck, 2011). Performance management is becoming more of
    a continuous, individualized process, instead of an annual discussion about job performance
    (Deloitte Trends, 2017).

    Daniels (1985) observed that performance can be changed when you change the conse-
    quences of what happens to employees based on their performance. In other words, create
    penalties when desired performance is not achieved and rewards for when it is. He criticized
    organizations for too rarely tying performance to consequences that directly affect perfor-
    mance, such as salary increases, bonuses, promotions, profit sharing, or recognition. Instead,
    most organizations fall into the trap of giving nonconsequential rewards that may seem
    related to performance but rarely are. These include cost-of-living adjustments, seniority-
    based pay and experience, and whims of the boss.

    How Is Performance Management Done?
    Aubrey Daniels is credited with developing the concept of performance management in the
    1970s. He wrote that approaches to employee productivity need to answer the following

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    Section 7.4Career Development

    questions: “What should employees be doing? And precisely how can they be motivated to do
    it?” (Daniels, 1985, p. 225). Performance management has three components: positive rein-
    forcement, measurement, and feedback (Daniels, 1985).

    Positive reinforcement helps employees achieve maximum performance. Daniels (1985) con-
    sidered it the opposite of the “do it or else” mentality that threatens negative consequences
    when employees fail to perform, and instead advocated a “do it and else!” philosophy, where
    the employee performs well and then something “distinctly pleasant” (p. 228) happens to him
    or her. Positive reinforcement has proved more effective at eliciting high performance than
    other methods. Organizations need to be clear about what the positive consequences are and
    ensure they are awarded soon after the positive performance.

    Measurement is the second aspect of facilitating performance management. Daniels (1985)
    believed that any behavior could be measured according to its frequency and quality. A prob-
    lem with creating behavioral measurements in most organizations is that employees expect
    negative consequences when they do not make their numbers. Instead, Daniels advocated
    measurement as a tool “not to justify punishment, but to recognize improvement” (p. 231).
    Measurement is important, because it is the only accurate way to gauge whether desirable
    behaviors are occurring.

    See Tips and Wisdom: Performance Appraisal Resources.

    The third element of performance management is feedback. Feedback provides information
    about the employee’s performance that helps improve future performance. As Daniels (1985)
    put it, “The sole purpose of measurement and feedback is to create opportunities for positive
    reinforcement” (p. 232).

    Deming (1982, 1986), father of the total quality management movement discussed in chap-
    ters 1 and 8, opposed individual performance appraisals, arguing they only encourage short-
    term goals and undermine teamwork. They also tend to focus on negative reinforcement and
    fail to account for issues beyond the control of individual employees, such as systemic organi-
    zation problems (problematic equipment, processes, and management). Performance man-
    agement offers an alternative to ineffective feedback and appraisal. Read about an example
    of a performance appraisal process in Case Study: Piloting and Evaluating a New Performance
    Appraisal Process.

    Tips and Wisdom: Performance Appraisal Resources
    Check out performance appraisal examples and tips at the following website: http://www.
    businessballs.com/performanceappraisals.htm.

    There, you will find a plethora of information on performance appraisals, such as examples
    and templates of appraisals, tips for making them easier and more effective, resources for
    engaging in your own self-appraisal, and more.

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    Section 7.4Career Development

    Career Plan Development
    Plato (trans. 2000) said, “The beginning is the most important part of any work” (p. 365).
    Indeed, good beginnings usually involve good plans. It is difficult to accomplish big goals if

    Case Study: Piloting and Evaluating a New Performance
    Appraisal Process
    The Health Defender Insurance Company of Georgia is in trouble. The company’s salespeople
    spend most of their time fielding complaints about poor customer service. As one sales rep
    complained, “All we hear about is how slow our claims processing is and how we don’t respond
    to the customer.” Sales of new contracts have dropped dramatically over the past few years,
    and something has to be done.

    The company’s new president, Julie Goodrow, is distressed at the company’s state. Dwindling
    accounts, stressed employees, and frustrated management seem to be the norm. She explains
    the predicament to an OD consultant, Dan Rock, with whom she worked at her former institu-
    tion. She and Dan work through the action research process to develop an OD intervention.
    A year later, Health Defender is in a completely different place. Its new contracts are at their
    highest rate ever, and Health Defender is outperforming every other state division of the com-
    pany in the United States.

    What was behind Health Defender’s turnaround? The company made a fundamental change to
    how it managed its frontline employees by implementing a performance management process
    that incorporated Daniels’s (1985) key elements of positive reinforcement, measurement, and
    feedback. The results were dramatic and included not only new accounts but also higher-qual-
    ity customer service and a restored corporate image. Internally, the company also improved
    morale, decreased absenteeism, and improved employee relations.

    The intervention involved training 180 managers and 15 executives, including Julie herself, in
    performance management. The change was met with the skepticism and resistance that most
    changes induce in organizations. Health Defender had to overcome previous failed productiv-
    ity improvement initiatives and efforts to measure performance that were viewed as punitive
    and threatening.

    Health Defender spent a year implementing the performance management process by incor-
    porating regular feedback and positive reinforcement with rewards for improving. It took
    some time, but eventually this new feedback-driven process became second nature to manag-
    ers. A walk through their offices reveals graphs of performance data at work stations and a
    culture that is driven by measurement and healthy competition between departments to see
    who has the best performance.

    Health Defender’s results are impressive. The time to process health claims dropped dramati-
    cally, backlogged claims dropped by half, and overall productivity increased. Employee atti-
    tudes and morale also improved. People are happier, more responsive to customers, and more
    satisfied with their jobs and with management.

    Critical Thinking Questions

    1. What types of positive reinforcement do you think would be effective for Health
    Defender?

    2. How would you manage resistance to a performance management implementation?

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    Section 7.4Career Development

    you do not have a vision of what you want to do or how to get there. Career plans serve this
    function, and consultants work with clients on an individual level to develop them.

    What Is Career Plan Development?
    A simple yet powerful intervention for individual career development is to ask the client to
    complete a written plan for his or her immediate, midterm, and long-term career, including
    developmental needs. This is known as career plan development. Often, it is helpful to work
    in 5-year increments with shorter or longer increments, depending on the person and his or
    her role. A typical career plan might include ideal job descriptions, assessments, work loca-
    tions, and necessary training and higher education requirements.

    Why Do OD Consultants Encourage Career Plan Development?
    Consultants use career paths because they help clients focus on what they want to do and
    create a road map for how to get there. Career plans are developed by doing a thorough self-
    assessment, often using some of the assessments we have discussed in this book. It is also use-
    ful to research various career paths that are desirable. Articulating goals and plans is a very
    powerful activity that helps clients imagine a desired future and create the steps they need to
    achieve it. Career goals can also help clients set priorities, identify needed resources, target
    potential mentors, and make changes in their current positions to become better aligned for
    the future.

    How Is Career Plan Development Done?
    Here are some steps for writing a career plan:

    1. Identify goal(s).
    2. Outline key action steps for the immediate and longer term.
    3. Determine the developmental requirements needed to meet the goal(s):

    a. Skills
    b. Abilities
    c. Interests
    d. Education
    e. Experiences

    4. Update your résumé.
    5. Outline next steps.

    Once the plan is written, it should be shared with a supervisor or mentor and assessed and
    revised as necessary.

    Have you ever written a career plan? It is a very powerful exercise that helps you visualize
    your future and determine how to make it a reality.

    See Tips and Wisdom: Career Resources.

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    Section 7.4Career Development

    Developmental Relationships
    The adage “It isn’t what you know; it’s who you know” is often used to describe the way
    in which opportunities and advancement may be less a function of specialized training and
    more a matter of networks that connect us to people who can help us advance. These relation-
    ships are known as developmental relationships.

    What Is a Developmental Relationship?
    A relationship that helps advance someone’s career is likely a developmental relationship.
    This term encompasses a range of relationships that “contribute to individual growth and
    career advancement” (Crosby, 1999, p. 7). These include mentoring as well as less intense
    relationships such as sponsorship, networks, and peer support:

    • When a senior person takes inter-
    est in the learning, advancement,
    and career development of a
    junior person, this relationship is
    mentoring.

    • When someone supports you for a
    particular assignment, recognition,
    or promotion, this relationship is
    known as sponsorship.

    • When you belong to a group that
    shares unique challenges—such
    as women, people of color, or
    LGBTQ—you belong to a network.

    • When you provide mentoring or
    coaching to a person at your same
    rank or position, you are offering
    peer support.

    Tips and Wisdom: Career Resources
    There are dozens of assessments and resources available related to careers. O*NET is a U.S.
    Department of Labor resource (http://www.onetonline.org) that brings access to current job
    information, assessments, and salary information together in one place for more than 900
    occupations. O*NET provides a valuable resource to both organizations and job seekers and
    was created to provide the general public broad access to a variety of search options and
    resources for job searches. O*NET has information on skills, abilities, knowledge, work activi-
    ties, and interests associated with occupations in one place.

    Other assessments that may be useful in career planning include the Strong Interest Inventory,
    the Skills Confidence Inventory, the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, Self-Directed Search, and
    Career Key (Brown, 2007).

    Opolja/iStock/Getty Images Plus
    Mentoring is a developmental relationship
    in which a senior person helps a more junior
    person navigate career issues, challenges, and
    opportunities.

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    Section 7.4Career Development

    If you are in a developmental relationship, how would you classify it?

    Why Do OD Consultants Encourage Developmental Relationships?
    Developmental relationships can be rich opportunities for learning, increased visibility, expo-
    sure to role models, developmental experiences, and promotional opportunities. Although
    developmental relationships depend on the right chemistry, consultants can encourage orga-
    nization members to forge them.

    How Are Developmental Relationships Developed?
    As a consultant, you may not be able to direct people to form developmental relationships,
    because they depend on timing and chemistry. However, you can help individuals develop
    skills to build effective developmental relationships. In seeking a developmental relationship,
    you will want to follow these steps:

    • Observe how your colleagues and superiors interact and learn from them.
    a. What do they do well?
    b. How could they improve?
    c. What do you want to emulate?
    d. With whom do you want to build a relationship?

    • Talk about your career plan with your supervisor, colleagues, and others with whom
    you might like to develop a developmental relationship.

    • Ask past and present colleagues, supervisors, professional contacts, mentors,
    coaches, family, or friends for feedback on your key strengths and growth areas.

    • Reach out to people with whom you would like to build a developmental relation-
    ship. Share your career aspirations and ask for their help.

    • Join professional associations and get involved.
    • Thank the people who help you and pay it forward.

    Tips for being in the more senior role in a developmental relationship include the following:

    • Be a positive role model. Conduct yourself in ways you want to see your protégés
    emulate—they are watching you.

    • Show genuine interest and learn about your protégé. This means following through
    on your commitment to provide support and guidance when needed and making
    time for the person.

    • Share your experiences, insights, and mistakes, and model reflective practice.
    • Listen. Be patient.
    • Be open-minded and compassionate.
    • Ask questions and avoid giving answers.
    • Provide a fresh, objective perspective.
    • Give constructive feedback and positive reinforcement.
    • Help your protégé network.
    • Celebrate your protégé’s achievements and give public recognition.
    • Continue to seek mentoring yourself to keep your edge.
    • Comentor with a peer—mentor each other.

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    Section 7.5

    Job Development

    You can see from this section that Lindsey, in the opening vignette, underwent several career
    development interventions, beginning with her career counselor. She also had training and
    experience (via higher education and corporate-sponsored programs) that boosted her career.
    She had a developmental relationship through her mentor, while her new work supervisor
    encouraged her to write a career plan and gave her feedback through performance appraisal.

    7.5 Job Development
    Sometimes, the intervention is less about the individual and more about the job. For example,
    key responsibilities of a secretary once included tasks such as taking dictation, composing
    correspondence, and scheduling meetings. Today, technology makes it possible for most of
    us to do these things ourselves. Thus, the secretary of yesteryear is today’s administrative
    professional, whose duties have dramatically changed to roles such as partner, leader, facilita-
    tor, spokesperson, and advisor, an extension of the executive team with key insights into how
    the business works (International Association of Administrative Professionals, 2019). The
    evolution of the administrative professional role is but one example of how a job has changed.
    Organizations have the challenge of helping employees evolve with the changing needs of the
    job. This can be particularly challenging for workers who have been in a job for many years.

    When we make interventions that are job specific, we are undertaking job development. The
    interventions that may be used include redesigning jobs, writing job descriptions, and creat-
    ing policy.

    Consultants make job development interventions when certain jobs no longer meet the needs
    of the organization and must be restructured to better respond to organization needs, market
    shifts, or customer demands. For example, airport check-in areas today are peppered with
    self-service kiosks. Employees working the registration area need to be able to help custom-
    ers troubleshoot as they check in for their flights.

    Job development can be accomplished through job redesign, job description writing, and pol-
    icy development.

    Redesigning a Job
    A job design is the way a job is organized in terms of its tasks or overall purpose (McLean,
    2006). Redesigning a job requires identifying the tasks of the job, how to do them, how many
    to do, and in what order. More broadly, it involves assessing the current work practices, con-
    ducting a task analysis, designing or redesigning the job, implementing the new design gradu-
    ally, and evaluating the design on a regular basis (McLean, 2006).

    OD consultants are frequently hired to redesign jobs in order to “heighten skill variety, task
    identity, task significance, autonomy, and feedback from the job” (French & Bell, 1999, p. 236).
    Another common reason for job redesign is to accommodate advances in or problems arising
    from technology. The traditional secretarial job, for example, was redesigned to keep pace
    with advances in communication and information technology. A manufacturing process may
    be changed when repetitive hand movements begin to cause physical problems for workers,
    such as carpal tunnel syndrome.

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    Section 7.5Job Development

    McLean (2006) noted that a job redesign is more likely to succeed when the plan consid-
    ers not only the individual job but also how it interacts within the complex context of the
    organization. If we return to the example of airline registration employees, they are required
    not just to help customers learn how to use the self-service kiosks, but also to negotiate an
    increasingly global, diverse traveling population and help travelers with any problems they
    encounter. Job redesign was also imperative as the work of secretaries shifted to that of
    administrative professionals. Steps for redesign of this entire profession occurred not just on
    an individual and organization level, but across the entire field.

    Steps in job redesign include the following:

    1. Assess the needs in terms of the job skills, abilities, and knowledge.
    2. Design the job to conform to the needed skills, abilities, and knowledge.
    3. Pilot the new job design.
    4. Implement the job redesign broadly.
    5. Evaluate the redesign and adjust accordingly.

    Like any change, job redesign will be most effective when employees participate in the pro-
    cess. Employees know the precise details of the job as well as its challenges and stressors,
    making them best equipped to identify new designs.

    Job Descriptions
    Job development can also be aided by having a clear, current job description, which is a
    document identifying the key aspects of the position. Essential elements of a job description
    include these:

    • Job title
    • Start date
    • Job location
    • Contact information
    • Number of available positions
    • Number of hours per week
    • Required years of experience
    • Required education
    • Required license, certificate, or registration
    • Starting salary
    • Benefits (McLean, 2006, pp. 146–147)

    Job descriptions exist in most organizations, although their quality and accuracy depend on
    the human resource function that is usually responsible for overseeing them. Accurate job

    Consider This
    How would you follow the steps to redesign your job or a role you think needs to change with
    the times?

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    Section 7.5Job Development

    descriptions serve several purposes. First, they identify the job’s key responsibilities and
    qualifications. Prospective employees need this information to gauge whether they want to
    apply. Job descriptions can help managers set expectations for employees and determine key
    measures of performance. Job descriptions are also useful when evaluating employee per-
    formance. They help determine equity across positions in large organizations because they
    allow job characteristics and requirements to be compared. See Figure 7.1 for an example of
    a job description and check out Tips and Wisdom: Job Description Resources.

    Figure 7.1: Job description and job specification

    A job description details key aspects of a position, such as its title, grade, payroll status, and
    expectations. Visit your e-book for a PDF of this job description.

    GROCERIES FOR LESS

    Job Description

    Job Identification
    Job title: Store Manager
    Job grade: 5
    Status: Exempt
    Department: Operations
    Reports to: Operations Manager
    Supervises: Grade 6–8

    Job Summary
    Planning, organizing, leading, and controlling all store staff, resources, and
    operations to ensure efficiency, safety, and quality customer service

    Tasks, Duties, and Responsibilities
    • Supervises shift supervisors, customer service managers and representatives,

    cashiers, cleaning crew, and other personnel
    • Performs inventory controls, including working closely with suppliers and

    stocking staff to ensure timely restocking and replacement of perishables, and
    maintaining physical controls to minimize spoilage and shrinkage

    • Designs, coordinates, and communicates schedules on a weekly basis to
    ensure adequate staffing of all shifts

    • Works with head office personnel to plan and implement marketing strategies,
    advertising campaigns, weekly sales, seasonal specials, and other store
    functions

    • Leads the process of staffing and training all store personnel
    • Conducts annual performance reviews for all store personnel, and makes salary

    and promotion recommendations

    • Investigates and resolves customer complaints brought to his or her attention
    • Enforces sanitary practices for food handling and general store cleanliness

    • Complies with all health and safety regulations
    • Reports accurate and timely store-level financial statements
    • Performs other duties as assigned by management

    Job Specification

    Minimum Qualifications
    • Bachelor’s degree in Business Administration or related field
    • Three years of managerial experience, preferably in retail
    • Excellent communication, organization, leadership, time- and

    conflict-management skills
    • Ability to multitask, work independently, and operate under pressure

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    Section 7.5Job Development

    Policies
    Policies are rules according to which an organization and its members act. Corporate policy
    statements offer the organization a blueprint for operating. Many companies have policy
    statements that describe legal obligations, compensation, work rules, grievance procedures,
    and leave guidelines, to name a few. OD consultants might be hired to update policy state-
    ments when they are out of date, the company merges with another, or they do not exist.
    Most companies will involve legal counsel in this process to ensure they are in compliance
    with the law.

    Policy can influence organizational culture, so it deserves ongoing attention. For example,
    an organization’s maternity/paternity policy can offer some insight into how supportive the
    organization is of parents and families. Organizations can also signal how inclusive and equi-
    table they are by the types of policies they keep around governance and access to promotional
    opportunities. As we have discussed throughout this book, employees should be involved in
    policy development or change to promote buy-in.

    Employee handbooks usually have information on the following organization policies:

    • Nondisclosure agreements and conflict of interest statements
    • Antidiscrimination policies in compliance with the equal employment opportunity

    laws prohibiting discrimination and harassment (e.g., the Americans with Disabili-
    ties Act)

    • Compensation, including required deductions for federal and state taxes and any
    voluntary deductions for the company’s benefits programs. Other compensation
    issues include
    a. Overtime pay
    b. Pay schedules
    c. Performance reviews
    d. Salary increases
    e. Timekeeping records
    f. Breaks
    g. Bonuses

    • Wage and hour laws
    • Employment taxes
    • Workers’ compensation
    • Work schedules

    Tips and Wisdom: Job Description Resources
    There are several resources for writing effective job descriptions. Check out the following two:

    U.S. Small Business Administration: Writing Effective Job Descriptions: https://www.sba.gov/
    node/2764

    O*NET OnLine (Occupational Network): http://www.onetonline.org

    You can also easily find multiple examples and tips by searching for “writing job descriptions”
    in your computer browser.

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    Summary and Resources

    • Standards of conduct
    • General employment information

    a. Employment eligibility
    b. Job classifications
    c. Employee referrals
    d. Employee records
    e. Job postings
    f. Probationary periods
    g. Termination and resignation procedures
    h. Transfers and relocation
    i. Union information, if applicable

    • Grievance procedures
    • Employment and labor laws
    • Foreign workers, immigration, and employee eligibility
    • Performing preemployment background checks
    • Terminating employees
    • Unions
    • Safety and security
    • Computers and technology
    • Media relations
    • Employee benefits
    • Leave policies

    Summary and Resources
    Chapter Summary

    • Reflective practice helps clients reflect critically on their thoughts and actions by
    considering reflection in action, reflection on action, and espoused theory versus
    theory in use.

    • T-groups are small groups in which individuals receive feedback on how their behav-
    ior affected the other members of the group. When done effectively, T-groups facili-
    tate deep critical reflection and self-awareness.

    • Training, education, and development help individual employees get the requisite
    knowledge, skills, and abilities to perform their jobs.

    • Action learning engages employees in cycles of reflection and action about real prob-
    lems they encounter in their real workplace.

    • Leadership and management development targets current and potential lead-
    ers to ensure they have the core skills to help the organization reach levels of high
    performance.

    • Values clarification and integration helps leaders and managers articulate their
    key values and integrate them into the daily behaviors as they manage and lead
    employees.

    • Coaching is an intense relationship between a coach and coachee that seeks to create
    positive changes in business behavior.

    • Assessments help individuals gain insight and self-awareness, when used with clear
    objectives, trained facilitators, and legal, ethical administration.

    • A 360-degree feedback approach provides the individual with full-circle feedback
    from supervisors, subordinates, peers, and other stakeholders.

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    Summary and Resources

    • The DiSC measures behavioral tendencies according to dominance, influence, steadi-
    ness, or conscientiousness.

    • The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) assesses personality preferences accord-
    ing to how individuals prefer to accumulate energy, gather data, make decisions, and
    order their lives.

    • Career development is a process of lifelong learning that influences individual career
    choices according to psychological, sociological, educational, economic, and physical
    factors.

    • Performance management involves elements of positive reinforcement, measure-
    ments, and feedback to achieve optimal organization performance.

    • Career plan development is the process of helping the client document career goals,
    values, and a road map for the immediate present and near- and long-term future.

    • Developmental relationships are ones that help individuals advance their careers,
    such as mentoring, sponsorship, networking, peer support, or coaching.

    • Job development makes interventions related to job redesign, job descriptions, and
    policy development.

    • Job redesign is the reordering of the overall purpose or tasks of a job to ensure it
    meets the needs of the organization.

    • Job descriptions document key aspects of a job in terms of its responsibilities and
    qualifications.

    • Policies ensure that organizations have a blueprint for operating that detail legal
    obligations, compensation, work rules, grievance procedures, leave guidelines, and
    so forth.

    Think About It! Reflective Exercises to Enhance Your Learning

    1. Pick an assessment presented in this chapter (or book) and take it. What new
    insights did you gain? Are there contradictions? Confirmations? What implications
    do they have for your career?

    2. When was the last time you sat down and deeply reflected on where you are in your
    career and where you are going? Make some time for yourself to do some careful
    thinking and determine if you are on track.

    3. Have you been involved in a developmental relationship? How would you classify it?
    How helpful was it?

    4. Review the tips for building developmental relationships. What do you need to work
    on to find a mentor or sponsor? How can you be a better mentor or sponsor?

    Apply Your Learning: Activities and Experiences to Bring OD to Life

    1. The chapter began with a vignette about Lindsey, who was in a career transition.
    Have you ever been in a career transition or known someone who was? What types
    of interventions were applied?

    2. Write a career plan as outlined in this chapter.
    3. Identify a position that you aspire to. Do some research and document these aspects:

    a. the education and training required
    b. salary
    c. a city you prefer to live in, in terms of cost of living, environment, and so forth

    4. Talk with people in the position you aspire to and get their advice.

    © 2020 Zovio, Inc. All rights reserved. Not for resale or redistribution.

    Summary and Resources

    5. What training, education, and development have you done in the past year?
    Write down an inventory and see how well your learning has aligned with your
    career plan.

    6. Review the policies for your organization and note key likes and dislikes.
    7. Review or write a job description for your position or desired positions.
    8. Write or revise your résumé.

    Additional Resources
    Media

    • 360-Degree Feedback Humor
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OXJkP13xACg

    Web Links
    Learning, Training, and Development

    • The Association for Talent Development, a professional association of learning and
    development resources:

    https://www.td.org/

    • Training, Development, and Education for Employees, a page that offers employee
    development resources, including on-the-job training, training transfer, internal
    training, and more:

    https://www.thebalancecareers.com/employee-training-4161676

    • International Foundation for Action Learning, a charity that supports a network of
    action learning practitioners and enthusiasts:

    http://ifal.org.uk

    • Action Science, which aims to accurately describe and efficiently demonstrate the
    theory and practice of action science and to connect individuals and groups inter-
    ested in working with action science. Read about the science behind action science:

    http://infed.org/mobi/chris-argyris-theories-of-action-double-loop-learning-and
    -organizational-learning/

    Leadership Development

    • Performance, Learning, Leadership, and Knowledge, a window into learning, train-
    ing, leadership, design, and all matters related to improving human performance:

    http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/index.html

    • Coaching tips to make you a more efficient coach:
    https://www.thebalancecareers.com/tips-for-effective-coaching-1917836

    Career Development

    • National Career Development Association, which offers professional development,
    resources, standards, scientific research, and advocacy:

    http://www.ncda.org/aws/NCDA/pt/sp/home_page

    © 2020 Zovio, Inc. All rights reserved. Not for resale or redistribution.

    Summary and Resources
    Job Development

    • A free online course on job design:
    https://courses.lumenlearning.com/boundless-management/chapter/

    job-design-and-motivation/

    Key Terms
    360-degree feedback An assessment
    method in which performance feedback is
    solicited from multiple sources at the levels
    surrounding the individual (self, subordi-
    nate, peers, and supervisor). This is also
    known as multirater feedback.

    action learning set A group of six to eight
    people who come together to work on a
    problem using action learning.

    assessments Instruments that measure
    myriad aspects of individual attributes such
    as personality, learning style, or cultural
    awareness.

    career development The lifelong process
    of balancing psychological, social, educa-
    tional, economic, and physical variables in
    making career decisions.

    career plan development A written plan
    that identifies immediate, midterm, and
    long-term career goals and developmental
    needs.

    coaching A one-on-one helping relation-
    ship focused on replacing the client’s inef-
    fective business behaviors with positive
    ones.

    development The cultivation of interests,
    not necessarily related to work.

    developmental relationship A relation-
    ship that helps advance an individual’s
    career, such as mentoring, sponsoring, or
    networks.

    education The cultivation of reasoning and
    analytical problem solving.

    employee lifetime value The total net
    value an employee brings to the organiza-
    tion across his or her lifetime.

    espoused theory versus theory in
    use Inconsistency between your actions
    and what you profess you will do.

    job description A document that details
    the key aspects of a position.

    job design The way a job is organized.

    job development Job-specific
    interventions.

    leadership development Helping people
    guide the organization, create long-term
    vision, develop strategy, staff the organiza-
    tion, communicate, and motivate people
    toward the vision.

    management development Equipping
    people to execute day-to-day practices of
    organizing, staffing, planning, budgeting,
    controlling, directing, and problem solving.

    mentoring A helping relationship
    where a more senior individual provides
    career advice and support to a less senior
    individual.

    peer support Mentoring and sponsorship
    provided to a person of similar rank.

    performance management The process
    of aligning individual employee perfor-
    mance with organization goals and strategy.

    reflection in action Reflective practice
    about an experience and potential actions
    during the experience.

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    Summary and Resources

    reflection on action Reflective practice
    about an experience and potential actions
    after the experience.

    sponsorship Supporting and recommend-
    ing individuals for career advancement
    experiences and opportunities.

    training The accrual of job-related
    knowledge.

    values clarification and integration Exer-
    cises that help individuals articulate their
    key values and incorporate them into their
    thoughts and actions.

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    Group Interventions 8

    Learning Outcomes

    After reading this chapter, you should be able to:

    • Identify interventions that OD consultants use to build highly functioning groups and teams.

    • Identify situations in which diversity and inclusion interventions are warranted and describe
    various interventions.

    • Recognize when individuals or teams are in conflict and discuss different interventions for
    resolving the conflict.

    • Explain how problem solving and decision making are handled in organizations.

    Gradyreese/E+/Getty Images Plus

    © 2020 Zovio, Inc. All rights reserved. Not for resale or redistribution.

    AutoMark, an automotive parts maker, needed to radically change the sound system it had pro-
    duced for years. Fast-changing technology and computer advances had made even relatively
    new vehicular sound systems obsolete. Producing a new sound system posed a host of chal-
    lenges: designing the component, ensuring compatibility with other components and systems in
    the vehicle, and communicating across several functional areas, including design, manufactur-
    ing, engineering, and the union. AutoMark’s general manager, David, was new and had inherited
    a business with a long history of botching new system launches: They were chronically late, over
    budget, and under quality specifications. David had recently been exposed to OD in his evening
    MBA courses and was anxious to see if he could change AutoMark’s track record with the new
    sound system rollout.

    David contacted the company’s internal OD person, Anne, to see what could be done about the
    anticipated sound system launch. After completing the action research steps to discover the
    problems, they determined that the team involved had to be more cross-functional and that the
    team members lacked the requisite skills to pull off a successful launch. They decided to put a
    new team in charge of the launch.

    The new team was composed of representa-
    tives from design, manufacturing, engineer-
    ing, and the union. The team’s first meeting
    consisted of a charge to alter the way Auto-
    Mark handled new system launches. The
    team members established roles, ground
    rules, and a clear purpose statement for their
    work. They agreed it would be beneficial to
    build the team’s skills, and so, with Anne’s
    help, they planned a retreat to set themselves
    up for success.

    The retreat was held the following month at
    an off-site location. Everyone on the team
    had taken a DiSC assessment (see Chapter
    7); those results were shared with the team
    so individuals could begin to appreciate their
    differences and communicate effectively with
    each other. The team members engaged in activities to help build cohesion and understanding.
    They learned new skills for managing difficult conversations and for listening during disagree-
    ments. They also learned a new problem-solving model and reviewed quality standards to make
    sure these issues were consistently considered in their process. Finally, they revisited their origi-
    nal purpose, ground rules, and roles to see if these needed to be altered based on their work over
    the past month.

    The retreat was a success, and the group dove into its work. The group was highly functioning,
    based on its upfront investment to establish a functional, collaborative team. During the first
    few meetings, there were some moments of confusion; people were not sure of the key goal,
    and at times roles and responsibilities were not clear. But the group was able to resolve each of
    these issues. So far, the team was ahead of schedule on making decisions and getting approvals
    on the new sound system’s design. As the launch date got closer, the team members were under
    increasing stress, and some began to experience conflict. Meetings were getting bogged down by

    Ammit/iStock/Thinkstock
    On its retreat, AutoMark engaged in activities
    that built teamwork and communication. What
    kinds of activities would you recommend for
    encouraging team cohesion?

    © 2020 Zovio, Inc. All rights reserved. Not for resale or redistribution.

    disagreements; people argued over decisions, and some resorted to personal attacks. Two mem-
    bers in particular did not like each other and usually stirred things up for the rest of the team.

    David became increasingly concerned that the disagreements were sapping too much time and
    energy from the team. He decided to intervene and called the two instigators into a meeting,
    where he could mediate the dispute. Anne facilitated the conversation, because she was a neu-
    tral party. The two team members aired their grievances and were eventually able to identify
    common ground and problem solve their issues.

    The team went on to complete its work after the midpoint intervention. Using a deliberate team
    process helped the team turn the launch process around with an on-time, under-budget, and
    superior-quality product.

    This book has focused on undertaking OD using the action research model. We have moved
    through the three action research phases of planning, doing, and evaluating. This chapter is
    devoted to profiling several doing interventions that might be appropriate at the group or
    team levels of analysis and assumes you have followed the action research process up to the
    point of intervention and carefully selected an intervention in collaboration with the client
    (see Table 5.1).

    Interventions are generally decided during the discovery or planning that occurs in Phase 1
    of the action research model. They are implemented in Phase 2, doing or action, and assessed
    in Phase 3, checking or evaluating. Chapter 5 defined OD interventions as the actions taken
    on the problem or issue that is the focus of the OD process. Intervention is the culmination of
    the OD process—it is what OD intends to do from the start.

    The interventions covered in this chapter are not comprehensive, but rather representative of
    the many options available. This book could include dozens, as the range and potential of OD
    interventions are nearly endless. Rather than get lost in a sea of interventions, this chapter
    presents some of the most common group and team interventions (see Table 7.2).

    Human interactions tend to be messy and unpredictable, and groups have fascinating dynam-
    ics as they negotiate roles, differences, work practices, power relations, and tasks. OD con-
    sultants commonly address the challenges that arise in groups with interventions to improve
    group or team processes and development, increase diversity and inclusion, manage conflict,
    and solve problems and make decisions. The interventions within each of these categories are
    summarized in Table 8.1 and are profiled in this section.

    Table 8.1: Categories of group or team OD intervention

    Group or team process
    and development

    Diversity and
    inclusion Conflict management

    Problem solving and
    decision making

    • Dialogue
    • Team life cycle
    • Team start-up or

    transition
    • Team building
    • Team learning
    • Virtual teams

    • Cultural
    awareness

    • Cross-cultural
    development

    • Conflict resolution
    • Confrontation

    meetings
    • Third-party

    intervention
    • Appreciative

    inquiry

    • Work-Out
    • Total quality

    management
    (TQM)

    • Quality of work life
    (QWL)

    • Problem-solving
    models

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    Section 8.1Group or Team Process and Development

    8.1 Group or Team Process and Development
    Although the terms group and team are often used interchangeably, they have different defini-
    tions. Suppose a group of people gets on an elevator. A team emerges in the event the elevator
    gets stuck. A group usually consists of three or more people who may share common percep-
    tions, motivations, goals, or organization membership. In the case of the elevator, the group
    shares the common goal of traveling to a different floor. When the elevator becomes stuck, the
    group is suddenly transformed into a team. These team members not only share a common
    goal (getting out of the elevator) but must work together to achieve it. The difference is subtle
    but important for understanding group dynamics. Table 8.2 contrasts groups and teams.

    Table 8.2: Contrasting groups and teams

    Groups Teams

     1. Compete against each other
     2. Seek personal agendas
     3. Are staid and stodgy
     4. Make decisions independently
     5. Are motivated by fear
     6. Fail to connect teamwork with success
     7. Operate dependently or independently
     8. Tolerate each other and the work
     9. Accept complacency with no sense of urgency
    10. Avoid risk

     1. Compete outwardly together
     2. Share a team agenda
     3. Value innovation and continuous

    improvement
     4. Make decisions participatively
     5. Are motivated by opportunity
     6. Link team success to organization success
     7. Work interdependently
     8. Enjoy each other and the work
     9. Embrace a sense of urgency
    10. Thrive on challenge, take risks

    Because an organization’s work is largely carried out by teams whose members have to
    cooperate, create, and collaborate, helping members build these interpersonal skills and
    the infrastructure in which they are supported can boost the organization’s ability to
    accomplish its mission. Building capacity in group or team processes and development is
    important to ensure that new groups or teams start off on the right foot. It also strengthens
    established groups or teams that are embroiled in conflict, unproductive, or lacking focus.
    This section features some interventions that OD consultants use to build highly function-
    ing groups and teams.

    Dialogue
    Can you recall a conversation in which each person aggressively advocated a point and tried
    to convince everyone to agree? What was the outcome? Such win–lose conversations do not
    usually result in constructive outcomes or new learning for the participants, yet they are dif-
    ficult to avoid. Just turn on your television or radio, listen to politicians, or attend a meeting
    for numerous examples of such point–counterpoint discussion, which is often heated. This
    type of communication is a discussion, the dominant form of discourse in U.S. culture, which
    generally involves participants aggressively advocating their own point of view.

    “The word discussion stems from the Latin discutere, which meant ‘to smash to pieces’”
    (Senge, Kleiner, Roberts, Ross, & Smith, 1994, p. 353). The term is also related to the words
    percussion and concussion, with the general meaning of heaving back and forth to beat the
    opponent down and prove a point in a win–lose confrontation. Discussion promotes group

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    Section 8.1Group or Team Process and Development

    fragmentation and wars of advocacy between members. Linguist Deborah Tannen (1999)
    referred to this conversational crisis as the “Argument Culture,” in which communication is
    focused on confrontational discourse; it is a win–lose proposition for individuals caught in
    this vicious conversational cycle.

    Alternatively, you can probably recall really invigorating, exciting conversations in which each
    participant built on the points being made and people were open to questioning their view-
    points, learning from each other, and changing their minds. This type of inquiry-based dis-
    course is known as dialogue. Dialogue is contrasted with discussion as its polar opposite and
    is recommended by Tannen (1999) and others (Ellinor & Gerard, 2014; Isaacs, 1999; Senge
    et al., 1994) as an alternative communication means that is focused on inquiry and learning,
    rather than advocacy of a certain point of view. Dialogue is a mutual exploration of a concept
    or viewpoint.

    Dialogue is inquiry based; that is, you seek
    to be open, learn, and probe into the think-
    ing of the speaker. Discussion, in contrast,
    focuses on advocating a point of view and
    convincing the listener to agree with the
    speaker. Journalist Celeste Headlee offered
    a wonderful summary of research and strat-
    egies for having better conversations in her
    2017 book We Need to Talk: How to Have
    Conversations That Matter. An important
    concept she advanced was that people often
    engage in narcissistic conversation, that is,
    the tendency to make every conversation
    about yourself. Instead of providing support
    when a person says, “I am having a hard
    time meeting this deadline,” a narcissistic
    conversational response would shift the
    attention back to yourself by saying something like, “I am crushing my deadlines right now.”
    A more supportive reply would remain focused on the speaker, explore why he or she is hav-
    ing difficulty meeting deadlines, and engage him or her in an inquiry-based conversation or
    dialogue. You can avoid the trap of narcissistic conversation and shift to dialogue by asking
    questions. Although you may shift the conversation toward yourself by sharing your experi-
    ence or opinions, you eventually shift it back to the listener by asking a question such as,
    “What have you tried so far to manage your deadlines?” or “What is one thing you could do
    next week to make progress on your deadlines?”

    Dialogue is rooted in the Greek words dia (meaning “through” or “with each other”) and
    logos (meaning “the word”) (Senge et al., 1994, p. 353). Together, dia logos means “through
    meaning.” It can be thought of as meaning that flows through a group of people, where new
    understandings and ideas emerge. Whereas discussion is advocacy based, dialogue is inquiry
    based. The goal is not to find the right answer, but rather to examine multiple perspectives
    surrounding an issue that would not have been possible through individual reflection or dis-
    cussion. Dialogue is the collective engagement in reflective practice, discussed in Chapter 1
    of this book. Effective OD consultants hone their dialogue skills and use them across all inter-
    ventions. Dialogue is an effective team process because it requires individuals to slow down

    JasonDoiy/E+/Getty Images Plus
    You probably engage in true dialogue more
    often with friends than with coworkers. Why is
    dialogue important in OD?

    © 2020 Zovio, Inc. All rights reserved. Not for resale or redistribution.

    Section 8.1Group or Team Process and Development

    and listen to each other. The AutoMark team members learned this skill, and it helped them
    converse about complicated issues that crossed several people’s functional territory. Being
    skilled at dialogue will also help individuals and teams better apply other interventions.

    Why Do OD Consultants Advocate Dialogue?
    Throughout the action research process, consultants help clients adopt new behaviors, learn
    new ways of listening and speaking, and cultivate new tools for bridging understanding and
    dealing with disagreement. Because win–lose conversation is so prevalent in U.S. culture,
    engaging in dialogue is a major change for most organization members. They need training
    in how to dialogue, ideally at the beginning of the action research process, so that it can serve
    the team as it navigates the challenges of implementing change.

    Dialogue helps consultants achieve multiple interventions such as listening, problem solv-
    ing, decision making, strategic planning, talent management, and more. Specific benefits of
    dialogue include

    • conversing in ways that help clients think and reflect differently,
    • asking good questions that advance the conversation,
    • using new knowledge created from the conversation,
    • engaging in questioning that informs better decision making and action,
    • sharing broader and deeper feedback than a back-and-forth discussion would yield,
    • steering members away from argumentation and toward deeper inquiry that probes

    and challenges ideas,
    • shifting away from unconditional acceptance of dominant ideas, and
    • creating an atmosphere that is tough on the issues and easy on the people.

    How Do OD Consultants Help Facilitate Dialogue?
    Dialogue is not easy. It requires new listening and conversing, which for most people means
    changing lifelong bad habits. There are several ways to use dialogue. Some guidelines for
    achieving a dialogue that is inquiry based include the following:

    • Situate participants in a barrier-free circle (e.g., no tables). This configuration physi-
    cally removes obstacles and creates a more vulnerable space for the dialogue.

    • Ask participants to suspend assumptions and certainties. This means that everyone
    willingly questions his or her own ideas and beliefs, as well as those of others.

    • Listen. This is more important than talking. There are several ways an OD consultant
    can promote listening:
    a. Use a “talking stick.” Provide a stick, ball, or some other artifact that signals the

    right to speak. Participants must have possession of the talking stick to speak.
    b. Blindfold participants to remove nonverbal cues that people use to dominate

    conversation.
    c. Involve all participants in monitoring listening and confronting bad listening be-

    haviors such as interrupting or signaling to speak before the speaker has finished.
    • Focus on inquiry and reflection instead of decision and action.
    • Observe equality of members and give equal air time to everyone who desires to

    speak.
    • Respect differences.

    © 2020 Zovio, Inc. All rights reserved. Not for resale or redistribution.

    Section 8.1Group or Team Process and Development

    • Suspend role identification. This means that participants cannot invoke their roles in
    the organization hierarchy to make points or dominate (“As the vice president, here
    is how I see it”). Nor can participants look to people who have certain roles and ask
    for guidance (“As our vice president, what do you think?”).

    • Strive for learning over results. This means that the dialogue is a time to truly think
    about a problem. Once new knowledge is created and the dialogue ends, insight can
    be used to make decisions and act. Dialogue helps people slow down and evaluate
    decisions that are poorly thought out.

    • Allow speakers to talk without interrupting. This is probably the most challeng-
    ing aspect of dialogue, because everyone wants to be heard and advocate his or her
    viewpoint.

    • Ensure confidentiality among the group. What is said in a dialogue stays in the
    dialogue.

    Team Life Cycle
    There has been an enduring interest in group dynamics since the advent of OD. Tuckman
    (1965) reviewed 55 articles dealing with stages of small group development and isolated
    commonalities. From this research, he created a model of stages that groups experience in
    order to become high performing. He called this the group or team life cycle. Tuckman’s
    model laid the groundwork for understanding and researching groups and remains one of
    the best-known models of group development (see Figure 8.1). See if you can identify these
    stages in a group you belong to or apply them to the AutoMark vignette.

    Figure 8.1: Tuckman’s stages of group development

    Tuckman’s model, which shows how groups become high performing, remains one of the best-known
    group development models.

    FORMING
    Group members get familiar with
    each other

    STORMING
    Group experiences tension or
    conflict in determining tasks and
    norms

    NORMING
    Group establishes working
    agreements and builds productive
    work relationships

    PERFORMING
    Group matures into effective
    working relationships and task
    accomplishment

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    Section 8.1Group or Team Process and Development

    Later group development models have added a fifth stage, adjourning. In this stage, the group
    disbands after it has moved through the first four stages and met its goals.

    Although it is a widely used model of group development, Tuckman’s (1965) model is only
    one of several that have grown out of Kurt Lewin’s field theory. Lewin suggested that a group
    has its own psychological field or life space that consists of the group and all the variables in
    its environment and affects the group’s behavior (Lewin, 1947). Cummings and Worley
    (2009) proposed that group effectiveness could be judged based on the degree to which the
    task was accomplished, the level of satisfaction experienced by the group members, and the
    viability of the group itself.

    Why Do OD Consultants Pay Attention to the Team Life Cycle?
    The team life cycle model serves multiple purposes. First, it helps the consultant observe
    where the group or team is in its development and plan interventions accordingly. If a team

    Consider This
    Virtual teams have become increasingly common in a global economy where organizations
    seek to bring teams together that combine needed talent and expertise to solve challenging
    problems (Furst, Reeves, Rosen, & Blackburn, 2004). Think of virtual teams you have partici-
    pated in and list the challenges. Furst et al. (2004) offered key interventions for the virtual
    stages of team development:

    Forming Storming Norming Performing

    • Share lessons
    from prior
    virtual teams

    • Coach virtual
    teams with
    coaches
    experienced in
    virtual teaming

    • Develop a
    shared sense of
    team identity
    through
    deliberate
    relationship
    building

    • Acquire senior
    management
    support

    • Engage in
    face-to-face
    team building
    experiences
    (virtual F2F OK)

    • Train members
    on conflict
    resolution

    • Encourage a
    spirit of seeking
    common ground
    during conflict

    • Seek mediation
    when consensus
    is impossible

    • Create templates
    for specifying
    action items and
    tasks

    • Develop
    individual
    accountability
    measures such
    as due dates and
    schedules of
    work

    • Distinguish
    task, social,
    and contextual
    information
    and design
    procedures for
    each

    • Assign a
    team coach
    with virtual
    facilitation skills

    • Ensure the
    organization
    culture
    supports virtual
    teamwork

    • Provide needed
    support and
    resources
    for team
    performance

    Source: Adapted from “Managing the Life Cycle of Virtual Teams,” by S. A. Furst, M. Reeves, B. Rosen, and R. Blackburn,
    2004, The Academy of Management Executive (1993–2005), 18(2), 6–20. © Taylor & Francis.

    © 2020 Zovio, Inc. All rights reserved. Not for resale or redistribution.

    Section 8.1Group or Team Process and Development

    is just getting started, it is likely to be at the forming or storming stages. Agenda-driven inter-
    ventions are probably warranted, and when the group gets stuck storming, conflict resolution
    can also be helpful.

    Helping team members understand the life cycle helps them recognize the challenges and
    conflicts that arise as normal developmental processes. This in turn helps depersonalize the
    difficulties associated with collective goal pursuit and allows members to focus on moving to
    the next stage.

    When managers understand the team life cycle, they can help the groups and teams they
    manage through more effective decision making, problem solving, and conflict resolution.

    How Do OD Consultants Help Clients Learn About the Team Life Cycle?
    An effective way to teach the team life cycle is through an experiential activity. A popular one
    is the Tinkertoy activity:

    1. Organize the team into groups of about four to six people (depending on the size of
    the group).

    2. Give each group a bag of Tinkertoys. They should have the same number and type of
    pieces in each bag, or give each group their own container.

    3. Each group is given the following instructions:
    a. Build the tallest freestanding tower with the materials provided.
    b. Groups have 20 minutes to plan and 40 seconds to build.
    c. Pieces cannot be connected during planning (they will be removed by the

    facilitator).
    4. Facilitators serve as timekeepers.
    5. All pieces are returned to the bag or container before building.
    6. Construction must stop when the time limit is reached.
    7. Once the activity ends, debrief around the stages of the team life cycle and help par-

    ticipants see how they moved through the stages.

    There are dozens of such activities available to help develop teams. Find some resources you
    are comfortable using and become familiar with them.

    Team Start-Up or Transition
    Helping a team get off to a positive and productive start requires support from the beginning.
    It is common for organizations to set high expectations for teams without giving them the
    support or training needed to be high functioning; they then wonder why a team could not
    produce. Effective team-based OD interventions set teams up for success, whether they are
    new or already exist.

    Why Do OD Consultants Facilitate Team Start-Up?
    Giving teams a strong foundation at their formation helps them build the capacity to do what
    is expected of them. At a minimum, new or transitioning teams should be given a clear goal
    and the necessary resources to accomplish it. They also need training on the team life cycle
    and the tools for moving through the stages. Providing the team with training and a structure

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    Section 8.1Group or Team Process and Development

    for effective meetings helps them make good use of their time together. Topics to explore to
    help the team get off on the right foot might include

    • the team life cycle,
    • a change model (such as Lewin’s unfreezing, moving, and refreezing),
    • a problem-solving model,
    • meeting-effectiveness tips, and
    • team-building exercises.

    How Do OD Consultants Do Team Start-Up?
    Some key steps to follow include the following:

    1. Establish a clear goal or charge for the team.
    2. Create roles (e.g., facilitator, note taker, process observer).
    3. Rotate roles.
    4. Identify members’ communication expectations and needs.
    5. Develop ground rules.
    6. Create agendas for meetings.
    7. Use tools to enhance meeting facilitation, such as decision-making and consensus

    procedures.
    8. Evaluate team process on an ongoing basis.

    Team Building
    A common OD intervention is team building, that is, training and other activities that help
    teams perform more efficiently and effectively. This type of activity can also be used for team
    start-up. McGregor (1960) defined effective teams as those that

    1. foster a relaxed and comfortable atmosphere,
    2. clearly understand and accept their tasks,
    3. are able to engage in dialogue and effective listening behaviors,
    4. are tough on the issues and easy on each other,
    5. use consensus decision making, and
    6. complete their actions.

    Why Do OD Consultants Do Team Building?
    Team-building OD interventions are centered on helping members move through the stages
    of group development (Tuckman, 1965) and on helping the team settle on task roles, goals,

    Consider This
    The AutoMark vignette provides a classic case of teams working on parts of a larger project
    but not collaborating, with problematic results. Considering the strategies and steps for help-
    ing teams start up, what has been your experience with these start-up strategies when you
    joined a new team, and what were the consequences?

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    Section 8.1Group or Team Process and Development

    relationship building, group process, and activities to ensure smooth functioning. Team build-
    ing is often accomplished through training and ongoing process checks as the team works on
    its activities. Specifically, team building can facilitate

    • improved morale and leadership
    skills among team members,

    • the elimination of barriers that
    thwart creativity and collaboration,

    • the definition of clear objectives and
    goals,

    • improved processes and procedures,
    • improved productivity and results,
    • targeting and eliminating team weak-

    nesses, and
    • building up team strengths.

    How did these strategies play out in the Auto-
    Mark vignette?

    How Do OD Consultants Do Team
    Building?
    A successful team is only as good as its mem-
    bers, so following the team start-up tips will
    get the team primed to build deeper relation-
    ships. Burn (2004) suggested that skilled team members use the following approaches:

    • Develop norms and roles compatible with team success.
    • Build a group with norms of cooperation.
    • Make status assignments based on specific-status characteristics.
    • Minimize status differences.
    • Engage in constructive controversy.
    • Use constructive confrontation when group norms are violated.
    • Establish a supportive communication climate.
    • Recognize the benefits of member diversity.
    • Create a superordinate (shared) group identity.
    • Use group goal setting.
    • Rely on explicit coordination and pre-planning.
    • Persuade members that their contributions are needed, noticed and valued.
    • Tie valued individual outcomes to group outcomes.
    • Balance task and socioemotional leadership.
    • Choose discussion and decision-making procedures that prevent domination by a

    few members and ensure that all relevant information and perspectives are consid-
    ered. (p. 389)

    Consultants need to monitor the team and adjust interventions according to its needs.

    PeopleImages/E+/Getty Images Plus
    Team building strengthens the team’s
    relationships and members’ understandings
    of roles and responsibilities.

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    Section 8.1Group or Team Process and Development

    Team Learning
    Team learning is distinct from team building in that it strives to “transform conversational
    and collective thinking skills, so that groups of people can reliably develop intelligence and
    ability greater than the sum of individual members’ talents” (Senge et al., 1994, p. 6). Team
    learning emerged out of the learning organization movement in the 1990s. In addition to
    team building, team learning engages participants in the use of dialogical communication to
    bring assumptions to the surface and to address issues faced by the team, with the goal of
    collective learning.

    Why Do OD Consultants Facilitate Team Learning?
    Usually, team learning is sought by organizations that have made a commitment to becoming
    a learning organization. Team learning helps teams apply dialogue and action learning to solv-
    ing problems encountered in the team dynamics, work projects, or change implementations.

    Whereas team building improves courtesy, communication, performance, and relationships,
    team learning is a process of learning collectively. Team learning challenges individuals
    intellectually, emotionally, socially, and spiritually. It assumes self-mastery and self-knowl-
    edge while challenging members to look outward to develop shared alignment around goals
    and purpose.

    How Do OD Consultants Facilitate Team Learning?
    Team learning adds to the team-building efforts that have likely taken place with the team.
    The consultant helps the team focus on its reflection in action and reflection on action through
    dialogue, action learning, and deliberate efforts to identify learning as it occurs while the
    team goes about its work, problem solving, and decision making.

    To ensure that teams are prepared for learning, they need a clear purpose or goal, effective
    facilitation, ground rules, and dialogue skills. Usually, teams need to be trained on how to
    build effective skills. A common focus is on reflective practice using action learning, assump-
    tion testing, and mistake sharing. Members must be willing to take risks to raise difficult
    issues, question structures that may inhibit group or organization functioning, and enhance
    the group’s knowledge base and learning as a whole.

    The consultant can also help team members adopt certain behaviors that help them be more
    effective team learners, such as

    • listening to team members;
    • empathizing with other team members’ viewpoints;
    • taking interest in teammates by making eye contact, respecting them, and learning

    about them;
    • watching nonverbal behavior (self and others);
    • resisting the temptation to interrupt teammates;
    • listening for implicit as well as explicit meaning in the team conversation;
    • looking for omissions in both thought and action;

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    Section 8.1Group or Team Process and Development

    • affirming the speaker versus evaluating or criticizing;
    • paraphrasing to check for understanding; and
    • listening more than talking.

    Virtual Teams
    Organizations and people are increasingly working across the globe. Separated by time and
    distance, interaction must be mediated with technology, and people often work in virtual
    teams. Although the art of face-to-face facilitation is well developed, the art of virtual facilita-
    tion is in its infancy. Technologies that facilitate virtual teamwork include multiple Internet
    applications, videoconferencing, teleconferencing, and webcams. Engaging with others virtu-
    ally, with no opportunity to meet face to face, requires cultural awareness and effective com-
    munication skills.

    Why Do OD Consultants Facilitate Virtual Teams?
    Because of the global workplace, there is a need to develop capacity for effective virtual
    interactions, and this is accomplished in the same way as traditional team building and team
    learning. Consultants can help virtual participants be better virtual citizens and help virtual
    facilitators be effective in that context.

    How Do OD Consultants Facilitate Virtual Teams?
    Consultants can coach individuals to be good virtual team members. Being a good virtual
    team member involves the following behaviors:

    • Be timely. If team members cannot be on time for the meeting, they should let the
    organizer know in advance. It is just as disrespectful to be virtually late as it is to be
    physically late.

    • All members should plan to take necessary breaks prior to the meeting. Virtual
    meetings tend to be efficient, so it can waste everyone’s time if members step away
    from the session for various reasons. When team members must step away from the
    meeting, they should let the attendees or organizer know, preferably via an online
    chat feature.

    • Always be professional. Even though team members may be at home or communi-
    cate solely via an audio feed, they should assume the same behavior they would in a
    boardroom. No one wants to hear what their children, cats, or dogs are doing.

    • Do not do other work during the meeting. All team members’ input is valued, and
    the attendees are counting on everyone’s thoughts and contributions.

    • Actively participate.
    • If participants are presenting slides or sharing other kinds of information, they

    should practice prior to the meeting.
    • Follow the same respectful behaviors you would in person:

    1. Do not interrupt.
    2. Listen intently.
    3. Stay on topic.

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    Section 8.1Group or Team Process and Development

    Table 8.3 provides strategies for dealing with the challenges that arise from facilitating a vir-
    tual team. It is based on research by Mittleman, Briggs, and Nunamaker (2000).

    Table 8.3: Challenges and strategies for facilitating virtual teams

    Challenge Strategies

    Following virtual meetings
    is difficult for participants
    who may do unrelated
    tasks, arrive late, leave
    early, or disappear for long
    periods.

    • Provide explicit preplanning instructions including prework, timed
    agendas, and the meeting’s purpose and objectives.

    • Encourage interest and make it personal. Contact participants
    individually in advance of the meeting to confirm their participation
    and discuss their interests.

    • Create a scorecard. Use an electronic meeting platform to identify
    where you are in the agenda and who is participating.

    • Distinguish transitions from one topic to another to keep the team
    focused.

    • Clarify the intended outcome(s) for each agenda item (discussion,
    decision, action, etc.).

    Virtual teams receive mini-
    mal feedback on the meet-
    ing’s progress and process.

    • The facilitator should periodically offer and solicit feedback.
    • Engage in frequent process checks on the meeting (“Are we on task?”

    “Mark, are you still with us?” “Is there any concern about this course of
    action?”).

    • Invite feedback via the meeting platform, email, or online chat.

    Participants forget who is
    attending the meeting.

    • Use names during the meeting. The facilitator can use them or ask
    people to clarify their name before they speak.

    • Provide frequent reminders of who is in the meeting (or use a meeting
    platform that lists attendees).

    • Distribute short biographies and photos of attendees.

    Virtual team building is
    challenging.

    • Follow the best practices for team building already discussed in this
    chapter.

    • Ensure the team has a clear goal.
    • Meet face to face when possible, especially when the team is forming.
    • Create breaks, particularly for long sessions, that promote team

    bonding on nonwork topics such as the weather, interests, or hobbies.

    Technology is great when it
    works, but . . .

    • Be patient and assume people are on a learning curve with their
    technology.

    • Have a backup plan.
    • Have technical support ready to assist if needed.
    • Have a plan for reconnecting if the technology must be reestablished.
    • Introduce new technology on an as-needed basis.

    Communicate effectively,
    virtually.

    • Exchange dialogue and conversation rather than listen to lengthy one-
    way presentations.

    • Speak clearly and into the microphone when you have the floor.
    • Mute your sound when you are not speaking.

    Making decisions can be
    more difficult virtually.

    • Plan decision-making procedures (consensus, vote, etc.).
    • Conduct process checks to find out where people are in the process.

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    Section 8.2Diversity and Inclusion Interventions

    8.2 Diversity and Inclusion Interventions
    The U.S. work force is diverse and changing. There are more women employed than ever
    before, racial and ethnic minorities will soon surpass Whites in numbers, the work force
    is aging, and gender identity diversity is challenging binary definitions of gender as either
    female or male. Diversity commonly refers to a heterogeneous group—one in which mem-
    bers differ in gender, race, age, religion, or sexuality. A more useful definition of diversity for
    OD consultants is “those individual differences that are socially and historically significant
    and which have resulted in differences in power and privilege inside as well as outside of
    organizations; namely race, gender, and sexuality” (Thomas, 2005, p. 9).

    Thomas (2005) identified several challenges
    associated with leading modern, diverse
    organizations. These include attempting to
    understand

    • the differences between how work
    used to be accomplished and how
    it will change with an increasingly
    diverse environment and

    • the legal, ethical, and day-to-day
    issues that arise from employing a
    more diverse work force composed
    of immigrants, racial and ethnic
    minorities, women, older workers,
    sexual minorities, and the disabled.

    Thomas (2005) asserted that a goal for OD
    is “to maximize the beneficial aspects of diversity for organizations and for individuals while
    minimizing and perhaps preventing any negative challenges of that same diversity” (p. 3). She
    further emphasized that those trained in the organizational sciences are uniquely qualified to
    address diversity issues by monitoring selection and placement, training and development,
    organization development, performance measurement, and quality of work life. OD consul-
    tants can help ensure that the dynamic complexity of diversity is respected in policy develop-
    ment and workplace practices that are fair, equitable, and sensitive.

    Organizations can measure diversity intelligence (Hughes, 2016), which is similar to intelli-
    gence quotient (IQ) or emotional intelligence (EQ). Diversity intelligence (DQ) equips employ-
    ees to interact more effectively with the changing demographics of workplaces and the global
    economy by helping them embrace difference and value diversity. See Assessment: Diversity
    Intelligence Instrument Validation Study.

    FatCamera/E+/Getty Images Plus
    Promoting diversity and inclusion helps an
    organization build a stronger work force that
    is more equipped to excel in global markets.

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    Section 8.2Diversity and Inclusion Interventions

    OD consultants must be sensitive to diversity issues, regardless of whether their interven-
    tions currently address an issue related to diversity. Although this book discusses diversity
    interventions under group-based OD, it is important to note that such interventions may
    occur at any level and often will be implemented across multiple levels simultaneously. See
    Case Study: Diversity and Inclusion for a fictional example of a company that needs to address
    diversity and inclusion.

    Assessment: Diversity Intelligence Instrument Validation Study
    Hughes is in the process of validating a DQ instrument that will be available for organizations
    to assess ability to effectively lead diverse workers. If you would like to take the survey as
    part of the research to validate the study, visit the following link: https://www.noark.org/
    diversity-intelligence-survey-news-article_544.

    Case Study: Diversity and Inclusion
    Over several decades, TechCo has built a reputation for its commitment to recruiting and
    developing a diverse work force. But recently, that reputation has slipped. About 5 years ago,
    the company underwent a top leadership transition. The new CEO dropped diversity and
    inclusion from its strategic goals because, in his words, “TechCo has already accomplished
    outstanding diversity and the infrastructure exists to sustain it.”

    What the CEO did not anticipate was that TechCo’s competitors would expand their efforts to
    become more diverse and inclusive organizations. The top employees of TechCo are now being
    avidly recruited by these competitor organizations, and some begin to jump ship—particu-
    larly women and people of color—because they see more promising opportunities to work in
    organizations that appear to value diversity more than TechCo. Meanwhile, TechCo is falling
    behind in its strategy and ability to do realistic succession planning for future leadership. As
    management becomes less diverse, so does its recruitment pool and talent development.

    Today, TechCo’s top leadership is approximately 90% White and male. Competing firms have
    much higher percentages of female, African American, Latino, and Asian executives. Few
    TechCo employees participate in affinity groups (e.g., women leaders, LGBTQ support groups,
    African American leaders, etc.), whereas its competition has doubled these types of supports.

    TechCo needs an intervention, and fast. Its lack of diversity at the top of the organization and
    absence of a plan to resolve the problem could spell long-term disaster in its ability to recruit
    and retain the best people and remain competitive in its markets.

    Critical Thinking Questions

    1. What immediate steps can TechCo take to address its problems with diversity and
    inclusion?

    2. What mid- to long-term steps do you recommend TechCo take to become a more
    diverse and inclusive organization?

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    Section 8.2Diversity and Inclusion Interventions

    Cultural Awareness
    A first step for group members to more competently deal with diversity and inclusion is to
    gain cultural awareness, which is becoming conscious of and appreciating the differences
    between the characteristics of your own and other cultures.

    Why Do OD Consultants Promote Cultural Awareness?
    Groups with low levels of cultural awareness will likely experience more conflict and less
    productivity than groups that exhibit consciousness of and appreciation for other cultures.
    Groups with low cultural awareness may be candidates for interventions to increase their
    cultural learning. These include the following:

    • Practicing reflection, which can help group members examine how their own culture
    differs from others

    • Assessing values, which allows group members to compare what they value with
    others and tie values to cultural differences. For example, some cultures place a high
    value on punctuality, whereas others do not. The punctual culture may view lateness
    as rudeness without considering cultural meanings of time.

    • Encouraging dialogue with people from different cultures. Dialogue, as has been
    discussed, creates a format for communication that builds inquiry and reflection into
    the exchange, making it an ideal way to learn about other cultures.

    • Participating on diverse teams, which creates the opportunity to focus on achieving
    tasks and problem solving with people from different backgrounds

    • Encouraging group members to share information about their culture with others

    How Do OD Consultants Promote Cultural Awareness?
    One way to measure group members’ cultural awareness is by administering a cultural intelli-
    gence quotient (or CQ) assessment, such as the one shown in Figure 8.2 (Earley & Ang, 2003)
    (see also Assessment: Cultural Competence Resources). The assessment measures four distinct
    CQ capabilities:

    1. CQ drive (motivation): interest and confidence in functioning effectively in culturally
    diverse settings

    2. CQ knowledge (cognition): knowledge of how cultures are similar and different
    3. CQ strategy (metacognition): how someone makes sense of culturally diverse

    experiences
    4. CQ action (behavior): capability to adapt behavior to different cultures (Livermore,

    2010)

    OD consultants can also roughly gauge CQ by observing people while keeping in mind these
    four capabilities.

    There are multiple cultural interventions; consultants should build skill in this area via read-
    ing and additional training or bring in experts in the area.

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    Section 8.2Diversity and Inclusion Interventions

    Figure 8.2: Cultural intelligence scale—self-report

    While consultants can gauge CQ by observing, there are more formal methods of assessing it, such as
    this self-report scale. For a PDF, visit your e-book.

    From “Development and Validation of the CQS: The Cultural Intelligence Scale,” by L. Van Dyne, S. Ang, and C. Koh, in S. Ang and L.
    Van Dyne (Eds.), Handbook of Cultural Intelligence (pp. 34–56), 2015, New York, NY: Routledge. © Taylor & Francis 2015.

    Read each statement and select the response that best describes your capabilities.
    Select the answer that BEST describes you AS YOU REALLY ARE (1=strongly disagree; 7=strongly agree)

    CQ Factor Questionnaire Items

    Motivational CQ:
    (CQ Drive)

    _____ MOT1 I enjoy interacting with people from

    different cultures.

    _____ MOT2 I am confident that I can socialize with locals in a culture that is unfamiliar to me.
    _____ MOT3 I am sure I can deal wth the stresses of adjusting to a culture that is new to me.
    _____ MOT4 I enjoy living in cultures that are unfamiliar to me.
    _____ MOT5 I am confident that I can get accustomed to the shopping conditions in a different

    culture.

    Cognitive CQ:
    (CQ Knowledge)

    _____ COG1 I know the legal and economic systems of other cultures.
    _____ COG2 I know the rules (e.g., vocabulary, grammar) of other languages.
    _____ COG3 I know the cultural values and religious beliefs of other cultures.
    _____ COG4 I know the marriage systems of other cultures.
    _____ COG5 I know the arts and crafts of other cultures.
    _____ COG6 I know the rules for expressing nonverbal behaviors in other cultures.

    Metacognitive CQ:
    (CQ Strategy)

    _____ MC1 I am conscious of the cultural knowledge I use when interacting with people with
    different cultural backgrounds.

    _____ MC2 I adjust my cultural knowledge as I interact with people from a culture that is
    unfamiliar to me.

    _____ MC3 I am conscious of the cultural knowledge I apply to cross-cultural interactions.
    _____ MC4 I check the accuracy of my cultural knowledge as I interact with people from

    different cultures.

    Behavioral CQ:
    (CQ Action)

    _____ BEH1 I change my verbal behavior (e.g., accent, tone) when a cross-cultural interaction
    requires it.

    _____ BEH2 I use pause and silence differently to suit different cross-cultural situations.
    _____ BEH3 I vary the rate of my speaking when a cross-cultural situation requires it.
    _____ BEH4 I change my nonverbal behavior when a cross-cultural situation requires it.
    _____ BEH5 I alter my facial expressions when a cross-cultural interaction requires it.

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    Section 8.2Diversity and Inclusion Interventions

    Cross-Cultural Development
    Cross-cultural competence is what defines an employee who manages international business
    operations. Such an employee is often referred to as a global manager, international manager,
    or global leader (Ramburuth & Welch, 2005). Educating people to engage cross-culturally
    involves cross-cultural development. Preparing teams to engage cross-culturally is cross-
    cultural team building. These are similar interventions; that is, the distinctions pertain more
    to the type of work group than the specific skills developed.

    McLean (2006) lamented that much cross-cultural development is inadequate because it
    focuses more on the do’s and don’ts of traveling in certain places, versus building the com-
    petency to productively engage cross-culturally, appreciate difference, and resolve con-
    flict. Cross-cultural development is often short on actual experiences that build cultural
    competence.

    Researchers directing a 4-year government-sponsored university exchange program between
    the United States and Brazil that involved 40 professional management and agriculture sci-
    ence students partaking in a semester-long study abroad experience found that in spite of
    intensive pre-departure preparation, in-country support, and cultural immersion, the stu-
    dents failed to improve their levels of intercultural awareness and tended to overestimate
    individual cross-cultural competence both before and after the experience (Lokkesmoe,
    Kuchinke, & Ardichvili, 2016). The authors concluded that cross-cultural development
    requires well-designed interventions, feedback, and mentoring or coaching. See Tips and Wis-
    dom: Global Business.

    Why Do Consultants Promote Cross-Cultural Development?
    Cross-cultural development is important for a work force that is more culturally diverse and
    mobile than ever before. Organizations benefit in myriad ways from hiring diverse, culturally

    Tips and Wisdom: Global Business

    Refer to the U.S. Department of State’s website for useful information relating to trav-
    eling and doing business globally (https://www.state.gov/countries-areas/).

    Assessment: Cultural Competence Resources
    The National Center for Cultural Competence (NCCC) has compiled a selection of self-
    assessments that measure an individual’s cultural competence. To take one yourself, visit
    the following link: https://nccc.georgetown.edu/assessments/.

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    Section 8.2Diversity and Inclusion Interventions

    savvy personnel who can relate to diverse work groups, customers, and suppliers. Unfor-
    tunately, few companies manage cross-cultural training well. See Tips and Wisdom: Cultural
    Training Programs.

    Organizations that send employees abroad to work take significant risks. First, it costs about
    three times an employee’s annual salary to send her or him abroad. Given that 30% to 40%
    of international assignments end prematurely, often because the cultural adjustment fails,
    it is worthwhile to help employees engage new cultures. Further, more than half of expatri-
    ated executives do not remain with their companies after an overseas assignment. In addi-
    tion, international joint ventures have poor success rates, making it even more important to
    develop cultural understanding.

    In spite of the high failure rate of cultural ventures, fewer than half of expatriated employees
    are given formalized cross-cultural training. Not surprisingly, fewer than half are also unable
    to manage cultural differences when they are sent abroad. The employee’s family typically
    receives even less assistance.

    How Do OD Consultants Facilitate Cross-Cultural Development?
    Cross-cultural development should emphasize key competencies needed by global leaders
    and teams. These include skills, traits, and knowledge across four dimensions (Ramburuth &
    Welch, 2005):

    1. Cultural sensitivity and awareness. This involves awareness of how your own culture
    affects your behavior and shapes your beliefs (Lane, Maznevski, Dietz, & DiStefano,
    2012).

    2. Knowledge of other cultures and countries, including their norms, behaviors, cul-
    tural symbols, rituals, and belief systems (Hofstede, 2001)

    3. Concrete business skills that help manage cultural differences, including cross-
    cultural negotiating, cross-cultural conflict resolution, and cross-cultural teamwork
    (Laughton & Ottewill, 2000)

    4. Personal characteristics that support productive cross-cultural interactions such as
    emotional intelligence, psychological maturity, and the ability to manage cognitive
    complexity (Saghafi, 2001)

    Tips and Wisdom: Cultural Training Programs
    This list of cross-cultural training resources from the U.S. Department of State, a compilation
    of cultural training program providers from around the globe, is useful whether you are seek-
    ing a consultant or seeking to find employers of consultants: https://2009-2017.state.gov/m/
    fsi/tc/79756.htm.

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    Section 8.2Diversity and Inclusion Interventions

    Other traits important to cross-cultural competence include tolerance, persistence, flexibility,
    self-esteem, self-questioning, and openness to learning and growth (Cui & Awa, 1992; Rhine-
    smith, 1996). See Tips and Wisdom: Cultural Awareness Resources.

    Effective cross-cultural development involves creating experiences ahead of time in which
    participants can experience some of the challenges and emotions that may arise in an unfa-
    miliar culture. Simply creating opportunities for the employee to interact with people from
    different cultures can also help. OD interventions that can provide such experiences will pro-
    mote more cross-cultural exchange. Examples of effective cross-cultural development include
    the following:

    • Engage in self-awareness reflective activities such as the Twenty Statements Test
    (see Assessment: The Twenty Statements Test).

    • Create simulations that “plunge students into a state of uncertainty and confronta-
    tion, yet discovery and excitement that evokes the sensation of culture shock” (Ram-
    buruth & Welch, 2005, p. 11). A popular cultural simulation is the game Bafa Bafa.

    • Engage in multicultural teamwork.
    • Perform case studies.
    • Engage in immersion experiences or exchange programs.

    Tips and Wisdom: Cultural Awareness Resources
    Games and simulations are a fun and effective way to introduce issues of cultural awareness
    and intercultural communications. The games and simulations on the following site were com-
    piled by the University of Minnesota Center for Advanced Research on Language Acquisition:
    https://carla.umn.edu/culture/res/exercises.html.

    Assessment: The Twenty Statements Test
    The Twenty Statements Test (TST) (Kuhn & McPartland, 1954) is a long-standing psychologi-
    cal and social psychological assessment that asks participants to reflect on their sense of self
    by providing answers to 20 questions that ask the participant, “Who am I?” Answers usually
    reflect the various roles participants play and give clues to their culture. The assessment is
    simple to administer; an example is provided for you to try (see Figure 8.3).

    (continued on next page)

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    Section 8.2Diversity and Inclusion Interventions

    Assessment: The Twenty Statements Test (continued)

    Figure 8.3: Twenty Statements Test

    There are 20 numbered blanks on the page. Write 20 different answers to the question “Who
    am I?” in these blanks. Answer as if you were talking to yourself, not another person. There
    are no right or wrong answers. Simply write things down in the order that they occur to you.
    Download this assessment as a worksheet in your e-book.

    Adapted from “An Empirical Investigation of Self Attitudes,” by M. H. Kuhn and T. S. McPartland, 1954, American
    Sociological Review, 19, 68–76.

    1. Notice the words used to describe yourself. What did you emphasize? What do you
    notice?

    (continued on next page)

    There are 20 numbered blanks on the page below. Write 20 different answers to the question
    “Who am I?” in these blanks. Answer as if you were talking to yourself, not another person. There
    are no right or wrong answers. Simply write things down in the order that they occur to you.

    WHO AM I?

    ______________________________________________________________________. 1

    ______________________________________________________________________. 2

    ______________________________________________________________________. 3

    ______________________________________________________________________. 4

    ______________________________________________________________________. 5

    ______________________________________________________________________. 6

    ______________________________________________________________________. 7

    ______________________________________________________________________. 8

    ______________________________________________________________________. 9

    ______________________________________________________________________. 01

    ______________________________________________________________________. 11

    ______________________________________________________________________. 21

    ______________________________________________________________________. 31

    ______________________________________________________________________. 41

    ______________________________________________________________________. 51

    ______________________________________________________________________. 61

    ______________________________________________________________________. 71

    ______________________________________________________________________. 81

    ______________________________________________________________________. 91

    ______________________________________________________________________. 02

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    Section 8.3

    Conflict Management

    8.3 Conflict Management
    “A conflict is a problem in which two or more people have a difference of opinions, methods,
    goals, styles, values, and so on” (Brounstein, 2001, p. 155). Conflict exists in every organiza-
    tion and is normal. Moreover, conflict has a positive side, because it stimulates new solutions
    and helps clarify issues.

    OD consultants may be called on to resolve conflict between individuals or groups. These
    conflicts usually involve business concerns or working relationships. Often, OD consultants
    become aware of conflict while implementing an intervention for another concern. Therefore,
    OD consultants need to be aware of the symptoms of conflict. These include the following
    behaviors:

    • Ideas are attacked before they are
    completed.

    • Comments are made with
    vehemence.

    • Members belittle one another’s
    ideas or the ability of the group or
    team.

    • Members accuse one another of not
    understanding.

    • Members distort one another’s
    ideas.

    • Members are impatient with one
    another.

    • Members stick to their own points
    rather than finding common goals
    or ground.

    • Members take sides.
    • Suggestions do not build on previous suggestions.
    • Little movement is made toward resolution.
    • We–they (win–lose) pressures and attitudes prevail.
    • Members provoke, attempt to control, and give advice.

    Assessment: The Twenty Statements Test (continued)
    2. Did you include any of these typical descriptors?

    a. Physical description (height, weight, skin color, eye color)
    b. Social roles (student, spouse, employee, parent)
    c. Personal traits (competitive, adventurous, quiet)
    d. Existential statements (spirituality or values statements such as “I believe in

    equality for all.”)
    3. What did you learn about yourself? Others?
    4. How might this new knowledge assist you in cross-cultural interactions?

    fizkes/iStock/Getty Images Plus
    Conflict can be productive when it is steeped
    in ideas. When it becomes personal, it can be
    destructive and require an intervention.

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    Section 8.3Conflict Management

    OD consultants can help clients develop attitudes that are conducive to resolving conflict by
    cultivating

    • a mutual belief in the availability and desirability of finding a solution;
    • a recognition that conflict is a natural part of relationships;
    • empathy for others’ views;
    • a commitment to cooperation, not competition;
    • realization that the process must gravitate from problem identification to solution;
    • methods to minimize the power and status differences that elicit defensiveness and

    guarded communication;
    • a belief that the other party can compete, but opts to cooperate;
    • an attitude of self-examination to assess whether you are part of the problem or the

    solution;
    • awareness of the limitations of arguing;
    • ardent practice of dialogue; and
    • a belief that differences of opinion (not interpersonal strife) are helpful.

    Conflict can be resolved by developing interpersonal skills, team building, and teamwork.
    Often, those in conflict need to learn to recognize and value different perspectives, build self-
    awareness of their biases, improve communication skills, and devise solutions that reconcile
    the conflicting interests (Burn, 2004). Defusing conflict can be accomplished through dia-
    logue, trust-building activities, negotiation, or third-party intervention (when a neutral party
    attempts to resolve conflict). This section profiles conflict resolution through confrontation
    meetings, role negotiation and analysis, third-party intervention, and appreciative inquiry.

    Gonçalves et al. (2016) tested a model of how cultural intelligence and self-monitoring posi-
    tively influenced the ability to solve interpersonal conflicts more effectively among 399 par-
    ticipants and found them to be predictors of conflict resolution style. Cultural intelligence
    helps individuals more effectively resolve conflict and may also contribute positively to deci-
    sion making and negotiation. They recommend that organizations invest in both helping
    employees bolster cultural intelligence and teaching them strategies for effectively managing
    conflict.

    Confrontation Meetings
    A gathering that aims to identify problems, set priorities and targets, and begin working on
    identified problems is known as a confrontation meeting (Beckhard, 1967). Confronta-
    tion meetings can be used any time and are especially useful when the organization is in
    stress and communication problems characterize the relationship between workers and top
    management.

    Why Do OD Consultants Do Confrontation Meetings?
    Confrontation meetings allow timely intervention around a problem or issue. The process
    seeks broad participation from employees who represent the entire organization. Confronta-
    tion meetings work best when management is strongly committed to solving the problems
    that are communicated and when participants are committed to finding a solution. Confronta-
    tion meetings are also used when communication must be immediately improved, employee

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    Section 8.3Conflict Management

    morale needs a boost, the culture needs adjusting, relationships are suffering, and solutions
    are needed.

    Confrontation meetings provide top management with specific data regarding organization
    conditions and recommended actions from employees. The process involves multiple lev-
    els and gives top management the opportunity to identify key priorities. The entire process
    engages the organization in problem solving, decision making, strategic planning, and com-
    mitting to action.

    How Do OD Consultants Facilitate Confrontation Meetings?
    Consultants facilitate confrontation meetings by gathering relevant stakeholders. The goal
    of the meeting is to identify problems about the work environment and the organization’s
    effectiveness. The attendees are organized into smaller groups that represent all of the orga-
    nization’s departments, but members who have a direct reporting relationship should not be
    grouped together. These departmental groups are tasked with candidly identifying organiza-
    tional problems. The ground rules emphasize that neither individuals nor groups will be criti-
    cized for raising issues. Usually, groups are challenged to see who can raise the most issues.

    After the groups have generated issues or problems, they reconvene and hear reports from
    each group. Next, issues are consolidated and categorized. Participants are divided into prob-
    lem-solving groups; the composition of these usually differs from the original problem-iden-
    tification groups, depending on the issues raised. Each group ranks the problems it has been
    assigned, creates action plans, and determines an appropriate timetable for completing them.

    Each group then periodically reports its list of priorities and tactical plans of action to man-
    agement as a follow-up to the original meeting. The steps of a confrontation meeting are pre-
    sented in Table 8.4.

    Table 8.4: Confrontation meeting steps

    Step Time Description

    Climate setting 1 hour • Management explains the confrontation meeting purpose
    and objectives and shares more background on the issue or
    problem.

    • Open dialogue is invited.

    Information
    collection

    1 hour • The group is divided into smaller groups of six to eight
    participants representing functional areas as much as possible.

    • Managers and subordinates are separated.
    • Topics for information collection may include

    1. concerns,
    2. obstacles to progress,
    3. demotivators in the culture,
    4. problematic policies or procedures,
    5. goals,
    6. other topics as appropriate, and
    7. key things that would improve the organization.

    (continued on next page)
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    Section 8.3Conflict Management

    Table 8.4: Confrontation meeting steps (continued)

    Step Time Description

    Information
    sharing

    1 hour • Each group appoints a reporter to share its information, usually
    put on a flip chart or projected for everyone to see.

    • The consultant helps identify major categories of issues and
    sorts them into groups, with input from participants.

    Priority setting
    and group
    planning

    1 hour + • The entire group engages itself in a conversation about the
    categories.

    • Individuals work to rank the categories in terms of priority.
    • Participants shift into their functional groups to engage in

    planning, including managers.
    • Each group is asked to

    1. dialogue about the problems and issues raised,
    2. identify how the issues affect the group, and
    3. propose actions or solutions that the group is willing to

    commit to.

    Organization
    action plan

    2 hours • Participants return to a “group of the whole.”
    • Each functional unit reports its priorities, commitments, and

    plans.
    • Top management is asked to react to this list and commit to

    action where needed.
    • Participating units also share how they will communicate the

    results to colleagues not attending the session.

    Immediate
    follow-up by
    top team

    1 to 3 hours • Top management team convenes immediately after the
    confrontation meeting ends to plan how it will follow up.

    • Management shares its plan within a week.

    Progress
    review

    Ongoing • Progress on commitments is assessed periodically as groups
    present to the top management team.

    Third-Party Intervention
    When individuals or groups are unable to resolve conflicts on their own and enlist a neutral
    party to provide either mediation or arbitration, they are engaged in third-party interven-
    tion. Mediation occurs when a third party, after learning about the conflict, makes nonbind-
    ing recommendations to the parties. Arbitration is similar to mediation, but the recommen-
    dations are binding. Mediation tends to be the preferred type of third-party intervention in
    OD. Organizations often train internal members to serve as mediators, but mediators can also
    be external.

    Why Do OD Consultants Do Third-Party Intervention?
    Third-party intervention is warranted when a conflict has become personal and debilitat-
    ing to the individuals in conflict and/or those around them, and the individuals are unable
    or unwilling to engage in conflict-resolution activities themselves. Third-party intervention
    requires the consent of the individuals embroiled in conflict and is usually sought by col-
    leagues and/or managers who are exasperated by the conflict and the challenges it poses to
    the work environment.

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    Section 8.3Conflict Management

    How Do OD Consultants Facilitate Third-Party Intervention?
    Mediation is usually a three-stage process:

    • Stage 1, or setting the stage, is when the mediator spells out ground rules between
    the disputants and gathers information about the conflict.

    • Stage 2, problem solving, is when solutions are generated.
    • Stage 3, achieving a workable agreement, encourages the disputants to settle the

    disagreement with a win–win outcome (Burn, 2004).

    If the conflict escalates, the mediator may have to meet with the parties separately.

    Burn (2004) outlined the following steps for facilitating mediation:

    1. Initiate direct contact between disputants only if hostility is low and common
    ground is high. When hostility is high, direct contact may escalate the conflict. There-
    fore it is advisable to “caucus” with the two parties separately to identify underlying
    interests and present the other side’s position in a sympathetic way.

    2. Teach the disputants constructive communication skills and negotiation concepts so
    that direct communication and resolution become possible.

    3. Situate the negotiations at a neutral site to prevent one side from gaining a tactical
    advantage, and to enhance mediator control.

    4. Promote trust between the parties by emphasizing overlapping interests and by
    encouraging both to make small but irrevocable concessions to show they are com-
    mitted to the conciliatory process.

    5. To cool off parties’ emotions, listen carefully and sympathetically to participants’
    expressions of emotions such as anger and resentment, holding caucuses with each
    side.

    6. Use the parties’ underlying interests to come up with integrative solutions.
    7. Emphasize superordinate goals (common objectives) to promote cooperation.
    8. Frame agreements in such a way that each side can make concessions without

    appearing weak.
    9. To create a sense that agreement is possible, arrange the issues so that participants

    can work on easier issues first.
    10. After significant progress has been made toward an integrative solution, impose a

    deadline by which a final agreement should be reached. Do not impose a deadline
    too early because time pressure makes joint problem solving less likely. (p. 208)

    Appreciative Inquiry
    As discussed in Chapter 2, appreciative inquiry (AI) was originated by Cooperrider, Barrett,
    and Srivastva (1995). It is an OD process that focuses on renewal, change, and performance.
    It can be used to resolve conflict or engage in strategic planning or visioning. AI follows steps
    similar to the action research model. The major departure is that rather than analyzing the
    organization’s strengths and weaknesses, AI focuses only on the positive aspects of the issue
    or culture. AI frames questions and future visioning positively, seeking to identify the basic
    goodness in a person, a situation, or an organization with the result of enhancing the organi-
    zation’s capacity for collaboration and change.

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    Section 8.4

    Problem Solving and Decision Making

    Why Do OD Consultants Do Appreciative Inquiry?
    Appreciative inquiry can be used for several reasons. The organization may be in a rut and
    have difficulty envisioning a solution or desired future. Because AI reverses the human ten-
    dency to focus on the negative, it can help organizations see issues in a new light. It may also
    help shift the organization from a deficiency mindset to a more opportunistic one.

    How Do OD Consultants Facilitate Appreciative Inquiry?
    AI uses a four-stage process that focuses on the following:

    1. Discover: Identify organizational processes that work well.
    2. Dream: Envision processes that would work well in the future.
    3. Design: Plan and prioritize processes that would work well.
    4. Destiny (or Deliver): Implement (execute) the proposed design.

    AI’s precept is to build on what works instead of trying to fix what does not because where
    you place your attention shapes your reality. AI provides the structure to reframe the problem
    in a more positive, future-oriented way. Shifting the conflict to focus on what is working and
    where the group wants to be changes the direction of the inquiry and energy of those involved
    toward doing more of what works instead of getting bogged down on what does not work. To
    use AI when conflicts arise, consider posing questions such as these to the group:

    What are the positive aspects of this conflict?

    What makes you proud to work here?

    What are your key relationships in this organization and how can you build
    more like them?

    What values will sustain this organization into the future?

    What questions should we be asking each other?

    McLean (2006) has suggested that anecdotal research shows it may be beneficial, particularly
    for organizations with a recent trauma such as a hostile takeover or downsizing. Although
    AI may be useful in bolstering morale and understanding an organization’s strengths, it may
    also stifle dialogue on difficult issues, reinforce existing power arrangements, and further
    privilege management.

    8.4 Problem Solving and Decision Making
    Another group of interventions is used to help organizations solve problems and make deci-
    sions in ways that promote continuous improvement and innovation. Profiled interventions
    include total quality management/Six Sigma, quality of work life, problem-solving models,
    and Work-Out.

    Total Quality Management and Six Sigma
    Total quality management (TQM) is a comprehensive approach to employee involvement that
    aims to create high-quality goods and services that exceed customer expectations through a

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    Section 8.4Problem Solving and Decision Making

    process of continuous improvement. This method is therefore also known as continuous pro-
    cess improvement. TQM programs involve employees in activities focused on quality improve-
    ment. These usually are accompanied by extensive training, information sharing, shared deci-
    sion making, and performance-based rewards systems.

    Engineers W. Edwards Deming (1982) and Joseph Juran (1974) introduced TQM to the United
    States during World War II. Their ideas had more traction in Japan, and it was not until the
    1980s that TQM received serious attention in the United States. TQM follows a plan, do, check,
    act cycle (Deming, 1982, 1986) that is similar to the phases of action research.

    TQM is associated with the development, deployment, and maintenance of organizational
    systems that support a range of business processes. It is strategic in that it focuses on main-
    taining existing quality standards while simultaneously making incremental improvements
    in quality. TQM is not just an instrumental process of improving processes and products; it is
    also a cultural intervention that aims to promote collaboration in the organization’s efforts to
    improve quality. TQM gave rise to Six Sigma.

    Six Sigma is a newer approach that is broader than a process improvement program. It
    focuses on continuous improvement in quality to near-perfection (3.4 defects per million). It
    uses statistical methods to monitor and control processes. Six Sigma differs from TQM as it is
    primarily focused on taking quality to the next level. The main difference between Six Sigma
    and TQM is the approach. Six Sigma focuses on defect reduction, cycle time reduction, and
    cost savings. Table 8.5 highlights contrasts between the two approaches.

    Table 8.5: Contrasting TQM and Six Sigma

    TQM Six Sigma

    • Articulates vision to improve quality
    • Reduces dependence on inspections
    • Aims to change the culture so employees can

    alert the organization about issues
    • Trains employees to understand and seek

    quality improvement
    • Promotes ongoing education

    • Focuses quality improvement initiatives on
    increasing customer satisfaction

    • Drives decision making using metrics and data
    • Aims to reduce variation that affects quality
    • Separates non-value-added work from value-

    added work (reduces waste)
    • Prioritizes speed

    Determining which process is best depends on your industry and product or service. Six
    Sigma provides benefits of data gathering and monitoring of quality that helps ensure quality
    products and services with minimal defects. TQM may be more appropriate for service-based
    industries that are less precise, where the aim is to improve customer service rather than
    decrease defects and build a collaborative culture around quality processes, products, and
    services.

    Why Do OD Consultants Do TQM/Six Sigma?
    These processes help organizations improve quality, minimize costs, and satisfy customers.
    They also help reduce errors and defects in products and services. TQM promotes employee
    involvement because it develops quality-improvement teams. Both processes also help
    participants

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    Section 8.4Problem Solving and Decision Making

    • learn to use problem-solving models;
    • develop new skills in interpersonal communications, leadership, and facilitation;
    • base process changes and improvements on data; and
    • incorporate best practices that meet or exceed expectations.

    This, in turn, translates into higher competitiveness, productivity, cost reduction, market
    share, and job security.

    How Do OD Consultants Do TQM?
    Several steps have been proposed for TQM implementation. Table 8.6 offers examples from
    well-known quality gurus Deming (1986), Juran (1974), and Crosby (1979), all prominent
    leaders in the quality movement.

    Table 8.6: Quality gurus’ points

    Deming Juran Crosby

     1. Create constancy of
    purpose.

     2. Adopt the new philosophy
    of quality.

     3. Cease dependence on mass
    inspection.

     4. End practice of choosing
    suppliers based on cost.

     5. Identify problems and
    continuously improve
    system.

     6. Adopt modern training
    and development methods
    on the job.

     7. Change focus from
    quantity to quality.

     8. Drive out fear.
     9. Break down barriers

    between departments.
    10. Stop requesting increased

    productivity without
    providing methods to
    achieve it.

    11. Eliminate standards and
    quotas.

    12. Remove barriers to pride
    of workmanship.

    13. Vigorously educate and
    retrain.

    14. Create enabling
    management.

     1. Build awareness of
    opportunities to improve.

     2. Set goals for improvement.
     3. Organize to reach goals.
     4. Provide training.
     5. Carry out projects leading

    to problem solving.
     6. Report progress.
     7. Give recognition.
     8. Communicate results.
     9. Keep score.
    10. Keep momentum strong

    for continuous quality
    improvement.

     1. Management commitment
     2. Quality-improvement

    teams
     3. Quality measurements
     4. Cost of quality
     5. Quality awareness
     6. Corrective action
     7. Zero defects planning
     8. Supervisor training and

    development
     9. Zero defects day
    10. Goal setting
    11. Error cause removal
    12. Recognition
    13. Quality councils
    14. Do it all over again.

    Deming (1986) also identified “seven deadly sins” that organizations should avoid if they are
    seeking TQM:

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    Section 8.4Problem Solving and Decision Making

    1. lack of constancy of purpose;
    2. emphasizing short-term profits and immediate dividends;
    3. evaluation of performance, merit rating, or annual review;
    4. mobility of top management;
    5. running a company only on visible figures;
    6. excessive medical costs; and
    7. excessive costs of warranty.

    TQM initiatives require long-term senior management commitment, member training in
    quality methods, creating quality-improvement projects, measuring progress, and rewarding
    accomplishments.

    How Do OD Consultants Do Six Sigma?
    1. Identify a high-impact area to improve that is currently suffering losses or losing

    against the competition.
    2. Align resources with the problem.
    3. Teach the Six Sigma methodology:

    a. Define the problem and make the case for change.
    b. Measure performance standards, set goals, and prepare reports to ensure

    alignment with project goals.
    c. Analyze and communicate root causes of process redundancy.
    d. Improve processes and measure improvements.
    e. Control by making adjustments to new processes to ensure goals are being

    attained.
    4. Prioritize activities.
    5. Establish ownership or champion.
    6. Collect data and use it to make decisions.
    7. Establish program governance.
    8. Recognize contributions.

    Quality of Work Life Programs
    Quality of work life (QWL) programs are also known as employee involvement programs.
    QWL emerged as a reaction to the workplace’s poor quality-of-life conditions. This concept
    has evolved over time into participative management programs. Four key elements are gener-
    ally regarded as important for effective employee involvement or QWL:

    1. Power—when employees have authority to make work-related decisions. This is
    also referred to as “empowerment.”

    2. Information—when employees have timely access to relevant information to foster
    decision making

    3. Knowledge and skills—when employees are given the proper training and skills to
    effectively function

    4. Rewards—when employees are recognized for results

    QWL programs yield improved communication, coordination, motivation, capability, and
    productivity.

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    Section 8.4Problem Solving and Decision Making

    Why Do OD Consultants Do QWL?
    QWL interventions seek to develop organization climates that are conducive to healthy work-
    places, that is, workplaces that maintain a comfortable balance between life and work for
    employees. QWL initiatives actively involve employees in shaping organization life. There are
    at least four principles of QWL that serve as a rationale for doing it (Herrick & Maccoby, 1975):

    1. Security: The principle of humanism, which undergirds OD, implies a workplace free
    from anxiety, fear, or loss of employment. Additionally, workers’ health and safety
    are protected.

    2. Equity: An organization is characterized by fairness and justice, including profit
    sharing.

    3. Individuality: Employees’ uniqueness is honored, and they are encouraged to
    develop to their full potential and competence.

    4. Democracy: Authority and responsibility among employees, including decision mak-
    ing and problem solving, is broadly shared.

    How Do OD Consultants Do QWL?
    Lawler (1982) identified several characteristics of participative systems such as QWL or
    employee involvement:

    • The programs depend on participative organization systems that have a flat, lean,
    team-based organization structure that is designed around participative structures
    and decision making.

    • The programs often have self-managing teams.
    • Training is heavily emphasized, including peer training, economic education, and

    interpersonal skills.
    • Information is transparently shared via open job postings, decentralized team man-

    agement, participative goal setting, and open-door policies.
    • The reward system is open, skill based, and egalitarian, often incorporating gain-

    sharing or shared ownership of the enterprise, flexible benefits, and an all-salaried
    work force.

    • Selection of coworkers is an open process that seeks team input. It is centered on
    hiring right-fit employees by giving them a realistic preview of the job and seeking
    out employees who will contribute to the organization’s participative nature.

    • The organization is safe and pleasant and the personnel policies transparent and
    egalitarian.

    • Organizations implementing high-involvement programs seek to improve employee
    attraction and retention, motivation, productivity, and employee well-being and
    satisfaction (Cummings & Worley, 2009).

    Problem-Solving Models
    Most groups and teams do not function for long before they encounter a problem to solve.
    Without any knowledge of team process or steps to resolve issues, teams may flounder and
    fail to achieve results. Applying a problem-solving model helps teams stay focused and on task.

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    Section 8.4Problem Solving and Decision Making

    Why Do OD Consultants Do Problem Solving?
    Problem solving is warranted when the issue is complex, has implications for numerous
    stakeholders, and has no definitive solution. For example, many American communities
    struggle with developing safe, walkable, bikeable routes that also allow vehicular traffic.
    There are many options and much disagreement about what the best solution is. This type
    of complicated issue that has multiple solutions is a perfect candidate for a problem-solving
    intervention.

    Problem solving is also advisable when information from multiple sources is required to
    make an informed decision about appropriate courses of action, especially when experts have
    highly biased views on what makes the most sense. Regarding the safe routes issue again,
    pedestrians, cyclists, and motorists all have different views on what to do. Expert community
    developers and road scientists would also take different approaches.

    Problem solving as an intervention has both advantages and disadvantages, as noted in
    Table 8.7.

    Table 8.7: Disadvantages and advantages of problem solving as an
    OD intervention

    Disadvantages Advantages

    • Competing interests that can escalate into
    unproductive conflict

    • Unwillingness to listen to differing viewpoints
    • Conformity or tendency for individuals to try

    to reach a consensus before all options have
    been effectively vetted and because they want
    to avoid conflict

    • Lack of objective facilitation. Problem-solving
    groups require a leader who can provide
    balanced, neutral guidance for the direction
    and content of the discussion.

    • Time constraints. Effective problem solving
    takes more time than do arbitrary decisions
    reached by individuals. Often, the group loses
    patience and seeks the option that allows the
    process to finish as quickly as possible.

    • Diverse input based on different experience,
    knowledge, views, and values. This yields a
    larger volume of potential ideas and solutions.

    • Cross-fertilization of ideas between members
    of the group

    • Reduced bias due to a collective responsibility
    for acting on the problem and challenges from
    group members to avoid prejudice

    • Increased risk taking due to the shared
    responsibility in the outcome

    • Higher commitment based on a “we’re all in
    this together” mindset, where the group values
    individual and collective contributions to the
    process

    • Improved communication around potential
    solutions, conflicts, and decisions

    • Better solutions that use the critical thinking
    and broad thinking of the group

    How Do OD Consultants Do Problem Solving?
    High-performing teams, as well as TQM and QWL processes, usually incorporate defined
    steps that help address the problem. The benefits of following a problem-solving process are
    multiple, and these steps can be taken by anyone in the organization at any level to address
    challenges. Problems happen continuously, so the ability to proactively deal with them and
    involve key stakeholders is a universal skill that benefits everyone. Being an effective problem
    solver means that individuals and teams demonstrate observational skills and the abilities to

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    Section 8.4Problem Solving and Decision Making

    think laterally and analytically. Solving problems requires innovation and collaboration, so
    becoming strong in this area has multiple benefits to careers, team functioning, and business
    performance. Problem-solving models follow a series of steps that should be mastered by
    individuals and teams, such as this basic problem-solving model:

    1. Identify the problem.
    2. Get specific. Define the following:

    a. Nature of the problem—what exactly do we mean by “the problem”?
    b. Cause—why does the situation exist? Why is it occurring?
    c. Scope—how widespread is the problem? To what extent does it exist? Who and

    what does it affect? Is it large or small?
    d. Severity—“How bad is it?”
    e. Is it a regular or an occasional event?

    3. Diagnose the problem. (This is where the root cause is determined. Previous steps
    allow us to make an accurate diagnosis.)

    4. Set objectives for solving the problem.
    5. Identify potential constraints on problem solving.
    6. Develop a plan for overcoming constraints and solving the problem.
    7. Evaluate the plan.
    8. Implement the plan.
    9. Monitor and evaluate the plan after implementation.

    These basic problem-solving steps can be followed by individuals or teams. They might be
    used in a medical practice to remove waste and inefficiencies, increase productivity, improve
    response time, or sustain safe and reliable operations. Table 8.8 shows an example of auto-
    mating patient reminders as a way of addressing inefficiency and boosting productivity.

    Table 8.8: Problem-solving method example

    Problem-solving step Description

    1. Identify the problem. Patients are not showing up for scheduled appointments, and when they do,
    they are not following instructions such as fasting before bloodwork.

    2. Get specific. Define the following:
    Nature: Patients prevent the office from running smoothly and serving the
    maximum number of patients when they are no-shows for appointments.
    Sometimes, even when they show up, they have been noncompliant with
    instructions (e.g., fasting 12 hours before bloodwork), causing further delays
    when procedures have to be rescheduled.

    Cause: Poor communication mechanism to remind patients of appointments
    and procedures with the practice of calling patients manually

    3. Diagnose the problem. Lack of reliable communication method to provide timely reminders that
    patients follow

    4. Set objectives for
    solving the problem.

    • Cost effective
    • Easy to administer
    • Patient satisfaction
    • Improved efficiency and productivity of clinic

    (continued on next page)
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    Section 8.4Problem Solving and Decision Making

    Table 8.8: Problem-solving method example (continued)

    Problem-solving step Description

    5. Identify potential
    constraints on
    problem solving.

    • Time
    • Money
    • Ease of use

    6. Develop a plan
    for overcoming
    constraints and
    solving the problem.

    Several solutions were evaluated to automate patient reminders using the
    potential constraints identified in step 5 to assess them. An automated
    reminder system was selected that best met concerns for time, affordability,
    and user-friendliness.

    7. Evaluate the plan. The plan was shared with the entire staff and approved with a plan for pilot-
    ing the system and then expanding it once any problems were resolved.

    8. Implement the plan. An automated patient reminder system was implemented that would
    send voicemail and text messages to patients to remind them of upcom-
    ing appointments and any special instructions they should follow. Patients
    would receive a reminder 3 days before the appointment and then the day
    before.

    9. Monitor and evaluate
    the plan after
    implementation.

    Patient no-shows and noncompliance decreased, and therefore the plan was
    deemed a success. If that had not been the case, the clinic might have had to
    implement other strategies to address the problem or tweak the system and
    essentially go back through the problem-solving steps.

    A formal and intensive method of engaging in team problem solving is a Work-Out. Also
    referred to as a town meeting or step-level meeting, a Work-Out involves considerable plan-
    ning. An organization might engage in this type of problem solving to significantly reduce the
    cost of supplies needed to run the business or to solve problems related to product or service
    quality. The following tasks need to be completed in advance:

    • Identify the facilitator(s).
    • Select a problem for the group to work on.
    • Secure management support.
    • Identify potential participants.
    • Prepare participants for what to expect.
    • Select and prepare the site.

    The event itself proceeds as follows:

    1. A group of employees and other appropriate stakeholders convenes with a manager
    at an off-site location.

    2. The manager charges the group with solving a problem or set of problems shared by
    the group that ultimately falls under the manager’s responsibility.

    3. The manager leaves, and the group spends 2 or 3 days working on devising solutions
    to the problems under the guidance of skilled outside facilitators or consultants.

    4. At the conclusion of the meeting, the manager returns, along with her or his boss, to
    learn the group’s recommendations.

    5. The manager has a choice of three responses to each recommendation:
    a. “Yes.”
    b. “No.”

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    Summary and Resources

    c. “I have to consider it more” (in which case, the manager clarifies what must be
    considered and how and when the decision will be made).

    6. The process is strongly supported by management. Resistance to the process or out-
    come is not tolerated and is considered a career-limiting move.

    See Who Invented That? Work-Out for background on the process.

    Summary and Resources
    Chapter Summary

    • Using the inquiry-based discourse of dialogue (instead of discussion) promotes
    learning and understanding among team members.

    • The team life cycle represents the various stages teams undergo as they form and
    develop procedures and working relationships. The stages are forming, storming,
    norming, and performing (and sometimes adjourning).

    • Team start-up or transition helps acclimate teams to new members or new chal-
    lenges by establishing clear goals, providing training, creating support structures
    (e.g., facilitation guidelines, meeting structures, problem-solving procedures), and
    evaluating progress.

    • Team building is the process of helping teams perform more effectively and effi-
    ciently via relationship-building and team-management procedures (e.g., clear roles
    and responsibilities).

    • Team learning attempts to harness the team’s knowledge and use action learning to
    address challenges and problems.

    • Virtual teams use technology to mediate their communication and work; they are
    increasingly common and important for organizations to compete and succeed in
    global markets.

    Who Invented That? Work-Out
    Work-Out was developed at General Electric during the late 1980s as an intensive approach to
    team problem solving (Ashkenas & Jick, 1992; Cosco, 1994; Tichy & Charan, 1989). Work-Out
    played a key role in the company’s notable performance over the past decade and has been
    implemented in many other organizations. Dave Ulrich, Steve Kerr, and Ron Ashkenas cre-
    ated Work-Out. You can read more about the process in their book, The GE Work-Out: How to
    Implement GE’s Revolutionary Method for Busting Bureaucracy and Attacking Organizational
    Problems—Fast! (2002, New York, NY: McGraw-Hill).

    Work-Out is a useful intervention because it reinforces an existing or desired culture of fast
    problem solving, broad employee involvement, employee empowerment, dialogue across orga-
    nization levels, accountability for solutions and results, and continuous improvement. Doing a
    Work-Out is not cheap, given that it requires external facilitation and a group of employees to
    go off-site for a few days. However, it signals to the organization that there is a commitment to
    invest resources in seeking employee input and solving problems in a timely fashion.

    For more information on the program, visit the following link: http://www.huffingtonpost
    .com/ray-gagnon/ge-workout_b_4071796.html.

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    Summary and Resources

    • Building cultural awareness increases organization members’ consciousness of and
    appreciation for cultural differences. Developing cultural awareness promotes more
    effective group and team processes.

    • Cross-cultural development provides participants with the education and experi-
    ence to effectively navigate multicultural groups and teams and to travel abroad for
    business.

    • Third-party intervention or mediation features an objective, neutral party that hears
    both sides of the conflict and makes nonbinding recommendations to the feuding
    parties.

    • Appreciative inquiry can be used to resolve conflict by shifting group members away
    from negatives, problems, and deficiencies and toward opportunity, positive attri-
    butes, and possibilities.

    • Total quality management (TQM) uses a process of continuous improvement to solve
    problems, make decisions, and function in ways that yield high-performing teams,
    products, and processes.

    • Six Sigma uses data and metrics to improve processes, lower defects, and speed up
    the process.

    • Quality of work life (QWL) programs seek to involve and empower teams to
    make decisions and problem solve in ways that enhance the workplace and its
    productivity.

    • Problem-solving models provide steps for groups and teams to follow as they attack
    challenges such as mistakes, errors, defects, or interpersonal conflict.

    Think About It! Reflective Exercises to Enhance Your Learning

    1. Reflect on a team you belong to and see if you can pinpoint Tuckman’s (1965) stages
    of group development (forming, storming, norming, and performing).

    2. Think of a group (versus a team) to which you belong. See how many of the charac-
    teristics of groups versus teams fit your experience.

    3. Reflect on your own cultural identity and awareness and think about how it affects
    the groups and teams to which you belong.

    4. Think of a conflict you are currently experiencing and characterize it based on the
    information presented in the chapter.

    Apply Your Learning: Activities and Experiences to Bring OD to Life

    1. Practice dialogue in your conversations for 1 day and jot down your experiences.
    What did you notice? What did you learn? What was challenging?

    2. Pick five tips from the virtual teams section and apply them the next time you have a
    virtual meeting. What was the impact of changing your behavior?

    3. Take the cultural intelligence quotient assessment. What are your strengths? What
    are your opportunities to learn?

    4. Take the Twenty Statements Test with a family member or friend and follow the
    debriefing questions listed in the chapter.

    5. Identify the problem-solving and decision-making tools you have used.
    6. Practice appreciative inquiry on a problem you are experiencing.
    7. Identify a problem you want to resolve and follow the problem-solving steps pre-

    sented in this chapter.

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    Summary and Resources

    Additional Resources
    Media

    • Tuckman’s Stages of Team Development

    • Conflict Resolution

    • Problem-Solving Strategies

    Web Links
    Group or Team Process and Development

    • Infed, which provides a space for people to explore education, learning, and
    social action:

    https://infed.org/mobi/bruce-w-tuckman-forming-storming-norming-and
    -performing-in-groups/

    • Research Center for Group Dynamics, whose mission is to advance the understand-
    ing of human behavior in social contexts:

    http://www.rcgd.isr.umich.edu

    Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion

    • EDUCAUSE, which provides links to diversity, equity, and inclusion resources:
    https://www.educause.edu/about/diversity-equity-and-inclusion/resources

    Conflict Management

    • U.S. Institute of Peace Conflict Styles Assessment, provided by the independent,
    nonpartisan conflict-management center created by Congress in 1984 to prevent,
    mitigate, and resolve international conflict without resorting to violence:

    http://www.buildingpeace.org/act-build-peace/learn/conflict-styles

    • Appreciative Inquiry Commons, a worldwide portal devoted to sharing academic
    resources and practical tools on appreciative inquiry:

    http://appreciativeinquiry.case.edu

    Problem Solving and Decision Making

    • American Society for Quality, which provides training, professional certifications,
    and knowledge to a vast network of members of the global quality community:

    http://www.asq.org

    • American Productivity and Quality Center, a member-based nonprofit and a leading
    proponent of business benchmarking, best practices, and knowledge management
    research:

    http://www.apqc.org

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    Summary and Resources

    • International Society of Six Sigma Professionals, which exclusively promotes the
    interests of Six Sigma professionals:

    http://www.isssp.com

    • Memory Jogger resources from Goal/QPC (http://www.goalqpc.com) such as these:

    Brassard, M. (1989). The Memory Jogger Plus+™: Featuring the seven management
    and planning tools. Methuen, MA: Goal/QPC.

    Brassard, M., & Ritter, D. (1994). The Memory Jogger™ II: A pocket guide of tools for
    continuous improvement and effective planning. Salem, NH: Goal/QPC.

    Key Terms
    arbitration When a third party hears a
    conflict and makes a binding resolution.

    conflict When two or more people have
    a difference of opinions, methods, goals,
    styles, or values.

    confrontation meeting A gathering that
    aims to identify problems, set priorities and
    targets, and begin working on identified
    problems.

    cross-cultural development Education
    aimed at helping individuals and teams
    engage with increasingly diverse cross-
    cultural groups and build capacity for
    inclusion.

    cultural awareness Competence in
    dealing with diversity and inclusion in
    organizations.

    diversity The increasingly multicultural
    and varied composition of the work force.

    diversity intelligence (DQ) A measure of
    employees’ ability to reflect on actions and
    behaviors toward diverse individuals in an
    organization by embracing difference as a
    strength and helping them interact more
    effectively with the changing demographics
    of workplaces and the global economy.

    group Three or more people bound by
    common perceptions, motivations, goals, or
    organization membership.

    group or team life cycle Stages of devel-
    opment that groups pass through to become
    high performing: forming, storming, norm-
    ing, and performing.

    mediation When a third party hears a con-
    flict and makes a nonbinding resolution.

    problem solving Defined steps to work in
    the process of addressing issues, from prob-
    lem identification to resolution.

    team Three or more individuals working
    together toward a common goal.

    team learning A process that builds a
    team’s capacity to create and share new
    knowledge in a way that benefits the
    organization.

    third-party intervention When individu-
    als or groups cannot resolve problems on
    their own and involve a mediator or arbitra-
    tor to provide neutral assistance.

    virtual teams Teams that function through
    computer-mediated communication across
    different geographical and time zones.

    Work-Out Also known as town meeting or
    step-level meeting. An intensive approach
    to team problem solving.

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    Organization-Level

    Interventions

    9

    PeopleImages/E+/Getty Images Plus

    Learning Outcomes
    After reading this chapter, you should be able to:

    • Discuss the role of vision, mission, and values in driving organization-level change.
    • Describe key activities that facilitate strategic planning, such as environmental scanning, SWOT

    analysis, SMART goals, and scenario planning.
    • Of the various organization designs, identify those that best facilitate the organization’s mis-

    sion and those that need to be reorganized or restructured.
    • Explain how learning can be used strategically, such as by capturing organization learning and

    developing a strategic learning organization.
    • Explore how culture influences organizations and can be changed through interventions.
    • Describe key talent management interventions, such as talent management strategy and

    succession planning.
    • Examine the role of large-scale interactive events for organization change.

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    A nonprofit health care organization had been struggling to keep its doors open. When the
    region’s largest employer went out of business, the size and needs of the population served by
    the organization rose significantly; it was becoming increasingly difficult to provide services to
    clients. The executive director, Jane, was relatively new and decided the organization needed
    to improve its ability to raise funds. Jane contracted with an OD consultant, Jeff, to address
    the issue.

    Jeff took Jane and the organization through the action research process to discover the root cause
    of the problem. He began by collecting data. He reviewed the organization’s website and bro-
    chures and interviewed employees, donors, and clients. After analyzing the data, he concluded
    that the organization was not clearly communicating its mission and services well enough and
    that it lacked a strategic plan. Jeff also suspected that the organization design was not conducive
    to carrying out its work.

    Jeff and Jane began to address this problem by holding a retreat. During the retreat, board mem-
    bers and staff engaged in numerous exercises to express, clarify, and revise their mission, vision,
    and values statements. For example, they spent time identifying the organization’s strengths,
    weaknesses, opportunities, and threats over the short, mid-, and long term. They imagined vari-
    ous scenarios that would create very different outcomes for the organization, such as changes
    in health care coverage, escalating expenses, a new employer moving into town, future company
    closures, and an electronic medical record.

    Immediately following the retreat, the organization updated its website, letterhead, and bro-
    chures to reflect its more concise mission, vision, and values. Jeff and Jane also worked with the
    board on developing a 5-year strategic plan that included more aggressive communication to
    potential donors, increased fundraising efforts, and enhanced diversity of both its board mem-
    bers and its donor base.

    Part of the strategic plan included reorganizing the nonprofit around its programs to more
    readily respond to its distinct stakeholder groups, such as patients and insurance companies. The
    reorganization was preceded by a large-scale event that brought together employees, patients,
    other health care providers, board members, and other local nonprofits that worked closely with
    the organization to plan for the future and how best to meet its needs. Each of these steps will be
    illuminated in the following sections.

    Organization-level OD interventions tend to be more comprehensive and long term than indi-
    vidual and group interventions. Their goal is to help the organization set direction, determine
    strategy, solicit feedback, facilitate learning, manage knowledge, change the culture, value
    diversity, develop the work force, and manage day-to-day activities. Although the list of poten-
    tial interventions is endless, this chapter introduces the range and variety of interventions that
    are typically used in OD. These can be categorized into seven areas: mission, vision, or values
    development; strategic planning; organization design; learning infrastructure; culture; talent
    management; and large-scale interactive events (see Table 9.1). The first of these is the develop-
    ment of mission, vision, and values statements.

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    Section 9.1Mission, Vision, and Values Development

    Table 9.1: Categories of individual OD intervention

    Mission,
    vision,
    and values
    development

    Strategic
    planning

    Organization
    design

    Learning
    infra-
    structure

    Culture

    Talent
    management

    Large-scale
    interactive
    events

    Mission Environ-
    mental
    scanning

    Organization
    structure

    Organization
    learning

    Culture
    change

    Talent
    management
    strategy

    Interactive
    Strategic
    Planning

    Vision SWOT
    analysis

    Reorganization Learning
    organization

    Diversity
    and
    inclusion

    Succession
    planning

    Future
    Search

    Values SMART
    goals
    Scenario
    planning

    — — — — Conference
     Model
     Redesign
    Open Space
     Technology

    9.1 Mission, Vision, and Values Development
    If an organization is to communicate its core beliefs to the world, it must have a clear and
    concise statement of its mission, vision, and values. Start-up, merged, or significantly reorga-
    nized organizations need to develop or revise these statements, and even established organi-
    zations should revisit them periodically. OD consultants often get involved in these efforts.

    Mission
    A mission statement explains why an organization exists. It identifies the organization’s tar-
    get audience and the product or service it provides in a way that expresses the organization’s
    core values. Good mission statements are easy to remember and describe.

    Why Do OD Consultants Advocate Mission Statements?
    Mission statements create boundaries of service, motivate staff, and help evaluate whether
    the organization has met its goals. They succinctly communicate the organization’s purpose
    to both the internal and the external world. They can also help focus strategic planning, prod-
    uct development, and innovation.

    Consider This
    Take a moment to jot down the vision, mission, and values of your organization. Can you do
    it from memory? If not, you are in good company, because most employees and other organi-
    zation stakeholders cannot; this signals that these statements are probably in need of some
    revision.

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    Section 9.1Mission, Vision, and Values Development

    How Do OD Consultants Help Organizations Create Mission Statements?
    There are three parts of a good mission
    statement: the audience, the product or ser-
    vice, and the evaluative measures. Consider
    a social media company’s mission state-
    ment to evaluate these elements:

    “TechConnect’s mission is to give people
    the power to communicate and connect
    worldwide.”

    • Audience: The audience defines
    whom the organization serves.
    TechConnect is boundaryless to
    people who have access to a device
    and an Internet connection. Tech-
    Connect’s audience is “people
    . . . worldwide,” as noted in the
    statement.

    • Product or service: The product or
    service identifies what the orga-
    nization provides. TechConnect’s
    service is social networking, with
    the aim of openly connecting the
    world.

    • Evaluative measures: Evaluative
    measures are the standards by which the organization can be judged in terms of
    whether it is achieving its mission. TechConnect’s mission is to connect people
    throughout the world. How well it is doing that might be measured by the number of
    users, ad revenue, or site traffic.

    Mission statements should be short, succinct, and easy to remember, like the ones listed ear-
    lier in this section. Management guru Peter Drucker was known to have advocated mission
    statements that were no longer than eight words and could easily fit on a T-shirt. In his opin-
    ion, anything larger was simply too long (Wartzman, 2012). Chances are, if you cannot state
    an organization’s mission, it may not be a good statement.

    You can use Figure 9.1 to write your own mission statement or evaluate your organization’s
    mission according to how well it articulates audience, product or service, and evaluative
    measures.

    Bloomberg/Getty Images
    An organization’s mission is its reason for
    being. It is usually based on a central product
    or service. eBay’s mission statement from
    2013 was, “We exist to serve, and, through
    our service, we create an engaged and loyal
    eBay community.” In 2020, eBay’s website
    read, “Our mission is to be the world’s favorite
    destination for discovering great value and
    unique selection.”

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    Section 9.1Mission, Vision, and Values Development

    Figure 9.1: Mission statement assessment worksheet

    Use this worksheet to write or evaluate your organization’s mission statement. Download a copy in
    your e-book.

    Jeff and Jane, from the opening vignette, planned a retreat with staff and the board, who used
    their time away to craft a mission statement that could be communicated more succinctly. A
    list of exemplary mission statements can be found at the following link: https://blog.hubspot.
    com/marketing/inspiring-company-mission-statements.

    Vision
    A vision statement articulates an organization’s desired end state. When the organization is
    able to articulate its image of a desired future—that is, where it wants to go and what it will
    be like once it gets there—it has clear vision (Senge, Kleiner, Roberts, Ross, & Smith, 1994).
    Although leaders are responsible for formulating vision, Senge and colleagues (1994) argued
    that fostering and fulfilling the vision is everyone’s responsibility. Examples of good vision
    statements include these:

    Motorcycle company: “To awaken adventure through motorcycling”

    Mission Statement Worksheet

    The Audience (the boundary)

    The Product or Service

    Evaluative Measures

    Now, put the three functions together in a succinct statement:

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    Section 9.1Mission, Vision, and Values Development

    Wine maker: “To be the world’s most distinguished producer of fine wines”

    Chain restaurant: “To create a first-rate, accessible dining company”

    Why Do OD Consultants Advocate Vision Statements?
    Noting that “not all visions are equal” (p. 299), Senge and colleagues (1994) identified several
    attributes that make a vision powerful. Powerful visions “tap into an organization’s deeper
    sense of purpose and articulate specific goals that represent making that purpose real, [and]
    have unique power to engender aspirations and commitment” (Senge et al., 1994, p. 299).

    Creating a shared vision requires stakeholders to reflect on the organization’s purpose and
    future. Senge and colleagues (1994) equated building shared vision with building shared
    meaning that yields a collective sense of what is important.

    How Do OD Consultants Help Organizations Development Vision Statements?
    The consultant helps the client determine how it hopes its products or services might change
    the world. The vision statement should capture the organization’s dream; it is a picture of the
    organization’s ultimate success.

    There are multiple methods for creating vision statements. These include simple word smith-
    ery and generative activities in which multiple participants identify key vision ideas that are
    collated and ranked. Other companies may use exercises involving pictures and visual aids to
    create images of the desired future. Table 9.2 compares the characteristics of vision and mis-
    sion statements.

    A list of exemplary vision statements can be found at https://fitsmallbusiness.com/
    vision-statement-examples/.

    Table 9.2: Comparing mission and vision statements

    Mission statements:
    Why the organization exists

    Vision statements:
    The organization’s desired end state

    Succinct one-sentence statement explaining why
    the organization exists. It should

    1. be simple and clear,
    2. avoid jargon,
    3. be easily memorized,
    4. be distinctive, and
    5. not be confused with a vision statement.

    Succinct one-sentence statement describing the
    organization’s long-term desired end state. It should

    1. be simple and clear,
    2. avoid jargon,
    3. be easily memorized, and
    4. not be confused with a mission statement.

    Examples of mission and vision statements

    Automobile Company Mission
    Go the distance: We go the distance to exceed
    the expectations of our customers in quality and
    performance.

    Automobile Company Vision
    To be the world’s leading provider of automotive
    products and services

    Children’s Hospital Mission
    Committed to making them all better: We make chil-
    dren better today, and healthier in the future.

    Children’s Hospital Vision
    To transform the landscape of pediatric health care
    and improve the health of all children

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    Section 9.2

    Strategic Planning

    Values
    An organization’s values are principles that govern how the organization expects to function
    in pursuit of its vision. OD consultants are often hired to help the organization clarify and
    articulate its values, along with its mission and vision.

    Why Do OD Consultants Help Clients Develop Values Statements?
    A values statement brings the mission and vision statements to life by describing what the
    organization believes in and how it will behave. These statements signal the organization’s
    beliefs and culture. Values statements can serve as a moral compass for the organization by
    defining leadership expectations, establishing standards, and guiding decisions.

    How Do OD Consultants Help Clients Develop Values Statements?
    Values are usually derived in conjunction with mission and vision statements. They are gen-
    erally based on consensus and ideally involve input from top management and stakeholders
    across the organization.

    OD interventions often center on helping organizations articulate their mission, vision, and
    values in a collective process that is developmental. This process may involve other visioning
    interventions introduced later in this chapter, such as a Future Search Conference, SWOT
    analysis, or environmental scanning. Creating the mission, vision, and values statements is
    often an integral part of strategic planning.

    9.2 Strategic Planning
    Strategic planning is “a disciplined effort to produce fundamental decisions and actions
    that shape and guide what an organization (or other entity) is, what it does, and why it
    does it” (Bryson, 2004, p. 6). Strategic planning seeks to accomplish several goals, includ-
    ing establishing or revisiting long-term vision, values, and mission statements that span
    several years. Strategic planning scans the environment to assess the competitors, prod-
    ucts, and services that characterize the industry context. The plan generates strategies to be
    implemented over a 5-year period that delineate specific activities, champions to advocate
    for the plan, and deadlines for accomplishing tasks. For example, Jeff and Jane led the non-
    profit health organization’s staff and board through a strategic planning process that helped
    accomplish these goals.

    Consider This
    What are the values of an organization of which you are a part? How are the values com-
    municated or visible? For example, Patagonia communicates its value of “saving the planet”
    in how it manufactures, markets, and affects the environment: https://www.patagonia.com/
    company-info.html.

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    Section 9.2Strategic Planning

    The strategic planning process has several steps, including

    • engaging in comprehensive, effective information gathering;
    • clarifying the organization’s mission, vision, and values;
    • identifying issues to be addressed in pursuit of the mission;
    • developing and exploring strategic alternatives;
    • emphasizing the future impact of present decisions; and
    • creating specific, measurable actions and timelines, usually in 5-year increments.

    Strategic planning helps organizations communicate their mission and goals to employees
    and other stakeholders. The process is often collective and seeks input from across the orga-
    nization and its constituents. It represents multiple agendas, interests, and values. It also cre-
    ates a deliberative assessment of the past, present, and future and establishes accountability
    measures. An organization typically makes a public commitment to its strategic plan and uses
    the plan to guide its decisions and actions. Figure 9.2 outlines a simple approach to strategic
    planning.

    Figure 9.2: Strategic planning steps

    Strategic planning is a three-step process to determine where you are, where you want to be, and how
    to get there.

    An effective strategic plan will communicate the organization’s mission, vision, and values
    to the organization’s constituents. The plan will also help the organization prioritize and
    allocate resources and provide a basis for measuring progress and change. Consultants
    who facilitate a strategic planning process must educate themselves on the necessary steps,

    Determine
    where you are

    Decide where
    you want to be

    Plan how to
    get there

    • Mission and
    vision

    • Programs and
    services

    • People and
    skills

    • Organization
    structure

    • Communications

    • Budget support

    • Mission and
    vision
    • Programs and
    services
    • People and
    skills

    • Organization
    structure

    • Communications
    • Budget support

    • Strategic plan

    • Restructuring and
    reengineering

    • Hiring and
    training

    • IT and HR plans

    • Communications

    • Budget allocations

    • Metrics

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    Section 9.2Strategic Planning

    usually by undergoing continuing education or graduate study. They should also use products
    such as OnStrategy (https://onstrategyhq.com/) to track progress and make the plan and
    accomplishments visible on the organization website. Additionally, they can access strategic
    planning tools and resources through the Council of Nonprofits: https://www.councilofnon
    profits.org/tools-resources/dashboards-nonprofits.

    Several interventions support the strategic planning process. These include environmental
    scanning, SWOT analysis, creating SMART goals, and scenario planning. Each will be profiled
    in the following sections.

    Environmental Scanning
    When the organization scrutinizes external and internal factors that provide critical informa-
    tion about its future, the organization is engaged in environmental scanning. Environmental
    scanning involves both external and internal scans:

    • External scans examine industry and government reports, journals, conferences, and
    any other sources that can be used to evaluate the industry. This information might
    include competitors, market conditions, government regulations, demographics,
    technology, economic development, global trends, or anything else that might affect
    the organization’s livelihood.

    • Internal scans draw on stakeholder interviews, annual reports, planning documents,
    analysis reports, customer surveys, employee surveys, marketing reports, board
    meeting minutes, human resource databases, and other sources that provide rel-
    evant information.

    Why Do OD Consultants Recommend Environmental Scanning?
    Environmental scanning systematically scrutinizes the organizational context (economic,
    competitive, social, political, and so forth) and collects data to develop a picture of current
    and future conditions that could positively or negatively affect the organization. Environmen-
    tal scanning is important for organizations to maintain or improve their competitive position.
    The data generated by an environmental scan is used to develop or change strategies and
    plans. Environmental scanning can be done on any scale. Individuals may engage in it on a
    personal level when they try to understand the job market or select the best product to buy.
    Organizations use it regularly to anticipate the future and be more internally and externally
    strategic.

    How Do OD Consultants Facilitate Environmental Scanning?
    Environmental scanning involves the following steps:

    1. Collect data about the context in which the organization operates, including
    a. economic,
    b. government,
    c. legal,

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    Section 9.2Strategic Planning

    d. demographic,
    e. social,
    f. political, and
    g. environmental.

    2. Use data sources such as
    a. publications,
    b. focus groups,
    c. industry leaders,
    d. internal leaders,
    e. media, and
    f. civic associations.

    3. Critically examine competitors to discover trends, opportunities, and threats that
    have implications for the organization.

    4. Conduct an internal scan to examine the organization’s strengths and weaknesses.
    This should include reviewing short- and long-term goals.

    5. Assess where the organization is now and where it should be in 10 years. Conduct a
    gap analysis as discussed in Chapter 4.

    6. Collect relevant data from the community in which the organization operates. Out-
    comes might be joint projects or strategies. Relevant stakeholders might include
    a. nonprofit organizations,
    b. governmental or social agencies,
    c. higher education institutions, and
    d. religious organizations.

    7. Analyze the data and use it to develop or modify strategy.

    Have you ever participated in environmental scanning? See the activity at the end of the chap-
    ter to practice.

    SWOT Analysis
    During a SWOT analysis, employees and other stakeholders come together to identify an
    organization’s strengths and weaknesses and to examine environmental opportunities and
    threats. It is often done as part of strategic planning and is very effective if performed correctly.

    Why Do OD Consultants Do SWOT Analysis?
    The act of simply carrying out an analysis using the SWOT framework can be enough to reveal
    what needs to change and to stimulate new ideas. SWOT analyses are often undertaken fol-
    lowing environmental scanning to establish strategies to maximize opportunities and mini-
    mize threats.

    How Do OD Consultants Do SWOT Analysis?
    To carry out a SWOT analysis, reflect on the questions listed in Table 9.3.

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    Section 9.2Strategic Planning

    Table 9.3: SWOT analysis

    Strengths Weaknesses

    • What are our advantages?
    • What do we do well?
    • What are our

    • Unique capabilities?
    • Natural advantages?
    • Superior resources?

    • What could we improve?
    • What are we doing badly?
    • What should we avoid?
    • What are our

    • Key vulnerabilities?
    • Disadvantages?
    • Resource and capability shortfalls?

    Opportunities Threats (Challenges)

    • Where are the good chances facing us?
    • What are the interesting trends?
    • What are the

    • Changes in the social, economic, and
    political environment?

    • Changes in technology?
    • Changes in government policy?
    • Changes in markets?
    • Weaknesses of our competitors?
    • Unmet customer needs?
    • Staff and supplier capabilities?
    • Size, location, and strategic positioning?
    • Changes in social patterns, population

    profiles, lifestyle changes, etc.?
    • Local events that have potential?

    • What obstacles do we face?
    • What is our competition doing?
    • Are the required specifications of our work,

    products, or services changing?
    • Is changing technology threatening our

    position?
    • Do we have bad debt or cash flow problems?
    • Are we at risk of

    • Resistance to change?
    • Lack of interest or motivation?
    • Lack of commitment?
    • Lack of flexibility or focus?
    • Mismatch of skills and resources with the

    strategic direction?
    • High risks or impossible odds?

    Facilitating a SWOT analysis for a client involves following these steps:

    1. Ask participants to individually brainstorm on each of the SWOT categories
    (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats). Have them write down their
    ideas on Post-it notes.

    2. Invite participants to place their Post-it notes on flip charts stationed around the
    room. Each flip chart should be devoted to one SWOT category. Individuals will work
    around the room in carousel fashion, adding one issue to each flip chart until all
    ideas are exhausted.

    3. Tally the issues. Seek consensus on prioritization of the key issues in each SWOT
    category.

    4. Review and discuss the issues.
    5. Invite the group to raise questions and answers.
    6. Help the group plan action around key issue(s).
    7. Summarize the process and outcomes.

    Keep in mind that groups have a tendency to get stuck in the process of identifying issues
    and have difficulty moving toward commitment to action. Plan for transition out of the SWOT
    analysis to bridge the gap between idea generation and meaningful action.

    Returning to the vignette, the nonprofit organization underwent a SWOT analysis as part of
    its planning to adjust priorities and goals. The process helped clarify the nonprofit’s chal-
    lenges around fundraising in particular.

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    Section 9.2Strategic Planning

    SMART Goals
    Strategic plans should incorporate SMART goals. SMART goals are

    • Specific
    • Measurable
    • Attainable
    • Realistic or Relevant
    • Time bound

    The SMART mnemonic was introduced by George Doran, Arthur Miller, and James Cunning-
    ham in 1981 (Doran, Miller, & Cunningham, 1981). Since that time, it has served as the stan-
    dard tool for creating effective goals.

    How Do OD Consultants Help Clients Set SMART Goals?
    Table 9.4 offers descriptions and examples of SMART goals.

    Table 9.4: Setting SMART goals

    Description Personal example Organization example

    Specific A specific goal can be clearly visual-
    ized. Specifics help us focus and
    clearly define actions. Specifics are
    the what, why, how, and who of the
    SMART model.

    WHAT are you going to do? Use
    action words such as increase, orga-
    nize, collaborate, lead, develop, plan,
    establish, and build.

    WHY is the goal important at this
    time? What do you ultimately want to
    accomplish?

    HOW are you going to do it?

    WHO is going to do it?

    Instead of setting a
    goal to lose weight,
    set a specific goal,
    such as losing 2
    inches off your
    waistline, losing 5
    pounds in 5 weeks,
    or walking 5 miles
    at an aerobically
    challenging pace.

    Instead of setting a goal
    to retain employees, set
    a specific goal, such as
    improving retention by
    10% over the next 90
    days and implementing
    an onboarding program
    to provide orientation to
    new employees.

    Measurable An old management adage is “If
    you cannot measure it, it does not
    matter.” Furthermore, you cannot
    manage it. A goal provides a measur-
    ing stick. If the goal is accomplished,
    success has been achieved. An
    organization may also build several
    short-term or small measurements
    into the goal to measure incremental
    progress along the way.

    A goal that is dif-
    ficult to measure
    would be “Lose
    weight.” A better
    goal with measur-
    able steps would be
    “Lose 1 pound per
    week for 5 weeks”
    or “Exercise for 30
    minutes every day.”

    “The organization will
    improve retention by
    10% over the next 90
    days.”

    (continued on next page)

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    Section 9.2Strategic Planning

    Table 9.4: Setting SMART goals (continued)

    Description Personal example Organization example

    Attainable Goals should be attainable and pos-
    sible to reach. The goal should create
    some challenge in that it is neither
    too easy nor too difficult to reach and
    will require push to attain. The goal
    should be within the employee’s or
    organization’s ability and resources
    to achieve and should align with the
    work unit goals.

    Aiming to lose 10
    pounds in 1 week
    is not attainable (or
    healthy). A more
    attainable goal is to
    lose 1 to 2 pounds
    per week for a
    sustained period of
    time.

    Aiming to improve reten-
    tion by 10% is realistic,
    and after the 90-day
    period, the organiza-
    tion can adjust its goal
    and approaches (e.g.,
    onboarding) to see if that
    affects retention.

    Realistic or
    relevant

    Realistic does not mean “effortless.”
    A realistic SMART goal is within
    the employee’s or team’s capabil-
    ity. Although the goal may challenge
    employees to develop new skills and
    knowledge, it will not throw them
    into the panic zone or break their
    motivation to continue because it
    seems possible to reach.

    This part of the SMART goal frame-
    work is called “relevant” by some
    models. Relevant means that the goal
    is linked to roles and responsibili-
    ties and to the overall organization
    mission. Either way, the stated goal
    should be tied to the mission and
    should challenge the organization to
    attain it.

    “Lose 25 pounds
    in 7–8 months in
    an effort to have a
    healthier lifestyle.”
    This type of goal
    requires us to fur-
    ther develop capac-
    ity to take steps to
    lose weight, but it
    is not unrealistic in
    what it is asking.
    An unrealistic goal
    might be one with
    a much shorter
    amount of time.

    Reducing turnover is
    realistic in terms of being
    within the organization’s
    capability and highly
    relevant, as retaining
    staff has multiple benefits
    that affect customer care,
    product or service quality,
    morale, and costs.

    Time
    bound

    Creating a timetable or Gantt chart
    for a goal is imperative. Specific time
    frames by week, month, semester,
    or year offer manageable targets to
    work toward. Without deadlines,
    it may be difficult to secure com-
    mitment to achieving the goal. A
    timetable creates a sense of urgency
    to achieve the goal. Make sure the
    timing is measurable, attainable, and
    realistic!

    “To lose 10 pounds
    in time for a class
    reunion in 6
    months.”

    “To improve retention by
    10% in 90 days.”

    Why Do OD Consultants Help Clients Set SMART Goals?
    SMART goals help clients develop goals that hold them accountable for implementing their
    strategic plan. Addressing each aspect of the SMART goals helps clients develop good goals.

    Scenario Planning
    Scenario planning is a strategic planning approach that assesses all possible environ-
    mental changes that could affect the organization and creates a story about the outcomes.

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    Section 9.3

    Organization Design

    Strategic responses to the stories are developed so that all imaginable contingencies have
    been considered.

    Why Do OD Consultants Do Scenario Planning?
    Organizations use scenario planning to plan long-term strategy in a shifting environment. For
    example, the process was used by Royal Dutch Shell to predict future shifts in the oil industry.
    The creation of scenarios can give organizations a context and situation that mimic reality
    and more readily allow problem solving and innovation.

    How Do OD Consultants Do Scenario Planning?
    Scenario planning was introduced in the 1960s as a military tool to design weapons technol-
    ogy. It was then adopted for business planning and community building (Haeffner, Leone,
    Coons, & Chermack, 2012). Chermack (2011) suggested that scenario planning involves

    1. emphasizing changed thinking,
    2. creating informed narratives or stories of plausible futures,
    3. making better decisions about the future, and
    4. enhancing human and organization learning.

    For example, during the nonprofit retreat profiled in the vignette, Jeff and Jane developed
    potential stories of what might happen in the future if fundraising further diminished or
    increased dramatically.

    9.3 Organization Design
    Organization design consists of five elements:

    1. strategy: long-term vision
    2. structure: roles, responsibilities, and relationships among organization units or

    functions
    3. process and lateral capacity: decision-making process, cross-functional and integra-

    tive roles
    4. reward systems: compensation, recognition, metrics
    5. people practices: human resource or personnel functions such as hiring, talent man-

    agement, learning, and development (Anderson, 2016; Galbraith, 2002)

    When an organization’s design does not work well or prevents the organization from achiev-
    ing its goals, it will redesign or restructure.

    Organization design may change following a shift in strategy, a merger or acquisition, or out-
    sourcing and downsizing. Such a shift allows the organization to more effectively meet the
    changing demands and market conditions.

    Organization Structure
    The order of reporting relationships and their general design is known as organization struc-
    ture, which also incorporates processes and lateral capacities in terms of how individuals and

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    Section 9.3Organization Design

    groups work and make decisions together. There are several varieties of structure, includ-
    ing functional, divisional, matrix, process, and network (Cummings & Worley, 2018). We will
    define each type shortly. Having an appropriate structure facilitates the organization’s work
    and productivity.

    Why Do OD Consultants Address Organization Structure?
    An organization’s structure determines reporting relationships, level of formality, and how
    work gets accomplished. Consultants examine organization structure to assess how well it
    fits with the organization’s overall mission, vision, and values.

    How Do OD Consultants Address Organization Structure?
    Consultants first assess the organization’s type of structure and then examine the mission
    and vision, key processes, and functions to see if the structure makes sense. For example,
    most automotive companies have hierarchy, assembly lines, and clear productivity targets.
    However, that type of structure would not befit a company focused on the latest technology,
    quick responses, and innovation.

    Types of Organization Structure
    This section profiles common organization structures. See if you can identify the structure of
    an organization you belong to as one of these types.

    Functional Structure
    Functional organizations are organized according to functional activities such as finance,
    human resources, and operations (Cummings & Worley, 2018). The functional structure val-
    ues skill specialization, in that certain subdivisions carry out all tasks associated with that
    function for the organization. This structure promotes career development within the func-
    tion, sometimes at the expense of exposure to other functions. The functional structure is
    sometimes accused of being “siloed” in that the functions become isolated from each other
    and lack understanding and communication across the organization. See Figure 9.3 for an
    example of a functional structure.

    Figure 9.3: Functional structure

    This structure is the classic hierarchy most of us think of when we envision organization structure.

    CEO

    VP
    Marketing

    VP Research VP Finance
    VP Human
    Resources

    VP
    Manufacturing

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    Section 9.3Organization Design

    Divisional Structure
    In a divisional structure, also called a self-contained unit, activities are organized according to
    products, services, customers, or geography (Cummings & Worley, 2018). Because members
    identify with the product or service rather than their own function and are oriented to the
    customer, departments tend to be more cohesive across the organization as compared with
    the functional structure. Cross-training is also more easily facilitated. However, the divisional
    structure may not be as efficient as the functional structure because of duplication of services,
    and career advancement within a specialty is more difficult. Divisional structure is depicted
    in Figure 9.4.

    Figure 9.4: Divisional structure

    The advantage of a divisional structure is the cohesiveness it tends to create.

    Matrix Structure
    The matrix structure combines two or more organization structures. For example, an engi-
    neer may report to the head of engineering and, on a special project around process changes
    in a manufacturing plant, will also report to the manager of the project, perhaps a manufac-
    turing director. This structure results in employees reporting to more than one supervisor,
    as in the case of the engineer. Matrix structure promotes the sharing of functional and prod-
    uct knowledge across functions. It requires a flexible and supportive management, because
    employees often report to both functional and product managers, making this structure more
    politically contested and difficult to implement than other structures. Matrix structures are
    not usually permanent. They shift according to organization need. See Figure 9.5 for an exam-
    ple of a matrix structure.

    CEO

    VP
    Product A

    VP
    Product B

    Manager
    Sales

    Manager
    Manufacturing

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    Section 9.3Organization Design

    Figure 9.5: Matrix structure

    The matrix structure allows for sharing of information across functions, but because employees may
    report to more than one person (e.g., functional and product managers), this structure often creates
    tension and is more difficult to implement.

    Process-Based Structure
    Glavan and Vukšić (2017) described the process-based structure, or business process orien-
    tation (BPO), as occurring when an “organization pays attention to its relevant (core) pro-
    cesses (end-to-end view across the borders of departments, organizations, countries, etc.)”
    (p. 138). They surveyed 127 Croatian companies and found that BPO enhances both financial
    and nonfinancial performance. Anderson (2018) noted that process-based structures are con-
    sidered horizontal and boundaryless in nature and emerged in high-tech where competitive
    edge means organizations are nimble and quick in innovating new products and getting them
    to market. This requires a breakdown in hierarchy and instead uses cross-functional, self-
    managed teams to accomplish work. A process orientation involves a continuous improve-
    ment mindset, where the organization is perpetually seeking ways to improve. For example,
    ensuring the hiring process is well integrated throughout the organization and top diverse
    candidates are being recruited, interviewed, and hired requires constant attention. Hiring
    processes have evolved, with new capabilities using social media and hiring analytics. A busi-
    ness process–oriented organization seeks to improve processes across the organization that
    sustain and evolve over time.

    The BPO structure is a relatively flat structure with a small senior management team. Each
    major process has an owner who oversees its management. This structure is highly customer
    oriented and able to quickly adapt to the environment. There is generally strong teamwork
    based on the need to work across process groups to serve the customer, and thus teams work
    rapidly to set goals, adapt to change, and build collaborative working relationships. Success-
    fully organizing according to process requires a shift in thinking about management’s role.
    Moreover, it may take longer to make decisions and accomplish tasks in the process-based
    structure. See Figure 9.6 for an example.

    Coordinator
    Product A

    Manufacturing
    Employees
    Product A

    Marketing
    Employees
    Product A

    Coordinator
    Product B

    Coordinator
    Product C

    Manufacturing
    Employees
    Product B

    Manufacturing
    Employees
    Product C

    Marketing
    Employees
    Product B

    Marketing
    Employees
    Product C

    VP Coordinators VP Manufacturing VP Marketing

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    Section 9.3Organization Design

    Figure 9.6: Process-based structure

    The process-based structure has teams focusing on core processes instead of products.

    Network Structure
    A network structure abandons the traditional hierarchical functional structure, reducing
    functions down to key competencies and a network that helps the organization achieve its
    goals (Anderson, 2018). Network structures have been described as spider webs, clusters,
    or starbursts. They are characterized by vertical disaggregation, or the splitting of business
    functions into separate organizations that perform specialized work. Network organizations
    do not have hierarchies but are often managed by brokers who orchestrate processes, much
    as a general contractor draws on a network of specialties to construct a building (Cummings
    & Worley, 2018). Brokers coordinate a variety of informal relationships, contracts, and mar-
    ket mechanisms.

    Network structures are flexible and adaptable to the environment and are usually good at
    meeting customer and market demands. However, this structure is complex and unstable,
    making recruitment and retention challenging. See an example in Figure 9.7.

    Senior
    management

    New product
    development

    Customer
    service

    Processes

    Etc.

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    Section 9.3Organization Design

    Figure 9.7: Network structure

    The most adaptable of the organization structures, the network structure allows for a flexible
    environment to meet customer and market demands.

    Organization design is driven by the organization’s mission, vision, values, and strategic plan.
    When there is a mismatch, reorganization is usually necessary.

    Reorganization and Restructuring
    Organizations must make changes that allow them to more nimbly respond to environmental
    factors such as increased competition, globalization, and new technologies. Often, these fac-
    tors require organizations to rethink their structures through reorganizing or restructuring
    their operations to allow them to more effectively meet market conditions.

    Why Do OD Consultants Help Clients Reorganize and Restructure?
    Organizations often decide to reorganize to improve communication, quality, or customer
    satisfaction or to improve productivity and performance. These activities can also be part of
    strategic plan implementation, particularly when the goals relate to improved performance
    and efficiency.

    Engineering
    organization

    Manufacturing
    organization

    Broker
    organization

    Supplier
    organization

    Distributor
    organization

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    Section 9.3Organization Design

    How Do OD Consultants Help Clients Reorganize and Restructure?
    Restructuring is the process by which an organization design is changed. Organizations will
    usually shift from a more traditional structure (such as functional, divisional, or matrix) to a
    more integrative and flexible structure (such as process based or network). Also known as
    flattening, restructuring involves shifting the organization to become more agile, responsive,
    productive, and effective. Restructuring is influenced by the environment, the geographic
    span of operations, organization size, technology, and the strategic plan. Here, we discuss
    three common approaches to restructuring: reengineering, mergers and acquisitions, and
    downsizing.

    Reengineering
    Reengineering (Hammer & Champy, 1993) is the radical redesign of the organization’s
    core work processes to provide greater linkage and coordination among tasks. The goal is to
    achieve higher, faster performance and better customer service. Reengineering is primarily
    concerned with streamlining business processes and pays little attention to the human social
    system (French & Bell, 1999; McLean, 2006). The reengineering process is often associated
    with technological advances that the organization must adopt. Reengineering questions tasks
    and processes and attempts to unearth the assumptions that govern them. The result is usu-
    ally radical changes in thinking and practice and improved customer service.

    Reengineering is accomplished by preparing the organization, usually through data and edu-
    cation, about the need for the change. Preparatory work also involves clarifying the organiza-
    tion’s strategy and objectives so that the reengineering effort supports the long-term vision
    and mission. The reengineering process begins with a fundamental rethinking of how work
    gets accomplished by identifying and analyzing core business processes, defining perfor-
    mance objectives, and designing new processes. Next, the organization restructures around
    the new business processes. Typical process changes include shifting from functional depart-
    ments to process teams, changing jobs from simple tasks to multidimensional work, empow-
    ering workers to have more authority in their roles, shifting compensation and performance
    measures from activities to results, flattening the organization’s structure, and shifting mana-
    gerial behavior from supervisory to coaching (Cummings & Worley, 2018).

    Since reengineering’s emergence in the early 1990s, it has been used as a business improve-
    ment process in many sectors including energy management conservation (Chassiakos,
    Karatzas, & Farmakis, 2019), information technology investment and employee performance
    (Huang, Lee, Chiu, & Yen, 2015), public administration (Esbenshade, Vidal, Fascilla, & Ono,
    2016; Rinaldi, Montanari, & Bottani, 2015), and total quality management (Serban, 2015), to
    name a few.

    Mergers and Acquisitions
    Restructuring is usually necessary when companies merge or acquire new businesses.
    McLean (2006) identified four methods of restructuring after a merger or acquisition:

    1. Limited integration: Operations continue as they were premerger; alternatively, the
    acquisition is managed by a holding company, which houses several other organiza-
    tions. For example, Walt Disney is the world’s largest mass media holding company,

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    Section 9.3Organization Design

    with theme parks, studios, television channels (Disney, ESPN, A&E, and ABC Family),
    as well as familiar figures like Mickey Mouse.

    2. Dominant company: The acquiring company absorbs the acquired company into its
    operations.

    3. Mutual best of both: Melds the best of each organization into a new organization
    4. Transformation to new company: Although similar to mutual best of both, this struc-

    ture adopts entirely new organization practices to create a new organization.

    Have you ever been part of an organization that experienced one of these changes? If so,
    which structure did you experience?

    Mergers and acquisitions often stimulate multiple OD efforts at the individual, team, and
    organization levels. Sometimes, mergers and acquisitions stimulate downsizing.

    Downsizing
    “When you strip away the fancy jargon, a successful business fundamentally makes more
    money than it spends” (Ashkenas, 2012, para. 1). When an organization decreases its size to
    reduce cost and bureaucracy, it is downsizing. Downsizing is usually prompted by mergers
    and acquisitions, restructuring, lost revenue and market share from industrial and techno-
    logical change, or social pressure to create a small, lean organization (Cummings & Worley,
    2018). Additionally, McLean (2006) identified economic downturn, change in product or ser-
    vice demand, technological shifts, improved processes, and flattening as reasons organiza-
    tions downsize.

    Downsizing is usually accomplished through workforce reduction, organization redesign, or
    systemic redesign (Cameron, Freeman, & Mishra, 1991; Cummings & Worley, 2009):

    • Workforce reduction seeks to
    reduce the organization’s head
    count and is usually a short-term
    downsizing tactic accomplished
    through layoffs, attrition, retire-
    ment incentives, and buyout
    packages.

    • Organization redesign seeks more
    fundamental organization change
    than workforce reduction and is a
    longer-term strategy accomplished
    by merging units, redesigning tasks,
    and eliminating functions, layers,
    and products.

    • Systemic redesign seeks transfor-
    mational culture change. A long-
    term strategy, it involves changing
    responsibilities, adopting continuous improvement programs, simplifying processes,
    and accepting downsizing as a way of life.

    Katleho Seisa/E+/Getty Images Plus
    Organizations downsize to save money,
    although there is little evidence to show it
    effectively accomplishes cost savings.

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    Section 9.4Learning Infrastructure

    Downsizing is not cost-free, and organizations may not realize the hidden costs, which can
    be so high that they might cancel any gains made in salary savings (Ashkenas, 2012). When
    organizations lay off workers, they take on the costs of severance pay, benefit extensions,
    and outplacement counseling. Longer term, organizations lose institutional knowledge, dis-
    rupt relationships, and create more burden and angst for employees who remain (Ashkenas,
    2012). One study of 318 companies and more than 4,000 participants indicated that 77% of
    organizations have increased errors and mistakes after a downsizing.

    Downsizing should not be about lowering the budget. A good measure is to assess the PEST
    costs: What are the Political, Economic, Social, and Technical costs of laying off workers?
    Downsizing was a desperate response some organizations had to the Great Recession that
    occurred from approximately 2008 to 2010. Yet, the costs of cutting the work force at that
    time were significant: Valuable knowledge was lost with the laid-off long-term workers, new
    workers were under incredible pressure to learn new skills with little time and minimal men-
    toring, innovation was hurt, workloads increased, and trust and willingness for workers to
    engage diminished, along with company loyalty. The sum total was a disaster for many orga-
    nizations, which were left in a tumultuous period without knowledge, loyalty, or enthusiasm
    for working at their companies.

    Downsizing can be avoided if organizations pay attention to structure and do not allow it to
    become overly complex. Organizations have to shift with innovation and customer tastes and
    be willing to phase out products and services people no longer want. The Kodak corporation
    featured in an earlier chapter was not able to digest the growing demand for digital photog-
    raphy. The company did not phase out its film business and wound up downsizing as a result.
    Organizations also need to accurately forecast the future and balance profitability in the short
    term and sustainability and growth in the long term.

    Incidentally, the rise of the contingent work force is a consequence of downsizing. Research
    on downsizing has indicated that it does not achieve the intended results in cost reduction or
    productivity gains (Cummings & Worley, 2018). For a comprehensive reference, see the Soci-
    ety for Human Resource Management’s 2009 “Employment Downsizing and Its Alternatives”:
    https://www.shrm.org/hr-today/trends-and-forecasting/special-reports-and-expert
    -views/Documents/Employment-Downsizing .

    9.4 Learning Infrastructure
    When an organization embraces learning as a process and strategy and creates systems to
    capture and share learning, it is concerned with learning infrastructure. We have shifted
    from the industrial age to the knowledge age, and with that change we need to facilitate
    learning and thinking that begins at the individual level and ideally spreads throughout the
    organization. “Organizations will no longer remain competitive with informal approaches
    to knowledge and learning” (Gilley & Maycunich, 2000, p. 16). Organization-level interven-
    tions aimed at learning seek to raise awareness of how knowledge can give organizations a
    competitive edge. Two learning infrastructure interventions—organization learning and the
    learning organization—gained popularity in the 1990s, particularly with the publication of

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    Section 9.4Learning Infrastructure

    Peter Senge’s (1990) The Fifth Discipline: The Art and Practice of the Learning Organization.
    These are discussed here.

    Organization Learning
    An organization concerned with describing the nature and process of internal learning is
    focused on organization learning (Callahan, 2003). When an organization focuses on learn-
    ing, it pays attention to how knowledge is developed and shared.

    Why Do OD Consultants Facilitate Organization Learning?
    Developing organizational capability for
    learning builds adaptive capacity that is
    important in continually shifting markets
    that are highly competitive and driven by
    knowledge. The quality of individual learn-
    ing affects organizations, yet learning is
    often riddled with errors that prevent
    change and progress.

    In his classic Harvard Business Review arti-
    cle “Teaching Smart People How to Learn,”
    Argyris (1991) argued that most people do
    not know how to learn. Even people who are
    regarded as the smartest are rarely effective
    learners. He suggested that professionals’
    greatest fears are to make mistakes and fail;
    they therefore create elaborate mechanisms
    to defend themselves against either outcome, at the expense of the system. For instance, when
    most people are confronted with a question they cannot answer, they make up one instead of
    admitting they do not know (or pledging to find out). People will go to great lengths to avoid
    appearing ignorant or inexperienced. Yet such behavior can ultimately hurt both individuals
    and organizations, especially when it results in poor decisions or unshared learning. Argyris
    also found that otherwise smart people go to great lengths to cover up mistakes. Argyris
    called this unwillingness to admit ignorance or mistakes learned incompetence. Interestingly,
    most individuals and organizations are not even aware that they have learning deficiencies.

    How Do Consultants Facilitate Organization Learning?
    Argyris and Schön (1974) developed the original models of organization learning. The orga-
    nization uses learning to change behavior; the new knowledge helps the organization trans-
    form information, which improves its long-term capacity (Callahan, 2003). Organizations
    committed to organization learning will undergo interventions such as reflective practice,
    action learning, team learning, learning and development programs, and problem solving.

    alvarez/E+/Getty Images Plus
    Interventions that support learning value the
    process and strategy for creating a learning
    culture.

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    Section 9.5Culture

    Learning Organization
    Senge (1990) defined a learning organization as “an organization that is continually expand-
    ing its capacity to create its future” (p. 14). Watkins and Marsick (1993) viewed it as learning
    that transforms or changes the organization and observed that it occurs at four interdepen-
    dent levels: individual, team, organization, and society.

    In effective learning organizations, the work force is accustomed to participatory manage-
    ment, a supportive culture, ongoing learning opportunities, and rewards for learning. Such
    organizations

    • encourage managers to be coaches, mentors, and facilitators of learning;
    • build a culture of feedback and disclosure;
    • take a systemic, holistic view of the organization;
    • create shared vision with all stakeholders;
    • establish systems for sharing learning and using it in the business;
    • provide regular opportunities to learn from experience;
    • foster trust throughout the organization; and
    • embrace the unexpected as opportunities to learn (Marquardt & Reynolds, 1994;

    McLean, 2006).

    Embracing organization learning usually requires a significant shift in the organization’s cul-
    ture. This is the subject of the following section.

    9.5 Culture
    Every human being belongs to multiple social groups that have rules, rites, and rituals that
    shape members’ beliefs, values, and behaviors. These variables mesh together to create cul-
    ture. Nations, cities, organizations, churches, sports teams, universities, and so forth all have
    distinct cultures. The meaning of culture has been debated and studied for decades. In fact,
    during the 1950s, Kroeber and Kluckhohn (1952) found more than 150 definitions of culture
    in academic literature.

    Edgar H. Schein’s (1991) groundbreaking work suggested that by understanding culture, we
    gain a deeper appreciation for the way it affects members’ thoughts, feelings, and actions.
    Schein defined culture as a pattern of basic assumptions that are invented, discovered, or
    developed by a given group as it learns to cope with problems adapting to the external envi-
    ronment. Culture is thus a learned value system or structure for solving problems that is
    passed down from old members to new ones. It is a significant influence on how members
    perceive, think, and feel about their environment, as well as how they behave.

    Culture is often described as encompassing three levels: (a) basic underlying assumptions,
    (b) espoused beliefs and values, and (c) artifacts (see Table 9.5). As important as culture is
    claimed to be in organizations, 61% of new employees reported receiving no training on the
    culture of their new company (Moran, 2019).

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    Section 9.5Culture

    Table 9.5: Levels of culture
    As you study this table, think of a culture to which you belong. How would you describe each of these levels?
    Consider fans of a sports team and a corporation as examples:

    Culture features Sports team examples Corporation examples

    Basic underlying assumptions
    (Generally known, but not
    discussed or written anywhere:
    “The way we do things around
    here.”)

    Team superiority
    Support the team whether it

    wins or loses
    Sportsmanship

    Product or service superiority
    Long hours
    Honesty (or a lack thereof)
    Protocol (hierarchical or flat

    communications across the
    company)

    Espoused beliefs and values
    (Public statements about the
    culture)

    “We are number one”
    “We are the Bulldawg Nation”

    (as said at the University of
    Georgia)

    Videos for fans

    Mission statement
    Vision statement
    Posted values
    Strategy
    Traits management displays
    Promotion of product/service

    Artifacts Mascot
    Cheers and behaviors
    Logoed attire
    Stadium

    Office layout
    Company logo
    Products
    Rituals such as how employees

    are recognized and celebrated

    We will examine two different culture interventions: culture change and diversity and

    inclusion.

    Culture Change
    Most people are unaware of the extent to which culture dictates their thoughts and actions,
    including in organizations. All members of an organization participate in and shape its cul-
    ture. For example, working long hours may be a part of one organization’s culture. Although
    this rule is not written anywhere or explicitly discussed, it is understood by everyone who is
    part of the organization, and newcomers quickly adopt it. When members fail to comply with
    cultural rules, the culture finds ways to correct, reprimand, or remove them.

    Why Do OD Consultants Facilitate Culture Change?
    There are good and bad cultures. OD interventions targeted at culture aspire to make the cul-
    ture more positive, productive, inclusive, or innovative.

    How Do OD Consultants Facilitate Culture Change?
    Culture change is challenging because it attempts to change “business as usual.” “Changing
    an organization’s culture is one of the most difficult leadership challenges. That’s because an
    organization’s culture comprises an interlocking set of goals, roles, processes, values, com-
    munications practices, attitudes and assumptions” (Denning, 2011, para. 1).

    A good way to approach culture change is to use survey research. Conducting a survey about
    how people regard the organization’s culture, practices, policies, products, and management

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    Section 9.5Culture

    provides a baseline (or comparative data, if a survey has been conducted before). This type of
    data offers management rich feedback on what is working well and less well. The results can
    provide an agenda for change that the organization can prioritize and implement.

    Next, the leadership needs to offer a vision for the future once the organization changes. This
    might be product innovation, market dominance, customer satisfaction, or efficiency. The
    vision needs to be communicated clearly and broadly so that the organization both under-
    stands and supports it.

    If the changes require new roles, then management needs to articulate what these are. It also
    needs to establish new reward systems that recognize contributions to the new culture, along
    with metrics that measure progress. For example, if the leadership culture is being changed
    from autocratic to participative, managers would be rewarded for exhibiting participative
    behavior, such as including employees in decision making. There also need to be clear conse-
    quences for supporting (or not supporting) the desired culture changes. Finally, infrastruc-
    ture to support the new culture needs to be created. This might include resources, new posi-
    tions, new policies, or new procedures. See Case Study: World Bank for a real-life example of a
    culture change.

    Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion
    Organizations and their members are inimitable. Each has distinctive values, cultures, identi-
    ties, and social norms that blend into the complex sociocultural system of work. Diversity,
    equity, and inclusion interventions aim to make organizations more welcoming and affirm-
    ing of an increasingly varied work force; as such, they address changing demographics, the
    dearth of ongoing diversity and inclusion interventions, their spotty success rates, and their
    pitfalls and strategies:

    Inclusion is an active process in which individuals, groups, organizations, and
    societies—rather than seeking to foster homogeneity—view and approach
    diversity as a valued resource. . . . [I]t is about presence, participation, safety,
    voice, authenticity, equity, and equality for more people across multiple iden-
    tity groups. (Ferdman, 2017, p. 238)

    Valuing diversity, equity, and inclusion can also give organizations a competitive edge in
    attracting talent. According to Moran (2019), 67% of job candidates want to join a diverse

    Case Study: World Bank
    Culture change at the World Bank has proved difficult over the years, particularly because it
    presents a unique culture change challenge. The organization’s formal purpose is ambiguous,
    and the institution is a combined philanthropic foundation, university, and bank. Governments
    around the world own this international organization, with a resident board of directors and
    staffs who operate the World Bank on a day-to-day basis and regularly question the manage-
    ment. Read a case study of culture change at the World Bank: http://www.forbes.com/sites/
    stevedenning/2011/07/23/how-do-you-change-an-organizational-culture.

    © 2020 Zovio, Inc. All rights reserved. Not for resale or redistribution.

    Section 9.5Culture

    team, and companies with diverse organizations are 35% more likely to have above-average
    financial returns for their industry.

    See Assessment: Equity and Diversity.

    Why Do OD Consultants Promote Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion?
    The U.S. Census Bureau (2019) has predicted dramatic demographic shifts over the next 50
    years, the ramifications of which are already being felt in many organizations. “By 2030, all
    baby boomers will be older than age 65,” making 1 out of 5 people of retirement age, and
    “adults will outnumber children for the first time in U.S. history” (U.S. Census Bureau, 2019,
    para. 3). By approximately 2043, the United States is projected to become a majority–minor-
    ity nation, meaning that although the non-Hispanic White population will continue to be the
    largest single group, no group will constitute a majority.

    “The worldwide phenomenon of economic
    globalization not only has provided differ-
    ent logistics and consumption habits, but
    also has generated a new workplace envi-
    ronment much more diverse than ever”
    (Castro, 2013, p. 37). Today’s organization
    is characterized by people of different gen-
    ders, generations, ethnicities, sexual orien-
    tations, physical abilities, countries of ori-
    gin, and religious beliefs working side by
    side. Each of these groups has its own cul-
    ture, needs, and expectations from work.

    Historically, U.S. organizations have been
    designed and run by heterosexual White
    males. People outside of that cultural group
    have been offered fewer training and development opportunities, received fewer promo-
    tions, suppressed their identity in order to assimilate to patriarchal culture, and experienced
    harassment or other mistreatment (Bierema, 2002, 2016b, 2017). Obviously, diversity and
    inclusion interventions are needed throughout U.S. organizations, yet, according to Castro

    Assessment: Equity and Diversity
    Take the equity and diversity quizzes available at the following links to assess your level of
    awareness related to issues of diversity and inclusion:

    • https://www.proprofs.com/quiz-school/quizshow.php?title=equity-diversity
    -awareness-quiz&q=1

    • http://www.edchange.org/multicultural/quizzes.html

    What do you need to work on in the future to become more inclusive in your own life and
    work?

    Cecilie_Arcurs/E+/Getty Images Plus
    The U.S. work force is becoming increasingly
    diverse.

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    Section 9.5Culture

    (2013), only 40% of 300 multinational organizations surveyed intend to deliver multicultural
    programs to develop leaders; only 9% already do. This indicates that a majority of organiza-
    tions are not taking steps to prepare for an increasingly diverse work force. Moreover, 36%
    of organizations surveyed were not even aware of the meaning of a “multicultural program.”
    Nancherla (2008) reported on a study that found 68% of companies do not hold senior execu-
    tives accountable for diversity and inclusion oversight, 65% lack a global diversity strategy,
    and 53% do not sponsor any training in this area. Given these statistics, diversity and inclu-
    sion interventions are likely to continue to be important for years to come, until organizations
    become much more accommodating of diverse perspectives and needs.

    A survey of more than 16,000 employees in 14 countries was conducted regarding what
    diversity, equity, and inclusion interventions were common and how effective they were for
    women, racial or ethnic groups, and LGBTQ employees (Krentz, 2019; Krentz et al., 2019).
    According to the researchers, day-to-day bias is pervasive and underestimated, with half of
    the respondents observing bias as their daily work experience. Half had little confidence that
    their organization had policies and practices in place to ensure that major decisions (e.g.,
    hiring, promotion, assignments) are bias-free. Providing a stark contrast, White heterosexual
    males were 13% more likely to rate their daily work experiences as bias-free. Diversity and
    inclusions that respondents prioritized included robust, well-crafted, and consistently fol-
    lowed antidiscrimination policies; effective training to mitigate biases and increase cultural
    competency; and removing bias from evaluation and promotion decisions.

    Even when organizations engage in diversity and inclusion interventions, they may not find
    them effective. Numerous researchers have observed that these interventions lack a track
    record of success (Cavaleros, Van Vuuren, & Visser, 2002; Kochan et al., 2003), or worse, do not
    work (Lipman, 2018). For example, a comprehensive review of 31 years of data from 830 mid-
    to large-sized U.S. workplaces found that diversity training at most firms precipitated a 7.5%
    drop in the number of women in management. The number of Black female managers fell by
    10%, and the number of Black males in top positions fell by 12%. Similar trends were seen for
    Latinos and Asians (Kalev, Kelly, & Dobbin, 2006; Vedantam, 2008). This discouraging research
    highlights the need for OD consultants to have training and expertise in this area. Recently,
    a Diversity and Inclusion Index (D&I Index) was created to measure relative performance
    against multiple factors that define diverse and inclusive workplaces. The top 100 ranked
    firms are available via Refinitiv Diversity and Inclusion Index, accessed at the following link:
    https://www.refinitiv.com/content/dam/marketing/en_us/documents/reports/diversity
    -and-inclusion-top-100-companies .

    How Do OD Consultants Promote Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion?
    Organizations face several obstacles in promoting diversity and inclusion. This section identi-
    fies some of these and offers strategies for overcoming them. These obstacles and strategies
    have been adapted from Lankau (2013) and Nancherla (2008).

    Diversity and Inclusion Intervention Pitfalls
    Obstacles to promoting diversity, equity, and inclusion commonly include the following:

    • Managers and leaders assume diversity and inclusion is not their job, but rather the
    responsibility of human resources. In reality, it is everyone’s job, with zero tolerance
    for disrespect of diversity.

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    Section 9.5Culture

    • The organization focuses on recruiting a diverse work force but not retaining one,
    because the organization values diversity but lacks inclusivity. Not surprisingly,
    people leave.

    • There is little or no assessment of organization culture to evaluate how inclusive and
    diverse it is or to intervene as necessary.

    • Training sessions are nonsubstantive; that is, they focus on nonthreatening top-
    ics such as appreciating different customs or foods but fail to help employees build
    capacity to manage intercultural conflict and differences.

    • Training sessions have flawed content and delivery and do not help the organization
    build needed capacity to manage and celebrate difference.

    • Diversity and inclusion programs are conducted to comply with compulsory legal
    requirements but have little organizational or leadership commitment.

    • There is little or no buy-in from senior management and no role modeling.
    • Diversity and inclusion programs lack a strategic connection to the organization’s

    long-term plans.
    • Expectations to embrace diversity and inclusion are not strategically embedded in

    the rewards system or culture.
    • The organization does not productively deal with conflict—particularly conflict

    related to diversity and inclusion issues.
    • Participation in diversity and inclusion training is mandatory, which makes employ-

    ees resent it.
    • There are no goals or strategies for diversity and inclusion, and it is not a part of the

    rewards or recognition system.
    • Diversity “fatigue” sets in—that is, people get tired of hearing about it and ignore it,

    or they think “we do this well already” and shift their attention away from it.
    • The organization’s management lacks accountability for improving diversity and

    inclusion.

    Diversity and Inclusion Intervention Strategies
    The following are some common strategies organizations can adopt to promote diversity and
    inclusion:

    • Initiate diversity actions with top management support and examples.
    • Maintain a clear and consistent emphasis on diversity and inclusion in the organiza-

    tion’s vision, mission, values, and strategy.
    • Identify business drivers for diversity and how addressing it can improve organiza-

    tion results (such as innovation, creativity, market growth, customer satisfaction,
    and supplier base).

    • Appoint a diverse board of directors.
    • Support formal and informal mentoring programs that target diverse employees.
    • Engage employees in the process of creating a diverse and inclusive organization

    through planning, participation in training, soliciting feedback, and evaluating the
    process.

    • Set expectations for and reward diversity, equity, and inclusion.
    • Promote a culture of communication and productive conflict resolution around mis-

    understandings and problems.
    • Reflect diversity in the organization’s hiring practices and leadership.
    • Tie diversity and inclusion to the bottom line.

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    Section 9.5Culture

    • Articulate organization values around diversity and inclusion.
    • Integrate diversity and inclusion into the organization’s strategy.
    • Engage in a long-term multifaceted change strategy to make the organization more

    diverse and inclusive.
    • Engage in community and philanthropy for multicultural nonprofits.
    • Partner with educational institutions to increase minority student enrollment.
    • Measure progress and create accountability mechanisms.

    Ensuring management accountability will increase the likelihood of a successful diversity,
    equity, and inclusion intervention. Under CEO Jack Welch’s leadership, for example, General
    Electric implemented an aggressive diversity and inclusion strategy that appointed a chief
    diversity officer and used employee networks, regular planning forums, formal mentoring
    programs, and college recruitment of diverse populations to increase the diversity of its work
    force. From 2000 to 2005, the numbers of the company’s female, minority, and non–U.S. citi-
    zen employees increased 12% among top leadership and 11% among senior executives (Nan-
    cherla, 2008). The vignette at the beginning of the chapter featured a nonprofit that lacked
    diversity. Through its strategic planning process, it was able to create specific goals and mea-
    sures for pursuing more diverse board members and donors.

    See Case Study: Culture Change in the More Company for an example of how a company insti-
    tutes a culture change.

    Case Study: Culture Change in the More Company
    The More Company is in trouble. Sales are flat, and a recent survey of employees shows that
    more than half are dissatisfied with management, 25% are considering leaving in the next
    year, and an overwhelming 90% say culture change is needed. These results are the focus of
    an executive meeting.

    “We obviously have problems and need to change,” notes CEO Lauren Gerald. “What do we
    need to do to create a culture where people are proud and happy to work here?” Discussion
    ensues among her team, which decides to call in an OD consultant who can help the company
    engage in some serious assessment and perhaps undertake cultural interventions. Lauren
    makes it clear that she expects improvement and change over the next year.

    Joelle Herbert, the OD consultant, attends the next executive meeting. She asks a lot of ques-
    tions, such as these:

    • How would you describe your current culture?
    • What is your strategy?
    • Who are your current leaders? Future leaders?
    • How do you perform in comparison with your competition?
    • What is the demography of your organization?
    • Why do you think people leave? Stay?
    • What supports are in place to help employees navigate the organization and develop in

    their careers?

    (continued on next page)

    Case Study: Culture Change in the More Company (continued)
    Joelle carefully records and analyzes data from her visit with the leadership team. She also
    reviews the survey data and interviews frontline supervisors and a cross-section of employ-
    ees. The problems are clear. Employees do not trust management and have no idea where
    the organization is headed. They feel excluded from any decisions that affect the business’s
    strategy and consequently have no buy-in to the current strategy. A culture of mistrust has
    developed.

    Joelle gives this feedback to the leadership team.
    The team members realize something has to change.
    They work together to draft a new vision for the
    organization that focuses on creating product excel-
    lence and service and building an organization that
    breeds employee loyalty and performance. They
    create SMART goals, communicate these to their
    respective teams, and invite input. The team decides
    to make four changes:

    1. Increase the quality and quantity of manage-
    ment communication via multiple outlets,
    including face-to-face, written, online, and
    customer.

    2. Strategically recruit top talent to contribute
    to the mission, and retain, train, and mentor
    the current work force to meet the new strategy.

    3. Broadly solicit input into the strategic plan and modify as needed.
    4. Change reward systems that are tied more directly to the strategic plan to reward

    managers who advance the new, more open and collaborative culture.

    The plan is implemented fairly quickly, but progress is slow. Culture change is difficult, and
    employees are usually suspicious of it. Some managers resist the change.

    Subtle shifts begin once employees who work toward the change are repeatedly recognized.
    Managers begin consulting with their employees and allowing more time to discuss issues
    prior to making decisions. Communication improves. The changes are not total, but progress
    is made in the right direction.

    The CEO, Lauren, did several things to position the organization for culture change:

    1. Stage setting: The CEO put forth her expectations as a result of the negative survey and
    took action on it by hiring a consultant.

    2. A vision for the culture change was shared broadly, and the strategic plan was modi-
    fied with employee input.

    3. SMART goals were created across the organization.
    4. Progress was measured and tracked.
    5. Expected behaviors were clarified and rewarded.

    Critical Thinking Questions

    1. What other interventions might you make if you were CEO?
    2. What steps might you take if you were the consultant?
    3. What resistance to this change can be expected?

    fizkes/iStock/Getty Images Plus
    Joelle, the consultant, attends an
    executive meeting to listen to,
    record, and then analyze feedback
    about the company culture.

    © 2020 Zovio, Inc. All rights reserved. Not for resale or redistribution.

    Section 9.5Culture
    • Articulate organization values around diversity and inclusion.
    • Integrate diversity and inclusion into the organization’s strategy.
    • Engage in a long-term multifaceted change strategy to make the organization more
    diverse and inclusive.
    • Engage in community and philanthropy for multicultural nonprofits.
    • Partner with educational institutions to increase minority student enrollment.
    • Measure progress and create accountability mechanisms.
    Ensuring management accountability will increase the likelihood of a successful diversity,
    equity, and inclusion intervention. Under CEO Jack Welch’s leadership, for example, General
    Electric implemented an aggressive diversity and inclusion strategy that appointed a chief
    diversity officer and used employee networks, regular planning forums, formal mentoring
    programs, and college recruitment of diverse populations to increase the diversity of its work
    force. From 2000 to 2005, the numbers of the company’s female, minority, and non–U.S. citi-
    zen employees increased 12% among top leadership and 11% among senior executives (Nan-
    cherla, 2008). The vignette at the beginning of the chapter featured a nonprofit that lacked
    diversity. Through its strategic planning process, it was able to create specific goals and mea-
    sures for pursuing more diverse board members and donors.
    See Case Study: Culture Change in the More Company for an example of how a company insti-
    tutes a culture change.
    Case Study: Culture Change in the More Company
    The More Company is in trouble. Sales are flat, and a recent survey of employees shows that
    more than half are dissatisfied with management, 25% are considering leaving in the next
    year, and an overwhelming 90% say culture change is needed. These results are the focus of
    an executive meeting.
    “We obviously have problems and need to change,” notes CEO Lauren Gerald. “What do we
    need to do to create a culture where people are proud and happy to work here?” Discussion
    ensues among her team, which decides to call in an OD consultant who can help the company
    engage in some serious assessment and perhaps undertake cultural interventions. Lauren
    makes it clear that she expects improvement and change over the next year.
    Joelle Herbert, the OD consultant, attends the next executive meeting. She asks a lot of ques-
    tions, such as these:
    • How would you describe your current culture?
    • What is your strategy?
    • Who are your current leaders? Future leaders?
    • How do you perform in comparison with your competition?
    • What is the demography of your organization?
    • Why do you think people leave? Stay?
    • What supports are in place to help employees navigate the organization and develop in
    their careers?
    (continued on next page)
    Case Study: Culture Change in the More Company (continued)
    Joelle carefully records and analyzes data from her visit with the leadership team. She also
    reviews the survey data and interviews frontline supervisors and a cross-section of employ-
    ees. The problems are clear. Employees do not trust management and have no idea where
    the organization is headed. They feel excluded from any decisions that affect the business’s
    strategy and consequently have no buy-in to the current strategy. A culture of mistrust has
    developed.
    Joelle gives this feedback to the leadership team.
    The team members realize something has to change.
    They work together to draft a new vision for the
    organization that focuses on creating product excel-
    lence and service and building an organization that
    breeds employee loyalty and performance. They
    create SMART goals, communicate these to their
    respective teams, and invite input. The team decides
    to make four changes:
    1. Increase the quality and quantity of manage-
    ment communication via multiple outlets,
    including face-to-face, written, online, and
    customer.
    2. Strategically recruit top talent to contribute
    to the mission, and retain, train, and mentor
    the current work force to meet the new strategy.
    3. Broadly solicit input into the strategic plan and modify as needed.
    4. Change reward systems that are tied more directly to the strategic plan to reward
    managers who advance the new, more open and collaborative culture.
    The plan is implemented fairly quickly, but progress is slow. Culture change is difficult, and
    employees are usually suspicious of it. Some managers resist the change.
    Subtle shifts begin once employees who work toward the change are repeatedly recognized.
    Managers begin consulting with their employees and allowing more time to discuss issues
    prior to making decisions. Communication improves. The changes are not total, but progress
    is made in the right direction.
    The CEO, Lauren, did several things to position the organization for culture change:
    1. Stage setting: The CEO put forth her expectations as a result of the negative survey and
    took action on it by hiring a consultant.
    2. A vision for the culture change was shared broadly, and the strategic plan was modi-
    fied with employee input.
    3. SMART goals were created across the organization.
    4. Progress was measured and tracked.
    5. Expected behaviors were clarified and rewarded.
    Critical Thinking Questions
    1. What other interventions might you make if you were CEO?
    2. What steps might you take if you were the consultant?
    3. What resistance to this change can be expected?
    fizkes/iStock/Getty Images Plus
    Joelle, the consultant, attends an
    executive meeting to listen to,
    record, and then analyze feedback
    about the company culture.
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    Section 9.6

    Talent Management

    9.6 Talent Management
    Interventions aimed at developing and optimizing
    the organization’s workforce productivity revolve
    around a process called talent management
    (Nagra, 2011). Talent management is concerned
    with recruiting, onboarding, retaining, managing,
    and developing a high-performing work force. In a
    survey of 850 American, British, Italian, French,
    German, Spanish, Japanese, and Chinese execu-
    tives, 67% ranked talent management as second
    only to competition in importance for their orga-
    nization (Altman, 2008). More recently, 83% of
    employers identified attracting and retaining tal-
    ent as a growing challenge, and 66% of millenni-
    als are expected to leave their organization by
    2020 (Moran, 2019). Thirty percent of millennials
    leave their organizations due to better job offers,
    27% due to misaligned career goals, and 13% due
    to perceived lack of career advancement opportu-
    nities within the organization (Moran, 2019).
    These statistics are scary to organizations that
    make major investments in recruiting and hiring
    talent, as it is costly to replace workers who leave;
    millennial turnover costs $30.5 billion annually
    (Negroni, 2017).

    One reason talent management is a priority for
    organizations is that hiring and developing pro-
    ficient workers improves performance. Accord-
    ing to a McKinsey & Company study (as cited in
    Axelrod, Handfield-Jones, & Welsh, 2001), organi-
    zations with top talent management practices out-
    performed their competition by a 22% return on
    shareholder value. These companies also reported
    higher productivity, profit, and sales. An example is Samsung, which transformed itself into
    a leader in the electronics industry under chair Lee Kun-hee, who emphasized quality-based
    management and talent development. Under his 25-year leadership, the company market
    capitalization went from approximately $1.1 billion in 1987 to $375.5 billion in 2012 (Chung,
    2013). “The key to Samsung’s talent management is to prepare a pool of next-generation lead-
    ers as part of a succession plan” (Chung, 2013, p. 58).

    Gheorghiu (n.d.) predicted that talent management in 2020 will be affected by three trends:
    addressing unconscious bias in the hiring and recruitment process, employee experiences
    that simplify life–work conflict and increase autonomy, and the use of analytics in making
    decisions about talent.

    Talent management employs multiple strategies, such as the previously discussed individ-
    ual interventions of training, assessment, career development, leadership development, and
    work design. Talent management can also be addressed at the organization level by creating

    Bloomberg/Getty Images
    Samsung CEO Oh-Hyun Kwon speaks
    during the company’s annual share-
    holder’s meeting in 2014. Talent
    management involves identifying high-
    potential employees and developing
    them to take key leadership roles.
    Samsung is one company that has
    applied talent management with much
    success.

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    Section 9.6Talent Management

    a talent management strategy and succession planning. Each of these will be discussed in
    this section.

    Talent Management Strategy
    Managing talent is not accidental. It requires a talent management strategy, that is, a plan,
    commitment, and collaboration across the organization. Much like a strategic plan, a talent
    management strategy seeks to make personnel decisions and placements that shape and
    guide the organization according to its vision and mission.

    Why Do OD Consultants Promote Talent Management Strategy?
    The largest investment an organization will ever make is the one it makes in its work force.
    Thus, it is prudent for organizations to take a long-term strategic approach to developing it
    (Morgan & Jardin, 2010). Although most organizations understand the importance of cul-
    tivating potential leaders, many fail to do so. When leaders leave or retire and they are not
    replaced for long periods, the remaining staff must pick up the slack without vision or direc-
    tion. These leadership gaps create long-term damage including lack of trust, demotivation,
    and lowered productivity. Determining successors to current leaders takes time, expertise,
    and knowledge of the work force, although organizations must plan ahead and have detailed
    succession plans in place in anticipation of leadership vacancies.

    How Do OD Consultants Promote Talent Management Strategy?
    There are some key strategic steps to developing a talent management strategy. The first is
    to make talent management everyone’s job. This means the task does not fall just to human
    resources or OD. Ideally, the responsibility crosses the organization’s functions of sales, oper-
    ations, engineering, and so forth. All managerial personnel need to think about developing
    talent within their units and about who could replace them in the future.

    The second step is to develop what a McKinsey & Company report called the “talent mindset”
    (as cited in Michaels, Handfield-Jones, & Axelrod, 2001, p. 11). Having a talent mindset means
    that the organization keeps the development of high-performing employees a priority at all
    times and constantly considers its ability to develop talent by posing questions such as “What
    is our capacity to do our jobs well?” or “Where do we need to improve to be more competi-
    tive?” (McCauley & Wakefield, 2006).

    Creating a culture of feedback and assessment also helps build a talent management system.
    McCauley and Wakefield (2006) recommended that consultants integrate needs assessment
    of leadership (much like the steps in the discovery stage of the action research model) to
    determine key strengths and weaknesses of employees they wish to develop.

    Individual leadership development is another strategy that prepares employees to move to
    the next level. This intervention was discussed at length in Chapter 7.

    Having a reputable performance evaluation process is also helpful. The best such processes
    are ongoing; that is, managers should not wait for an annual review to intervene when they
    see a developmental opportunity. They seize the moment for feedback and coach and monitor
    progress.

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    Section 9.6Talent Management

    Finally, organizations that have successful talent management programs are committed to
    learning, as discussed in the previous sections on organization learning and the learning
    organization. The ability to learn from experience and share it with the next generation is
    imperative for talent management.

    Developing top talent is a strategic business imperative. Morgan and Jardin (2010) recom-
    mended that companies take the same approach to employee talent development that they do
    to market development. Companies typically divide markets into segments based on certain
    niches, such as potential for greater revenue or improved margins. The same can be done for
    employees around key learning and development needs, stretch assignments (projects that
    significantly challenge the employee), or mentoring. Luna-Arocas and Morley (2015) indi-
    cated that having a talent mindset directly affects performance, and when employees are sup-
    ported in talent and competency development, they are more satisfied.

    See Tips and Wisdom: Top Talent Management Best Practices for more information on how to
    identify and retain top talent.

    Tips and Wisdom: Top Talent Management Best Practices
    Top talent is defined as workers who continually exceed expectations and demonstrate pro-
    ductive behaviors and agility in their learning and approach (Morgan & Jardin, 2010). Talent
    management programs identify top talent and use several interventions to manage it, such
    as workforce planning, analyzing gaps between needs and existing talent, recruiting, staffing,
    training, retention, talent reviews, succession planning, and evaluation (McCauley & Wake-
    field, 2006). A key question to encourage your managerial clients to ask is “How can I develop
    talent in my organization?” See the following adapted list of the American Productivity and
    Quality Center and the Center for Creative Leadership’s best talent management practices.

    1. Define “talent management” broadly. This means that organizations take a liberal
    approach to cultivating talent through learning and development, experiences, and
    assignments.

    2. Integrate the various talent management interventions into a comprehensive system.
    Instead of just offering a leadership development course to targeted employees, orga-
    nizations might launch mentoring, networking, assessments, and other comprehensive
    learning activities that develop talent.

    3. Focus talent management programs on the most highly valued talent.
    4. Get commitment from CEOs and senior-level executives.
    5. Build competency models to develop a shared understanding of the skills and behav-

    iors the organization needs and most values in employees.
    6. Monitor talent across the organization to identify potential talent gaps.
    7. Excel at recruiting, identifying, and developing talent.
    8. Develop effective performance management and retention processes.
    9. Evaluate the results of the talent management process on an ongoing basis. (McCauley

    & Wakefield, 2006)

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    Section 9.7

    Large-Scale Interactive Events

    Succession Planning
    Succession planning is the process of identifying employees with high potential to assume
    leadership roles in the organization. Targeted positions would include top executives and
    the management levels immediately below that level that will eventually feed the executive
    pipeline.

    Why Do OD Consultants Promote Succession Planning?
    Most workers stay with a particular organization for an average of 4.4 years, and the young-
    est workers log about half that (Meister, 2012). Organizations that lack a contingency plan for
    the unexpected departure of key leaders and other personnel are at risk. Succession planning
    identifies potential replacements of current leaders and managers and determines what key
    experiences, training, and mentoring they need to take on the next role.

    How Do OD Consultants Promote Succession Planning?
    A succession plan is a document that highlights key leadership and management roles. It also
    identifies potential successors according to their experience and what development they
    would need in order to take on a particular role. Steps to succession planning include the
    following:

    1. Identifying positions where succession planning is necessary
    2. Specifying the key knowledge, skills, and abilities for the positions
    3. Assessing potential successors’ applicable knowledge, skills, and abilities
    4. Developing potential successors for future positions, especially where deficiencies are

    noted (McLean, 2006)

    Miles (2009) suggested that effective succession planning programs engage stakeholders in
    determining the succession pool and process. Stakeholders typically include current top lead-
    ers, human resources managers, and consultants. In terms of losing executives, organizations
    should assume the worst; that is, they should be prepared to replace all key positions as soon
    as vacancies occur. If a successor is not readily identified in the organization, there should be
    a contingency plan to deal with the potential vacancy, such as targeted industries or external
    candidates.

    It is also important to assess the talent pool to determine how potential successors can be
    developed through training, work assignments, and experiences to prepare them for new
    roles and to strengthen any noted weaknesses.

    9.7 Large-Scale Interactive Events
    Large-scale or organization-wide OD is concerned with system-wide interventions usu-
    ally targeted at improving problem solving, leadership, visioning, and task accomplishment
    between groups. These activities are known as large-scale interactive events (LSIEs). LSIEs
    can be traced to Kurt Lewin’s (1951) original change model, discussed in Chapter 2. That is,

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    Section 9.7Large-Scale Interactive Events

    their basic steps are first to “unfreeze” the current situation so change can occur, then to make
    changes, and finally to “refreeze” the new situation in place.

    Why Do OD Consultants Do LSIEs?
    LSIEs are conducted when the organization wants to seek broad input from a range of stake-
    holders, generate innovative ideas, and/or plan for the future. Because of the highly participa-
    tive nature of the LSIE, the results tend to promote acceptance of and enthusiasm toward the
    ideas generated during the event.

    The major features of large-scale, real-time change management processes include the
    following:

    • They take a systems approach to
    the problem and consider all angles
    and options.

    • They use environmental scanning
    to consider the organization system
    in the wider system.

    • They share information across the
    organization.

    • They are quick processes that
    result in immediate action.

    • They are characterized by shifts in
    perspective: Learning shifts from
    the individual level to the organiza-
    tion level as individuals, groups,
    and the organization gain new
    insights and ideas.

    • Accountability shifts from senior
    management to the whole organi-
    zation system, because the process gets “the whole system in the room” to engage in
    planning and thinking.

    • The change process itself shifts from incremental to fundamental, organization-wide
    change.

    LSIEs are challenging to accomplish and require careful planning and skilled facilitation. They
    are usually offered only by OD consultants experienced in facilitating large events.

    How Do OD Consultants Do LSIEs?
    When planning LSIEs, the OD team must confront a variety of special considerations for large
    group interventions. First, a compelling meeting theme is essential. Is the meeting for strate-
    gic planning, innovation, culture change, or some other objective? Second, attendance must
    include all appropriate stakeholders, depending on the theme. Stakeholders might include
    all employees or a large cross-section of them, particularly of employee groups such as man-
    agers, members of an organization, residents of a community, customers, suppliers, and so
    forth. The agenda must include relevant tasks to address the conference theme, including the
    following:

    Aerogondo/iStock/Thinkstock
    Large-scale interactive events attempt
    to capture the collective thinking of key
    stakeholders in deciding the organization’s
    future.

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    Section 9.7Large-Scale Interactive Events

    • mapping the current organization context;
    • assessing the organization’s responses to environmental dynamics;
    • identifying the organization’s core mission, vision, and values;
    • creating a realistic future scenario of environmental expectations and organization

    responses;
    • creating an ideal future scenario of environmental expectations and organization

    responses; and
    • comparing the present with the ideal future and preparing an action plan for reduc-

    ing the discrepancy (Cummings & Worley, 2018).

    Methods of LSIEs
    This section provides a brief summary of the best-known methods for managing organiza-
    tional change with large groups. Much of the information on these methods is from Smith and
    Smith (1994) and Bunker and Alban (1992). See Table 9.6 for an overview of Interactive Stra-
    tegic Planning, the Future Search Conference, Conference Model Redesign, and Open Space.

    Table 9.6: LSIEs: An overview

    Developed by
    Event
    description Focus Steps

    Interactive
    Strategic
    Planning

    Dannemiller
    Tyson Associ-
    ates (1994)

    2–3 days,
    up to 2,300
    participants

    Aims to identify
    dissatisfaction
    and enable articu-
    lating vision and
    taking first steps
    so that change
    can begin

    1. Develop database of
    current reality (collect
    views from customers,
    leaders, industry, etc.).

    2. Diagnose problems
    that impede change
    and progress.

    3. Set strategy and
    gather/process
    feedback on the
    strategy.

    The Future
    Search
    Conference

    Weisbord
    (1992), Weis-
    bord & Janoff
    (1995)

    2.5 days, 64–72
    participants

    Based on Asch’s
    (1952) condi-
    tions for effective
    dialogue, with
    an emphasis on
    finding common
    ground. Remains
    relevant today
    for organizations
    seeking to estab-
    lish a clear and
    powerful image
    of their desired
    future with
    diverse stakehold-
    ers (Serrat, 2017).
    Emphasis on
    action planning.

    1. Look at the past
    (examine previous
    state of people,
    business, industry, and
    global environment).

    2. Look at the present
    (examine events that
    shape reality).

    3. Participants devise
    scenarios of their ideal
    future (keeping some
    of the past, changing
    where needed for the
    future).

    (continued on next page)
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    Summary and Resources

    Table 9.6: LSIEs: An overview (continued)

    Developed by
    Event
    description Focus Steps

    Conference
    Model
    Redesign

    Axelrod (1992,
    1993, 1995)

    Four 3-day con-
    ferences held 1
    month apart

    It is a process of
    reengineering
    intended to pro-
    duce permanent,
    radical organiza-
    tion redesign that
    occurs quickly.
    Approach is
    customer focused,
    concentrates
    on the technical
    workflow, and
    develops a pre-
    ferred design for
    the organization.

    1. Vision conference
    (similar to Weisbord’s
    Future Search
    Conference)

    2. Customer conference
    (define the
    requirements, business
    relationships, roles,
    and customers)

    3. Technology conference
    (identify redundancy
    and variance and
    clarify participants’
    assumptions about
    their business)

    4. Design conference
    (develop a preferred
    design; uses “treasure
    hunt” features)

    Open Space Owen (1992) 1–3 days,
    20–100
    participants

    Approach is based
    on the notion of
    an “idea mar-
    ketplace” that
    stresses learn-
    ing, networking,
    and community
    building. The
    purpose is to
    surface informa-
    tion and promote
    dialogue. Encour-
    ages personality
    responsibility for
    self-learning.

    Has no structured steps.
    Instead, the model features
    open facilities, an open
    agenda, breakout rooms,
    and blank walls. Team
    members post issues in the
    “open space” and assume
    ownership of their personal
    issue. Other members
    choose to work on the
    issues and are free to move
    from issue to issue. The out-
    come is unpredictable but
    usually results in deeper
    understanding and action
    related to an issue.

    Summary and Resources
    Chapter Summary

    • Mission statements, which explain why organizations exist, are often created or
    revised during strategic planning.

    • Vision statements articulate the organization’s desired future or end state. They are
    often created or revised during strategic planning.

    • Values statements explain how the organization aspires to behave in pursuit of its
    mission and vision. These statements are generally created or revised during strate-
    gic planning.

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    Summary and Resources

    • Environmental scanning is often used to provide a baseline for strategic planning. It
    is a process of scrutinizing internal and external factors that have implications for
    the economic, competitive, social, and political context of the organization.

    • SWOT analyses examine the organization’s strengths, weaknesses, opportunities,
    and threats and use them in strategic planning.

    • SMART goals are specific, measurable, attainable, realistic or relevant, and time
    bound.

    • Scenario planning develops stories that represent possible outcomes for the organi-
    zation, which it can use to problem solve and innovate.

    • Organization structure determines how work gets accomplished, how employees
    relate, and an organization’s level of formality. Organization structure takes several
    forms, including functional, divisional, matrix, process based, and network.

    • Organization design can be changed through reorganization or restructuring, often
    in the form of reengineering, mergers and acquisitions, or downsizing.

    • Downsizing can be significantly costlier than salary savings, and short- and long-
    term measures should be taken to avoid such drastic interventions.

    • Organization learning represents a learning infrastructure intervention that is
    concerned with the nature and process of learning and how it can be captured and
    shared for future advantage.

    • The learning organization makes a strategic commitment to harnessing learning for
    the organization’s benefit.

    • Culture is difficult to change. Culture change interventions attempt to change the
    beliefs, values, and behaviors of the organization culture.

    • Interventions to improve diversity, equity, and inclusion help the organization maxi-
    mize innovation because of the variety of ideas a diverse work force offers.

    • Developing a talent management strategy positions an organization to meet com-
    petitive, innovation, and long-term personnel demands.

    • Succession planning is a strategic plan for talent. It identifies potential leaders
    and managers so that the organization is not left without the key skills and talents
    needed to run the business.

    • Large-scale interactive events (LSIEs) are system-wide interventions that seek to
    improve organizational problem solving, leadership, vision, or task accomplishment.

    • Types of LSIEs include Interactive Strategic Planning, Future Search Conference,
    Conference Model Redesign, and Open Space.

    Think About It! Reflective Exercises to Enhance Your Learning

    1. Find the mission, vision, and values statement of an organization you belong to or
    want to explore. Assess the statements. How compelling and memorable are they?
    How well do they convey what the organization does?

    2. Find the strategic plan of an organization of your choice and review it. What are its
    strengths and weaknesses? How would you change it?

    3. Take time to reflect and write your own personal mission statement. You can find
    many resources by searching online for “personal mission statement.” Or start by
    reading this informative blog post on the topic: https://www.personalbrandingblog
    .com/strong-personal-mission-statement-works-like-a-career-gps/.

    4. What new insights do you have now that you have learned about organization-level
    interventions?

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    Summary and Resources

    Apply Your Learning: Activities and Experiences to Bring OD to Life

    1. The chapter began with a vignette about a nonprofit organization that needed help
    articulating its mission, vision, and values, as well as developing a strategic plan.
    What is your experience with such interventions?

    2. Conduct an environmental scan on the topic of your choice, such as a career change,
    place to live, or social issue that interests you. How might you apply a similar
    approach to an organization you work for or are involved with? For more informa-
    tion on environmental scanning, read this article: horizon.unc.edu/courses/papers/
    enviroscan/.

    3. Conduct a SWOT analysis of an organization to which you belong. Ideally, assemble a
    team to join you in the process. If that is not possible, you can conduct one on your-
    self or a social group to which you belong.

    4. Identify the type of organization structure that exists in your current workplace,
    based on the information provided in the organization design section.

    5. Take an inventory of the type of learning activities promoted by your organization.
    Does it fit the definition of a learning organization or organization learning? Why or
    why not?

    6. Pick a culture to which you belong and identify examples of the three levels of
    culture:
    a. Basic underlying assumptions
    b. Espoused beliefs and values
    c. Artifacts

    Additional Resources
    Media

    • Hilton Hotels Mission, Vision and Values (How does your stay there stack up to this
    statement?)

    • Strategic Planning Explanation

    • Organizational Design Concepts

    • Corporate Culture: A Conversation With Edgar Schein

    • Talent Management

    • LSIE: Future Search Interview

    Web Links
    Vision, Mission, and Values Development

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    Summary and Resources

    • Fortune 500 Mission Statements, which offers instructions for how to write effective
    mission statements from the Fortune 500:

    https://www.missionstatements.com/fortune_500_mission_statements.html

    Strategic Planning

    • Nonprofit Answer Guide’s Purpose of the Environmental Scan page, which offers
    instructions on how to conduct an environmental scan that profiles current and
    anticipated environmental factors that may affect your organization:

    https://nonprofitanswerguide.org/strategic-planning/

    • OnStrategy, a website that automates an organization’s strategic plans and makes
    them available via the web, based on what the organization wishes to share:

    https://onstrategyhq.com/

    Organization Design

    • Journal of Organization Design, a research journal focusing on organization design:
    http://www.jorgdesign.net

    • Microsoft® Office’s page on how to create an organization chart:
    http://office.microsoft.com/en-us/word-help/create-an-organization-chart

    -HA010354860.aspx

    • Society for Organizational Learning, a nonprofit member organization for those
    interested in organization learning:

    Resources

    Culture

    • Enhancing Cultural Competence Toolkit, which offers tips for enhancing culture:
    http://ctb.ku.edu/en/enhancing-cultural-competence

    • Forbes Top 100 Companies for Diversity:
    https://fortune.com/best-workplaces-for-diversity/

    • U.S. Census Population Projections:
    https://www.census.gov/newsroom/press-releases/2018/cb18-41-population

    -projections.html

    • Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion Resources from the University of Georgia College of
    Education, a wide range of resources focused on diversity that have been organized
    by faculty:

    https://resources.coe.uga.edu/students/department-resources/#office-of-diversity
    -equity-and-inclusion

    • Labor Force Participation Rate Age 65 and Older—see how the demographics are
    shifting:

    https://www2.census.gov/library/publications/2013/acs/acsbr11-09

    Talent Management
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    Summary and Resources

    • Succession Planning: How Everyone Does It Wrong (Forbes)
    https://www.forbes.com/2009/07/30/succession-planning-failures-leadership

    -governance-ceos.html#1f73669e3d4b

    • Succession Planning: How to Do It Right (Forbes)
    https://www.forbes.com/2009/07/31/succession-planning-right-leadership

    -governance-ceos.html#c0408e137333

    • McKinsey & Company: The Use and Abuse of Scenarios (tips to keep in mind for
    scenario planning):

    https://www.mckinsey.com/business-functions/strategy-and-corporate-finance/
    our-insights/the-use-and-abuse-of-scenarios

    Large-Scale Interactive Events

    • Large Group Interventions, by Thomas J. Griffin and Ronald E. Purser:
    http://online.sfsu.edu/rpurser/Large Group Intervention OD Handbook.htm

    • Dannemiller Tyson Strategic Planning:

    Strategic Planning

    • Dannemiller Tyson Whole-Scale Change Approach:

    Whole-Scale® Change Approach

    • The Conference Model:
    https://sites.google.com/site/thechangehandbook/samples/the-conference-model

    • Future Search Network:

    Home

    • Marvin Weisbord (Future Search Originator):
    http://www.marvinweisbord.com

    • Open Space:
    http://www.openspaceworld.com/index.htm

    Key Terms
    culture The rules, rites, and rituals of
    social groups that shape the beliefs and
    behaviors of their members.

    diversity, equity, and inclusion Interven-
    tions aimed at making organizations more
    welcoming and affirming of an increasingly
    multicultural work force.

    downsizing When an organization
    decreases its size to reduce cost and
    bureaucracy.

    large-scale interactive events
    (LSIEs) System-wide interventions usu-
    ally targeted at improving problem solving,
    leadership, visioning, and task accomplish-
    ment between groups.

    learning infrastructure When an organi-
    zation embraces learning as a process and
    strategy and creates systems to capture and
    share learning.

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    Summary and Resources

    mission statement A statement that
    explains why an organization exists, includ-
    ing its key audience, product, and evaluative
    measures.

    organization design How an organization
    is set up in terms of strategy, structure, pro-
    cess and lateral capacity, reward systems,
    and people practices to most effectively
    meet the organization’s needs and goals.

    organization structure The order of
    reporting relationships and their general
    design and relationship to each other, such
    as functional, divisional, matrix, process
    based, or network.

    reengineering A radical redesign of the
    organization’s core work processes to
    provide greater linkage and coordination
    among tasks with the goal of higher, faster
    performance.

    scenario planning A strategic planning
    approach that assesses all possible and
    improbable environmental changes that
    could affect the organization and creates a
    story about the possible outcomes.

    SMART goal A goal that is specific, measur-
    able, attainable, realistic or relevant, and
    timely.

    strategic planning Occurs when an orga-
    nization makes a concerted effort to make
    decisions and embark on actions that shape
    and guide its entire essence.

    SWOT analysis When organization mem-
    bers come together to identify the organiza-
    tion’s strengths and weaknesses, examine
    environmental opportunities and threats,
    and create action items to address all of
    these issues.

    talent management Interventions aimed
    at developing and optimizing the organiza-
    tion’s workforce productivity.

    talent management strategy A plan,
    commitment, and collaboration across the
    organization to manage talent.

    values Principles governing how the orga-
    nization expects to function in pursuit of the
    vision and mission.

    vision A statement of the organization’s
    desired future in terms of where the organi-
    zation wants to go and what the future will
    be like once it gets there.

    © 2020 Zovio, Inc. All rights reserved. Not for resale or redistribution.

    © 2020 Zovio, Inc. All rights reserved. Not for resale or redistribution.

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