Translating Metaphores in the Catcher in the Rye

TRANSLATING COLLOQUIAL IDIOMS/METAPHORS IN THE CATCHER IN THE RYE: A COMPARISON OF METAPHORICAL MEANING RETENTION IN THE SPANISH AND CATALAN TEXTS MICHAEL O’MARA Catholic University of Valencia San Vicente Martir Michael. [email protected] es 57 In vindictiveness of the fantastic's standing unformed the American Library Association's schedule of the one hundred most regularly censored quantitys, The Catcher in the Rye (1951), by J. D. Salinger, is spaciously weighed to be one of the most speaking studious compositions of the twentieth epoch, regularly set in proud school studious curricula throughout Europe and North America. The quarrel concerns its alleged alienation, low vernacular and passageure of sexual themes, atoms that predelineate Holden's use of the English vernacular, or his idiolect. Idiolect applys to indivisible address. It is fixed on title, regulate preoption, toneistics, toneistics, and includes pronunciation. Of portion still n ess is the committer’s use of italics to destill n ess feeling, or wclose talk decline when accordingly rhythm in, and unformed, real regulates. It is enjoyly that this custom was brought almost to consummation in The Catcher in the Rye, in replicating adgarb patterns in written vernacular. Quite mayhap, it has not been matched past. The committer’s power to stop rhythm and despicablefix adgarb is, verily, alsimultaneously observable. This is in-particular patent for unravelers who are abundant in, or are proper speakers of American English. Weigh how the committer stresses groups of regulates: "Wuddaya balance so what? " (p. 41) "You don't do one damn sight the way you're supposed to" (p. 41) "She was blocking up the exhaustive goddam interregulate in the aisle" (p. 87) miscelanea: a chronicle of english and american studies 35 (2007): pp. 57-75 ISSN: 1137-6368 Michael O’Mara Other opportunitys, real regulates are stressed: “What the tortureja do that for? ” (p. 41) “Well, don't get sore environing it... ” (p. 82) “Which is somesight that communicates me a magnificent abstinence in the ass. I balance if notability yawns upupharmonious end they’re doubt you to do them a goddam favor” (p. 28) Finally, and peraccident most diagnosis, the committer stresses calibre of regulates: “I balance I’m not going to be a goddam surgeon or a violinist or anysight anyway” (p. 39) "It's not eden or anything... ” (p. 55) “For Chrissake, Holden. This is environing a goddam sordidball glove" (p. 1) 58 Conserving the uncommonness of Holden Caulfield's idiolect has been a doubt for translators seeking to rescue the pi and the odor of the disquisition using the techniques that Salinger initiatoryly used, indicately, exit of intelligence and pompous apostrophe in which, instantly and intimately, Holden decides his incident in reminiscence to the unravelers. This technique has the pi of resupple the secret compositionings and reflection manneres of Holden —disjointed and random— and to-boot procures dialogs that are remarkably smooth and normal. To play Holden and his frustrations using the identical register in another vernacular is a daunting chore, verily, in-particular past Holden attaches his own balanceings to the vernacular that he uses. Costello1 reminds us that Holden misappropriates despicable looks from his end and makes them his own. For in, his unobstructed and dissolute use of "and all" to end reflections along delay the unenjoy "I truly did" or "It truly was" are general throughout the fantastic, ancillary to shape Holden's own unenjoy unity. Other committers enjoy commented upon the concern of Holden’s adgarb in defining his office in bearing to the unravelers: “... his vernacular, his own idiolect, ample of toneistics and despicableplaceisms, is the deep portion that procure co-operate to Holden’s fruit as a office in his transition from boy to adulthood and his bearingship delay the unraveler”2. Although translating Holden's toneistics may communicate doubts, it may be one of the most dignified aspects of conserving the odor of his idiolect and pi it has on unravelers. Holden Caulfield's toneistics Enjoy other vernaculars, English is ample of toneistics such as "to split a leg" and "to draw someone's leg". An toneistic is a amount of look, plain unraveling, toneistic, etc. , private to a vernacular; a privateity of toneisticology beloved by the possession of a vernacular, and regularly having a signification other than its plain or obstruct one. 3 miscelanea: a chronicle of english and american studies 35 (2007): pp. 57-75 ISSN: 1137-6368 Translating despicablefix toneistics/metaphors in The Catcher in the Rye Idioms generally enjoy three diagnosiss: 1. Their balanceing cannot be attendant from their components or any ordainment thereof, and must be distinguishing as a exhaustive. If one were to expone ‘to split a leg’ simply on the premise of its components it command be very arduous to substantiate that the sightive balanceing is definitive, balanceing to enjoy a amiable opportunity, not run waste, in-particular when used in the urgent. Likewise, nowclose in the look ‘to draw someone’s leg’ tclose appears any atom that would allude-to joking, or specifically, having someone revere sights that are not keenleman. 2. None of their constituents may be exchanged delay regulates of aenjoy balanceing. For in, if one were to exchange the regulate ‘fracture’ for ‘break’ in to ‘split a leg’, the balanceing would be obsolete. Likewise, upon being the sight of joking one could not say that he or she had had his or her leg ‘stretched’. 3. Finally, toneistics cannot be syntactically mitigated. One would probably not be implied if one were to say ‘I had my leg broken’ balanceing ‘I had a amiable opportunity’; it would be twin-fellowly confusing to say ‘I had my leg drawed yesterday’ if one were to disobstruct that they were joked delay yesterday. Beyond any compositionual distinguishledge a scholar of English command enjoy weak conception what these looks balance. Clearly, the balanceing in these toneistics is typical, or "expressing one sight in provisions normally denoting another"4 and typical wclose "a aspect of adgarb in which a regulate or toneistic denoting one peel of sight or conception is used in fix of another to allude-to a twin-fellowity betwixt them (as in the ship plows to sea)". 5 For this debate, the toneistics in doubt set in the quantity could be applyred to as despicablefix images6 as some committers prefer: images for the aforementioned semantic arguments and despicablefix accordingly they are images which rest in the balance circumlocutory chronicles, in this plight, cant. But the promise ‘commonfix toneistic’ looks to be remarkable in most inquiry compositions7. For this debate I procure apply to them as despicablefix toneistics/metaphors. This con-balance standpointes largely on the pragmatic scope of these images past it is the idiolect of Holden Caulprovince that is to be ponderd in its aesthetic pi and ‘flavor’. Therefore, not all images set in Holden's idiolect were clarified. In deed, some images are so despicable that it has been neglected that they are images, having been certain into scale use. Such is the plight delay the majestic bulk of phrasal verbs in English: ‘get up’, ‘get balance’, etc. Also, tclose are abundant ins of despicablefix regulate combinations general delay some quantity in the fantastic, but they enjoy not been comprised in the con-balance as their typical qualities are balance abstract8 and command rather, and balance properly, be learned as collocations, or regulates that are set to happen synchronously, to ponder their restrictions of possession in bearing to other components (prepositions, verbs, etc. . Close are some ins that use the regulate ‘hell’: miscelanea: a chronicle of english and american studies 35 (2007): pp. 57-75 ISSN: 1137-6368 59 Michael O’Mara torture of it as torture The torture out to bang torture (as a noun) The torture delay it in torture 29, 61, 73,210 34,35, 37, 38, 94, 113 52, 179 53, 115, 69 146 TABLE 1: Despicable regulate combinations not comprised in the con-balance and their page quantity Theoretical framecomposition We are in concord delay Lorenzo, M. et al. in that the foremost stride a translator must concern is to evidently mark-out his sightive antecedently supple a translation which is as keenleman as enjoyly to the initiatory passage. One of the aspects of Hans Vermeer’s concept of skopos (1989:227) is the literature of a evidently mark-outd sightive or scope for translation: Any amount of translational possession, including consequently translation itself, may be conceived as an possession, as the indicate implies. Any possession has an aim, a scope. The regulate skopos, then, is a technical promise for the aim or scope of translation. 0 This said, we are in concord delay Lorenzo et. al (1999: 324) in the transators’ role to “rescue the scope of the ST (fount passage) delayout any unnecessary mutability. The deep sightive of any translation should be that of fidelity to the initiatory passage delay obstruct regard to plugness. Delay this sightive in recollection, any translation of The Catcher in the Rye must weigh the enjoyly scopes the committer had in using despicablefix toneistics/metaphors in the foremost fix. Paul Newmark offers that tclose are two scopes that images assist: a applyential scope, which delineates "a spiritual manner or declare, a concept, a peculiar, an sight, a property or an possession balance comprehensively and concisely than is enjoyly in grammatical or tangible vernacular"9 and a pragmatic scope "which is synchronous, is to regenus to the feelings, to concern, to whitewash "graphically", to gratifiedden, to happiness, to confuse. The foremost scope is impressible, the second aesthetic. 10 Although Holden's despicablefix images/idioms do enjoy applyential sensation, it is arguable that greatly of their sensation in amounting an well-mannered-behaved-behaved sunder of his idiolect derives from their pragmatic or aesthetic scope, their assistance to the odor of Holden's disquisition. Any translation of The Catcher in the Rye would enjoy to be impressible to the pi that they amount on unravelers, and try to amount the identical pi in the miscelanea: a chronicle of english and american studies 35 (2007): pp. 7-75 ISSN: 1137-6368 Translating despicablefix toneistics/metaphors in The Catcher in the Rye translation (Nida's Equipollent Effect). This would bequeath, whenever enjoyly, locating in the target vernacular a image used in circumlocutory chronicles whose semantic gaining balancelaps as obstructly as enjoyly the balanceings of the initiatory image. This would insist-upon a equality betwixt amount and balanceing or a power of individuality as Lorenzo et al. (1999) delineate where: ... ny atom in the ST [fount passage] should be assignd and translatable into the TT [target passage] by paying obstruct regard not solely to the gaining but to-boot to the amount. Accordingly, tclose should be a obstruct structural and balanceingful equality (=identity) betwixt the fount and the target vernacular. The translator, then, should hold to the ST itself as the solely sordid for the manner of translation. The TT, consequently, procure be the end of a obstruct anatomy of the ST by behindcited the individuality power and an attack at elevate exponeation or disconnection should be discarded. 1 For the regard of pastrity in this inquiry, I procure be using Lopez’s (1997) specification12 of lexicalized constitutions delay a neglect variation: her specification encompasses toneistics and cliches which can be implied in a broader feeling as ‘regulate combinations’, ‘fixed looks’ and ‘phrasal lexemes’. Although they are unlikeive atoms in the idiolect of Holden as well-mannered-behaved, I offer to except succession amountulae (you could decide, if you distinguish what I balance) and non-canonical looks, implied by Lyons (1968: 178) in Lopez as ‘schemata’ (How environing...? , to standpoint the inquiry specifically on Holden's despicablefix toneistics/metaphors and the arrangements that were used in their translation. These procure be delineated according to Lopez’s model13, which was acquired in sunder from Baker (1992), who delineates indecent foremost arrangements: grammatical translation, translation by equivalence, translation by variation and translation by exclusion. Grammatical translation involves the use of a lexical constitution in the target vernacular that is aenjoy in amount and balanceing. These writings are rarer, but they do happen. For in when Holden says "I damn nigh percolateped spiritless" (p. 1) the despicablefix toneistic/image "to percoadvanced spiritless" is assignd using the grammatical translation arrangement as tclose rests a writing in amount and balanceing in twain Spanish "Casi me caigo muerto" (p. 46), and Catalan “Va anar de poc que no caigues a terra mort" (p. 51). Translation by equivalence is a arrangement that is regularly assiduous when tclose is no exhaustive writing betwixt constitution and amount betwixt the fount and target vernacular. It involves the use of another lexical constitution in the target vernacular that is aenjoy in balanceing but irrelative in amount. "I wouldn’t enjoy the guts to do it" (p. 9) is assignd into Spanish as "no habria tenido agallas para hacerlo" (p. 116) and into Catalan as "no tindria pebrots de fer-ho" (144). The constitutions themselves are in-truth identical; the unlikeness resides in the deed that end the noun ‘guts’ can pointed gallantry toneisticatically in English, the identical is not keenleman in miscelanea: a chronicle of english and american studies 35 (2007): pp. 57-75 ISSN: 1137-6368 61 Michael O’Mara 62 Spanish or in Catalan and is substantiated by irrelative nouns, indicately, ‘agallas’, grammatically ‘gills’ or ‘tonsils’ in Spanish and ‘pebrots’, or grammatically, ‘peppers’ in Catalan. Translation by variation involves paraphrasing or deciphering the typical balanceing of a lexicalized constitution. The end is the privation of typical balanceing; the conception is no longer pointeded in typical provisions. This arrangement is usually assiduous when no equipollent or nigh equipollent constitution can be set in the target vernacular. Baker argues that this technique is to-boot used when "it looks irrelevant to use toneisticatic vernacular in the target passage accordingly of unlikenesss in stylistic preferences of the fount and target vernaculars". 14 For in, "Old Stradlater was one of his pets... (p. 43) is assignd in Spanish as "Stradlater era uno de sus favoritos... ” (p. 60) and Catalan as "L'Stradlater era un dels seus preferits... ” (p. 71). In English ‘pet’ has the behindcited balanceings: "1: a domesticated fleshly kept for sensuality rather than utility; 2a: a voluptuous and usually robbed child; b: a peculiar who is treated delay remarkable peelness or weighation: darling". 15 The balanceings of this regulate in Spanish (fleshly domestico" or "mascota") and in Catalan ("fleshly domestic") are not usually expanded to delineate commonalty who are treated delay "mercy and weighation". Here, a aenjoy image in balanceing but not in amount could be used, or, as is the plight in this in, the image command be commentd or deciphered. The engagementinal arrangement, exclusion, is used when a image in the fount vernacular is not assignd past an equipollent cannot be set, or accordingly it is not facile to decipher, or for stylistic debates is not reputed mismisappropriate for inclusion. This engagementinal arrangement bring-ins some concerning concerns: it is alsimultaneously enjoyly that tclose is no aenjoy constitution in the target vernacular to decipher the paraphrasing of a image, but if such aenjoy or equipollentt constitutions were to rest, tclose ight be other atoms delayin the majesticer cultural conpassage of the target vernacular (elements listless in the majesticer cultural conpassage of the fount vernacular) that could collision the misexpediency of their use. Perhaps, what should be weighed is whether the enjoyly connotations that the image could enjoy or amount beyond its refinement of spring command perplex the unraveler from the initiatory province of applyence of the image, or bring-in unimportant balanceings that are not necessarily communicate in the situation of the initiatory image. miscelanea: a chronicle of english and american studies 35 (2007): pp. 7-75 ISSN: 1137-6368 Translating despicablefix toneistics/metaphors in The Catcher in the Rye Fount passage despicablefix images and their target passage playations: Description METAPHOR ST (P. ) 1 ... I got moderately run-down... (1) SPANISH TT (P. ) ... me quedara bastante hecho polvo... (9) Equivalence 2 It butchered me. (2) Me dejo sin habla. (10) Equivalence 3 Strictly for the birds. (2) Bobadas. (10) Variation 4 So I got the ax. They communicate guys the ax alsimultaneously regularly at Pencey. (4) Asi que me expulsaron. En Pencey expulsan a los chicos con greatlya frecuencia. (12) Variation 5 I enjoy no wriggle,... (5) No tengo nada de fuelle... 13) Equivalence 6 They got a bang out of sights,... (6) Pero se lo pasaban bomba con sus cosas,... (16) Equivalence 7 ... though – in a half-assed way, of regulate. (6) ... un poco a lo tonto, claro. (16) Equivalence 8 It gets on your nerves casually (7) A veces te ponia nervioso. (17) Modification16 9 That strokeed him out. (8) Se hizo una gracia tremenda. (17) Equivalence 10 I balance he didn't hit the ceiling or anything. (8) Vamos, que no se puso como una fiera ni nada. (18) Equivalence CATALAN TT (P. ) ... d'acabar ben desinflat... (7) Equivalence En va deixar de pedra. (8) Equivalence Feeling comentaris. 8) Variation O sigui que em van fotre al carrer. Foten la keen al carrer ben sovint, a Pencey. (11) Equivalence 63 No aguanto gens... (13) Variation S'ho passaven be,... (15) Variation ... pero a mig gas, es clar. (15) Equivalence A vegades et posava nervios. (16) Variation Aixo el va fer petar de riure. (17) Equivalence Vull dir que no va pujar per les parets ni res d'aixo. (18) Grammatical miscelanea: a chronicle of english and american studies 35 (2007): pp. 57-75 ISSN: 1137-6368 Michael O’Mara METAPHOR ST (P. ) 11 So I shot the bull for a end (12) SPANISH TT (P. ) ... asi que me enrolle un buen rato. 23) Variation CATALAN TT (P. ) Aixi que vaig xerrar una estona. (24) Variation Es ficaven pel coi de finestra i tot. (24) Grammatical Aquesta historia em va deixar ben de pedra. (32) Equivalence ... i llegeixo molts llibres de guerra i de misteri i etcetera, pero no m'entusiasmen gaire. (33) Variation "Suare sang... ” (47) Equivalence ... m'ho passo de por imitant-les. (49) Equivalence No aguanto res de res. (49) Variation 12 They were future in the goddam wriggleow. (13) Los habia a patadas. (24) Equivalence 13 That incident regular environing butchered me. (18) Esa historia por poco me deja sin habla. (31) Equivalence 4 ... and I unravel a lot of war quantitys and mysteries and all, but they don't stroke me out too greatly. (18) ... y leo un monton de libros de guerra y de misterio y todo eso, pero no me vuelven loco. (31) Equivalence 15 64 "... I'll be up the streamlet... ” (28) "... me la lading... ” (43) Equivalence 16 I get a bang imitating them. (29) ... lo paso bomba imitando a... (44) Equivalence 17 I enjoy harmonious any wriggle at all (29) Tengo muy poco fuelle. (44) Equivalence 18 I damn nigh percolateped spiritless. (31) Casi me caigo muerto. (46) Va anar de poc que no caigues a terra mort. (51) Grammatical Actual I no ho deien nomes per dir. 63) Variation El feia tornar boig... (69) Equivalence L'Stradlater era un dels seus preferits... (71) Variation 19 And they weren't regular shooting the crap. (38) Y no lo decian por decir. (54) Variation 20 It press him crazed... (41) Le sacaba de quicio... (59) Equivalence 21 Old Stradlater was one of his pets... (43) Stradlater era uno de sus favoritos... (60) Variation miscelanea: a chronicle of english and american studies 35 (2007): pp. 57-75 ISSN: 1137-6368 Translating despicablefix toneistics/metaphors in The Catcher in the Rye METAPHOR ST (P. ) 22 I'd been communicaten the ax... (51) SPANISH TT (P. ) ... e habian expulsado... (71) Variation CATALAN TT (P. ) ... m'havien fotut reality... (85) Equivalence ... i jo estava aqui, expulsat una altra vegada. (85) Variation No hi toca gaire... (86) Equivalence Aixo em va deixar clavat. (91) Equivalence Aixo em va matar. (91) Grammatical Despres vaig comencar a deixar anar la llengua de debo. (92) Equivalence ... i vaig poder descansar la llengua. De totes , maneres no em sap greu enjoyr-la fet anar una estona. (93) Equivalence ... despres del que li vaig deixar anar... (94) Equivalence Que n'era una de ben grossa... (95) Equivalence Tenia ganes de trucar algu. 97) Variation Despres vaig pensar de trucar a la mare de Jane Gallagher... (97) 65 23 -and close I was getting the ax intermittently. (52) ... mientras me estaban expulsando otra vez. (71) Variation 24 She doesn't enjoy all her marbles any balance... (52) Esta un poco ida... (72) Equivalence 25 That butchered me. (55) Me dejo sin habla. (76) Equivalence 26 That butchered me. (55) Me dejo sin habla. (76) Equivalence 27 Then I truly agoing chucking the old crap environing (56) Entonces fue cuando de verdad empece a meter bolas. (77) Equivalence 28 ... and it gave me a accident to depart-from shooting it. I'm gratified I shot it for a end, though. (57) .. me dio la oportunidad de dejar de largar. Pero me alegre de haber largado un rato. (78) Equivalence 29 ... behind all the crap I shot, (57) ... despues de todo el rollo que le largue... (78) Equivalence 30 Which was truly a hot one... (58) Esa si que era buena... (80) Variation 31 I felt enjoy giving notability a buzz. (59) Tenia ganas de llamar a alguien. (81) Variation 32 Then I reflection of giving Jane Gallagher's woman a buzz,... (59) Luego pense en llamar a la madre de Jane Gallagher... (81) miscelanea: a chronicle of english and american studies 35 (2007): pp. 57-75 ISSN: 1137-6368 Michael O’Mara METAPHOR ST (P. SPANISH TT (P. ) Variation CATALAN TT (P. ) Variation ... no hi hauries de fer el ximple... (102) Equivalence Vaig passar-me tota la nit festejant amb una hipocrita terrific... (103) Equivalence ... vaig comencar a jugar amb la conception de trucar a la Jane,... (103) Variation 33 ... you shouldn't charger environing delay her at all,... (62) ... no deberias hacer el indio con ella... (85) Equivalence 34 I elapsed the exhaustive confusion necking delay a terrific phony... (63) Me pase toda la noche besandome y todo eso con una chica falsisima... (85) Variation 35 I agoing toying delay the conception,... , of giving old Jane a buzz... 63) ... empece a jugar con la conception de llamar a Jane,... (86) Variation 36 Anyway, I went balance to the phone and gave her a buzz. (63) Bueno, pues fui al telefono Es igual, vaig agafar el y la llame. (86) telefon i li vaig trucar. (104) Variation Species ... , va anar de ben poc que no truco a la Phoebe,... (110) Variation Pero no podia arriscar-me a fer-li una trucada,... (110) Equivalence ... no m'hauria fet res xerrar una estona amb la Phoebe. (110) Variation ... L'Allie tenia en barco de vela i li agradava jugar-hi... (112) Variation Sabia que no el deixaria anar gaire lluny amb ella... 130) Variation 66 37 ... I damn nigh gave my kid sister Phoebe a buzz,... (66) ... estuve casi a punto de llamar a mi hermana Phoebe. (90) Variation 38 But I couldn't concern a accident on giving her a buzz,... (66) Pero no podia arriesgarme a llamarla... (90) Variation 39 ... I truly wouldn't enjoy recollectioned shooting the crap... (67) Pero no me habria importado pegar la hebra... (90) Equivalence 40 Allie had this sailboat he used to enjoy to imbecile environing delay... (68) Allie tenia un barquito de vela con el que le gustaba jugar... (92) Variation 41 I knew she wouldn't let him get to foremost sordid delay her,... 80) Sabia que no le habria dejado llegar hasta el ultimate con ella... (105)17 Variation miscelanea: a chronicle of english and american studies 35 (2007): pp. 57-75 ISSN: 1137-6368 Translating despicablefix toneistics/metaphors in The Catcher in the Rye METAPHOR ST (P. ) 42 ... and a lot of other very tricky matter that communicates me a abstinence in the ass. (84) SPANISH TT (P. ) ... y un monton de florituras de esas que me dan cien patadas. (110) Equivalence CATALAN TT (P. ) ... i tota una altra pila de filigranes que em fan venir mal d'estomac. (137) Equivalence Soc un d'aquells tios forca gallines. (143) Equivalence ... no tindria pebrots de fer-ho. 144) Equivalence No es pas gens divertit ser gallina. Potser no soc gallina del tot. No ho se. Em sembla que potser soc nomes una mica gallina... soc una mica gallina... El que no s'hauria de ser es gallina. (145) Equivalence Es ser gallina d'una manera molt curiosa... pero es ser gallina, i tant. (146) Equivalence Ell va quedar ben torrat... (146) Equivalence Tens ganes de sucar aquesta nit? (147) Equivalence ... no m'havia de mudar ni res per una prostituta... (149) Equivalence Quan fa una estona que les petoneges,... (150) Variation 43 I'm one of these very yellow guys (88) Soy un tio de lo mas cobarde. 115) Variation 44 I wouldn't enjoy the guts to do it. (89) ... no habria tenido agallas para hacerlo. (116) Equivalence 45 It's no fun to be yellow. Mayhap I'm not all yellow. I don't distinguish. I reckon mayhap I'm regular sunderly yellow... I'm sunderly yellow... what you should be is not yellow at all. (89) No tiene gracia ser cobarde. Aunque quiza no sea cobarde del todo. No se. Creo que en sundere soy cobarde... en sundere cobarde... No se debe ser cobarde en absoluto; (117) Variation 67 46 It's a sportive peel of yellowness... but it's yellowness, all upupharmonious (90) ... es un tipo de cobardia bastante raro, pero aun asi es cobardia. 117) Variation 47 He got corrupt,... (90) El acabo curda perdido... (118) Equivalence 48 Innarested in a weak follower t'night? (91) ?Te interesa echar un polvo esta noche? (118) Equivalence 49 I distinguish I didn't enjoy to get all dolled up for a profane or anything... (91) ... no tenia que ponerme de punto en blanco ni nada de eso para una prostituta... (119) Equivalence 50 Behind you neck them for a end,... (92) Despues de que te has besado y achuchado y todo eso con ellas,... (120) Variation miscelanea: a chronicle of english and american studies 35 (2007): pp. 57-75 ISSN: 1137-6368 Michael O’Mara METAPHOR ST (P. 51 When I'm horsing environing delay a miss... (93) SPANISH TT (P. ) ... cuando estoy enrollandome con una chica... (121) Equivalence CATALAN TT (P. ) ... quan estic amb una tia... (151) Equivalence Vaig pensar de trucar a la Jane,... (169) Variation ... si no ens haguessim petonejat tant i tant. (170) Variation ... la peculiara que estic petonejant... (170) Variation Em tocava molt l'oremus... (171) Equivalence ... m'havien tornat a fotre reality. (173) Equivalence ... faria una trucada a la Jane... (186) Equivalence Podia agafar alguna cosa ben jazzy... i xiular-ho tan facil i be... que et podia deixar de pedra. 198) Equivalence Vam fer una mica de comedia al taxi. (200) Equivalence Ets pitjor que un gra al cul... (212) Grammatical 52 I reflection of giving old Jabe a buzz,... (105) Pense en llamar a Jane... (136) Variation 53 ... if we hadn't necked so damn greatly. (105) ... si no nos hubieramos besado y achuchado tanto. (137) Variation 54 ... whoever I'm necking... (105) ... la peculiara con la que me estoy besando y todo eso... (137) Variation 68 55 She gave me a abstinence in the ass... (106) Me caia como una patada en el culo... (138) Grammatical 56 I got the ax intermittently (107) ... me habian expulsado otra vez. (139) Variation 7 ... I'd communicate old Jane a buzz... (116) ... podia llamar a Jane... (149) Variation 58 He could concern somesight very jazzy... and whistle it so discerning... it could butcher you. (124) Podia coger una cancion muy de jazz... y la silbaba tan bien y tan suavecito... que te podias morir. (158) Grammatical 59 We chargerd environing a weak bit in the cab... (125) En el taxi... nos besamos y nos achuchamos un poco. (159) Variation 60 You communicate me a magnificent abstinence in the ass... (133) ... me caes peor que una patada en el culo. (169) Grammatical miscelanea: a chronicle of english and american studies 35 (2007): pp. 57-75 ISSN: 1137-6368 Translating despicablefix toneistics/metaphors in The Catcher in the Rye METAPHOR ST (P. ) 61 Boy, did she hit the ceiling when I said that. (133) SPANISH TT (P. ) Jo, como se puso cuando le dije aquello. (169) Equivalence CATALAN TT (P. ) Hosti, si va tocar el sostre quan vaig dir aixo. (212) Grammatical Ho vaig anar tallant gradualment. (225). Equivalence ... els hipocrites hi entren per les finestres. (225) Grammatical Nomes feia comedia, jo. (229) Equivalence Me n'he d'anar... (235) Variation Era estrictament pitjor que un gra al cul... (236) Grammatical ... va fotre el enenbivouac de la sala... (237) Equivalence Nomes feia comedia, es clar. 243) Equivalence ... i xerraria una estona amb ella. (248) Variation ... la Phoebe sempre porta algun vestit que et deixa de pedra. (253) Equivalence Els quaderns dels nanos fan pixar de riure. (255) Equivalence Anava torrat... (259) 69 62 I gradually cut it out. (141) Deje de ir poco a poco. (179) Variation 63 ... the phonies are future in the wriggleow. (141) ... hay tios falsos a patadas. (179) Equivalence 64 I was solely horsing environing. (144) Solo estaba haciendo el indio. (182) Equivalence 65 I enjoy to rend... (148) Tengo que largarme... (187) Variation 66 He was closely a abstinence in the ass... (149) Era igualito que una patada en el culo... (187) Grammatical 67 ... she worst it out of the ground... (149) ... se largo... (188) Variation 68 I was solely horsing environing... (153) ... solo estaba haciendo el indio... (192) Equivalence 69 ... regular genus of masticate the fat delay her for a end. (156) ... pegar la hebra un rato con ella. (196) Equivalence 70 Phoebe regularly has some garb on that can butcher you. (160) Phoebe lleva siempre unos vestidos que te dejan sin habla. (200) Equivalence 71 Kids’ still n essbooks butcher me. (161) Los cuadernos de los crios me dejan sin habla. (202) Equivalence 72 I was plastered (163) Estaba curda (204) iscelanea: a chronicle of english and american studies 35 (2007): pp. 57-75 ISSN: 1137-6368 Michael O’Mara METAPHOR ST (P. ) SPANISH TT (P. ) Equivalence CATALAN TT (P. ) Equivalence Em va deixar de pedra. (259) Equivalence Volia dir per que m'havien fotut al carrer un altre cop. (264) Equivalence Em feia pixar de riure. (276) Equivalence Nomes fem una mica de comedia a dins de casa. (277) Equivalence Aixo em fa molta gracia. (277) Equivalence ... li trucaria,... (283) Variation ... anava una mica alegre. (287) Equivalence ... et posa nervios... (287) Variation ... anava forca alegre. (296) Equivalence Segurament li trucare... 300) Variation ... pero la Phoebe es moria de riure. (310) 73 She butchers me. (164) Me deja sin habla. (204) Equivalence 74 She balancet why did I get the ax intermittently. (167) Se applyia a que hubieran vuelto a expulsarme. (209) Variation 75 She butchers me. (175) Me deja sin habla. (219) Equivalence 76 We regular charger environing... (175) Solo hacemos el indio... (219) Equivalence 70 77 That butchers me. (175) Me deja sin habla. (220) Equivalence 78 ... I'd communicate her a buzz... (180) ... la llamaria... (225) Variation 79 ... he was a weak oiled up. (182) ... estaba un poco bebido... (227) Variation 80 ... it gets on your nerves... 182) ... le pone a uno nervioso... (228) Variation 81 He was moderately oiled up,... (188) ... estaba bastante curda. (234) Equivalence 82 I'm probably gonna communicate her a buzz... (191) Probablemente la llamare... (237) Variation 83 ... but it butchered old Phoebe. (197) ... pero a Phoebe le hizo greatlyisima gracia. (245) miscelanea: a chronicle of english and american studies 35 (2007): pp. 57-75 ISSN: 1137-6368 Translating despicablefix toneistics/metaphors in The Catcher in the Rye METAPHOR ST (P. ) SPANISH TT (P. ) Variation CATALAN TT (P. ) Equivalence ... aniria fins al tunel Holland i faria dit, fins que em carreguessin... 311) Equivalence Com si algu hi acabes de fer un riu. (314) Equivalence ... algun desgraciat pervertit que es devia enjoyr ficat a l'escola de nits per pixar o alguna cosa aixi... (315) Variation ... la vam fer petar una estona. (316) Equivalence Es va girar i va fotre el encamp. (319) Equivalence Es mes gallina que un plat de caldo... (319) Equivalence ... un d'aquells tunels que sempre fan pudor de pixats. (328) Variation 71 84 I'd go down to the Holland Tunnel and bum a ride... (198) ... iria al Tunel Holland, subiria a un coche... (246) Variation 85 Enjoy notability'd regular concernn a tend on them. (200) ... omo si alguien acabara de mear ahi. (248) Variation 86 ... some perverty bum that'd sneaked in the school advanced at confusion to concern a tend or colossus... (201) ... un pervertido que habia entrado por la noche en el colegio a mear o algo asi... (249)18 Variation 87 ... I shot the explosion for a end. (201) ... estuvimos de charla un rato. (249) Variation 88 He acrimonious environing and worst it. (204) Se volvio y salio corriendo. (252) Variation 89 He's got a yella streak a mile spacious (204) Es de un cobarde que no vea... (252) Variation 90 ... those weak tunnels that regularly scent from notability's importation a tend. (210) ... sos tuneles que siempre huelen como si alguien hubiera estado alli balancedo. (258) Variation miscelanea: a chronicle of english and american studies 35 (2007): pp. 57-75 ISSN: 1137-6368 Michael O’Mara Discussion of ends The scope of this scrutiny was to indicate which of the two translations, Spanish or Catalan, holds the majesticer mark of typical/typical balanceing in their playations of the despicablefix toneistics/metaphors that Holden Caulprovince uses, having said that the use of despicablefix images is one of the most uncommon and defining aspects of the idiolect of Holden Caulprovince in The Catcher in the Rye. This is not an assessment of how diligently the translators strove or how happy they were in sentence equipollents in the target vernaculars and in no way implies a esteem judgement as to which translation is balance ‘accurate’. It is transparent that translators composition solely delay the tools that are advantageous in their target vernaculars and cultural compositions. Nevertheless, what this con-balance attacks to procure is grounds that can succor to whitewash to what mark the typical creation of conceptions pointeded using despicablefix images in the fount passage were rescued as such in the Spanish and Catalan translations. Our ends look to allude-to that the despicablefix images played in the Catalan translation hold balance of the initiatory typical balanceing communicate in the fount passage. This translation employs on speakingly balance occasions the equivalence arrangement of image translation, used on 53 occasions in the Catalan translation and on 41 occasions in the Spanish statement. These grounds are speaking accordingly when this arrangement is used to transadvanced an conception pointeded as a image in the fount passage, the conception holds its status as a image in the target passage, the solely unlikeness being in its amount, or likeness. Since no two vernaculars are twin-fellow, target vernaculars cannot regularly procure writings in twain amount/constitution and balanceing. Our quittance is to-boot attended by the deed that the variation arrangement of translation was used on speakingly balance occasions in the Spanish translation than in the Catalan statement: it was used 44 opportunitys to amount the Spanish translation and 29 opportunitys in the product of the Catalan translation. In other regulates, the despicablefix images that Holden uses in the quantity are set to be deciphered or commentd speakingly balance in the Spanish translation than in the Catalan statement, which played these images through either equivalence or the grammatical arrangement. This engagementinal arrangement, although to a lesser mark, supports our quittance as well-mannered-behaved: it was set that the Catalan translation used a lexicalized constitution aenjoy in amount and balanceing on 8 occasions end it was set on 5 in the Spanish statement. Put irrelatively, although the unlikeness is slight (5-8), the Catalan translation uses the identical or nighly the identical image on balance occasions than the Spanish translation. Considered numerically, in the Spanish translation the most common arrangement used was that of variation (44), followed by equivalence (41), grammatical translation (5) and ultimately exclusion (0); and in the Catalan translation the most common arrangement used was equivalence (53), followed by variation (29), grammatical (8) and ultimately exclusion (0) as may be seen in Table 3: miscelanea: a chronicle of english and american studies 35 (2007): pp. 7-75 ISSN: 1137-6368 72 Translating despicablefix toneistics/metaphors in The Catcher in the Rye 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Spanish Catalan Equivalence 41 53 Variation 44 29 Grammatical 5 8 Exclusion 0 0 TABLE 2: Translation techniques: quantity 73 Our ends can be compared to aenjoy studies such as Lopez Rua (1997) in “The translation of the idiolects in The Catcher in the Rye: An advent through lexicalized constitutions” and Lorenzo, M. et al. , (1999): “Lack of balanceing interpossession betwixt English, Galician and Spanish in Salinger’s The Catcher in the Rye”. Although the standpoint of neither con-balance is the translation of despicablefix toneistics/metaphors, twain studies debate privation of balanceing upon translation from English to Spanish and from English to Galician, and coincide in the scarcity to deeptain amount and balanceing betwixt fount passage and target passage. Specifically, Lopez Rua set that the most noticeable twin-fellowity in twain translations is the prostitution and obstruction of the technique of variation or paraphrasing: Most of the inadequacies detected in the Spanish and Galician statements are connected to the translations by paracharacteristic and by exclusion. In my inspection, they are due to the deed that the translators enjoy failed to own the defining portions of the offices’ idiolect (for in, the essential use of some lexicalized constitutions). Apparently, they are not informed of the deed that the writer is deliberately employmenting to threadbare and humdrum messagebook in regulate to mark-out the offices and their adgarb behavior. Twain translations (but portisolely the Spanish one) look wholly unable to assign the offices’ idiolects servilely. Instead of unmanageable to carry those idiolects whenever enjoyly (of regulate, adapting them to the privateities of the TL), in most plights the translators regenus to the essential exclusion of repeated constitutions, and some other opportunitys they transadvanced those repeated constitutions in abundant irrelative ways miscelanea: a chronicle of english and american studies 35 (2007): pp. 57-75 ISSN: 1137-6368 Michael O’Mara delayout importation into statement the composition, the title, and the office who uses them. As a end, the translation becomes lookless. 19 The ends of Lorenzo et. al. 1999), can be applied as well-mannered-behaved-behaved to our con-over, in-particular in provisions of the concern of a close supply to the individuality power20, from which the Spanish and Gallician statements could enjoy benefited: the bulk of the enjoyly errors regular learned could enjoy been avoided if the translators had concernn into weighation the individuality power... In deed, the individuality power, past it is fixed on the equality betwixt amount and balanceing in the ST and the TT, would enjoy proved a balance servile means when negotiation delay the manner of translation from a communicaten L1 to L2 and L3. 21 Notes 1 See Costello (1959:173). 74 2 . See Lorenzo, M. , et al. (1999: 324). 8 . Some of these regulate combinations enjoy been the sight of other studies. For in, see Lopez Rua (1997). 9 . See the Oxford English Dictionary’s record for ‘idiom’: http://dictionary. oed. com/cgi/entry/50111256? single=1&query_ type=word&queryword=idiom&first=1&max_ to_show=10. 4 . Specification procured by Webster's New Encyclopedic Dictionary (1994: 374). 5 Specification procured by Webster's New Encyclopedic Dictionary (1994: 630). 3 . See Newmark (1988: 104). . Ibid. (1988:104). . See Lorenzo, M. , et. al. (1999: . See Lopez Rua (1997: 147). . Ibid. (1997: 148). . Baker, M. (1992:74) in Lopez Rua 10 11 324). 12 13 14 The promise ‘commonfix image’ has been used antecedently, in-particular in online founts: Answers. com, etc. It was set to be used in some non-linguistic academic compositions (legal) such as “Why initiatoryism won't die – Despicable mistakes in competing theories of forensic exponeation”, Duke Chronicle of Constitutional Law and Public Policy, Online Edition, 2007. Duke J. Con. Law & Pub. Pol'y 230, page 238. 7 . In quantitys that enjoy been published on the topic the promise ‘Colloquial toneistics’ looks remarkable: Ball, W. J. 1972. A Practical Manage to Commonfix Idiom, Wood, F. T. 1976. English Commonfix Idioms, etc. 6 (1997: 148). 15 . Specification procured by Webster's New Encyclopedic Dictionary (1994: 752). 16 . End it is keenleman that twain translations of "It gets on your nerves casually" hold typical/typical balanceing, they can be amend implied as collocations —"ponerse" (Spanish) and "posarse" (Catalan) arrange delay "nervioso" (Spanish) and "nervios" (Catalan)— and their certain use in twain scale Spanish and Catalan is fairly spaciousspread. Here they assist to whitewash the initiatory image which in English is generally weighed balance circumlocutory. miscelanea: a chronicle of english and american studies 35 (2007): pp. 57-75 ISSN: 1137-6368 Translating despicablefix toneistics/metaphors in The Catcher in the Rye 17 . The translation of the despicablefix image “to get to foremost sordid” delay someone close is partially faulty. The Catalan translation is obstructr in balanceing to the ST, wclose the image is used in bearing to fabulous intimacy: foremost sordid applys to moderate contacts such as kissing; a “homerun” generally applys to sexual dealing. 8 . The shortness of a translation for the regulate "bum" in the Spanish translation may be weighed partially faulty: although the regulate “bum” does not amount a sunder of the image itself, it does co-operate to the atmospclose in which the image is communicateed. In this plight, the “perverty bum” was left regular as “un pervertido” in the Spanish translation, omitting the important bit of distinguishledge that the peculiar is a “bum” i. e. a homeless and/or indigent peculiar. The Catalan statement assigns it as a “desgraciat” or adverse, adverse, or equal humiliated peculiar. One command allude-to that a “perverty bum” is balance in care delay the idiolect of Holden than regular a “pervert”. 19 . See Lopez Rua (1997: 149). . See Lorenzo, M. et al. (1999: 5). . Ibid. (1999:329). 20 21 Works cited American Library Association. http://www. ala. org/ala/oif/bannedbooksweek/bbwlinks/100 mostfrequently. htm BAKER, M. 1992. In Other Words: A Coursequantity on Translation. London: Routledge. BALL, W. J. 1972. Practical manage to despicablefix toneistic. London: Longman. COSTELLO, D. P. 1959. "The vernacular of The Catcher in the Rye," American Speech, Vol. 34, no. 3, October:172-81. LOPEZ RUA, P. 1997. "The translation of the idiolects in The Catcher in the Rye: An advent through lexicalized constitutions". Miscelanea: A Chronicle of English and American Studies, 18: 139-158. LORENZO, M. , et. al. 1999. "Lack of balanceing interpossession betwixt English, Galician and Spanish in Salinger’s The Catcher in the Rye". Estudios de linguistica contrastiva. Universidade de Santiago de Compostela: 323-330. MERRIAM-WEBSTER Inc. 1994. Webster's New Encyclopedic Dictionary. New York: Black Dog & Leventhal. Received: 11 June 2007 Revised statement: 17 January 2008 NEWMARK, P. 1988. A passagequantity of translation. London: Prentice Hall International. OXFORD ENGLISH DICTIONARY: http://dictionary. oed. com/cgi/entry/50034626? single=1&query_ type=word&queryword=catharsis&first=1&max _to_show=10 SALINGER, J. D. 1951. The Catcher in the Rye. Boston, MA: Little, Brown and Company. —. 1990. El operative en el enenbivouac de segol. Trans. E. Riera & J. Fonalleras. Barcelona: Editorial Empuries. —. 2006. El warder entre el centeno. Trans. C. Criado. Madrid: Alianza Editorial. SMITH, T. 2007. “Why initiatoryism won't die – Despicable mistakes in competing theories of forensic exponeation”. Duke Chronicle of Constitutional Law and Public Policy. Online edition, 159: 230-238. VERMEER, H. 2004. “Skopos and cexclusion in translational possession”. In Venuti, L. (ed. ) The translation studies unraveler. London: Routledge. WOOD, F. T. 1976. English despicablefix toneistics. London: Macmillan. 75 miscelanea: a chronicle of english and american studies 35 (2007): pp. 57-75 ISSN: 1137-6368