11). When discussing how to compose environmental portraits, the student should be able to: 11.1 Consider what to look for in choosing a subject.

11.2 Consider the background and positioning of the subject.

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11.3 Recognize the importance of lighting, whether indoors or outdoors.

11.4 Explain how to put a subject at ease prior to taking photos.

12). When discussing flash photography, the student should be able to:

12.1 Explain the advantages of using a flash.

12.2 Describe how a flash contributes to exposure.

12.3 Summarize the Inverse Square Law.

12.4 Define bouncing and explain the technique.

12.5 Identify common flash problems and explain how to avoid them.

13). When discussing motion or action photography, the student should be able to:

13.1 Recognize how the direction a subject is moving relates to the sharpness of the photo. 13.2 Explain factors that affect how much an image will be blurred.

13.3 Recognize how aperture and shutter speed work together to freeze motion.

13.4 Identify ways to prevent camera movement.

13.5 Define panning and explain how to apply the technique.

& Using
Digital photos
From Shooting/Scanning to
Storing and Sharing

Why Organize?
50 years ago there was a shoebox
Room for maybe a few hundred photos
Then came the Photo Album
Maybe room for a few thousand
Now there’s a computer and
Room for many thousands
So How do you find that photo?

First Get your Photos into Computer
Option 1 – use program that came with camera
But, do you know how to or even want to use this program?
Can this program bulk re-name? Does it help Organize? It’s “free” so don’t expect much.
Option 2 – connect camera or remove card and put into a card reader
Then look in My Computer and one of the “Disk Drives” is now your camera or card
Now just copy and paste contents to folder of your choice

Photos on your computer
Initially put photos into a folder called something like “New Photos”

Check that the transfer worked then format the card in the camera to delete the photos!

Now re-name your photos with a name that means something

The idea is to add “intelligence” to the folder and file names so they mean something to you.

But renaming can be a pain
In Windows, the simplest bulk renaming is:
select a group of files
Choose rename from right click or file menu
Type a name
Windows will change the names so that all files have the same name but with a numerical sequence

Anything better?
Use Photoshop Bridge or a similar program that provides for Bulk renaming
Use a renaming Utility like the one in IrfanView or the stand-alone CKRename
The hard part is to remember to do it before you modify any photos
With files renamed, almost any folder system or organizing system will work.
I use Photo Shop Album 2 (Version 3.2 now free)‏
Picasa would work too (free – auto organizes by date)‏
Or even just Windows – Vista is similar to PS Album

Next step
Shooting in RAW means you will modify 90% to 100% of the photos
Even shooting in jpeg means some photos will have something adjusted
Keep the originals in case you screw up or just adjust poorly!
I just have a folder (e.g.) Originals 2007
Modified photos will be same name but stored elsewhere.

Organize Folders
Group the folders in a “tree” that makes sense
E.g. Main folders by month with sub-folders by event or type of subject or client
Or the other way around – type of subjects with subfolders by date
Pick a method you are happy with but do it!

Don’t forget to move photos from the New Photos folder to something else

Summary of Work Flow
Make sure you have a suitable collection of folders
I start with “Latest Photos” then move later
Move photos from your Camera to Computer
Do any RAW and/or basic corrections
Save into organized folders

Corrections – 1
You can’t correct bad compositions – or at least not easily
Only in RAW can you correct exposure and then only a stop or two.
You can’t fix focus errors – although you can and should sharpen a bit.
You can’t fix depth of field errors
So what can you fix?

Note: the following assumes you are using PhotoShop or Photoshop Elements.

Corrections – 2
White balance is often wrong
the easiest way to fix it is to use a “levels” layer and sample something that should be grey (e.g. an old person’s hair!)‏
If it is too much, back off using opacity less than 100%
Contrast and/or brightness sometimes could need tweaking
Maybe a touch more saturation would add zest
Always try a little more sharpness – but don’t overdo – if there are white lines on borders you’ve way overdone it.

Sharing Photos
If you have a good camera, the file size when you are done will be at least 2 to 4MB.
This size is ready to print – as is.
But emailing needs about 100KB each! That’s 20 to 40 times smaller.
And for sharing on our web site or showing on the projector, the size (in pixels) should be no larger than 1024 x 768 and no larger than 1MB

Cameras and Formats
Photo size starts as pixels
e.g. 3000 x 2000 = 6MP
There are 3 pixels per colour, each needing 8 bits = typically 144Mbits or 18MBytes (= originals are big!)
Most cameras process these inside the camera into approx. 2 – 4MB jpeg’s for high quality or larger for RAW
Scanners often produce TIFF files with no compression so are quite large

Formats on the Computer – 1
Once downloaded (and for RAW, after processing), photo will be about 2-4MB jpeg but still 6MP

To print, you will need all the pixels and all the bits you can get.
Compressing below “high quality” will blur or cause pixelation – especially noticeable on large prints

For showing on a projector, you need to keep quality high (compression low) but reduce pixels to 1024 x 768 or whatever the capability of the projector is.

Formats on the Computer – 2
To email, you need a small file size (in bytes)‏
File should be resized to fewer pixels because you’ll then need fewer bytes
Computer screens are typically 1024 x 768 so choose 1024 pixels wide
File should also be compressed or reduced in quality
Choose medium or low quality so that the file size is 60 to 200KB

Note: Resolution (ppi or dpi) is of no concern until you print – ignore or use default for this setting.

How to change file size
Use a photo editing program
First change pixels
Then change quality
E.g. In Irfanview
choose Image>Resize/Resample then choose size wanted (e.g. 1024 X 768)‏
Choose File>Save as the file type jpg then quality 60 (medium)‏
Experiment with quality till you get size (KB) you want
Get Irfanview free at

Opening Screen
Go to File

Open a file
Go to image > Resize/Resample

Choose size wanted
Click OK

Choose File> Save as Type jpeg – below => 186KB

Can also Batch Convert and rename!

Do limited colour adjustments
Run a decent slide show

IRFANVIEW 6 – Batch processing
First be sure you know which folder the photos are in and create a destination directory e.g. “Resized photos”.
Choose File>Batch Conversion Rename (or press B)‏
Navigate Look in until you find photos to be processed
Highlight wanted pictures then click Add
Under Output directory, navigate to the folder where the modified files will go.
Go to “Work as” and select Batch Conversion – rename result files.
Check Use Advanced options



Rename and
Sample will name
all files:
“John Draper’s
With a 2 digit

Choose Output Format Options
Choose 60 Quality
Check keep data
Click Start

Other Programs
Adobe Photo Shop Album Starter 3.2 – Good organizing and simple adjustments – free
Google Picasa – good organizer (but no tags) and simple adjustments – free
Adobe PhotoShop Elements 6 – very good adjustment capability, good organizer $75
Adobe Photoshop CS3 (includes Bridge). Best in class adjustments, $649. Bridge is good organizer but no tags.

Club Sharing – web site
Send 8 photos to John Draper by email, CD or prints for scanning.
These will go in members gallery
Go online to new gallery that allows for comments, self-uploading etc. Members can upload up to 50 photos at 1024 pixels and 1MB each.

Download Irfanview from

Download CKRename from

9). When discussing the importance of light and its relationship to photography, the student should be able to:

9.1 Recognize the primary function of light.

9.2 Distinguish between the three important characteristics of light.

9.3 Identify the five different types of lighting.

9.4 Explain the way to determine the direction of light.

9.5 Differentiate between available and artificial light.

10). When discussing composition, the student should be able to:

10.1 Define what is meant by composition.

10.2 Identify the four basic elements of composition.

10.3 Describe the nine compositional devices to make photos more interesting.

10.4 Explain the Rule of Thirds.

10.5 Identify the more common composition errors and explain how to avoid them.

Lighting Basics


Direction of Light
With the exception of completely diffused light, light casts shadows over a scene which can emphasize texture and depth or diminish them
The main source of light (the sun, a bright window) will illuminate the side nearest the light and cast shadows on the opposite side


Directional/Side lighting

Direction of Light cont…
When looking at the lighting on a scene, you need to take into account the direction the light is coming from and also its relation to the camera (will the shadows be visible to the viewer?)


Direction of Light cont…
Three different kinds of lighting are defined as front, side and back lighting
Front lighting is often applied by beginners because it is “safe” and will illuminate the scene evenly, but this can create flat, less interesting photographs


Direction of Light cont…
Side lighting can emphasize texture and adds depth to your photographs

Back lighting can create dramatic silhouettes against a bright background


Direction of Light cont…
This is not to say that front lighting should be avoided, or that side or back lighting will enhance every scene
Look at the scene you are photographing and look for a way to use the light in an interesting way


Direction of Light cont…
Can you move the subject relative to the light, or move the light to another position?
Outdoors, you have little control in moving the light source except for waiting for another time of day


Degree of Diffusion
Next to direction, the most important characteristic of lighting is its degree of diffusion
When people refer to the quality of light, they usually mean its degree of diffusion


Degree of Diffusion
Direct Light
Direct light creates hard edged, dark shadows, striking the subject all from one direction
The smaller the light (relative to the size of the subject) or the farther the light is from the subject, the sharper and darker the shadows will be


Degree of Diffusion
Direct Light cont…
A spotlight is a good example of direct lighting. Think of a performer on stage in a single spotlight. The highlight areas are very bright and the shadows are very hard edged and dark.


Degree of Diffusion
Direct Light cont…
The sun on a clear day is another source of direct light. Because of its distance to the earth, it is a small source in a large sky and causes hard, dark shadows as well.


Degree of Diffusion
Direct Light cont…


Degree of Diffusion
Diffused Light
When the suns rays are scattered in many directions by clouds or an overcast day, then it is directional- diffused or even fully diffused

Diffused light scatters onto the subject in many directions and can show no direction of a source


Degree of Diffusion
Diffused Light cont…
Diffused light appears to surround the subject and come in from all directions causing shadows to be relatively light and their edges to be indistinct


Degree of Diffusion
Diffused Light cont…
Outdoors, an overcast day produces diffused light
To fully diffuse light indoors, the subject would have to be placed near a large light source (large window or doorway) and reflectors be used to bounce light into the shadows (tenting is another way)


Degree of Diffusion
Directional-Diffused Light
Directional-diffused light is partially direct with some diffused or scattered rays.
It appears to to come from a direction and creates distinct shadows, but with softer edges that gradually go from light to dark and detail can still be seen in the darkest areas


Degree of Diffusion
Directional-Diffused Light


Degree of Diffusion cont…
Source of directional-diffused light
Windows and doorways that have light bouncing in the room rather than shining directly in
Lights bounced off of a reflector before hitting the subject
Hazy days outdoors
Outdoor sunlight bounced onto a subject in a shaded area (under a tree)


Overcast Lighting
A bright overcast sky, usually bright clouds or open shade, can make beautiful light and softens colors while keeping detail in the shadows
Heavy clouds or rainy days can make moody photos

Overcast Lighting
Hazy sun and shade or reflected sunlight are great conditions for portraits
Indoors, portrait photographers imitate this type of lighting with their flash units to produce soft, smooth photographs without having to rely on weather conditions


Quality of Light
Sunlight varies dramatically in its qualities and paying attention to its tendencies can help improve your photographs
Weather conditions, time of day, and time of year all have an influence on the quality of light


Quality of Light
The Golden Hours
Sunrise and sunset have been referred to as the “golden hours” for photography
These two times are wonderful for photographs because of the warm light and low angle of the light source.


Quality of Light
The Golden Hours cont…
Morning light is somewhat cooler than sunset, but both times produce warmer tones than at midday
The low angle of the sun produces long shadows and creates a feeling of depth and dimension in photographs, great for emphasizing texture and detail


Quality of Light
The Golden Hours cont…
These two times give better side lighting and backlighting opportunities, and often the light is soft enough so that the shadows aren’t overly dark and contrasty


Quality of Light
Midday Sun
In the summer, midday sun is harsh and contrasty, and the shadows it casts fall almost straight down creating a flatter feeling image than one with long, fading shadows


Quality of Light
Midday Sun
It can be hard in the summer, if not impossible, to get side lighting or back lighting with a midday sun as well
As the seasons change however, the sun is more angular even at noon and more interesting light can be found


Quality of Light cont…
Autumn skies are often full of dramatic cloud formations that make for more interesting landscapes than a completely clear blue sky


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