Topic: Schizophrenic disorder( I will need draft for this paper 5-7 pages by the 02/11/2021 before the final paper which is due by 02/21/2021. please look at the attachment sample in the question on how to write this paper. It will be nice if you follow the format of the sample. Please look to the bottom of the question and use the code of value in the final paper.
Submit final draft of your 8-12-page (not including title and reference pages) paper on your chosen diagnosis from Module 1.
Your final paper should include the following sections with properly formatted section headers:
- Title page in APA format (page 1)
- Abstract (on its own page – page 2)
- Body of the paper (starting on page 3 and continuing until you hit the references section):
Clinical presentation (What do the symptoms associated with the disorder look like?)
Diagnostic criteria from the DSM-5
Prevalence and incidence rates
A review of theoretical perspectives on causes of the disorder (along with empirical support)
A review of treatment approaches and outcome studies (along with empirical support)
A case example/study
- References page(s) with a minimum of 10 references (at least half must be peer-reviewed journal articles, not websites). Articles should be from 2010 or later.
Make sure that your paper adheres to all APA style formatting guidelines.
Attached is a sample paper with some common issues people have highlighted. Use this sample and the sample APA paper linked in the overview section of the course to help you write your final paper according to APA style.
Saint Leo Code Of Value;
Respect: Animated in the spirit of Jesus Christ, we value all individuals’ unique talents, respect their dignity, and strive to foster their commitment to excellence in our work. Our community’s strength depends on the unity and diversity of our people, on the free exchange of ideas and on learning, living and working harmoniously.
Running Head: SAMPLE PAPER 1
Sample Paper: Use this paper as a guide
to writing your own diagnostic paper
Saint Leo University
PSY431: Childhood Disorders
Prof. Vincent Schroder
You need to have the page
number, but the running
header is optional
Fill in all the required title page
information (name, date, actual paper
title and subtitle). Check out the APA
style guide for details/more examples.
The mental disease of Schizophrenia has been known throughout cultures as the demonic
possession of a split-minded soul through episodes of utter psychosis. Today, this illness affects
a meager percentage of the population and is not as feared as it once was but is still devastating
due to its incurable nature. This paper will discuss Schizophrenic disorder, or Schizophrenic
Spectrum Disorder (SSD), and the different theoretical perspectives and treatment approaches
that people (mainly some children, adolescents, and adults, aged 13-40) diagnosed with this
illness relate to. This paper will focus on different case examples and studies that investigate and
examine the lives of people who live day-to-day in different cultures with the disease and people
who are affected by those closest to them. The paper will also discuss the prevalence and
incidence rates for people associated with Schizophrenia.
Keywords: Schizophrenia, Schizophrenic disorder, Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorder
Abstract should be a
minimum of ½ page,
up to around ¾ of a
Starting on page 3 (below) you will have your Introduction, DSM
Criteria, Theoretical Perspectives, Treatments, Case Study, and
The introduction section does not need a section header, but the
rest of the sections do.
The schizophrenic disorder is probably one of the most stigmatized mental illnesses out
there. This is due to very negative symptoms associated with the illness that has caused people
suffering from this mental disorder to be dangerous to themselves and, on some occasions,
dangerous to those around them. This negative stigma is brought about by people who are not
adequately informed with regards to the disorder and tend to see Schizophrenics as very violent
individuals that have a split personality or are not capable of functioning correctly in their
everyday lives. These ideas of and about the Schizophrenic are false because the illness is more-
so a thought disorder, where many thoughts and perceptions held by the person tend to be
distorted, rather than a split personality disorder. The violence of a Schizophrenic is also not a
prevalent factor in the illness. Importantly, violence can occur, due to the distortion of their
perceived thoughts, but not as frequently as previously thought, and it is proven that people with
Schizophrenia that have caused violence are scarce and few. That said, this illness, although an
overtly-stigmatized one, is still severely serious and should not be taken lightly by people
diagnosed, their family members, health professionals, and others who come across the disorder.
“Schizophrenia is a severe and chronic mental disorder characterized by disturbances in
thought, perception, and behavior.” These behaviors are not considered “normal” behaviors, nor
are they shared, in any person (ranging from childhood to adulthood) and should be reported to a
health physician as soon as possible. Behaviors must be reported due to the irregularity of these
occurrences in the mind (DSM Criterion). People with Schizophrenic disorder are more
commonly diagnosed as soon as two or more of the following symptoms occur, which are:
delusions, hallucinations, disorganized thinking and speech, grossly disorganized behavior
(including catatonia), and negative symptoms, such as diminished social expression (American
Psychiatric Association, 2013). These symptoms are known as cognitive impairments, which are
the central feature for anyone with Schizophrenia. Schizophrenic people may find themselves
consumed by the inability to function in everyday scenarios, and their extreme lack of any social
cognition can correspond with impairments in their ability to perform any amount of a simple
task (Harvey & Isner, 2020). Schizophrenia may also be classified as a spectrum disorder,
known as Schizophrenic Spectrum Disorder (SSD) because people with the disorder can be
placed on a spectrum. This means that two people diagnosed with SSD would most likely have
very different symptoms from each other. For example, one person may display very
disorganized/catatonic behavior while another person (with the same schizophrenic disorder)
might display delusions and hallucinations. Either way, these two patients with schizophrenic
symptoms can be placed on a spectrum, meaning that they can correlate with any extreme that is
placed on the SSD scale (Barch, 2020).
Types of Schizophrenia Use second level headings to create subsections when needed
Schizophrenia was once divided into various subtypes, but now experts refer to
Schizophrenia as a Spectrum Disorder (as previously mentioned) that can include these multiple
subtypes. The subtypes of the disorder can include Paranoid Schizophrenia, Catatonic
Schizophrenia, Disorganized Schizophrenia, Residual Schizophrenia, and Undifferentiated
Schizophrenia (Bhandari, 2018). The first, and most relevant subtype, Paranoid Schizophrenia,
is one of the more common forms of Schizophrenia on the spectrum for this illness. This
diagnosis can be characterized by large amounts of paranoia stemming from delusion and
hallucinations. For example, a patient that can be diagnosed with Paranoid Schizophrenia would
hear inner voices that are violent, demeaning, and hostile, persuading them to do things that they
usually would never do. People with the diagnosis are also very convinced that they are
constantly spied upon on/watched by the eye of the government, with different forms of
surveillance that they will swear by and claim to have seen and found. This paranoid behavior
will, in turn, cause them to become very suspicious and fearful of the intentions of everyone in
their lives; this includes family members and friends. As a result of this fear and suspicion,
Paranoid Schizophrenics will withdraw from anyone of importance in their lives and will begin
to isolate themselves from the real world, while also ceasing self-care.
Prevalence and Incidence
Currently, Schizophrenia is one of the most uncommon mental disorders in the world,
with a whopping 1% of the population being diagnosed with the disorder internationally. One of
the more unique forms of this illness is known as Childhood-Onset Schizophrenia (COS), and it
is characterized by onset before the age of 13 years, having a prevalence of 1 in 40,000
(Gochman et al., 2011). This form of Schizophrenia can identify with having a very gradual
onset and poor outcome for the children diagnosed. Now, the incidence rate for Schizophrenia
rises substantially in adolescent years (ages 13-18) compared to any other period of life,
estimated at 0.23%, and the reason for this is not entirely certain (Androutos, 2012). In adults,
however, the incidence of the illness is about 1.5 per 10,000 people, and the chances of a late-life
onset for Schizophrenia (over 45 years of age) are sporadic (McGrath et al., 2008).
Gender is a factor of the Schizophrenic illness because men and women are both affected
independently, and the incidence and prevalence rates between the two are different as well.
This is true to the effect of slightly more men associated with the diagnosis of this disorder (the
prognosis is worse in men) compared to women, who are usually diagnosed later in life than
men. The reasoning behind a worse prognosis for men is unknown because there is a lot that is
unknown about this illness, which makes it all the more so dangerous for a man to develop this
disorder. The modal age of onset was found to be between 18 and 25 for men and 25 and 35 for
women (McGrath et al., 2008), and the second peak of Schizophrenia will occur for women
during menopause when hormones are out of whack.
Since there is not much that is known about this illness, people at high risk for
Schizophrenia and patients that suffer from it are always at risk for living their full lives with no
hope of returning to their once normal state. Although it is not sure whether or not this lack of
knowledge will cause an increase in the incidence and prevalence rates of Schizophrenia. In a
study conducted by Sutterland on the overall incidence rate of Schizophrenic Spectrum Disorder,
researchers found that the incidence rates of SSD in the Netherlands were 22/100,000 persons
per year. This research worked to show that the incidence rates of SSD were significantly higher
in urban areas, heedless of deprivation (Sutterland et al., 2013).
Sadly, the causes of Schizophrenia are generally unknown, making it almost impossible
to prevent the illness from occurring, but there are many theories. Heredity and street drugs are
two theories that have been debated by many health professionals throughout the years. For
instance, Schizophrenia does sometimes run in families, but no single gene has been thought to
be responsible. A study was performed involving the ‘opinions on mental disorders
questionnaire’ where 305 non-psychiatric doctors were instructed to answer according to their
causal beliefs on the disorder. These beliefs held that factors most frequently supported as
causes of Schizophrenia were 65.2% heredity and 54.1% street drugs (Magliano et al., 2019).
Concerning street drugs and heredity, a correlation was found between smoking Marijuana and
carrying certain types of specific genes that have been shown to affect the brain chemistry of a
person, raising the chances for them to become a Schizophrenic (Bhandari, 2018). The reason
that marijuana plays a vital role in the possible occurrence of Schizophrenia is that it causes
people to exhibit symptoms of psychosis and gives people that are already at a higher risk for
Schizophrenia a chance to develop the illness and its psychotic episodes (Bhandari, 2019).
Furthermore, diet and nutrition seem to play a critical role in the causation of
Schizophrenia. This is because patients with SSD have correlated their episodes with a poor
diet/lack of nutrition. Royal, a man, diagnosed with Schizophrenic Disorder, claimed that at the
time of his episode, he had claimed to have a “relatively poor diet of sandwiches, pasta, and large
amounts of coffee”; all foods with a deficient nutritional value (Royal, 2016). He concluded that
control of his diet and intake of foods high in nutritional value helped to control some of his
positive and negative symptoms. Interestingly enough, it was reported that nearly all
Schizophrenics who have developed this disorder are found to be nourishing themselves poorly.
Finally, the role of stress in Schizophrenic Disorder (and almost every other mental
illness) is enormous and essential to note. This is because large amounts of stress, in any shape
or form, have been correlated with bringing about Schizophrenia. Some stressful life events that
might lead to the occurrence of Schizophrenia include but are not limited to Bereavement/Loss
of a loved one, divorce or end of a relationship, losing a job or home, and physical, sexual, or
emotional abuse. These four stressful events can be hard on anyone, especially someone who is
not equipped with the tools needed to cope with stress, which most Schizophrenics are not. They
are, in fact, not at all able to deal with large amounts of stress, and these kinds of pressures will
cause them to crack.
Again, since little is known about the disorder, there are not many treatment approaches
that are proven to work, besides Medicinal methods; However, there are still some theories to
different approaches. The first approach has to do with Molecular Psychiatry and a study that
was conducted regarding the transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells. Since Schizophrenia is
thought to be purely a “disease of the mind”, it has only seemed fitting to try some neuroscience,
in the field of molecular psychiatry. Now, these mesenchymal stem cells work to repair skeletal
tissue and to make these tissues. That said, the study concluded that this transplantation would
cause long-term alleviation of Schizophrenia-like behavior, due to the enhancement of
neurogenesis (Gobshitis et al., 2019).
In addition, along with being a potential cause for Schizophrenia, diet also can treat the
illness. This is carried out using the orthomolecular approach, which is the treatment of illness
through health and natural substances, such as with specific vitamins. Royal (the Schizophrenic
patient mentioned earlier in this paper) reported that he felt significantly less anxious and
depressed after following the orthomolecular approach, taking vitamins such as Niacin, Vitamin
C, and Omega 3 oils. He also reported that his occasional episodes were much shorter in
duration, and he would make an effort to include a more nutritional diet, removing gluten (Royal,
2016). Moreover, there is an indication that the lack of vitamin C and large amounts of gluten
can be linked to people with Schizophrenia.
The final and primary form of treatment for Schizophrenia are antipsychotic medications,
which reduce symptom severity and relapse. The science behind this is the medication’s ability
to lower dopamine levels in the brain, suggesting that the amount of dopamine in the brain has
something to do with the occurrence of Schizophrenia. However, patients diagnosed with
Schizophrenia and prescribed with antipsychotic medication rarely adhere to this form of
treatment, leading to high rates of relapse and hospitalization (Fang et al., 2020). This finding
suggests that even medicinal forms can be proven as ineffective for Schizophrenia. Furthermore,
various health issues that can be associated with taking this form of medication, such as weight
gain, stiffness, shakiness, sexual decline, etc.
Case Examples Only one case example is required
Case 1, of the two case examples to be discussed, involves a thirty-five-year-old lady
from South India who suffers from paranoid Schizophrenia. This woman’s particular clinical
presentation was strongly influenced by various sociocultural factors, due to the cultural
background of the Hindu household that she belonged to. Now, this Hindu woman had
converted herself to Christianity, which outraged her family members, and not long after this,
she developed the illness. As a result, her family believed that her possession attacks and
demon-like nature (due to her Schizophrenic illness) were a result of punishment bestowed upon
her by the Hindu gods for converting. In conclusion, the importance of this case example is to
show how sociocultural factors influence symptom presentation of Schizophrenia and affect the
help-seeking, acceptance of the diagnosis, and outcomes for people with the illness
(Dhanasekaran et al., 2017).
The final case example (case 2) involves a twenty-nine-year-old man who has
Schizophrenia. Now, this man lived with both high expressed emotion, and low expressed
emotion parents, who were affecting the Schizophrenic male psychologically. Soon enough, he
was tested psycho-physiologically while in the parents’ presence, using an ABAC design.
Researchers discovered that the patient would demonstrate very high amounts of spontaneous
activity in skin conductance level and high inability to cope when the high EE parent was around
(Tarrier & Barrowclough, 1984). In conclusion, the importance of this case example is to show
how different psycho-physiological responses can come about in Schizophrenic patients
depending on whether or not their pivotal relative was rated high or low in expressed emotion.
The mysterious occurrence and incurable nature associated with Schizophrenia has made
it an illness of extreme intensity and high importance that cannot be ignored. This is why it is so
important to be aware of the theoretical perspectives associated with the causes of the disorder
and the various treatment approaches mentioned in this paper. It is also essential that not only
health professionals become more involved in the improvement of this disorder, but also
families. This is because most mental disorders, such as this one, stem from home life and the
different traumatic events that can occur within a person’s lifetime. That said, if more families
are aware of the risks and the causes, then more can be done to prevent the illness. Health
professionals also need to get more involved with this disorder because it is devastating one that
leaves people broken, confused, and many remain homeless (due to the mental hospital’s lack of
re-hospitalization and to high amounts of relapse). These health professionals can become more
involved by recommending the various treatments listed in this paper (especially the ones having
to do with dieting), rather than stuffing their patients with antipsychotic medications. The stigma
behind a schizophrenic’s demonic and negative nature must also be erased because these are still
people, not evil creatures. Society, as a whole, must become more aware of this increasingly
unstable spectrum disorder.
Starting on a new page after the body of your
paper is your reference page(s). You must
have the minimum 10 references, but more
are always fine.
Androutsos, C. (2012, June). Schizophrenia in children adolescents: relevance and
differentiation from adult schizophrenia. Retrieved from
Barch, D. M. (2020) Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders. In R. Biswas-Diener & E. Diener
(Eds), Noba textbook series: Psychology. Champaign, IL: DEF Publishers. Retrieved
Bhandari, S. (2018, October 22). Marijuana and Schizophrenia: Is There a Link? Retrieved
Bhandari, S. (2018, May 20). Types of Schizophrenia and the Schizophrenia Spectrum.
Retrieved from https://www.webmd.com/schizophrenia/schizophrenia-types
Cagliostro, D. (n.d.). Paranoid Schizophrenia: Overview of Causes, Symptoms, & Treatments.
Retrieved from https://www.psycom.net/paranoid-schizophrenia
Dhanasekaran, S., Loganathan, S., Dahale, A., &Varghese, M. (2017). Cultural considerations
in the diagnosis and treatment of schizophrenia: A case example from India. Asian
Journal of Psychiatry, 27, 113-114.
Fang, S., Liao, D., Huang, C., Hsu, C., Cheng, S., & Shao, Y. J. (2020). The effectiveness of
long-acting injectable antipsychotics versus oral antipsychotics in the maintenance
treatment of outpatients with chronic schizophrenia. Human Psychopharmacology:
Clinical and Experimental. https://doi-org.saintleo.idm.oclc.org/10.1002/hup.2729
Gobshtis, N., Tfilin, M., Fraifeld, V. E., & Turgeman, G. (2019). Transplantation of
mesenchymal stem cells causes long-term alleviation of schizophrenia-like behaviour
coupled with increased neurogenesis. Molecular Psychiatry. https://doi-
Gochman, P., Miller, R., & Rapoport, J. L. (2011). Childhood-onset Schizophrenia: the
challenge of diagnosis. Current Psychiatry reports, 13(5), 321-322.
Harvey, P.D., & Isner, E.C. (2020). Cognition, social cognition, and functional Capacity in
early-onset schizophrenia. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America,
29(1), 171-182. https://doi-org.saintleo.idm.oclc.org/10.1016/j.chc.2019.08.008
Magliano, L., Citarelli, G., & Read, J. (2019). The beliefs of non-psychiatric doctors about the
causes, treatments, and prognosis of schizophrenia. Psychology and Psychotherapy:
Theory, Research and Practice. https://doi-
McGrath, J., Saha, S., Chant, D., & Welham, J. (2008). Schizophrenia: a concise overview of
incidence, prevalence, and mortality. Queensland Centre For Mental Health Research,
Epidemiol Rev., 30:67-76. https://doi.org/10.1093/epirev/mxn001
Royal, B. (2016). Schizophrenia: nutrition and alternative treatment approaches. Schizophrenia
Bulletin, 42(5), 1083-1085.
Schennach, R., Riedel, M., Obermeier, M., Jager, M., Shmauss, M., Laux, G., Pfeiffer, H.,
Naber, D., Schmidt, L. G., Gaebel, W., Klosterkotter, J., Heuser, I., Maier, W., Lemke,
M. R., Ruther, E., Klingberg, S., Gastpar, M., Seemuller, F., Spellmann, I., … Moller,
H. J., (2019). What happens with schizophrenia patients after their discharge from
hospital? Results on outcome and treatment from a “real-world” 2-year follow-up trial.
European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience. https://doi-
Sutterland, A. L., Dieleman, J., Storosum, J. G., Voordouw, B. A. C., Kroon, J., Veldhuis, J.,
Denys, D. A. J. P., de Haan, L., & Sturkenboom, M. C. J. M. (2013). Annual Incidence
rate of schizophrenia and schizophrenia spectrum disorders in a longitudinal
population-based cohort study. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology: The
International Journal for Research in Social and Genetic Epidemiology and Mental
Health Services, 48(9), 1357-1365. https://doi-
Tarrier, N., & Barrowclough, C. (1984). Psychophysiological assessment of expressed emotion
in schizophrenia: a case example. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 145, 197-200.
Tomasella, E., Bechelli, L., Ogando, M. B., Mininni, C., Di Guilmi, M. N., De Fino, F.,
Zanutto, S., Elgoyhen, A. B., Marin-Burgin, A., & Gelman, D. M. (2018). Deletion of
dopamine D2 receptors from parvalbumin interneurons in mouse causes
schizophrenia-like phenotypes. PNAS Proceedings of the National Academy of
Sciences of the United States of America, 115(13), 3476-3481. https://doi-
ubmit an initial draft of your paper. Your draft should be 5-7 pages of written content, NOT including your title and reference pages. This draft should be a shortened version of your final paper and should include the following sections with properly formatted section headers:
· Title page in APA format
· Abstract (on its own page)
· Body of the paper:
· Diagnostic criteria
· Prevalence and incidence
· Theoretical approaches to understanding the causes of the disorder
· Treatment approaches
· Case study
· Discussion or Conclusion
· References page(s)