Posted: November 25th, 2022

1200 words and three scholarly references

1. Complete the Chapter Project at the end of Chapter 13.

You have just been hired as a consultant to develop a CBRN PPE program for a third service EMS agency with 175 members. The agency director’s objective is compliance with NFPA 472 within 1 year. What type of respirators and ensembles will be most effective and why? What levels of core and mission-specific training will be required?

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2. List and discuss at least four crime scene observations that should be made by emergency responders.

3. List and discuss the five key steps for first responder preservation of evidence.
 

183

Personal Protective Equipment
Hank T. Christen
Paul M. Maniscalco

• Determine the proper respiratory protection and ensemble based on the chemical, biological, radiologi-
cal, and nuclear (CBRN) agent and concentration.

• Summarize the intent of NFPA Standard 472, 2008 edition, and explain how the changes in this stan-
dard apply to emergency response disciplines.

• Classify the major levels of respiratory protection and compare the strengths and weaknesses of each
level.

• Identify and describe four classes of protective ensembles.

• Summarize the key elements in a personal protective equipment (PPE) training program.

• Outline an effective employee exposure control plan.

Objectives

13

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184 Homeland Security: Principles and Practice of Terrorism Response

Introduction

In the 21st century, especially in terrorism incidents and
technological accidents, chemical, biological, radiologi-
cal, and environmental hazards may confront emergency
responders. These threats are generally referred to as
CBRN. There is a growing concern that most emergency
response disciplines do not have the training or protec-
tion programs to protect members in CBRN environ-
ments. Respiratory protection and protective ensembles
are primary examples. Most law enforcement officers
have only their work uniform and body armor, which
offers no protection. Traditional law enforcement riot
masks are not suitable for protection in oxygen-deficient
atmospheres or chemical releases, or for nerve gas expo-
sure, radiological, or biological exposure. Fire fighters
have high levels of respiratory protection, but traditional
firefighting turnout gear offers little or no protection in
CBRN environments (FIGURE 13-1). Many emergency re-
sponse agencies such as EMS, public health, and public
works have no CBRN respiratory protection or protective
ensembles (FIGURE 13-2).

Upgrading levels of protection presents many chal-
lenges to emergency response agencies. First, there is
added expense. Higher levels of PPE require costly re-
spiratory protection and protective ensembles that may
not be in the current equipment inventory. Second,
members must be trained on how to properly select
and wear PPE. This includes respirator face piece testing/
fitting and ongoing training to ensure proficiency is

maintained. Third, maintenance is a consideration.
Equipment must survive long periods of storage—fre-
quently in a car trunk or vehicle compartment—yet,
be tested, calibrated, and maintained in working order.
Last, equipment must be replaced if it is damaged or its
recommended service life is exceeded.

This text is a focused review and is not a reference
source for protective equipment standards, training, or
compliance. It is important that emergency responders
meet CBRN protection challenges to ensure safety and
compliance with national safety standards. This chap-
ter is an overview of national standards and exposure
control procedures including their intent and compli-
ance requirements. Because there is prolific literature
on ballistic and blood-borne pathogen protection, these
subject areas are not elaborately discussed. Our intent is
to explore general categories of threats and summarize
the PPE requirements for the threat categories.

New Standards

New standards related to hazardous materials and terror-
ism incidents have major implications for the emergency
response community. Previously, law enforcement,
EMS, and support agencies were considered first re-
sponders, which required training only at the aware-
ness level in accordance with Occupational Safety and
Health Administration (OSHA) workplace safety stan-
dards. There was an assumption that law enforcement
and EMS units would remain outside the hot zone in
a defensive posture and not be engaged in operational
activities that directly exposed them to CBRN agents.
This assumption is now unrealistic and is replaced with
a proactive response philosophy that aligns with proper
training, equipment, and incident management.

FIGURE 13-1 Standard firefighting turnout gear offers little or no protec-
tion in CBRN environments.

FIGURE 13-2 Traditional firefighting and medical protective ensembles
are unsuitable for operations in the CBRN environment.

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CHAPTER 13: Personal Protective Equipment 185

The National Fire Protection Association Standard
472 (NFPA 472, 2008 edition), Standard for Competence
of Responders to Hazardous Materials/Weapons of Mass
Destruction Incidents, is no longer a fire service–only
standard; NFPA 472 now applies to all disciplines that
respond to hazardous materials or CBRN incidents.
It is interesting to note that the NFPA 472 technical
committee included representatives from the Federal
Bureau of Investigation’s Hazardous Materials Unit,
the National Tactical Officers Association, the National
Bomb Squad Commanders, and the U.S. Capitol Police.
NFPA 473, Standard for Competencies for EMS Personnel
Responding to Hazardous Materials/Weapons of Mass
Destruction Incidents, applies to medical personnel not
directly involved in on-scene operations. NFPA 472 has
overarching implications for the emergency response
community and support disciplines because it means
that individuals responding to a hazardous materials
or CBRN incident—including law enforcement, EMS
agencies, and special teams—are now classified as
operations-level responders. In essence, anyone who
responds to a hazardous materials or CBRN incident
is now subject to the requirements and competencies
in NFPA 472.

NFPA 472 is divided into core and mission-specific
competencies for operations-level responders. Core
competencies apply to all operations-level responders
who are likely to be exposed to a high-threat CBRN
environment. Mission-specific requirements are addi-
tional competencies applying to all emergency response
agencies or disciplines that have a specified mission.
These competencies include hazardous materials techni-
cians, agent-specific categories such as radiological or
biological categories, and container categories that in-
clude tank cars, cargo tanks, or intermodal containers.
There are also operations management competencies for
hazardous materials branch officers, hazardous materials
branch safety officers, and incident commanders.

Most law enforcement officers require core compe-
tency training. Specialized law enforcement teams such
as special weapons and tactics, bomb squads, and foren-
sic units are subject to high levels of hazardous exposure
and require mission-specific training. Drug lab opera-
tions are an example of mission-specific high exposure
environments for law enforcement agencies.

It is important that training officers and supervisors
from all agencies and disciplines be familiar with NFPA
472 and develop training, operational policies, and in-
cident management systems accordingly. This applies to
the fire service, law enforcement, and EMS, and includes
any agency that may perform operations in a hazardous
materials or CBRN environment.

Respiratory Protection

Proper respiratory protection for emergency respond-
ers in hostile atmospheres is critical. In an environment
with high levels of chemical or nerve agents, respira-
tory exposure can cause unconsciousness and death
within minutes. In lesser concentrations, hazardous at-
mospheres can cause physical and mental impairment
with possible long-term effects. An example is the long-
term respiratory problems suffered by many rescuers
and workers from the 2001 World Trade Center attack.
Fire/rescue departments and hazardous materials teams
are equipped with self-contained breathing apparatus
(SCBA); traditional law enforcement and EMS units do
not usually have this level of protection.

CBRN hazardous agents are chemical terrorism
agents, biological terrorism agents, and radiological
particulate terrorism agents and are defined by the
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health
(NIOSH) as:

1. CBRN terrorism agents—Chemicals, biological
agents, and radiological particulates that could
be released in a terrorist attack, disease outbreak,
or technological accident.

2. Chemical terrorism agents—Liquid, solid, gas-
eous, and vapor chemical warfare agents and
industrial chemicals that could be used to cause
death or injury in terrorist attacks.

3. Biological terrorism agents—Biological toxins or
pathogens in liquid or particle form used to cause
death or injury in a terrorist attack.

4. Radiological particulate terrorism agents—Parti-
cles emitting hazardous levels of ionizing radia-
tion that are used to cause death or injury in a
terrorist attack.

Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus
A self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) has an
internal air supply that provides breathing air in hostile
or oxygen-deficient atmospheres (CP FIGURE 13-1). SCBA
offers a major advantage because it is the only type
of respiratory device that offers protection in CBRN
environments where the concentration is at or above
the immediate danger to life or health (IDLH) level.

Fire/rescue departments, law enforcement, EMS, and
any agency that responds to a CBRN incident are subject
to the requirements and competencies of NFPA 472.

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186 Homeland Security: Principles and Practice of Terrorism Response

NIOSH sets certification standards for SCBA and re-
quires that all devices have a positive pressure face
piece. Positive pressure ensures that during face piece
leakage, air in the mask will flow into the contaminated
atmosphere instead of outside air flowing inward and
harming the user.

SCBA devices have several deficiencies. Breathing
apparatus use may negatively affect unaccustomed us-
ers who are prone to claustrophobia. Air supplies are
finite and require frequent air cylinder changes during
prolonged operations. In high-stress and heavy-exertion
situations, it is not unusual for a 30-minute cylinder
to last only 15 minutes. SCBA users must have a fitted
face mask and meet yearly competency standards. SCBA
devices may cost several thousand dollars and require
frequent testing, maintenance, and calibration. For these
reasons, few agencies and disciplines outside of the fire
service use SCBA devices for respirator protection.

Powered Air-Purifying Respirators
Respirators rely on filters to protect users from particulate
exposure. Filter cartridges that meet the protection stan-
dards for particulates that the user is exposed to must be
used. These devices are not suitable in oxygen-deficient
atmospheres or cases involving hazardous vapors. It is
critical that the type and concentration of hazardous
agent(s) are known before powered air-purifying res-
pirators (PAPR) are used. The PAPR filters must also be
certified and appropriate for the specific agent to which
the user is exposed.

PAPR devices use a battery-powered unit to pump
air into the face mask. This unit creates a positive pres-
sure in the mask that offers leakage protection and makes
breathing less labored than a nonpowered device. The
pressurized air also has a cooling effect within the face
piece. PAPRs are less expensive than SCBAs and offer
greater mobility because of small size and light weight.
Filters do not have to be changed as frequently as SCBA
air cylinders. PAPR batteries and pressure units must be
maintained and periodically tested.

Air-Purifying Respirators
An air-purifying respirator (APR) is a face mask with
protective filtering canisters (FIGURE 13-3). The canisters
must be certified to meet the requirements for known
agents and concentrations and are not suitable in oxy-
gen-deficient atmospheres. Air from the outside atmo-
sphere is drawn through the filtering canisters and into
the face piece when the user inhales; APRs are not pres-
surized like PAPRs are. The advantage of APR devices is
they are lightweight, inexpensive, and simple to operate.
The primary disadvantage, compared to PAPRs, is that
outside air enters a leaking face piece during inhalation.

Because the face piece is not pressurized, inhalation is
more labored compared to that of someone wearing a
PAPR or SCBA.

It is critical that the agent and concentration are
known, and one must know the environment is not
oxygen deficient before utilizing an APR for respiratory
protection. The APR filters must also be certified for the
specific agent to which the user is exposed.

Protective Ensembles

An ensemble is defined in NFPA Standards 1991 (NFPA,
2005) and 1994 (NFPA, 2007) as an interrelated system
including garments, gloves, and footwear, with respira-
tory protection, that is certified as a protective system.
Ensembles are categorized as class 1, 2, 3, and 4. A
class 1 ensemble offers the highest level of protection;
a class 4 ensemble provides the lowest level of protec-
tion. Class 2, 3, and 4 ensembles are disposable after a
single use.

NFPA 1991 and 1994 ensembles are not suitable for
firefighting. The ensembles do not provide protection
from open flames, flash fires, radiated heat, molten met-
als, electric shock or arcs, hot liquids, or steam.

Previously, protection levels were defined by the
OHSA Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency
Response Standard (HAZWOPER) as levels A, B, C, and
D. Level A was a fully encapsulated system that provided
the highest level of protection and was utilized when
hazards and/or concentrations were unknown. Level
B incorporated the highest level of respiratory protec-
tion with a reduced level of skin protection. Level C
was used when agents and concentrations were known

FIGURE 13-3 Air-purifying respirators offer some degree of protection
against airborne chemical hazards.

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CHAPTER 13: Personal Protective Equipment 187

and APRs were appropriate. Level D was essentially
traditional clothing or work uniforms with an optional
escape mask.

HAZWOPER levels of protection were essentially
descriptions of the desired ensemble without formal
scientific performance standards. For example, Level
A was described as being fully encapsulating for va-
por protection, without specifications and standards
for permeation resistance for materials, seams, zippers,
or fittings. Training programs, procedural manuals, or
agency policies that refer to A through D protection lev-
els are outdated and should be revised to reflect proper
terminology—namely Class 1–4 ensembles. Many en-
tities have not adopted the Class 1–4 terminology and
continue to use Level A–D terminology.

Class 1 Ensembles
Class 1 ensembles (similar to Level A) are encapsulating
suits with SCBA that provide vapor, liquid, and per-
meability protection (CP FIGURE 13-2). The protective suit
covers the breathing apparatus and includes protective
boots and gloves. Outer boots and gloves are required
for additional protection.

All seams and closures must provide protection from
vapors and liquids. The intent is an ensemble that has
gas-tight integrity (FIGURE 13-4). NFPA 1991 also provides
provisions for CBRN protection that are addressed spe-
cifically in NFPA 1994.

Class 1 ensembles are used by specially trained and
certified hazardous materials technicians on government
or private-sector hazardous materials teams. Safe entry
procedures require that members in Class 1 ensembles
operate in teams, with a backup or safety team imme-
diately available and partially suited to provide rescue
if needed. Teams utilizing Class 1 ensembles must also
have dedicated communications, a team leader, safety
officer, and a decontamination team, along with an in-
cident commander and operational procedures beyond
the scope of this text. Reduced mobility, heat stress,
low dexterity, and the limited duration time of SCBA
are factors that severely inhibit the capabilities of teams
using Class 1 ensembles.

Class 1 Ensemble Example

Consider a scenario in an underground rail station where
masses of people are overcome by an unknown gaseous
chemical agent. There appears to be a high concentra-
tion. Because the type of agent and concentration are
unknown, a hazardous materials team enters the affected
area with monitors to determine the type, concentration,
and origin of the agent. Class 1 ensembles are used be-
cause the agent is unknown and the highest level of vapor
protection is required. In this case, the Class 1 ensemble
provides complete skin protection from gaseous and/or
liquid contact and SCBA respiratory protection.

Class 2 Ensembles
Class 2–4 ensembles are governed by NFPA 1994 and
are disposable after a single use or exposure. A class
2 ensemble (similar to Level B) is suitable when the
agent is known and liquid or particulate hazards are at a
concentration at or above the IDLH (CP FIGURE 13-3). This
ensemble is intended for IDLH environments where
skin exposure does not result in severe health risks.
NIOSH CBRN-compliant SCBA is required with the
Class 2 ensemble when an agent is at or above the IDLH
concentration—the SCBA is worn outside the ensemble.
The ensemble is tested for resistance to mustard gas,
soman nerve agents, and liquid or gaseous common
industrial chemicals.

Class 2 Ensemble Example

After responding to a minor fire in a garage, fire fight-
ers discover that the facility is a methamphetamine
lab. Identified chemicals include acetone and benzene;

FIGURE 13-4 Level A suits are required to be periodically pressure tested
with suit-testing kits.

A Class 1 ensemble is required when the specific agent
and concentration are unknown.

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188 Homeland Security: Principles and Practice of Terrorism Response

monitors indicate concentrations near IDLH levels.
Because there is a need for respiratory and liquid ex-
posure protection, cleanup teams and evidence col-
lection officers enter the area in Class 2 ensembles
with SCBA. The ensembles are properly discarded
after use.

Class 3 Ensembles
Class 3 ensembles (similar to Level C) are suitable for
use in incidents with low levels of vapor, liquid, chemi-
cal, or particulate hazards with concentrations below the
IDLH threshold (CP FIGURE 13-4). Respiratory protection
can be PAPRs or APRs that are NIOSH CBRN compliant.
The Class 3 ensemble includes a garment with attached
or separate gloves and footwear or booties with outer
boots. All components must be certified as a complete
system similar to Class 2.

Class 3 ensembles are used after an initial release or
at locations distant from the initial release where there is
a low threat of liquid or vapor contact. Examples of class
3 missions include treatment and transport of exposed
patients or law enforcement scene control or off-site
search operations.

Class 3 Ensemble Example

In the Class 2 ensemble example, entry teams must be
decontaminated after leaving the hot zone work area.
Decontamination teams at the decontamination corri-
dor (warm zone) are working in an environment that
involves low levels of vapor and liquids—concentrations
of acetone and benzene are below the IDLH threshold.
For these reasons, a Class 3 ensemble with an APR or
PAPR respirator that is NIOSH CBRN certified with ap-
propriate filters is an acceptable level of protection for
the decontamination teams.

Class 4 Ensembles
Class 4 ensembles (similar to level D) are used when
biological or radiological particulate hazards are be-
low IDLH levels; APR or PAPR respiratory protection
is permitted (CP FIGURE 13-5). Class 4 ensembles do not
provide protection against chemical vapors or liquids
and are designed for particulate protection only. These
ensembles are also tested for resistance to blood-borne
pathogens using a bacteriophage viral penetration test.
The advantage of a Class 4 ensemble is the protective
garment system is lightweight and places less physical
stress on the wearer than the higher levels of protection.
Operations teams can work for longer periods with a
higher level of comfort and lower level of heat stress
when they wear Class 4 ensembles.

Class 4 Ensemble Example

A high-profile political campaign office receives a pack-
age of suspicious powder that is dispersed throughout
the office area when the package is opened. Emergency
responders on the scene determine there is a high prob-
ability the material is anthrax. Forensic teams must enter
the area to collect evidence. Because there is no vapor or
liquid hazard, teams are able to operate safely using Class
4 ensembles with PAPRs for respiratory protection.

TABLE 13-1 provides an overview of PPE ensemble
classifications.

Employee Exposure Control Plan

Emergency response agencies and support entities
should have a formal employee exposure control plan
(ECP). The primary intent of an ECP is to ensure that
employees and team members end their duty shift safe
and uninjured.

TABLE 13-1 PPE Ensemble Classifications

Level
Specific use for which this
level of PPE is designed

Example of situation
requiring this level of PPE Limitations

Class 1 ensemble Unknown gaseous chemical
agent

Underground rail station
filled with unknown gaseous
agent

Mobility limitations; high
heat stress

Class 2 ensemble Known liquid or particulate
hazard with a concentration
at or above the IDLH level.

Methamphetamine lab with
known chemicals

Does not protect against
gaseous chemical
agents

Class 3 ensemble Low levels of vapor, liquid,
chemical, or particulate
hazards with concentrations
below the IDLH threshold.

Decontamination Does not protect against
high levels of vapor,
liquid, chemical, or
particulate hazards

Class 4 ensemble Biological or radiological
particulate hazards are
below IDLH levels, APR or
PAPR respiratory protection
is permitted.

Anthrax or suspicious
powder investigation

Does not protect against
liquid or vapor hazards;
not suitable in oxygen-
deficient areas

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CHAPTER 13: Personal Protective Equipment 189

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
and NIOSH have developed a model for a blood-borne
pathogens exposure control plan called Protect Your
Employees with an Exposure Control Plan. This model is
easily expandable to a comprehensive exposure control
plan that includes PPE guidelines and procedures for
CBRN threats and hazards.

Formal Plan
An ECP should be a stand-alone document that is writ-
ten and formal; exposure control procedures should not
be dispersed throughout a myriad of policy, operations
procedures, and training documents. The plan must be
comprehensive, yet brief and written in an understand-
able language; compliance with national standards is
essential. The ECP should be updated annually through
a process that includes appropriate stakeholders.
Stakeholders may include unions or employee groups,
human resource specialists, safety and protection spe-
cialists, legal advisors, training officers, and managers.
The ECP should be approved by the chief executive of
the agency or jurisdiction.

ECP Accessibility

The ECP must be visible and accessible to all members
within an agency or organization. A plan that gets lost
on a bookshelf is a paper plan that seldom transcends
into the real world of tactical operations. It is important
that members are aware of the ECP and that it is visible
at every workplace.

ECP Oversight

Although the ECP is a team effort with many stakehold-
ers, a single manager should be ultimately responsible
for the development, implementation, and ongoing re-
vision of the ECP. This management structure ensures
responsibility and accountability in the ECP effort.

Employee Exposure Determination

The ECP should include a list of agency or organizational
job titles and tasks where it is anticipated that mem-
bers may be exposed to blood-borne pathogens, ballistic
threats, hazardous environments, or CBRN exposure.

Exposure Controls

The ECP should include specific practices and controls
that reduce or eliminate exposure to hazardous threats

or environments. Controls are a broad area and include
practices such as vaccinations, environmental assess-
ment and monitoring, establishment of hazard zones,
scene entry procedures, protective devices, tactical op-
erations, and decontamination. Individuals responsible
for exposure controls should have defined roles and be
identified.

PPE Selection

The ECP should specify what types and/or levels of
PPE are required for each type of hazard, threat, or
CBRN environment. The type or level of PPE can be
as simple as medical gloves and eye protection or as
complex as class 1 ensembles worn by a hazardous
materials team.

Postexposure Evaluation and Follow-up

The ECP should include procedures for medical evalu-
ation immediately after an exposure to any form of haz-
ardous environment. Formal medical records should be
maintained with follow-up medical care and evaluation
if appropriate.

Chapter Summary

The modern CBRN environment is dangerous and pres-
ents new protective equipment challenges for law en-
forcement officers. NFPA Standard 472, originally a fire
service standard, now applies to law enforcement, EMS,
and any agency that has operational capabilities during
a hazardous materials or terrorist incident. The 2008
edition of NFPA 472 redefines law enforcement, EMS,
and other agencies that respond to a CBRN incident
as operations-level responders and specifies core and
mission-specific competencies.

Respiratory protection is a major concern for all
operations-level agencies and responders. The highest
level of respiratory protection is SCBA, followed by PAPR
and APR. All respiratory devices must be NIOSH CBRN
certified.

An ensemble is a garment, glove, and footwear sys-
tem certified in accordance with NFPA Standards 1991
and 1994. Class 1 ensembles are used by hazardous
materials teams. Class 2, 3, and 4 ensembles are the most
likely protection systems used by law enforcement, EMS
agencies, and cleanup teams.

It is important that all members who are likely to re-
spond to a CBRN incident or hazardous materials event
be trained to the core and mission-specific competencies
as specified by NFPA 472 to ensure compliance, safety,
and operational proficiency. It is equally important that

Emergency response and support agencies should
have a formal and comprehensive ECP to ensure em-
ployee safety from blood-borne pathogen and CBRN
exposures.

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190 Homeland Security: Principles and Practice of Terrorism Response

emergency response agencies are equipped with certified
NIOSH CBRN certified respiratory devices and NFPA
472 compliant protective ensembles.

CBRN response agencies should have an ECP. The
ECP is a formal and written plan developed by stake-
holders that serves as a guide for managing exposures
to high-threat environments. The ECP should be vis-
ible and accessible to all members and assigned to a
manager to ensure accountability and responsibility.
The core of the ECP is guidelines that prescribe the
respiratory protection and ensembles required for
CBRN threats and exposures. After an incident, all
members should be required by the ECP to be medi-

cally evaluated with periodic medical follow-up when
warranted.

Agencies should use the Interagency Board Selected
Equipment List (SEL) as a guide for determining what
respiratory and ensemble systems meet NIOSH, OHSA,
NFPA, and other personal protection certification stan-
dards. The SEL defines CBRN and ballistic threats and
aligns them with a table of federal and consensus-based
standards that respirators and ensembles must comply
with to provide adequate CBRN and hazardous materi-
als protection. The SEL is electronically available on the
Department of Homeland Security responder knowledge
base at www.rkb.us.

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191

Wrap Up
Chapter Questions

1. Compare SCBA with respirators. What are the
advantages and disadvantages of SCBA, PAPR,
and APR?

2. What are the major elements of NFPA 472, and
how do they apply to emergency response agen-
cies?

3. Name at least three mission-specific competencies
addressed in NFPA 472.

4. Describe a Class 1 ensemble. What threats or en-
vironments require a Class 1 ensemble?

5. Briefly define Class 2, 3, and 4 ensembles. What
are the advantages and disadvantages of each
class?

6. Define an exposure control plan and outline the
critical elements that should be included in an
effective plan.

Chapter Project

You have just been hired as a consultant to develop
a CBRN PPE program for a third service EMS agency
with 175 members. The agency director’s objective is
compliance with NFPA 472 within 1 year. What type
of respirators and ensembles will be most effective and
why? What levels of core and mission-specific training
will be required?

Vital Vocabulary

Air purifying respirator (APR) A face mask with pro-
tective filtering canisters certified to meet the require-
ments for known agents and concentrations. Air from the
outside atmosphere is drawn through the filtering canis-
ters and into the face piece when the user inhales. APRs
are not suitable in oxygen-deficient atmospheres.

Class 1 ensemble Encapsulating suit with SCBA that
provides vapor, liquid, and permeability protection.
The protective suit covers the breathing apparatus and

includes protective boots and gloves. Outer boots and
gloves are required for additional protection. All seams
and closures must provide protection from vapors and
liquids.

Class 2 ensemble A protective ensemble with SCBA
that is worn outside the protective garment and utilized
when the agent is known and liquid or particulate haz-
ards are at a concentration at or above the immediate
danger to life and health.

Class 3 ensemble A garment with attached or separate
gloves and footwear or booties with outer boots utilized
in incidents with low levels of vapor, liquid, chemical,
or particulate hazards with concentrations below the
IDLH threshold. Respiratory protection can be PAPRs
or APRs.

Class 4 ensemble Lightweight garment certified for
protection against blood-borne pathogens and utilized
when biological or radiological particulate hazards are
below IDLH levels; APR or PAPR respiratory protection
is permitted. Class 4 ensembles do not provide protec-
tion against chemical vapors or liquids and are designed
for particulate protection only.

Immediate danger to life or health (IDLH) The maxi-
mum hazardous substance concentration allowable for
escape without a respirator within 30 minutes and with-
out impairment or irreversible health effects.

Powered air-purifying respirator (PAPR) A face mask
with protective filtering canisters certified to meet the
requirements for known agents and concentrations that
uses a battery-powered unit to pump air into the face
mask, creating a positive pressure that offers leakage
protection and makes breathing less labored than a
nonpowered device. PAPRs are not suitable in oxygen-
deficient atmospheres.

Self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) A respi-
ratory device with an internal air supply that provides
breathing air in hostile or oxygen-deficient atmospheres.
Certification standards require that devices have a
positive-pressure face piece to ensure that during face
piece leakage, air in the mask flows into the contami-
nated atmosphere instead of outside air flowing inward
and harming the user.

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193

Crime Scene Operations
Neal J. Dolan
Paul M. Maniscalco

• Define a crime scene.

• Recognize the value and importance of physical evidence.

• Understand the evidence theory of exchange.

• Recognize the evidence classification of objects, body material, and impressions.

• List key crime scene observations that initial responders should make.

• Understand the key steps for emergency responders in preservation of evidence.

• Understand the concept of chain of custody.

Objectives

14

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194 Homeland Security: Principles and Practice of Terrorism Response

“Wherever he steps, whatever he touches, whatever
he leaves, even unconsciously, will serve as silent evidence
against him. Not only his fingerprints or his footprints,
but his hair, the fibers of his clothing, the glass he breaks,
the tool-marks he leaves, the paint he scratches, the blood
or semen that he deposits or collects—all these and more
bear united witness against him. This is evidence that
does not forget. It is not confused by the excitement of the
moment. It is not absent because human witnesses are. It
is factual evidence. Physical evidence cannot be wrong;
it cannot be wholly absent. Only its interpretation can
err. Only human failure to find it, study and understand
it, can diminish its value.” (Kirk, 1974)

Introduction

The significance of physical evidence at a crime scene
cannot be overestimated. Proper training and technique
are necessary to maintain the integrity and value of evi-
dence. Every day, emergency personnel respond to inci-
dents to render aid, many times as the result of a criminal
act. These responders shoulder a formidable burden to
accomplish their mission and cause no further harm to
the people or the incident scene. Crime scenes are ex-
citing, chaotic, and dangerous places. They are replete
with hidden clues that hold the answer to the question,
“Who committed this crime?”

Emergency responders often carry out their duties
in conflict with important crime scene procedures. It
is important that emergency responders focus on the
preservation of life and recognize that the preserva-
tion of evidence is secondary to life-sustaining efforts.
Yet, evidence should be preserved whenever possible.
Responders may not be aware that a shooting vic-
tim’s clothing that medics are removing may contain
valuable evidence to solve the crime (FIGURE 14-1). As
another example, at an explosion scene, fire fighters
may be employing legitimate firefighting techniques
that destroy evidence that identifies who committed
the offense. It is possible to carry out an emergency
response mission without creating more problems for
the crime scene. This act of evidence preservation is ac-
complished through training and awareness of potential
crime scenes and through efforts to minimize damage
to the area and its contents.

The Crime Scene—Physical Evidence
A crime scene is any specified area in which a crime
may have been committed. It is anywhere the criminal
was during the commission of the crime and the egress
from the scene. The exact dimensions of the scene will be
determined by the nature and type of crime (FIGURE 14-2).

For example, a shooting crime scene could be as large as
the room or building where the victim was discovered. A
terrorist incident could be several blocks or even miles
in diameter. At the Murrah Federal Building incident in
Oklahoma City, a 20-block perimeter was established
and a critical piece of evidence, the crankshaft from the
rented Ryder truck, was found 2 blocks from the explo-
sion site. A similar extended perimeter was established
for a long period of time in lower Manhattan after both
the 1993 and 2001 World Trade Center attacks.

Awareness of what constitutes physical evidence is
the key to uncovering the vast amount of information and

FIGURE 14-1 Clothes may contain valuable evidence to solve a crime.

FIGURE 14-2 The exact dimensions of the scene will be determined by the
nature and type of the crime.

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CHAPTER 14: Crime Scene Operations 195

physical evidence present at the crime scene. Evidence is
something legally submitted to a competent tribunal as a
means of ascertaining the truth in an alleged matter under
investigation. Physical evidence is one form of evidence.
It is defined as anything that was used, left, removed, al-
tered, or contaminated during the commission of a crime
by either the victim or the suspect (FIGURE 14-3).

The benefits of physical evidence are best summa-
rized in the opening paragraph by the issuing judge
in the case of Harris v. United States (1947). Physical
evidence does not lie, forget, or make mistakes. It has
no emotional connection to anyone or anything. It is
demonstrable in nature and not dependent on a witness.
It is the only way to establish the elements of a crime.

In order to heighten responder awareness, it is
necessary to explain how physical evidence evolves at
the scene. Forensic scientists propose the theory of ex-
change to describe this process. Whenever two objects
come in contact with each other, each will be altered or
changed in some way. When a rapist comes in contact
with a victim, numerous substances will be exchanged.
The suspect or the victim could deposit or remove skin

traces, blood, body fluids, carpet fibers, soil, and many
other items. Bombing victims may have chemical traces
on their clothing or fragments of evidence embedded
in their bodies that may prove to be important in the
investigation and prosecution of the perpetrators. These
evidence sources have been invaluable to law enforce-
ment investigators in the past, including high-profile
cases such as the bombing of a Pan Am airliner arriving
in Honolulu, Hawaii, from Narjita, Japan, in 1982, as
often taught by forensics expert Rick Hahn (retired from
the Federal Bureau of Investigation). Changes in the
objects may be microscopic and require detailed exami-
nation to establish the variations. However, responders
should be cognizant that exchanges will take place and
are not always noticeable to the naked eye (FIGURE 14-4).

FIGURE 14-3 Physical evidence can range from something that has been
used (A) to something that was left behind (B) by either the victim or
the suspect. FIGURE 14-4 Evidence may not always be visible to the naked eye.

Emergency responders have a major role in assisting
law enforcement agencies with identifying and preserv-
ing physical evidence.

(B)

(A)

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196 Homeland Security: Principles and Practice of Terrorism Response

A pristine crime scene is altered whenever one or more
people enter the area, and responders must understand
that they always bring contamination to a crime scene.

Physical evidence can be almost anything. TABLE 14-1
gives some examples of items that could be encountered
by responders working at a potential or actual terrorism/
crime scene.

Being aware of potential hazards at a scene is not new
to EMS, fire fighters, emergency managers, or hazardous
materials responders. Scene safety, sizing up the scene,
or just taking a minute to examine the environment of
a scene can minimize the impact of costly mistakes of
overzealous responders.

Actions of First Arriving Units
Literature in the EMS, emergency management, and fire/
rescue fields stresses initial scene evaluation. However, few
texts elaborate on the importance of viewing an event as a
crime scene and analyzing the hot zone accordingly. First
arriving units are usually overwhelmed because the scene
is chaotic and dynamic. Observations at this early stage are
very important to law enforcement investigators.

Several key observations are important for initial re-
sponders. There is no time to write anything; responders
should just remember key crime or evidence observa-

tions and report them to the incident manager or the
law enforcement branch as soon as possible. Important
observations include:

• Chemicals on the scene that would not nor-
mally be present

• Damage, debris fields, and fragmentation that
indicate an explosion

• Suspicious people (people hiding or running)
• Statements issued by bystanders
• Unusual odors at the scene
• Evidence of gunfire (shell casings, bullet holes,

or gunshot wounds)
• Weapons in the area
• Suspicious casualties (patients may be terrorists)
• Multiple fires that appear to be from separate

sources
• Suspicious devices

TABLE 14-1 Possible Items of Evidence at a Crime Scene

Objects Body material Impressions

Weapons Blood Fingerprints

Tools Semen Tire traces

Firearms Hair Footprints

Displaced furniture Tissue Palm prints

Notes, letter, papers Sputum Tool marks

Matchbooks Urine Bullet holes

Bullets Feces Newly damaged areas

Shell casings Vomit Dents and breaks

Cigarette or cigar butts

Clothes

Shoes

Jewelry

Bomb fragments

Chemical containers

Mechanical delivery systems

An initial scene evaluation should include a basic crime
scene evaluation.

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CHAPTER 14: Crime Scene Operations 197

Evidence Preservation by
Emergency Responders
What do we do with physical evidence when we find
it? There are several answers. Observations should be
written down on a notepad or in an electronic device as
soon as it is practical to do so (FIGURE 14-5). Admittedly,
this step may take place hours later. Observations of
weapons, suspects, or devices must be communicated
to the incident commander or law enforcement branch
immediately. Other observations should be conveyed
when emergency response tasks are completed (put out
the fire and treat the patients first).

There are several important rules in preserving
physical evidence, including the following:

• Unless critical to life safety, do not touch or
move evidence. Law enforcement knows how
to photograph, document, package, and re-
move evidence.

• If evidence must be moved for tactical reasons,
note the original location and report it to law
enforcement investigators. If possible, place a
mark on the ground near the original location
of the evidence.

• If possible, photograph evidence removal dur-
ing tactical operations. Forensic photographers
will photograph normal evidence removal dur-
ing an investigation.

• Avoid evidence contamination caused by walk-
ing through the scene. Stretch a rope or scene
tape into the crime scene area and instruct per-
sonnel to walk along the established path.

• Minimize the number of personnel working in
the area.

• Check the soles of boots or shoes when person-
nel exit the crime scene because fragments or
fibers may be embedded (FIGURE 14-6).

• Check the tires of response vehicles for embed-
ded objects in the tire treads.

• Consider clothing or personal effects removed
from victims as evidence. Ensure that law en-
forcement personnel practice biohazard safety
procedures when examining red-bagged evi-
dence or clothing.

Emergency responders can also become victims
(FIGURE 14-7). A classic case was the sarin gas attack in
the Tokyo subway system. This incident was considered
to be a normal call until emergency physicians realized
they were dealing with a nerve agent as the cause of the
sickness. The importance of preparation procedures and
the use of protective equipment is paramount. Every
day, police, fire fighters, and EMS personnel encounter
dangerous situations during the normal course of per-
forming their services. However, the potential for lethal
hazards and long-term effects that result from terrorist
incidents is much greater (Burke, 2000).

Another unique hazard of terrorist incidents is the
probability of a secondary device targeting the responders

FIGURE 14-5 Although it may take place hours after emergency respond-
ers first arrive to a crime scene, observations should be written down on a
notepad or in an electronic device as soon as it is practical to do so.

FIGURE 14-6 Check the soles of boots or shoes when personnel exit the
crime scene because fragments or fibers may be embedded.

FIGURE 14-7 Emergency responders can also become victims.

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198 Homeland Security: Principles and Practice of Terrorism Response

to the incident. Remember that the goal of the terrorist is
to create chaos and fear, and what better way to accom-
plish this than to turn the responders into victims? Past
bombing incidents offer examples of this scenario, such as
the events in Atlanta, Georgia, and Birmingham, Alabama.
In both cases, secondary devices were detonated.

Emergency responders must be alert, aware, and
suspicious of their surroundings when responding to
incidents that have the potential to be terroristic in
nature. Terrorists have used different types of tactics,
techniques, and procedures in carrying out attacks.
Responders must keep up to date on the current terrorist
tactics to maintain situational awareness and ultimately
responder safety when responding to suspected terror-
ist incidents.

Crime Scene Analysis
The thorough analysis of a crime scene consists of the
identification, preservation, and collection of physical
evidence as well as the recording of testimonial evi-
dence. Without adherence to this basic assertion dur-
ing the initial stages of a crime scene investigation, the
potential to disrupt the integrity of the evidence is great.
Hawthorne states that this could result in the evidence
being challenged by the defense in a court of law, which,
in turn, could lead to dismissal of the charges or the
finding of a lesser offense against the criminal defendant
(Hawthorne, 1999). More often than not, the proper
collection of physical evidence from a crime scene is
the definitive portion in the resolution of a criminal of-
fense. Admissible physical evidence has the potential
to (1) establish that a crime has occurred; (2) place a
suspect in contact with the victim and/or the scene; (3)
establish the identity of those associated with the crime;
(4) exonerate the innocent; (5) corroborate the victim’s
testimony; and (6) cause a suspect to make admissions
or to confess (Fisher, 2000).

Responders should approach the crime scene as if
the first entrance to the scene will be the only oppor-
tunity to gather the physical evidence that is present
(Department of Justice, 2000). Those collecting the
evidence should initially direct their attention toward
observing and recording the information present at the
crime scene, rather than taking action to solve the crime
immediately (Hawthorne, 1999). They should also give
careful consideration to other case information or state-
ments from witnesses or suspects.

This chapter was prepared with the intention of
providing the reader with rudimentary principles of
crime scene investigation, from the initial approach of
the crime scene to final disposition of physical evidence
found at the crime scene. Although the methods initially

used to approach a crime scene are virtually universal
in terms of application of use, it should be noted that
at some point the investigation takes on unique charac-
teristics that may be atypical or unorthodox in nature.
Therefore, it is impossible to propose a single, step-by-
step procedure that ultimately resolves every type of
crime scene (Department of Justice, 2000).

However, regardless of the unique nature of a crime
scene, thorough crime scene analysis, effective interviews
and interrogations, and common sense make it less likely
that evidence is overlooked or improperly collected or
preserved or that mistakes are made (Adcock, 1989).

A review of the literature reveals that a common
set of generalized categories for crime scene procedures
exists. These procedures are:

1. Protect the crime scene
2. Identify evidence
3. Document evidence
4. Collect evidence
5. Mark evidence
6. Package evidence
7. Transport evidence

Law Enforcement Responsibilities
Upon initial arrival at the scene of a crime, the first re-
sponders have a great responsibility. It is their task to set
the foundation for what Hawthorne termed the process of
analyzing a crime scene. The basic elements of the process
are: (1) approach and mitigate any hazards as well as
provide for safety of victims and responders, (2) render
medical aid, (3) identify additional victims or witnesses,
(4) secure the crime scene and physical evidence, and
(5) make appropriate notifications. While adhering to
these principles, the first law enforcement responders
provide subsequent investigators and technicians with
a sound foundation for conducting a comprehensive
analysis of the crime scene.

When approaching a crime scene, the first law en-
forcement responder must maintain professional com-
posure regardless of the often overwhelming factors
associated with the task to be completed (Hawthorne,
1999). Officers must be vigilant and able to recognize
anything, whether it be animate or inanimate, that has
a connection to the crime committed. Furthermore, of-
ficers should note the relationship of items to other items
at the crime scene in terms of the distances and the
angles that separate them. First arriving law enforcement
responders must be objective in their initial approach to
a crime scene and resist the temptation to form conclu-
sions about what occurred.

Upon arrival at a crime scene, the paramount con-
cern should be the preservation of human life and/or

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CHAPTER 14: Crime Scene Operations 199

the prevention of additional injuries. Life preservation
always trumps evidence preservation. The first law en-
forcement responders must provide adequate first aid
and/or request professional medical assistance if medi-
cal professionals are not on the scene. According to
Hawthorne, if law enforcement responders are provid-
ing medical assistance and the crime scene or physical
evidence becomes contaminated, altered, or lost, that is
a price that must be paid. The preservation of life out-
weighs the preservation of evidence at a crime scene.

After satisfying the immediate medical issues, the
search for additional victims or witnesses should com-
mence. The reasons for an aggressive search include:
(1) additional victims may need medical assistance re-
quiring additional medical personnel; (2) victims may
provide needed information that aids law enforcement
responders in determining the extent of the crime, the
crime scene, and any physical evidence; and (3) victims
corroborate what happened and provide needed infor-
mation to establish the elements of the crime, suspect
descriptions, vehicle descriptions, and avenue of escape.
If there is more than one witness, law enforcement re-
sponders should make arrangements to separate wit-
nesses to prevent collaboration. There is the possibility
that the witnesses collaborated before the law enforce-
ment responders’ arrival. Law enforcement responders
should take all possible steps to ascertain if collaboration
occurred. After obtaining all the facts from additional
victims and/or witnesses, law enforcement respond-
ers have the knowledge to enable them to implement
the security of the scene and/or any physical evidence
(Hawthorne, 1999).

It is the task of the first law enforcement responder
to coordinate with emergency responders in properly
identifying and securing the crime scene and its con-
tents. The first law enforcement responder must con-
tinually question the scope of the crime scene and not
limit the scope of his or her investigation. All possibilities
must be considered regardless of their degree of improb-
ability. Once the crime scene is established, an account
of personnel coming into and leaving the scene must be
maintained through the use of a crime scene log. The
crime scene log lessens the possibility of unauthorized
personnel entering and contaminating the crime scene
(Hawthorne, 1999). This log must be coordinated with
the EMS/fire personnel accountability system.

The final step in Hawthorne’s process is making
notification. Notification entails notifying supervisors as
well as investigators or detectives who are handling the
case and those people who are ultimately responsible for
documenting the scene and collecting the evidence.

The first law enforcement responders must be pre-
pared to make split-second decisions on arrival at a
crime scene. These decisions can have a lasting impact
on victims, witnesses, the accusatory process, and even
the community in which the crime occurred. For these
reasons and others, the first law enforcement responders
must be well trained in the significance of crime scene
preservation, enabling the crime scene to be analyzed
with as little disruption as possible. When this task is
done properly, a successful investigation and conclu-
sion of the case can be achieved (Hawthorne, 1999).
The advanced technology and expertise at the disposal
of law enforcement may potentially be rendered useless
if proper crime scene preservation is not maintained in
accordance with professional standards.

Processing of Crime Scene/Physical Evidence
To achieve the maximum benefit from physical evidence,
investigators must not only be skilled in evidence iden-
tification, preservation, and collection, but they must
know how to handle and care for the evidence beyond
the time of collection. These actions preserve evidence
for the development of leads, laboratory examination,
and/or presentation in court. Effective handling and
care involves documenting and storing the evidence to
retain the integrity of the item in its original condition
(as nearly as possible), maintaining a chain of custody
for the item to ensure responsibility, and ensuring its
evidentiary value and its disposition when it is no longer
of evidentiary value (Schultz, 1977).

The proper processing of a crime scene begins with
properly documenting the evidence found within its
boundaries. The investigator who first receives, recovers,
or discovers physical evidence must be able to identify
such evidence positively, at a later date, as being the spe-
cific article or item obtained in connection with a specific
investigation (Fox & Cunningham, 1973). This is best
accomplished by utilizing various proven techniques of
recording the nature of the scene and its contents when
they are obtained or collected (Schultz, 1977). This pro-
cess entails providing pertinent data about the evidence
as it relates to a particular crime scene investigation.

Chain of Custody

In order for physical evidence collected from a crime
scene to be considered admissible in a court of law, a
valid chain of custody must be established (Hawthorne,
1999). The chain of custody, which ensures continuous

The paramount concern at a crime scene is the pres-
ervation of life and injury prevention.

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200 Homeland Security: Principles and Practice of Terrorism Response

accountability, comprising all people who had custody
of the evidence since its acquisition by a law enforce-
ment agency. It begins when the item is collected and
is maintained until its disposition. People in the chain
of custody are responsible for the safekeeping and pres-
ervation of an item of evidence while it is under their
control. Because of the sensitive nature of evidence, an
evidence custodian often assumes responsibility for the
item when it is not in use by the investigating officer or
other competent authority involved in the investigation
(Schultz, 1977).

Once the evidence from a crime scene is properly
identified, collected, and stored, it must be processed by
a multitude of professionals who analyze the evidence
until its evidentiary value is no longer of use. At this
point the evidence may be considered for disposal. To
determine when an item of evidence should be disposed
of, the evidence custodian consults with the investigator
who originally produced it, and any other investigator
who has an official interest, to ensure the item is no
longer needed as evidence (Schultz, 1977).

Chapter Summary

Law enforcement history shows that when mistakes are
made, they predominantly occur during the initial stages
of an investigation or at the crime scene (Adcock, 1989).
Many cases are lost or unresolved because the crime
scene was not processed properly.

Further, there are numerous incidents where po-
lice officers were careless and valuable evidence was
not identified, not collected, or lost, resulting in a poor
follow-up by the investigating officers. Worse, in some
situations, this carelessness lost the only evidence that
proves or disproves that a crime was committed and
identifies the perpetrator.

The critical nature of evidence cannot be ignored
(Hawthorne, 1999). The responsibility of ensuring this
does not happen belongs to all of those involved, from
the first law enforcement responder to the investigators
and technicians. Everyone within the system needs to
know the importance of the crime scene and how it
should be processed (Adcock, 1989).

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201

Wrap Up
Chapter Questions

1. Define a crime scene.
2. Discuss the theory of exchange in the evidence

process.
3. What are the three major classifications of evi-

dence? List several examples in each category.
4. List and discuss at least four crime scene observa-

tions that should be made by emergency respond-
ers.

5. List and discuss five key steps for first responder
preservation of evidence.

6. Discuss the concept of chain of custody.

Chapter Project

Research law enforcement manuals, books, articles, or
training modules for information about evidence pres-

ervation and collection. Examine their standard operat-
ing procedures for evidence preservation and recovery.
Based on your findings, write a comprehensive on-scene
procedure for an emergency response agency relating to
crime scene preservation.

Vital Vocabulary

Crime scene Any area in which a crime may have been
committed as well as anywhere the criminal was dur-
ing the commission of the crime and the egress from
the scene.

Evidence Something legally submitted to a competent
tribunal as a means of ascertaining the truth in an alleged
matter under investigation.

Physical evidence Anything that has been used, left,
removed, altered, or contaminated during the commis-
sion of a crime by either the victim or the suspect.

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  • Chapter 13
  • Chapter 14

<< /ASCII85EncodePages false /AllowTransparency false /AutoPositionEPSFiles true /AutoRotatePages /None /Binding /Left /CalGrayProfile (Dot Gain 20%) /CalRGBProfile (sRGB IEC61966-2.1) /CalCMYKProfile (U.S. Web Coated \050SWOP\051 v2) /sRGBProfile (sRGB IEC61966-2.1) /CannotEmbedFontPolicy /Error /CompatibilityLevel 1.4 /CompressObjects /Off /CompressPages true /ConvertImagesToIndexed true /PassThroughJPEGImages false /CreateJDFFile false /CreateJobTicket false /DefaultRenderingIntent /Default /DetectBlends false /DetectCurves 0.1000 /ColorConversionStrategy /LeaveColorUnchanged /DoThumbnails false /EmbedAllFonts true /EmbedOpenType false /ParseICCProfilesInComments true /EmbedJobOptions true /DSCReportingLevel 0 /EmitDSCWarnings false /EndPage -1 /ImageMemory 1048576 /LockDistillerParams false /MaxSubsetPct 100 /Optimize false /OPM 1 /ParseDSCComments true /ParseDSCCommentsForDocInfo true /PreserveCopyPage true /PreserveDICMYKValues true /PreserveEPSInfo true /PreserveFlatness true /PreserveHalftoneInfo true /PreserveOPIComments true /PreserveOverprintSettings true /StartPage 1 /SubsetFonts true /TransferFunctionInfo /Preserve /UCRandBGInfo /Preserve /UsePrologue false /ColorSettingsFile (None) /AlwaysEmbed [ true ] /NeverEmbed [ true ] /AntiAliasColorImages false /CropColorImages true /ColorImageMinResolution 300 /ColorImageMinResolutionPolicy /Warning /DownsampleColorImages false /ColorImageDownsampleType /Average /ColorImageResolution 300 /ColorImageDepth -1 /ColorImageMinDownsampleDepth 1 /ColorImageDownsampleThreshold 1.50000 /EncodeColorImages false /ColorImageFilter /None /AutoFilterColorImages false /ColorImageAutoFilterStrategy /JPEG /ColorACSImageDict << /QFactor 0.15 /HSamples [1 1 1 1] /VSamples [1 1 1 1] >>
/ColorImageDict << /QFactor 0.15 /HSamples [1 1 1 1] /VSamples [1 1 1 1] >>
/JPEG2000ColorACSImageDict << /TileWidth 256 /TileHeight 256 /Quality 30 >>
/JPEG2000ColorImageDict << /TileWidth 256 /TileHeight 256 /Quality 30 >>
/AntiAliasGrayImages false
/CropGrayImages true
/GrayImageMinResolution 300
/GrayImageMinResolutionPolicy /Warning
/DownsampleGrayImages false
/GrayImageDownsampleType /Average
/GrayImageResolution 300
/GrayImageDepth -1
/GrayImageMinDownsampleDepth 2
/GrayImageDownsampleThreshold 1.50000
/EncodeGrayImages false
/GrayImageFilter /None
/AutoFilterGrayImages true
/GrayImageAutoFilterStrategy /JPEG
/GrayACSImageDict << /QFactor 0.15 /HSamples [1 1 1 1] /VSamples [1 1 1 1] >>
/GrayImageDict << /QFactor 0.15 /HSamples [1 1 1 1] /VSamples [1 1 1 1] >>
/JPEG2000GrayACSImageDict << /TileWidth 256 /TileHeight 256 /Quality 30 >>
/JPEG2000GrayImageDict << /TileWidth 256 /TileHeight 256 /Quality 30 >>
/AntiAliasMonoImages false
/CropMonoImages true
/MonoImageMinResolution 1200
/MonoImageMinResolutionPolicy /Warning
/DownsampleMonoImages false
/MonoImageDownsampleType /Average
/MonoImageResolution 1200
/MonoImageDepth -1
/MonoImageDownsampleThreshold 1.50000
/EncodeMonoImages false
/MonoImageFilter /None
/MonoImageDict << /K -1 >>
/AllowPSXObjects false
/CheckCompliance [
/None
]
/PDFX1aCheck false
/PDFX3Check false
/PDFXCompliantPDFOnly false
/PDFXNoTrimBoxError true
/PDFXTrimBoxToMediaBoxOffset [
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
]
/PDFXSetBleedBoxToMediaBox true
/PDFXBleedBoxToTrimBoxOffset [
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
]
/PDFXOutputIntentProfile (None)
/PDFXOutputConditionIdentifier ()
/PDFXOutputCondition ()
/PDFXRegistryName ()
/PDFXTrapped /False
/Description << /CHS
/CHT
/DAN
/DEU
/ESP
/FRA
/ITA
/JPN
/KOR
/NLD (Gebruik deze instellingen om Adobe PDF-documenten te maken die zijn geoptimaliseerd voor prepress-afdrukken van hoge kwaliteit. De gemaakte PDF-documenten kunnen worden geopend met Acrobat en Adobe Reader 5.0 en hoger.)
/NOR
/PTB
/SUO
/SVE
/ENU (Use these settings to create Adobe PDF documents best suited for high-quality prepress printing. Created PDF documents can be opened with Acrobat and Adobe Reader 5.0 and later.)
>>
/Namespace [
(Adobe)
(Common)
(1.0)
]
/OtherNamespaces [
<< /AsReaderSpreads false /CropImagesToFrames true /ErrorControl /WarnAndContinue /FlattenerIgnoreSpreadOverrides false /IncludeGuidesGrids false /IncludeNonPrinting false /IncludeSlug false /Namespace [ (Adobe) (InDesign) (4.0) ] /OmitPlacedBitmaps false /OmitPlacedEPS false /OmitPlacedPDF false /SimulateOverprint /Legacy >>
<< /AddBleedMarks false /AddColorBars false /AddCropMarks false /AddPageInfo false /AddRegMarks false /ConvertColors /ConvertToCMYK /DestinationProfileName () /DestinationProfileSelector /DocumentCMYK /Downsample16BitImages true /FlattenerPreset << /PresetSelector /MediumResolution >>
/FormElements false
/GenerateStructure false
/IncludeBookmarks false
/IncludeHyperlinks false
/IncludeInteractive false
/IncludeLayers false
/IncludeProfiles false
/MultimediaHandling /UseObjectSettings
/Namespace [
(Adobe)
(CreativeSuite)
(2.0)
]
/PDFXOutputIntentProfileSelector /DocumentCMYK
/PreserveEditing true
/UntaggedCMYKHandling /LeaveUntagged
/UntaggedRGBHandling /UseDocumentProfile
/UseDocumentBleed false
>>
]
>> setdistillerparams
<< /HWResolution [2400 2400] /PageSize [684.000 855.000] >> setpagedevice

<< /ASCII85EncodePages false /AllowTransparency false /AutoPositionEPSFiles true /AutoRotatePages /None /Binding /Left /CalGrayProfile (Dot Gain 20%) /CalRGBProfile (sRGB IEC61966-2.1) /CalCMYKProfile (U.S. Web Coated \050SWOP\051 v2) /sRGBProfile (sRGB IEC61966-2.1) /CannotEmbedFontPolicy /Error /CompatibilityLevel 1.4 /CompressObjects /Off /CompressPages true /ConvertImagesToIndexed true /PassThroughJPEGImages false /CreateJDFFile false /CreateJobTicket false /DefaultRenderingIntent /Default /DetectBlends false /DetectCurves 0.1000 /ColorConversionStrategy /LeaveColorUnchanged /DoThumbnails false /EmbedAllFonts true /EmbedOpenType false /ParseICCProfilesInComments true /EmbedJobOptions true /DSCReportingLevel 0 /EmitDSCWarnings false /EndPage -1 /ImageMemory 1048576 /LockDistillerParams false /MaxSubsetPct 100 /Optimize false /OPM 1 /ParseDSCComments true /ParseDSCCommentsForDocInfo true /PreserveCopyPage true /PreserveDICMYKValues true /PreserveEPSInfo true /PreserveFlatness true /PreserveHalftoneInfo true /PreserveOPIComments true /PreserveOverprintSettings true /StartPage 1 /SubsetFonts true /TransferFunctionInfo /Preserve /UCRandBGInfo /Preserve /UsePrologue false /ColorSettingsFile (None) /AlwaysEmbed [ true ] /NeverEmbed [ true ] /AntiAliasColorImages false /CropColorImages true /ColorImageMinResolution 300 /ColorImageMinResolutionPolicy /Warning /DownsampleColorImages false /ColorImageDownsampleType /Average /ColorImageResolution 300 /ColorImageDepth -1 /ColorImageMinDownsampleDepth 1 /ColorImageDownsampleThreshold 1.50000 /EncodeColorImages false /ColorImageFilter /None /AutoFilterColorImages false /ColorImageAutoFilterStrategy /JPEG /ColorACSImageDict << /QFactor 0.15 /HSamples [1 1 1 1] /VSamples [1 1 1 1] >>
/ColorImageDict << /QFactor 0.15 /HSamples [1 1 1 1] /VSamples [1 1 1 1] >>
/JPEG2000ColorACSImageDict << /TileWidth 256 /TileHeight 256 /Quality 30 >>
/JPEG2000ColorImageDict << /TileWidth 256 /TileHeight 256 /Quality 30 >>
/AntiAliasGrayImages false
/CropGrayImages true
/GrayImageMinResolution 300
/GrayImageMinResolutionPolicy /Warning
/DownsampleGrayImages false
/GrayImageDownsampleType /Average
/GrayImageResolution 300
/GrayImageDepth -1
/GrayImageMinDownsampleDepth 2
/GrayImageDownsampleThreshold 1.50000
/EncodeGrayImages false
/GrayImageFilter /None
/AutoFilterGrayImages true
/GrayImageAutoFilterStrategy /JPEG
/GrayACSImageDict << /QFactor 0.15 /HSamples [1 1 1 1] /VSamples [1 1 1 1] >>
/GrayImageDict << /QFactor 0.15 /HSamples [1 1 1 1] /VSamples [1 1 1 1] >>
/JPEG2000GrayACSImageDict << /TileWidth 256 /TileHeight 256 /Quality 30 >>
/JPEG2000GrayImageDict << /TileWidth 256 /TileHeight 256 /Quality 30 >>
/AntiAliasMonoImages false
/CropMonoImages true
/MonoImageMinResolution 1200
/MonoImageMinResolutionPolicy /Warning
/DownsampleMonoImages false
/MonoImageDownsampleType /Average
/MonoImageResolution 1200
/MonoImageDepth -1
/MonoImageDownsampleThreshold 1.50000
/EncodeMonoImages false
/MonoImageFilter /None
/MonoImageDict << /K -1 >>
/AllowPSXObjects false
/CheckCompliance [
/None
]
/PDFX1aCheck false
/PDFX3Check false
/PDFXCompliantPDFOnly false
/PDFXNoTrimBoxError true
/PDFXTrimBoxToMediaBoxOffset [
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
]
/PDFXSetBleedBoxToMediaBox true
/PDFXBleedBoxToTrimBoxOffset [
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
]
/PDFXOutputIntentProfile (None)
/PDFXOutputConditionIdentifier ()
/PDFXOutputCondition ()
/PDFXRegistryName ()
/PDFXTrapped /False
/Description << /CHS
/CHT
/DAN
/DEU
/ESP
/FRA
/ITA
/JPN
/KOR
/NLD (Gebruik deze instellingen om Adobe PDF-documenten te maken die zijn geoptimaliseerd voor prepress-afdrukken van hoge kwaliteit. De gemaakte PDF-documenten kunnen worden geopend met Acrobat en Adobe Reader 5.0 en hoger.)
/NOR
/PTB
/SUO
/SVE
/ENU (Use these settings to create Adobe PDF documents best suited for high-quality prepress printing. Created PDF documents can be opened with Acrobat and Adobe Reader 5.0 and later.)
>>
/Namespace [
(Adobe)
(Common)
(1.0)
]
/OtherNamespaces [
<< /AsReaderSpreads false /CropImagesToFrames true /ErrorControl /WarnAndContinue /FlattenerIgnoreSpreadOverrides false /IncludeGuidesGrids false /IncludeNonPrinting false /IncludeSlug false /Namespace [ (Adobe) (InDesign) (4.0) ] /OmitPlacedBitmaps false /OmitPlacedEPS false /OmitPlacedPDF false /SimulateOverprint /Legacy >>
<< /AddBleedMarks false /AddColorBars false /AddCropMarks false /AddPageInfo false /AddRegMarks false /ConvertColors /ConvertToCMYK /DestinationProfileName () /DestinationProfileSelector /DocumentCMYK /Downsample16BitImages true /FlattenerPreset << /PresetSelector /MediumResolution >>
/FormElements false
/GenerateStructure false
/IncludeBookmarks false
/IncludeHyperlinks false
/IncludeInteractive false
/IncludeLayers false
/IncludeProfiles false
/MultimediaHandling /UseObjectSettings
/Namespace [
(Adobe)
(CreativeSuite)
(2.0)
]
/PDFXOutputIntentProfileSelector /DocumentCMYK
/PreserveEditing true
/UntaggedCMYKHandling /LeaveUntagged
/UntaggedRGBHandling /UseDocumentProfile
/UseDocumentBleed false
>>
]
>> setdistillerparams
<< /HWResolution [2400 2400] /PageSize [684.000 855.000] >> setpagedevice

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