Abnormal Psychology

 Topic: Schizophrenic disorder( I will need draft for this paper 5-7 pages by the 02/11/2021 before the final paper which  is due by 02/21/2021. please look at the attachment sample in the question on how to write this paper. It will be nice if you follow the format of the sample. Please look to the bottom of the question and use the code of value in the final paper.

Submit final draft of your 8-12-page (not including title and reference pages) paper on your chosen diagnosis from Module 1.

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Your final paper should include the following sections with properly formatted section headers:

  • Title page in APA format (page 1)
  • Abstract (on its own page – page 2)
  • Body of the paper (starting on page 3 and continuing until you hit the references section):

    Clinical presentation (What do the symptoms associated with the disorder look like?)
    Diagnostic criteria from the DSM-5
    Prevalence and incidence rates
    A review of theoretical perspectives on causes of the disorder (along with empirical support)
    A review of treatment approaches and outcome studies (along with empirical support)
    A case example/study

  • References page(s) with a minimum of 10 references (at least half must be peer-reviewed journal articles, not websites). Articles should be from 2010 or later.

Make sure that your paper adheres to all APA style formatting guidelines.

Attached is a sample paper with some common issues people have highlighted. Use this sample and the sample APA paper linked in the overview section of the course to help you write your final paper according to APA style. 

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Running Head: SAMPLE PAPER 1

Sample Paper: Use this paper as a guide

to writing your own diagnostic paper

Student Name

Saint Leo University

PSY431: Childhood Disorders

Prof. Vincent Schroder

Submission Date

You need to have the page
number, but the running
header is optional

Fill in all the required title page
information (name, date, actual paper
title and subtitle). Check out the APA
style guide for details/more examples.




The mental disease of Schizophrenia has been known throughout cultures as the demonic

possession of a split-minded soul through episodes of utter psychosis. Today, this illness affects

a meager percentage of the population and is not as feared as it once was but is still devastating

due to its incurable nature. This paper will discuss Schizophrenic disorder, or Schizophrenic

Spectrum Disorder (SSD), and the different theoretical perspectives and treatment approaches

that people (mainly some children, adolescents, and adults, aged 13-40) diagnosed with this

illness relate to. This paper will focus on different case examples and studies that investigate and

examine the lives of people who live day-to-day in different cultures with the disease and people

who are affected by those closest to them. The paper will also discuss the prevalence and

incidence rates for people associated with Schizophrenia.

Keywords: Schizophrenia, Schizophrenic disorder, Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorder

Abstract should be a
minimum of ½ page,
up to around ¾ of a

Starting on page 3 (below) you will have your Introduction, DSM
Criteria, Theoretical Perspectives, Treatments, Case Study, and
Conclusion sections.
The introduction section does not need a section header, but the
rest of the sections do.



The schizophrenic disorder is probably one of the most stigmatized mental illnesses out

there. This is due to very negative symptoms associated with the illness that has caused people

suffering from this mental disorder to be dangerous to themselves and, on some occasions,

dangerous to those around them. This negative stigma is brought about by people who are not

adequately informed with regards to the disorder and tend to see Schizophrenics as very violent

individuals that have a split personality or are not capable of functioning correctly in their

everyday lives. These ideas of and about the Schizophrenic are false because the illness is more-

so a thought disorder, where many thoughts and perceptions held by the person tend to be

distorted, rather than a split personality disorder. The violence of a Schizophrenic is also not a

prevalent factor in the illness. Importantly, violence can occur, due to the distortion of their

perceived thoughts, but not as frequently as previously thought, and it is proven that people with

Schizophrenia that have caused violence are scarce and few. That said, this illness, although an

overtly-stigmatized one, is still severely serious and should not be taken lightly by people

diagnosed, their family members, health professionals, and others who come across the disorder.

Diagnostic Criteria

“Schizophrenia is a severe and chronic mental disorder characterized by disturbances in

thought, perception, and behavior.” These behaviors are not considered “normal” behaviors, nor

are they shared, in any person (ranging from childhood to adulthood) and should be reported to a

health physician as soon as possible. Behaviors must be reported due to the irregularity of these

occurrences in the mind (DSM Criterion). People with Schizophrenic disorder are more

commonly diagnosed as soon as two or more of the following symptoms occur, which are:

delusions, hallucinations, disorganized thinking and speech, grossly disorganized behavior

(including catatonia), and negative symptoms, such as diminished social expression (American



Psychiatric Association, 2013). These symptoms are known as cognitive impairments, which are

the central feature for anyone with Schizophrenia. Schizophrenic people may find themselves

consumed by the inability to function in everyday scenarios, and their extreme lack of any social

cognition can correspond with impairments in their ability to perform any amount of a simple

task (Harvey & Isner, 2020). Schizophrenia may also be classified as a spectrum disorder,

known as Schizophrenic Spectrum Disorder (SSD) because people with the disorder can be

placed on a spectrum. This means that two people diagnosed with SSD would most likely have

very different symptoms from each other. For example, one person may display very

disorganized/catatonic behavior while another person (with the same schizophrenic disorder)

might display delusions and hallucinations. Either way, these two patients with schizophrenic

symptoms can be placed on a spectrum, meaning that they can correlate with any extreme that is

placed on the SSD scale (Barch, 2020).

Types of Schizophrenia Use second level headings to create subsections when needed

Schizophrenia was once divided into various subtypes, but now experts refer to

Schizophrenia as a Spectrum Disorder (as previously mentioned) that can include these multiple

subtypes. The subtypes of the disorder can include Paranoid Schizophrenia, Catatonic

Schizophrenia, Disorganized Schizophrenia, Residual Schizophrenia, and Undifferentiated

Schizophrenia (Bhandari, 2018). The first, and most relevant subtype, Paranoid Schizophrenia,

is one of the more common forms of Schizophrenia on the spectrum for this illness. This

diagnosis can be characterized by large amounts of paranoia stemming from delusion and

hallucinations. For example, a patient that can be diagnosed with Paranoid Schizophrenia would

hear inner voices that are violent, demeaning, and hostile, persuading them to do things that they

usually would never do. People with the diagnosis are also very convinced that they are



constantly spied upon on/watched by the eye of the government, with different forms of

surveillance that they will swear by and claim to have seen and found. This paranoid behavior

will, in turn, cause them to become very suspicious and fearful of the intentions of everyone in

their lives; this includes family members and friends. As a result of this fear and suspicion,

Paranoid Schizophrenics will withdraw from anyone of importance in their lives and will begin

to isolate themselves from the real world, while also ceasing self-care.

Prevalence and Incidence

Currently, Schizophrenia is one of the most uncommon mental disorders in the world,

with a whopping 1% of the population being diagnosed with the disorder internationally. One of

the more unique forms of this illness is known as Childhood-Onset Schizophrenia (COS), and it

is characterized by onset before the age of 13 years, having a prevalence of 1 in 40,000

(Gochman et al., 2011). This form of Schizophrenia can identify with having a very gradual

onset and poor outcome for the children diagnosed. Now, the incidence rate for Schizophrenia

rises substantially in adolescent years (ages 13-18) compared to any other period of life,

estimated at 0.23%, and the reason for this is not entirely certain (Androutos, 2012). In adults,

however, the incidence of the illness is about 1.5 per 10,000 people, and the chances of a late-life

onset for Schizophrenia (over 45 years of age) are sporadic (McGrath et al., 2008).

Gender is a factor of the Schizophrenic illness because men and women are both affected

independently, and the incidence and prevalence rates between the two are different as well.

This is true to the effect of slightly more men associated with the diagnosis of this disorder (the

prognosis is worse in men) compared to women, who are usually diagnosed later in life than

men. The reasoning behind a worse prognosis for men is unknown because there is a lot that is

unknown about this illness, which makes it all the more so dangerous for a man to develop this



disorder. The modal age of onset was found to be between 18 and 25 for men and 25 and 35 for

women (McGrath et al., 2008), and the second peak of Schizophrenia will occur for women

during menopause when hormones are out of whack.

Since there is not much that is known about this illness, people at high risk for

Schizophrenia and patients that suffer from it are always at risk for living their full lives with no

hope of returning to their once normal state. Although it is not sure whether or not this lack of

knowledge will cause an increase in the incidence and prevalence rates of Schizophrenia. In a

study conducted by Sutterland on the overall incidence rate of Schizophrenic Spectrum Disorder,

researchers found that the incidence rates of SSD in the Netherlands were 22/100,000 persons

per year. This research worked to show that the incidence rates of SSD were significantly higher

in urban areas, heedless of deprivation (Sutterland et al., 2013).

Theoretical Perspectives

Sadly, the causes of Schizophrenia are generally unknown, making it almost impossible

to prevent the illness from occurring, but there are many theories. Heredity and street drugs are

two theories that have been debated by many health professionals throughout the years. For

instance, Schizophrenia does sometimes run in families, but no single gene has been thought to

be responsible. A study was performed involving the ‘opinions on mental disorders

questionnaire’ where 305 non-psychiatric doctors were instructed to answer according to their

causal beliefs on the disorder. These beliefs held that factors most frequently supported as

causes of Schizophrenia were 65.2% heredity and 54.1% street drugs (Magliano et al., 2019).

Concerning street drugs and heredity, a correlation was found between smoking Marijuana and

carrying certain types of specific genes that have been shown to affect the brain chemistry of a

person, raising the chances for them to become a Schizophrenic (Bhandari, 2018). The reason



that marijuana plays a vital role in the possible occurrence of Schizophrenia is that it causes

people to exhibit symptoms of psychosis and gives people that are already at a higher risk for

Schizophrenia a chance to develop the illness and its psychotic episodes (Bhandari, 2019).

Furthermore, diet and nutrition seem to play a critical role in the causation of

Schizophrenia. This is because patients with SSD have correlated their episodes with a poor

diet/lack of nutrition. Royal, a man, diagnosed with Schizophrenic Disorder, claimed that at the

time of his episode, he had claimed to have a “relatively poor diet of sandwiches, pasta, and large

amounts of coffee”; all foods with a deficient nutritional value (Royal, 2016). He concluded that

control of his diet and intake of foods high in nutritional value helped to control some of his

positive and negative symptoms. Interestingly enough, it was reported that nearly all

Schizophrenics who have developed this disorder are found to be nourishing themselves poorly.

Finally, the role of stress in Schizophrenic Disorder (and almost every other mental

illness) is enormous and essential to note. This is because large amounts of stress, in any shape

or form, have been correlated with bringing about Schizophrenia. Some stressful life events that

might lead to the occurrence of Schizophrenia include but are not limited to Bereavement/Loss

of a loved one, divorce or end of a relationship, losing a job or home, and physical, sexual, or

emotional abuse. These four stressful events can be hard on anyone, especially someone who is

not equipped with the tools needed to cope with stress, which most Schizophrenics are not. They

are, in fact, not at all able to deal with large amounts of stress, and these kinds of pressures will

cause them to crack.

Treatment Approaches

Again, since little is known about the disorder, there are not many treatment approaches

that are proven to work, besides Medicinal methods; However, there are still some theories to



different approaches. The first approach has to do with Molecular Psychiatry and a study that

was conducted regarding the transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells. Since Schizophrenia is

thought to be purely a “disease of the mind”, it has only seemed fitting to try some neuroscience,

in the field of molecular psychiatry. Now, these mesenchymal stem cells work to repair skeletal

tissue and to make these tissues. That said, the study concluded that this transplantation would

cause long-term alleviation of Schizophrenia-like behavior, due to the enhancement of

neurogenesis (Gobshitis et al., 2019).

In addition, along with being a potential cause for Schizophrenia, diet also can treat the

illness. This is carried out using the orthomolecular approach, which is the treatment of illness

through health and natural substances, such as with specific vitamins. Royal (the Schizophrenic

patient mentioned earlier in this paper) reported that he felt significantly less anxious and

depressed after following the orthomolecular approach, taking vitamins such as Niacin, Vitamin

C, and Omega 3 oils. He also reported that his occasional episodes were much shorter in

duration, and he would make an effort to include a more nutritional diet, removing gluten (Royal,

2016). Moreover, there is an indication that the lack of vitamin C and large amounts of gluten

can be linked to people with Schizophrenia.

The final and primary form of treatment for Schizophrenia are antipsychotic medications,

which reduce symptom severity and relapse. The science behind this is the medication’s ability

to lower dopamine levels in the brain, suggesting that the amount of dopamine in the brain has

something to do with the occurrence of Schizophrenia. However, patients diagnosed with

Schizophrenia and prescribed with antipsychotic medication rarely adhere to this form of

treatment, leading to high rates of relapse and hospitalization (Fang et al., 2020). This finding

suggests that even medicinal forms can be proven as ineffective for Schizophrenia. Furthermore,



various health issues that can be associated with taking this form of medication, such as weight

gain, stiffness, shakiness, sexual decline, etc.

Case Examples Only one case example is required

Case 1, of the two case examples to be discussed, involves a thirty-five-year-old lady

from South India who suffers from paranoid Schizophrenia. This woman’s particular clinical

presentation was strongly influenced by various sociocultural factors, due to the cultural

background of the Hindu household that she belonged to. Now, this Hindu woman had

converted herself to Christianity, which outraged her family members, and not long after this,

she developed the illness. As a result, her family believed that her possession attacks and

demon-like nature (due to her Schizophrenic illness) were a result of punishment bestowed upon

her by the Hindu gods for converting. In conclusion, the importance of this case example is to

show how sociocultural factors influence symptom presentation of Schizophrenia and affect the

help-seeking, acceptance of the diagnosis, and outcomes for people with the illness

(Dhanasekaran et al., 2017).

The final case example (case 2) involves a twenty-nine-year-old man who has

Schizophrenia. Now, this man lived with both high expressed emotion, and low expressed

emotion parents, who were affecting the Schizophrenic male psychologically. Soon enough, he

was tested psycho-physiologically while in the parents’ presence, using an ABAC design.

Researchers discovered that the patient would demonstrate very high amounts of spontaneous

activity in skin conductance level and high inability to cope when the high EE parent was around

(Tarrier & Barrowclough, 1984). In conclusion, the importance of this case example is to show

how different psycho-physiological responses can come about in Schizophrenic patients

depending on whether or not their pivotal relative was rated high or low in expressed emotion.




The mysterious occurrence and incurable nature associated with Schizophrenia has made

it an illness of extreme intensity and high importance that cannot be ignored. This is why it is so

important to be aware of the theoretical perspectives associated with the causes of the disorder

and the various treatment approaches mentioned in this paper. It is also essential that not only

health professionals become more involved in the improvement of this disorder, but also

families. This is because most mental disorders, such as this one, stem from home life and the

different traumatic events that can occur within a person’s lifetime. That said, if more families

are aware of the risks and the causes, then more can be done to prevent the illness. Health

professionals also need to get more involved with this disorder because it is devastating one that

leaves people broken, confused, and many remain homeless (due to the mental hospital’s lack of

re-hospitalization and to high amounts of relapse). These health professionals can become more

involved by recommending the various treatments listed in this paper (especially the ones having

to do with dieting), rather than stuffing their patients with antipsychotic medications. The stigma

behind a schizophrenic’s demonic and negative nature must also be erased because these are still

people, not evil creatures. Society, as a whole, must become more aware of this increasingly

unstable spectrum disorder.

Starting on a new page after the body of your
paper is your reference page(s). You must
have the minimum 10 references, but more
are always fine.




Androutsos, C. (2012, June). Schizophrenia in children adolescents: relevance and

differentiation from adult schizophrenia. Retrieved from


Barch, D. M. (2020) Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders. In R. Biswas-Diener & E. Diener

(Eds), Noba textbook series: Psychology. Champaign, IL: DEF Publishers. Retrieved

from https://nobaproject.com/modules/schizophrenia-spectrum-disorders

Bhandari, S. (2018, October 22). Marijuana and Schizophrenia: Is There a Link? Retrieved

from https://www.webmd.com/schizophrenia/schizophrenia-marijuana-link#1

Bhandari, S. (2018, May 20). Types of Schizophrenia and the Schizophrenia Spectrum.

Retrieved from https://www.webmd.com/schizophrenia/schizophrenia-types

Cagliostro, D. (n.d.). Paranoid Schizophrenia: Overview of Causes, Symptoms, & Treatments.

Retrieved from https://www.psycom.net/paranoid-schizophrenia

Dhanasekaran, S., Loganathan, S., Dahale, A., &Varghese, M. (2017). Cultural considerations

in the diagnosis and treatment of schizophrenia: A case example from India. Asian

Journal of Psychiatry, 27, 113-114.


Fang, S., Liao, D., Huang, C., Hsu, C., Cheng, S., & Shao, Y. J. (2020). The effectiveness of

long-acting injectable antipsychotics versus oral antipsychotics in the maintenance

treatment of outpatients with chronic schizophrenia. Human Psychopharmacology:

Clinical and Experimental. https://doi-org.saintleo.idm.oclc.org/10.1002/hup.2729

Gobshtis, N., Tfilin, M., Fraifeld, V. E., & Turgeman, G. (2019). Transplantation of

mesenchymal stem cells causes long-term alleviation of schizophrenia-like behaviour



coupled with increased neurogenesis. Molecular Psychiatry. https://doi-


Gochman, P., Miller, R., & Rapoport, J. L. (2011). Childhood-onset Schizophrenia: the

challenge of diagnosis. Current Psychiatry reports, 13(5), 321-322.


Harvey, P.D., & Isner, E.C. (2020). Cognition, social cognition, and functional Capacity in

early-onset schizophrenia. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America,

29(1), 171-182. https://doi-org.saintleo.idm.oclc.org/10.1016/j.chc.2019.08.008

Magliano, L., Citarelli, G., & Read, J. (2019). The beliefs of non-psychiatric doctors about the

causes, treatments, and prognosis of schizophrenia. Psychology and Psychotherapy:

Theory, Research and Practice. https://doi-


McGrath, J., Saha, S., Chant, D., & Welham, J. (2008). Schizophrenia: a concise overview of

incidence, prevalence, and mortality. Queensland Centre For Mental Health Research,

Epidemiol Rev., 30:67-76. https://doi.org/10.1093/epirev/mxn001

Royal, B. (2016). Schizophrenia: nutrition and alternative treatment approaches. Schizophrenia

Bulletin, 42(5), 1083-1085.


Schennach, R., Riedel, M., Obermeier, M., Jager, M., Shmauss, M., Laux, G., Pfeiffer, H.,

Naber, D., Schmidt, L. G., Gaebel, W., Klosterkotter, J., Heuser, I., Maier, W., Lemke,

M. R., Ruther, E., Klingberg, S., Gastpar, M., Seemuller, F., Spellmann, I., … Moller,

H. J., (2019). What happens with schizophrenia patients after their discharge from

hospital? Results on outcome and treatment from a “real-world” 2-year follow-up trial.



European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience. https://doi-


Sutterland, A. L., Dieleman, J., Storosum, J. G., Voordouw, B. A. C., Kroon, J., Veldhuis, J.,

Denys, D. A. J. P., de Haan, L., & Sturkenboom, M. C. J. M. (2013). Annual Incidence

rate of schizophrenia and schizophrenia spectrum disorders in a longitudinal

population-based cohort study. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology: The

International Journal for Research in Social and Genetic Epidemiology and Mental

Health Services, 48(9), 1357-1365. https://doi-


Tarrier, N., & Barrowclough, C. (1984). Psychophysiological assessment of expressed emotion

in schizophrenia: a case example. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 145, 197-200.


Tomasella, E., Bechelli, L., Ogando, M. B., Mininni, C., Di Guilmi, M. N., De Fino, F.,

Zanutto, S., Elgoyhen, A. B., Marin-Burgin, A., & Gelman, D. M. (2018). Deletion of

dopamine D2 receptors from parvalbumin interneurons in mouse causes

schizophrenia-like phenotypes. PNAS Proceedings of the National Academy of

Sciences of the United States of America, 115(13), 3476-3481. https://doi-


ubmit an initial draft of your paper. Your draft should be 5-7 pages of written content, NOT including your title and reference pages. This draft should be a shortened version of your final paper and should include the following sections with properly formatted section headers:


· Title page in APA format

· Abstract (on its own page)

· Body of the paper:

· Introduction

· Diagnostic criteria

· Prevalence and incidence

· Theoretical approaches to understanding the causes of the disorder

· Treatment approaches

· Case study

· Discussion or Conclusion

· References page(s)


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