Advance Pathophysiology case study NP program

 42-year-old man presents to ED with 2-day history of dysuria, low back pain, inability to fully empty his bladder, severe perineal pain along with fevers and chills. He says the pain is worse when he stands up and is somewhat relieved when he lies down. Vital signs T 104.0 F, pulse 138, respirations 24. PaO2 96% on room air. Digital rectal exam (DRE) reveals the prostate to be enlarged, extremely tender, swollen, and warm to touch. 

 Develop a 1- to 2-page case study analysis, examining the patient symptoms presented in the case study. 

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 Explain why prostatitis and infection happen. Also explain the causes of systemic reaction. 

Running Head: DISCUSSION 1


[Name of Student]

[Name of the institution]

Case Study
The case study is about a 42 years old man suffering from dysuria. Dysuria is a condition that creates difficulty for a person to urinate. The problems in urination create severe soreness in the genitals, and the person becomes unable to empty the bladder fully. It has been observed that the pain is somewhat relieved when the patient lies down. The common reason for dysuria is the lower urinary infection. The urinary tract is a susceptible organ, and its infections can be different. The problem discussed here showed that the person is suffering from a prostate infection. 
The prostate is enlarged and swollen, and it needs to be treated. The vital symptoms show that the prostate enlargement creates difficulty for the patient to urinate and does not allow them to sit with comfort. The pain is because of the enlarged prostate. The organ is warm to touch as well. The symptoms elaborate on the presence of prostatitis in the patient. 
Prostatitis is caused by the presence of bacterial strains in the prostate. The bacterial strains are the cause of pain and swelling in the prostate. The bacteria in urine leaks into the prostate and starts the infection. The bacteria is necessary to be removed from the prostate; otherwise, the infection becomes exceptionally severe. It is seen that antibiotics are often useful to remove the bacteria and to relieve the pain. 
Other than the bacterial infection, other various reasons can contribute to the enlargement and swelling of the prostate. The nerve damage in the lower urinary tract because of any injury or trauma may cause diseases’ prognosis (Magistro, 2016). There are different risk factors present that can be avoided to save the organ from getting into an infection. These risk factors include:
· Having a previous bladder infection or transfer of semen or urine to the penis.
· Having an injury or pelvic trauma.
· Having infectious diseases like HIV and AIDS.
· Having a previous surgery related to the pelvic region of the body.
All these risk factors can cause prostatitis and damage the healthy by making it more painful and swollen (Polackwich, 2016). 
Systemic Reaction:
There are two types of reactions in the body, including localized and systemic responses. The systemic response starts from one organ of the body, and it does not remain localized to that specific organ. Still, it spread to the other organs and causes severe infections in other organs as well (Brouhard, 2020). Such reactions are more damaging and intense as compared to the localized reactions. Most of the time, the infection is inflammation, and the inflammation can be due to toxins, bacteria, or any other allergy. 

Brouhard, R. (2020). Systemic Reaction Throughout the Body. Retrieved from
Magistro, G. W. (2016). Contemporary management of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome. European urology, 286-297.
Polackwich, A. S. (2016). Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome: a review of evaluation and therapy. Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases, 132-138.

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