The People’s Republic of Bangladesh is a country in South Asia which became absolute in 1971 afterwards a august nine months of liberation war with Pakistan Army who dead three millions Bangalees. Bangladesh absolutely agency “The Country of Bengal”. Lying arctic of the Bay of Bengal, on acreage it borders India and Myanmar, and it is a abutting acquaintance to China, Thailand, Nepal and Bhutan.
Bangladesh is amidst by India in The West, Arctic and North-East and Myanmar to the South-East. It is anchored amid 20034′ and 26038′ Arctic Latitude and 88001′ and 92041′ East Longitude. It has an breadth of 147,570 sq. km. and a citizenry of about 140 million. It has a citizenry body of 948 bodies per sq. km., which is the able in world.
As the name “The Country of Bengal” suggests that Bangladesh is an ethnically constant country. Amid the altered indigenous groups Bengalis 98 % and the butt are mostly, Santhals, Chakmas, Garos, Biharis, Oraons and Mundas. Variations in Bengali ability and accent do abide of course. The appraisal of religious architecture from the 2001 demography appear that the citizenry was 89.58% Muslim, 9.34% Hindu, 0.62% Buddhist, 0.31% Christian and 0.15% Animist.
With the able body of citizenry in the apple and apathetic bread-and-butter progress, the bodies of this country are trapped in the abandoned aeon of poverty. Over 50% of the bodies who alive beneath the abjection band are not able to accommodate for their basal needs and amenities. With 140 actor people, Bangladesh is the eighth bigger in the apple in population. It is additionally one of the best densely busy countries and able with bound accustomed resources. Bangladesh has to rely, added than best developing countries, on its animal assets for advance and prosperity.
The present apprenticeship arrangement of Bangladesh may be broadly broken into three above stages, viz. accepted education, madrasha apprenticeship and abstruse education. Here I am discussing about abstruse apprenticeship in Bangladesh.
For the acceptance whose interests are not carefully bookish may accretion technical-vocational programmes added absorbing and added admired for their future. Government tries to ensure that the advance class should be accordant to students’ absorption and aspirations while at the aforementioned time it should abode the needs of the job market.
a. Primary level. There is no technical-vocational academy in primary akin of education. Ebtedayee in the aboriginal akin (Primary level) of madrasah apprenticeship has no ambit for technical-vocational education. Accordingly, abstruse – abstruse apprenticeship in Bangladesh is advised in three phases beneath two above levels of accessory and tertiary akin of education.
b. Accessory level. Abstruse courses starts from accessory level. The affidavit courses adapt able workers in altered vocations starting from ninth brand afterwards achievement of three years of ancestry in accessory school. At this akin the courses are adapted in altered vocations advance over 1 to 2 years duration. Recently, 2 years continuance abstruse courses accept been alien at the academy accessory akin in government managed abstruse training convention (renamed as Abstruse Academy & College). Ascendancy courses adapt the ascendancy engineers at the polytechnic institutes. This advance advance over 4 years continuance afterwards casual the accessory academy acceptance examination. There is a abstruse apprenticeship lath alleged Bangladesh Abstruse Apprenticeship Lath (BTEB), which grants amalgamation to the abstruse institutes. It conducts examinations of the acceptance commutual altered courses in altered abstruse and abstruse education, and awards certificates to the acknowledged candidates.
TVET Arrangement in Bangladesh: An Evaluation
Entrance is analytic aggressive at all levels of academic accomplishment training. Well-developed avenue standards exist, i.e., accomplishment testing and acceptance is able-bodied developed and managed.
The Abstruse Apprenticeship Lath (TEB) is small, independent and a about able alignment for developing curricula and barter tests.
Good models abide for accomplishment training by non-government institutions (including UCEP and MAWTS). There are additionally acceptable models of industry captivation in accouterment adolescent activity not alone with basal education, but additionally with abstruse training through non-government institutions, including both UCEP and a agnate but cheaper model, Suravi.
TTCs and VTIs accept become added adjustable in their non-regular programs by alms abbreviate appellation training programs on a cost-recovery abject in the afternoon and evenings to those who accept completed their academic schooling.
Several analogously acceptable affection accessible training institutions exist, including some of the TTCs beneath the Ministry of Activity and Manpower, The Surveyor’s Training Convention beneath the Ministry of Apprenticeship and some of the rural training centers of the Ministry of Youth.
The all-embracing appulse of the academic TVET arrangement aural Bangladesh is minimal. The achievement of technical/vocational apprenticeship at the affidavit akin amounts to alone 1.8 percent of the graduates at SSC level, and the achievement of ascendancy technicians is alone 1.4 percent of the achievement of HSC holders. Moreover, academic training is miniscule in affiliation to the breezy agency the bodies absolutely become skilled. The outputs of the academic arrangement annual for alone a minute atom of the anatomic abilities acquired anniversary year. Moreover, about few of the graduates of academic VTIs access bounded employment, at atomic in trades. TVET has a poor almanac in agreement of adjustment of graduates in employment, including alone about 60 to 65 percent for TTCs and about 40 percent for VTIs. Unemployment is additionally accepted amid graduates of polytechnics. Those who do not get jobs are generally active across as unskilled activity in jobs that do not crave their specific training. Those who do not accretion jobs generally seek added studies at academy levels if they are eligible. The accessible arrangement is not advised by a boundless or active arrangement of non-government abstruse training (non-government institutions and proprietary institutions).
The capital botheration is abridgement of acceptable linkages with administering and the activity market. Administering about do not participate in chargeless agreeable of training programs. Courses tend to be offered in acknowledgment to amusing demands not based on activity bazaar surveys and analysis. Activity bazaar advice is not calm systematically.
Employers accuse that the government is clumsy to change curricula bound (i.e., acquaint new courses, aggrandize those in appeal and abate or abutting those for which appeal has slackened) to accrue up with abstruse changes in enterprises (TEB, for example, updates curricula already every bristles years). Polytechnics, in particular, were apathetic to accommodate computers and chart as basal genitalia of training in all fields.
The audience of academic abstruse training (VTIs and TTCs) tends to be inappropriate. Those with brand 8 abilities generally aspire to added apprenticeship and white-collar occupations; abounding accept little or no ambition of entering the job bazaar and practicing the barter abilities acquired.
Training institutions abridgement linkages with bounded activity bazaar surrounding the institution. This is acquired by boundless absorption and acerbity in the system. The active of training institutions charge chase compatible training programs and cannot adapt curricula to accommodated bounded circumstances. Financial controls are additionally adamant and institutional managers cannot accord incentives and rewards for acceptable abecedary performance. In short, there is a abridgement of appointment of ascendancy to the active of training centers.
Training institutions do not backpack out anatomic assay of the abilities in appeal in the bounded area.
Training is rarely provided for advance those already active in occupations, including abilities in the non academic sector.
Few girls are actuality provided the befalling to apprentice abilities bare for academic area employment; affidavit accommodate abridgement of hostels and defended transport, as able-bodied as commonly low appeal by administering for changeable workers.
Women in the activity bazaar accept few places area they can accept training for adopting their incomes through advantageous activities.
Underprivileged adolescence tend to be buried out of the apprenticeship arrangement afore condoning for access into abstruse training.
Stipends in abstruse and abstruse apprenticeship are provided on the abject of arete rather than need.
Training is around chargeless and heavily subsidized. Best acceptance accept stipends and abounding accept subsidized auberge adaptation which adds to the amount per apprentice of training. Substantial assets are ashen in abstruse and abstruse training at present, alike admitting the arrangement is underfunded. Apprentice – abecedary ratios are alone about 10 to 12:1. Training courses focus on acceptance and aftermost best than carefully all-important for anatomic purposes. Over centralized administering makes it difficult for convention admiral to economize on resources. However, contempo accession of the SSC and basal trades programs for acceptance in TTCs/VTIs has led to access in the centralized ability of institutions. Underutilization of concrete accommodation is no best a problem, and achievement ante are bigger than they were calmly in the 1990s. Still, the operating costs of abstruse training are high, apparently in the adjustment of $300/student per year (24 times the amount of a apprentice in primary education).
Low affection is reflected in about low canyon ante for abounding abstruse and abstruse training institutions. About one-third of those who accomplishment technical-vocational courses abort to canyon the final examinations. Several factors annual for the poor results. The managers and advisers of training institutions abridgement incentives for acceptable affection teaching. Over centralized ascendancy agency academy admiral booty few initiatives. Advisers abridgement accountability, as apparent by poor appearance rates. Best advisers accept not had automated acquaintance in the abilities they are paid to teach. Funds are defective for in-service training of agents or automated attachments. There are few promotions possibilities to accommodate incentives to staff. Abounding advisers accept active the aforementioned positions for decades afterwards any opportunities for afterlight or enrichment. Dead copse tends to accrue amid teaching agents with few, if any, opportunities for recycling. In theory, 60 percent of the time is adherent to the accretion of applied skills, but in convenance it is abundant less. Best VTIs, polytechnics, and specialized amount programs ache from outdated, obsolete, and beat out equipment. No budgets are provided for aliment of equipment, and little for accessible supplies. The allotment of absolute acquirement spending allocated to TVET beneath by about 17 percent, from 2.4 percent in 1990/91 to 2.0 percent in 1996/97. It beneath added to 1.5 percent in 1997/98. Capital advance in TVET around broiled up in the 1990s. Aural the institutions acceptance accept group, rather than individual, training. Lesson affairs and job bedding are rarely acclimated in the training. Institutions, consequently, cannot appropriately admit the advised applied training. At the ascendancy level, advised internships for acceptance at the end of their studies are generally not implemented. As a result, polytechnic graduates accept not acquired applied boutique attic skills. The outcomes are that best graduates of abstruse and abstruse programs are not skilled, and few go into adapted occupations.
Government Affairs and Policies
No civic action abide on the continued appellation development of activity training, but two contempo documents, the Fifth Bristles Year Plan and the proposed Civic Apprenticeship Policy, point to admonition of advised changes. The Fifth Plan calls for enrollments in abstruse and abstruse apprenticeship to be added from 3 percent at present to about 20 percent of the absolute at accessory level. Accordingly, the plan emphasizes amplification of the cardinal and accommodation of training institutions in band with arising technologies. Specifically, the government affairs to body dozens of new polytechnic institutes, VTIs and TTCs. In addition, it intends to authorize another bolt and covering amount colleges, a abstruse agents college, and a abstruse abecedary training institute. By 2002, enrollments are projected to access from 4,500 acceptance in polytechnic institutes to 20,000; from 2,600 in another abstruse and abstruse institutes to 44,000; and from 12,800 in basal barter training to 30,000. The Fifth Plan additionally calls for about-face of advance offerings in band with arising technologies. Clandestine captivation is to be encouraged in the commitment of abstruse abstruse education. In addition, the Plan proposes conception of an able abject for activity bazaar assay and analysis on TVET, deepening agents development programs, and accomplishment afterpiece links amid training institutions and bounded economies.
The abstract Civic Apprenticeship Policy, which was able afterwards application of budgetary constraints on the recommendations, calls for “the above allocation of the apprenticeship account to be confused appear TVET”. Beneath the policy, all accessory schools would accept abstruse streams; NFE would be provided for all academy dropouts at absolute training institutions afterwards hours, and abbreviate courses would be alien for those – decidedly technicians – in the job market. The anatomy of ascendancy training would be continued by six months and the internship by three months. A acclaim arrangement of apprentice accounting would be alien to facilitate progression of graduates to the abutting academy level. Individuals and clandestine enterprises would be accepted to allotment the costs of training, although it is not explained how this would be accomplished. In account training for agents would be provided systematically. Finally, an all-embracing automated advising board would be accustomed to alike account offerings amid the abounding government and non-government providers.
The Fifth Plan and the proposed Civic Apprenticeship Action blow on abounding of the analytical issues in TVET. Positive appearance accommodate absolute advertence to the charge for action linkages at the axial and academy levels; accent on training accouterment for new clientele, including advance and out-of-school youth; about-face of programs, including training in entrepreneurship; and advance of clandestine captivation and almsman costs by acceptance and employers. These are important priorities. The abutting footfall is to plan to achieve them.
The capital weakness of the plan and action are their accent on amplification and greater accessible costs of TVET. Afterwards bare reforms, affairs for all-embracing amplification accident arty absolute rigidities on alike beyond numbers of trainees. Such amplification would adulterate the accommodation of the accessible area to account abundantly the absolute institutions and may aggravate unemployment amid the graduates. Apparently no appeal studies were done as a abject for selecting the new fields of study. Area needed, amplification could be able at lower amount by accretion absolute institutions (e.g., the bolt and covering institutes) rather than creating abstracted new facilities. This underscores the consequence that amplification is actuality approved for political rather than bread-and-butter reasons. As declared in the 1995 ADB review, “IT is accessible to achieve that the present assimilation and training programs are added admissions-oriented than based on absolute automated demand”.
Among all the problems in the arrangement of TVET, four overlapping issues angle out as the best important. They are discussed in arrangement below:
Lack of linkages with the job market. The TVET arrangement tends to be broken from the job bazaar both academic and breezy employment. Administering do not participate in ambience training policies. Accessible training institutions do not accept mechanisms for appointment with employers, and no incentives are accustomed to managers or advisers to authorize them. Moreover, the centralized arrangement of training – in which curricula, staff, and assets are all controlled from Dhaka – additionally banned the possibilities of capitalizing on bounded responsibilities and initiatives. When there are not abundant jobs for graduates, programs should be geared added to advantageous assignment in the breezy sector, e.g., alimentation skills, entrepreneurship, and self-employment. In sum, a key cold for TVET should be to coin afterpiece links with academic and breezy job markets.
Lack of appulse on abjection reduction. This is a catechism of the audience of the system. TVET is about alone geared to in-school macho adolescence in grades 9 and 10 as allotment of SSC Vocational. The adequacy of this access should be evaluated. Agnate programs accept not accepted cost-effective in another countries. Abounding of the graduates of SSC Abstruse accept no ambition of entering the occupations for which they accept been trained. Abstruse apprenticeship is additionally almost focused on in-school clientele, admitting surveys appearance that alone one third of practicing technicians accept anytime accustomed academic apprenticeship in the field. This calls for added in-service and advance training for those in the workforce. TVET needs to alter its clientele. Abstruse training, in particular, has the abeyant to accomplish a greater appulse on abjection abridgement by allowance trainees become self-employed or accomplish income. Another capital cold for TVET should be to augment its appulse through about-face of audience and programs.
Ineffectiveness of training abutment and delivery. One of the capital constraints on band-aid of problems in TVET is the prevailing appearance that the government charge accounts and accommodate training through a centralized arrangement of ascendancy rather than seek an able analysis of responsibilities with the clandestine sector. In adverse with the about anemic achievement of the government financed and operated institutions, the non-government area has approved – admitting on a actual baby calibration – the adequacy to advance bounded needs-based class customized to the adventures of trainees. Above all, several non-governmental institutions accept accustomed able links with administering and accept accomplished absorbing application ante for their graduates. One of the challenges will be to accretion agency to aggrandize the account commitment of able non-governmental institutions in abstruse and abstruse education. On the another hand, the government provides key abutment on which non-governmental institutions charge rely. This abutment includes such things as development of favorable action environments, training of instructors, development of teaching materials, and research/information on the application market. A key cold for TVET is to about-face funds appear added able modes of commitment and strengthen the acknowledging role of the accessible area (as against to absolute provision)
Under-financing. TVET is expensive. It requires added advisers per apprentice than accepted apprenticeship because of the requirements for convenance in workshops. It requires money for equipment, in-service training and accessible supplies. Best of these all-important inputs are defective or bereft in accessible institutions at present. Best institutions attending to the axial government to break this problem, but it does not accept the funds. Alien costs is apparent by some as an another solution. However, alien costs would be unsustainable. In several years, the problems of under-financing of accessories and food would reemerge and the botheration would not accept been solved. An important cold for TVET, therefore, is to activate clandestine assets in a acceptable way to affected abiding problems of under-financing.
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