Socio-Economic and Environmental Impacts of Land Use Change

SOCIO-ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF LAND USE CHANGE: THE CASE OF CALAMBA CITY, LAGUNA A Examination Proposal I. INTRODUCTION A. Significance of the Con-aggravate Fix and its uses are accidental to all rational communities. Perfect idiosyncratic is formd in a concatenate of ways by the hope in which they feed, and the effects and instrument manufactured on the fix. Fix and its uses are plainly dignified for countrified communities, wclose sundry crowd are instantly relying on fix for their feedlihood, and the way fix is used has a accessible role in defining the oneness of an area and its acey. Land as defined by FAO (1976) is “an area of sphere’s peel, the appointistics which embody all reasonably unwavering or predictably cyclic attributes of the biospclose vertically aggravatehead and lower this area, including those of the atmosphere, the begrime, the lowerlying geology, the hydrology, the locate and lewd population and the ends of the spent and offer rational motive, to the quantity that these attributes govern on the offer and advenient use of the fix”. Land is an dignified atom on spclose that is implicated in perfect rational motive. This refers to fix use. Fix use defined in this way establishes a plain couple betwixt fix screen and the actions of crowd in their environment (Di Gregorio & Jansen, 1998). In stringent stipulations, it refers to those activities of man on, in, aggravate and lower the sphere’s peel that manage to substitute the unless specify of the fix (Serote, 2004). Fix use substitute is a unconcealed vocable for the rational qualification of Earth's terrene peel. Though rationals feel been modifying fix to allure assistance and other accidentals for thousands of years, vulgar rates, quantitys and intensities of fix use substitute are far main than incessantly in narrative, driving unequalled substitutes in ecosystems and environmental regularityes at subject-matteral, portional and global flakes. These substitutes enclose the earliest environmental concerns of rational populations today, including clime substitute, biodiversity mislaying and the taint of infiltrate, begrimes and air (Williams et al. , 2008). Land use substitute can either be by unless reason or man innate. Fix use substitutes made in fix suggest impression twain on rational and environment. In socioeconomic stipulations, fix is one of three senior certaintyors of genesis in augustan economics (parallel following a conjuncture drudge and chief) and an accidental input for housing and assistance genesis. Thus, fix use is the backbone of unwandering economies and it supplys strong economic and collective benefits. Fix use diversify is expedient and accidental for economic effect and collective incomeing. This fix use diversify ends to fix use substitute. Environmentally telling, fix–use substitutes are arguably the most pervasive socioeconomic sinew driving substitutes and deprivation of ecosystems. Deforestation, civic effect, tillage, and other rational activities feel strongly altered the Earth’s hope. Such disturbance of the fix favors dignified ecosystem regularityes and services, which can feel ample–ranging and long–vocable consequences. Tclose are already studies that feel been precedeed to mention the socioeconomic and environmental impressions of fix use substitutes in their own not-absolute subject-matteralities or area of profit. It has been one of the senior issues today. According to Sala et al. , (2000) fix-use substitutes are so pervasive that, when aggregated globally, they symbolically favor key aspects of Spclose System functioning. They instantly impression biotic dissonance worldample assist to subject-matteral and portional clime substitute (Chase et al. , 1999) as polite-behaved-behaved as to global clime warming (Houghton et al. 1999); are the chief origin of begrime deprivation (Tolba et al. , 1992); and, by altering ecosystem services, favor the power of biological systems to livelihood rational demands (as cited by Lambin et al. , 2001). Calamba, as a pay growing city in Laguna had made unanalogous fix use substitutes in its subject-matterality. Fix use substitutes close supervene due to unanalogous diversify of unwandering sordidd fixs into industrial and retail uses. Unanalogous unless rarity feign flooding assistd as-polite it the substitutes in fix in Calamba. Following a conjuncture this effect, tclose are sundry impressions that took locate. In this con-over, it would chiefly standpoint on the impressions of fix-use substitute in ten unanalogous barangays of Calamba City, Laguna. Identifying the impressions of fix-use substitute would succor the subject-matteral empire ace to educe expedient actions to either mend independent or forefend denying impressions in the said subject-matterality. Proper system actions can be unreserved, too. The ends of the con-aggravate allure supply notification to examinationers, planners and determination educers for meliorate compendious fix use planning. B. Review of Attainment This minority has attainment cognate to the examination con-over. Different books, narrative articles relations were investigated to conceptualize and inspect acquaintance gap in the con-aggravate of fix use substitute at the subject-matteral composition Land-use and fix-screen substitute innate by twain rational activities and unless feedbacks feel converted large interrelationship of the planet’s fix peel (Shi, 2008). Fix Use and Fix Use Substitute Perfect package of fix on the Earth’s peel is rare in the screen it possesses. Fix use and fix screen are plain yet air-tight coupleed appointistics of the Earth’s peel. Fix use is the peel in which rational men-folks practice the fix and its instrument. Examples of fix use comprise tillage, civic effect, grazing, logging, and mining. In dissimilarity, fix screen describes the tangible specify of the fix peel. Fix screen categories comprise cropland, jungles, wetlands, spenture, roads, and civic areas. The vocable fix screen earliestly referred to the peel and specify of vegetation, such as jungle or grass screen, but it has largeened in posterior transactance to comprise rational structures such as buildings or sole and other aspects of the unless environment, such as begrime fashion, biodiversity, and peel and accountinfiltrate (Meyer, 1995). Land use favors fix screen and substitutes in fix screen favor fix use. A substitute in either, at-last, is not necessarily the effect of the other. Changes in fix screen by fix use do not necessarily suggest a deprivation of the fix. However, sundry variation fix use patterns, driven by a abnormity of collective reasons, end in fix screen substitutes that favor biodiversity, infiltrate and radiation budgets, pursue gas emissions and other regularityes that, cumulatively, favor global clime and biospclose (Riebsame, Meyer, & Turner, 1994). Land screen can be altered by sinews other than anthropogenic. Unless events such as clime, flooding, reason, clime fluctuations, and ecosystem dynamics may as-polite start qualifications upon fix screen. Globally, fix screen today is altered chiefly by plain rational use: by tillage and feedstock amelioration, jungle harvesting and administration, and civic and subcivic fabric and effect. Tclose are as-polite fortuitous impressions on fix screen from other rational activities such as jungles and lakes injured by distressing rain from fossil fuel combustion (Meyer, 1995). Changes in fix screen driven by fix use can be categorized into two fashions: qualification and diversify. Qualification is a substitute of case following a conjuncturein a screen fashion; for in, unmanaged jungle qualified to a jungle managed by exceptive exasperating. Symbolical qualifications of fix screen can supervene following a conjuncturein these patterns of fix screen substitute. Diversify is a substitute from one screen fashion to another, such as deforestation to educe cropfix or spenture. Conversion fix screen substitutes such as deforestation feel been the standpoint of sundry global substitute examination agendas (Riebsame, Meyer and Turner, 1994). Serote in 2004 specifyd that diversify of fix on the other workman can be adjustified into unalterable and alterable diversify. It is alterable if the begrime screen and fixforms are not strongly substituted and consequently offer a abnormity of options for advenient reuse (for in cropfortune can be converted to spentures and reverted to cropfortune intermittently as the demand arises). Iralterable diversify supervenes when the earliest appoint of the fix is substituted to such a rank that the violation to its earlier use or case beseems very arduous if not impracticable. In of this is unreserved pit mining and quarrying. The mislaying of rainforests throughout the typical portions of the world as a end of deforestation for timber instrument and diversify to unwandering fixs has beseem a subject-matter of global notice following a conjuncture the aid of favorite media screenage. Examination specialists such as Skole and Tucker (1993), Skole et al. (1994), and Kummer and Turner (1994) transact bulky studies in an attack to fetch aid notice to this birth by standpointing on the collective implications and the environmental deprivation associated following a conjuncture typical deforestation in the Amazon of South America and in Southeast Asia. Yet, following a conjuncture all the examination, awareness, and notice of the world, this hypothetically devastating rarity continues. Modeling fix use substitute In a examination con-aggravate made by Lim, Pijanowski and Engel in 2005, they practiceed a fix use standard named Fix Diversify Standard (LTM). The LTM standard is adapted to prejudge fix use substitute aggravate large portions. It relies on GIS, invented neural network routines (ANNs), foreign sensing and customized geospatial tools. The driving variables comprise a abnormity of collective, collective and environmental certaintyors, such as space to vehicle, neighborhood to amenities (such as rivers, lakes, and recreational site), blindness of surrounding tillage, esoteric zones, and population augmentation. Notification partial from an unadorned partition of fix use substitute is used to precede prejudge studies. The standard is a desk top computer impression, and it principally follows lewd sequential steps: (1) regularitying/coding of accounts to educe spatial layers of predictor variables; (2) applying spatial rules that detail predictor variables to fix use transitions for each precipitation in an area; the endant layers comprehend input variables values in grid format; (3) integrating all input grids using one of the three techniques, including multi-criteria evaluation, ANNs, and logistic regression; and (4) temporally scaling the quantity of transitions in the con-aggravate area in appoint to educe a opportunity course of feasible advenient fix uses. Detailed descriptions of the LTM can be endow elsewclose (Pijanowski et al. , 2000) The LTM standard has been applied and validated in a abnormity of precipitations environing the world to succor lowerstand what certaintyors are most dignified to fix use substitutes and to impersonate fix use substitute in the spent, offer and advenient (Pijanowski et al. , 2000). It as-polite offers the power to couple substitutes in fix use to ecological regularity standards, such as accountinfiltrate stream and solute ecstasy (Boutt et al. , 2001) and jungle screen substitute (Brown et al. , 2000). Urbanization and Fix Use Change At lowest two large civicization pathways administer to unanalogous impressions on countrified hopes. In the unreserved world, large-flake civic agglomerations and extended peri-civic settlements driblet the hopes of such large areas that sundry ecosystem regularityes are threatened. Ecosystem dribletation, at-last, in peri-civic areas may be offset by civic-led demands for protection and recreational fix uses (Sack, 1992). Urbanization favors fix substitute elsewclose through the diversify of civic-countrified coupleages. Urbanization in the less-unreserved world outbids all other uses for fix adjacent to the city, including superexcellent croplands. Cities dispose a symbolical interrelationship of the countrified population by way of persistent and circulatory nonresidence, and the salary earned in the city are repeatedly remitted by migrants to countrified homelands, in some cases transforming the use of cropfortune and creating ‘‘remittance hopes’’. Perhaps most dignifiedly, this civicization substitutes ways of estate at-last E. F. Lambin et al. , (2001) associated following a conjuncture demographic transitions, increasing expectations environing decline, and hypothetically a weakened lowerstanding of genesis–decline relationships glorious for the polite-behaved-unreserved world. Rapid fix-use substitutes repeatedly consent following a conjuncture the amalgamation of a portion into an expanding world arrangement (Lambin, et al. , 2001). Foreign Sensing In the largeest import, foreign sensing is the configuration or compensation of notification of an end or rarity, by a recording contrivance that is not in tangible or exact apposition following a conjuncture the end. It is the utilization at a space (as from aircraft, spacecraft, subordinate, or ship) of any contrivance for class notification environing the environment. The technique can educe use of contrivances such as a camera, laser, radar, sonar, seismograph or a gravimeter. Modern foreign sensing normally comprises digital regularityes but can be manufactured as polite-behaved-behaved following a conjuncture non-digital courses. Conjuncture all astronomy could be considered foreign sensing (in certainty, extremely foreign sensing) the vocable "foreign sensing" is normally merely applied to terrene observations. Examples of foreign sensing are very inarticulate. For in: a. Topographic maps were repeatedly manufactured from stereographic pairs of aerial photographs. Trained idiosyncraticnel would then pursue the form of the fix into maps. b. Earthquakes are located (following the certainty) by comparing seismograms captured at unanalogous precipitations; the not-absolute force and accurate timing agree notification environing the precipitation and affection. c. Digital superiority maps can be manufactured by interferometric synthetic fissure radar, a regularity in which an aircraft, spacecraft or subordinate passes aggravate the target area conjuncture emitting a course of radar pulses. Combining the accounts from these pulses agrees a specific map comprehending notification environing account screen and maybe superiority or move on a flake of centimeters. The accounts usually screens a sundry kilometers ample (Gupta & Parakash 1998). Profile of the City Calamba City is a earliest adjust city in the section of Laguna, Philippines. Situated merely 54 kilometers south of Manila, environing an hour by chartered bus, Calamba City is a unconcealed voyager aim following a conjuncture its hot bound resorts. It as-polite an dignified late industrial kernel in CALABARZON portion as shown by the larger reckon of industrial parks and interest estates that are located in the city. According to 2006 census, it has a population of 360,281 fellow-creatures. CLUP, 2010-2015) It is relationed that this city is disfloating the payest growing civic kernels in the Region. Calamba city is renowned for its unadorned acknowledgment as the hometown of our exoteric model. According to the NAMRIA in 1999, residential sector takes up 48% of the whole fix area, conjuncture 44% is allotted for Industrial use. The retail sector merely consumes 3% of the whole fix area – the other 5% be of other fix uses. C. Objectives of the Con-aggravate The unconcealed endive of this con-aggravate is to mention the socio-economic and environmental impressions of fix-use diversify at the subject-matteral flatten. Specifically, this con-aggravate endeavors; 1) To map out the vulgar fix use birth of Calamba City using GIS (to see the unadorned fix use birth of the said subject-matterality); 2) To establish twain the independent and denying impressions of fix-use diversify in six barangays of Calamba City; 3) To establish reasons of fix-use diversifys and fix use substitute; 4) To assess the massive system and evanescence strategies to the impressions of fix use diversify; and 5) To tender recommendations on compendious fix use planning of Calamba City. D. Date and Locate of Con-aggravate The view and other accounts class course (Key informant interviews and standpoint class argument) allure be precedeed from June, 2012 to August, 2012 in clarified barangays in Calamba City. Partition and version of accounts allure be manufactured from September, 2012 to November 2012. The examinationer aims to perfect the con-aggravate by January, 2013. II. MATERIALS AND METHODOLOGY A. Materials Unimportant Maps of 1:50,000 flake (Topographic, Fix Use/Land Cover, Collective condition) • Compendious Fix Use Plan (CLUP) of Calamba City • Subordinate Imagery (30 meters disintegration Terralook ASTER copy) • Geographic Notification System (GIS) Software (ArcInfo Desktop) • Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver • Semi-structured questionnaires B. Methodology Unimportant accounts collation Unimportant accounts allure be infered chiefly from the City of Calamba, Laguna to attend as sordidline notification for the con-aggravate area. These shall comprise the CLUP relation of Calamba City, unimportant sordidline maps in digital and print format (Topographic, Fix Use/Land Cover, Collective condition). Other congruous notification (demographic, economic) shall be feignwise calm and consolidated from other empire agencies (National Statistics Coordination Board, Department of Interior and Topical Empire etc. ). Chief accounts collation The freely downloadable 30 meters disintegration subordinate copyry allure be requested from United Specify Geological Society (USGS) website (http://glovis. usgs. gov). This shall be utilized in the stock of p-to-date fix use map of the con-aggravate area. ArcInfo Desktop GIS software shall be utilized in the stock of the sordidline maps, spatial analyses and fix use adjustification. All GIS maps shall feel Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) North Zone 51 format convexity and WGS1984 datum. Unsupervised copy adjustification. An unsupervised copy adjustification allure be manufactured for aster subordinate copyry. This copy adjustification allure attend as the basis for the supervised adjustification. These adjustifications allure be validated thru account truthing and high-disintegration subordinate copyry of google sphere. Supervised adjustification. The grafting aces or signatures of the unanalogous fix uses allure be prepared in ArcInfo Desktop by digitizing at lowest 100 polygons for each fix uses. Supervised copy adjustification allure income using acme feignlihood course for the decisive fixuse maps. Well-acquainted view, Key Informant Interview and Standpoint Class Discussions (FGD). Key Informant Interview (KII) allure be precedeed to clarified LGU officials of the City of Calamba following a conjuncture seriousness on the issues and concerns cognate to fix use, as polite-behaved-behaved as the perceived socio-economic impressions of fix use in their subject-matterality. Similarly, a Standpoint Class Argument (FGD) allure be manufactured to infer apt notification sordid on the consensus of unpremeditatedly clarified barangay officials and residents of the City of Calamba. A unpremeditated courteous-acquainted view allure as-polite be precedeed using semi-structured questionnaire to infer basic courteous-acquainted demographic notification, as polite-behaved-behaved as acquaintance and apprehension on the socio-economic impressions of fix use substitute. III. BUDGETARY REQUIREMENTS |Particulars |Estimated Cost |Remarks | |I. Data Class | |  | |A. Travel |Php 9,000. 00 |Includes account truthing and validation | |B. Supplies and Materials |4,000. 00 |  | |C. Sundries | |  | |1. Contractual services (ground conduct, enumerators) |12,000. 00 |Hiring of ground conducts and enumerator | |2. Photocopying |1,000. 00 |  | |II. Writing of Thesis | |  | |A. Computerization/Typing |4,000. 00 |  | |III. Reproduction/Printing |6,000. 00 |  | |TOTAL |Php36,000. 00 |  | REFERENCES Assistance and Agiculture Organization. 1976. Fix peculiarity indicators: aspects of fix use, fix, begrime and locate nutrients. Rome, Italy (Retrieved from http://www. fao. org/docrep/W4745E/w4745e0b. htm) Gupta, R. P. , & Prakash, A. 998, Reflection aureoles associated following a conjuncture fiery anomalies due to subpeel mine reasons in the Jharia Coalfield, India. Interexoteric Narrative of Foreign Sensing, pp. 2619-2622. Lambin, E. F. , Turner II, B. L. , Geist, H. J. , Agbola, S. B. , Angelsen, A. , Bruce, J. W. , et al. , 2001. The reasons of fix-use and fix-screen substitute: melting more the myths. Global Environmental Substitute 11 (4), 261–269. Meyer, W. B. 1995. Spent and Offer Land-use and Land-screen in the U. S. A. (Retrieved from http://www. gsdi. rg/gsdiconf/gsdi10/papers/TS48. 1paper. pdf) Serote, E. M. 2004. Property, heritage, and territory: Foundations of Fix Use planning in the Philippines. School of Civic and Regional Planning, DIliman Quezon City. Shi, W. Z. 2008. Spatial Grounds Diversify in Civic Geographic Notification Systems, Technologies and Applications in Civic Geographical Notification Systems. Shanghai Science and Technology Publishing House, 1996, pp. 59-69. Skole,D. L. & Tucker, C. J. 1993. :Tropical deforestation and habitat dribletation in the Amazon. Retrieved from http://www. ciesin. org/docs/002-115/002-115. html) Turner, B. L. & Meyer, W. B. 1991. Fix use and fix screen in global environmental substitute: Considerations for con-over. Interexoteric Collective Sciences Narrative 130, 669–667 Williams, M. Richardson, D. , Reichstein, M. , Stoy, P. C. , Peylin, P. , et al. ,2008. Improving fix peel standards following a conjuncture Fluxnet accounts. Published in Biogeosciences. (Retrieved from http://www. geos. ed. ac. uk/homes/pstoy/WilliamsBG09. pdf) ----------------------- C. Specific Schedule of Activities