Reciprocating Engine

224 C H A P T E R 6 RECIPROCATING INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES 6. 1 Initiative Perhaps the best-notorious engine in the universe is the reciprocating interior incendiarism (IC) engine. Virtually whole peculiar who has stimulaten an automobile or pushed a capability lawnmower has used one. By far the most widely used IC engine is the iota-incendiarism gasoline engine, which conducts us to initiate and deduction and on vill jaunts. Although others had made burdeny subscriptions, Niklaus Otto is unconcealedly credited subjoined a end the romance of the engine and subjoined a end the proaspect of its speculative cycle. Another grand engine is the reciprocating engine that made the spectry of Rudolf Diesel glorious. The Diesel engine, the deductionhorse of the grievous traffic toil, is widely used in industrial capability and marine applications. It replaced the reciprocating fume engine in railroad locomotives environing fifty years ago and sweepings dominant in that role today. The piston, cylinder, crank, and connecting rod supply the geometric establishation of the reciprocating engine. End two-stroke-cycle engines are in use and of continuing profit, the disjourney arrest gain emphasize the elevate widely applied immodest-stroke-cycle engine. In this engine the piston undergoes two automatic cycles for each thermodynamic cycle. The inconduct and epitomizeion arrangementes bedroop in the pristine two tickles, and the capability and empty arrangementes in the plain two. These arrangementes are made feasible by the crank-slider mediums, discussed bestow. 6. 2 The Crank-Slider Means Vile to most reciprocating engines is a linkage notorious as a crank-slider mediums. Diagramed in Shape 6. 1, this mediums is one of contrariant delightful of conceding the straight-line, tailward-and-forward excitement notorious as reciprocating. Fundamentally, the crank-slider converts roundal excitement into straight excitement, or vice-versa. Subjoined a end a piston as the slider affecting retreatin a urban cylinder, the mediums supplys the animate strength of a gas engine: the strength to epitomize and enbulky a gas. Precedently delving into this mien of the engine, ultimately, let us inquire the crank-slider mediums elevate arrestly. 225 It is conspicuous from Shape 6. 2 that, end the crank arm rotates through 180°, the piston ranks from the aspect notorious as top-constitution (TC) to the other remote, projectated deep-constitution (BC). Dumelody this age the piston travels a removal, S, projectated the tickle, that is twice the prolixity of the crank. For an bent flyingity of the crank, , the crank pin A has a tangential flyingity constituent S/2. It is conspicuous that, at TC and at BC, the crank pin flyingity constituent in the piston vergeency, and heresucceeding the piston flyingity, is nothing. At these tops, selfconcordant to crank inclination = 0° and 180°, the piston reverses vergeency. Thus as varies from 0° to 180°, the piston flyingity accelerates from 0 to a zenith and then receipts to 0. A homogeneous manner exists betwixt 180° and 360°. The connecting rod is a two-vehemence member; heresucceeding it is conspicuous that tarrest are twain axial and oblique vehemences on the piston at crank inclinations other than 0° and 180°. These oblique vehemences are, of journey, unresembling by the cylinder glaciss. The deductioning oblique vehemence constituent regular to the cylinder glacis gives mollify to gratingal vehemences betwixt the piston melodys and cylinder. It is conspicuous that the regular vehemence, and thus the gratingal vehemence, alternates from one behalf of the piston to the other dumelody each cycle. Thus the piston excitement bestows a challenging noncontact educement for the coerce and decrease of twain bear and essential-quality privation. The aspect of the piston subjoined a end regard to the crank constitutionline is abandoned by x = (S/2)cos + Lcos [ft | m] (6. 1) warrest yA = (S/2)sin = Lsin can be used to exclude to conquer x/L = (S/2L)cos + [1? (S/2L)2 sin2 ]? [dl] (6. 2) Thus, end the axial constituent of the excitement of the crank pin is uncompounded harmonic, xA = (S/2)cos, the excitement of the piston and piston pin is elevate multifold. It may be 226 seen from Equation (6. ), ultimately, that as S/L becomes trivial, the piston excitement appropinquationes uncompounded harmonic. This becomes physically conspicuous when it is normal that, in this boundary, the connecting rod inclination, , appropinquationes 0 and the piston excitement appropinquationes the axial excitement of the crank pin. Equations (6. 1) and (6. 2) may be used to prognosticate constituent velocities, succors, and vehemences in the engine. The compass swept by the piston as it passes from TC to BC is projectated the piston misconstruction, disp. Engine misconstruction, DISP, is then the deduction of the piston misconstruction and the calcuslow of cylinders, DISP = (n)(disp). The piston misconstruction is the deduction of the piston cross-sectional area and the tickle. The cylinder retreatin biexception (and, approximately, to-boot the piston bisection) is projectated its pierce. Cylinder pierce, tickle, and calcuslow of cylinders are usually quoted in engine localations concurrently subjoined a end or instead of engine misconstruction. It gain be seen subjoined that the capability output of a reciprocating engine is proportional to its misconstruction. An engine of literal profit that to-boot used the crank-slider mediums is discussed in the bestow exception. 6. 3 The Lenoir Cycle An bestow construct of the reciprocating interior incendiarism engine is credited to Etienne Lenoir. His engine, introduced in 1860, used a crank-slider-piston-cylinder preparation 227 in which a combustible compulverize onesided betwixt the piston and cylinder is smoulderd subjoined TC. The deductioning incendiarism gas exigency vehemences acting on the piston transmit deduction by way of the connecting rod to the rotating crank. When the piston is at BC, incendiarism gases are undisputed to flee. The roundal availum of the crank regularity stimulates the piston inland TC, expelling decided gases as it goes. A hopeful combustible compulverize is commsolely admitted to the incendiarism hall (cylinder) and the cycle is vile. The speculative Lenoir cycle, paraden in Shape 6. 3 on a exigency-compass diagram, consists of the inconduct of the deductioning liquescent (a combustible compound) from say 0 to say 1, a immutable-compass air and exigency mollify from say 1 to say 2, approximating the incendiarism arrangement, an isentropic disquisition of the incendiarism gases to say 3, and a immutable-exigency ostracism of residual gases tail to say 0. Note that a member of the piston misconstruction, from say 0 to say 1, is used to conduct in the combustible compulverize and does not share in the capability tickle from say 2 to say 3. The engine has been projectated an eruptation engine owing the capability transmited is due solely to the remotely flying incendiarism exigency mollify or eruptation of the compulverize in the onesided mete of the cylinder. Hundreds of Lenoir engines were used in the nineteenth epoch, but the engine is wholely inconclusive by todays types. In 1862, Beau de Rochas marked out that the 228 fficiency of interior incendiarism could be markedly rectifyd in reciprocating engines by epitomizeion of the air-fuel compulverize anterior to incendiarism. In 1876 Niklaus Otto (who is reflection to feel been insensible of Rochas? prompting) demonstrated an engine that incorporated this grand ingredient, as descriptive bestow. 6. 4 The Otto Cycle The Otto cycle is the speculative cycle commsolely used to denote the arrangementes in the iota incendiarism (SI) interior incendiarism engine. It is emanationive that a urban seniority of deductioning liquescent is onesided in the cylinder by a piston that ranks from BC to TC and tail, as paraden in Shape 6. . The cycle consists of isentropic epitomizeion of an air-fuel compulverize from say 1 to say 2, immutable-compass incendiarism to say 3, isentropic disquisition of the incendiarism gases to say 4, and a immutable-compass ardor postponement tail to say 1. The immutable-compass ardor postponement is a uncompounded delightful to arrest the cycle. It obviates the demand to denote the multifold disquisition and outglide of 229 incendiarism gases from the cylinder at the end of the cycle. Note that the Otto cycle is not solicitous subjoined a end the gathemelody of the air-fuel compulverize or subjoined a end the ostracism of residual incendiarism gases. Thus solely two automatic tickles of the crank-slider are demanded in the Otto cycle, plain when it is used to denote an intellectual immodest-stroke-cycle Otto engine. In this event the fostemelody tickles are used to spendive the incontrovertible inconduct and empty exercises. Owing it involves solely two tickles, the Otto cycle may to-boot denote a two-stroke-cycle engine. The two-stroke-cycle engine is in truth delightful of as abundant deduction in one round of the crank as the immodest-tickle engine is in two. However, it is arduous to instrument owing of the fate of making the inconduct and empty exercises a dissect of those wo tickles. It is consequently not as yieldingly plain or widely used as the immodest-stroke-cycle engine. We gain rendezvous on the immodeststroke- cycle arrest. The uncompoundedst disminority of the Otto cycle assumes calorically liberal air as the deductioning liquescent in what is projectated the Air Type cycle dissection. Subjoined the notation of Shape 6. 4, the epitomizeion arrangement can be denoteed by the isentropic agreement for a calorically liberal gas, Equation (1. 21), as p2/p1 = (V1/V2)k [dl] (6. 3) warrest the epitomizeion affinity, CR = V1/V2, is a indispensable parameter of all reciprocating engines. The diagram parades that the disquisition affinity for the engine, V4 /V3, has the concordant consider, V1/V2. The colliquation compass, V2, is the compass enclosed betwixt the cylinder crisis and the piston at TC. Thus the epitomizeion affinity may be explicit as the affinity of the sum of the colliquation and misconstruction compasss to the colliquation compass: CR = [V2 + (V1 ? V2)]/V2 Thus, for a abandoned misconstruction, the epitomizeion affinity may be acceptiond by reducing the colliquation compass. The competency of the cycle can be most bulkyly unshaken by consequently immutablevolume- arrangement ardor translates and the Pristine Law cyclic spendive agreement, Equation (1. ). The ardor communicated in the arrangementes 23 and 41 are q23 = cv (T3 ? T2) [Btu/lbm | kj/kg] (6. 4) and q41 = cv (T1 ? T4) [Btu/lbm | kJ/kg] (6. 5) Twain the disquisition arrangement, 34, and the epitomizeion arrangement, 12, are emanationive to be isentropic. Thus, by articleation, they are twain adiabatic. From the cyclic spendive, the net deduction per bisect seniority is then: w = q23 + q41 = cv (T3 ? T2 + T1 ? T4) [Btu/lbm | kJ/kg] (6. 6) 230 As precedently, the cycle blood-warm competency is the affinity of the net deduction to the apparent ardor granted: Otto = w/q23 = cv (T3 ? T2 + T1 ? T4) / [cv (T3 ? T2)] = 1 + (T1 ? T4) / (T3 ? T2) = 1 ? T1/T2 = 1 ? 1 / CR k-1 [dl] (6. 7) warrest Equation (1. 20) has been used to exclude the airs. Equation (6. 7) parades that increasing epitomizeion affinity acceptions the cycle blood-warm competency. This is gentleman for existent engines as courteous-mannered-behaved-behaved as for the intellectualized Otto engine. The ways in which existent iota incendiarism engine cycles swerve from the speculative Otto cycle are discussed subjoined. EXAMPLE 6. 1 An Otto engine conducts in an air-fuel compulverize at 80°F and type atmosparrest presssure. It has a epitomizeion affinity of 8. Using Air Type cycle dissection, a ardomelody consider of 20,425 Btu/lbm, and A/F = 15, individualize: (a) The air and exigency at the end of epitomizeion, subjoined incendiarism, and at the end of the capability tickle. (b) The net deduction per pulverize of deductioning liquescent. (c) The blood-warm competency. Solution We use the notation of Shape 6. 4: (a) p2 = p1(V1/V2)k = 1(8)1. 4 = 18. 38 atm T2 = T1(V1/V2)k ? 1 = (540)(8)0. 4 = 1240. 6°R T3 = T2 + qa /cv = T2 + (F/A)(HV)k/cp = 1240. 6 + 1. 420,425/150. 24 = 9184°R p3 = p2T3 /T2 = 18. 38(9184/1240. 6) = 136. 1 atm T4 = T3 /CRk? 1 = 9184/ 80. 4 = 3997. °R p4 = p3 /CRk = 136. 1/81. 4 = 7. 4 atm (b) The immutable-compass ardor observation is repressled by the fuel-air affinity and the fuel ardomelody consider: qa = HV(F/A) = 20,425/15 = 1361. 7 Btu/lbm of air 231 qr = cv (T1 ? T4) = (0. 24/1. 4)( 540 ? 3997. 4) = ? 592. 7 Btu/lbm w = qa + qr = 1361. 7 + ( ? 592. 7) = 769 Btu/lbm (c) The cycle termal competency may then be unshaken from the articleation of the ardor engine blood-warm competency or Equation (6. 7): th = w/qa = 769/1361. 7 = 0. 565 th = 1 ? 1/80. 4 = 0. 565 _____________________________________________________________________ In end f the disjourney of gas appropriateties and indeduction in Chapter 3, the considers of T3 and T4 in Development 6. 1 are unrealistically lofty. Abundant of the essential-quality liberated by the fuel would go into bill and indeduction of the gas embankmentcules rather than into the translational and roundal ranks of insubservience denoteed by the air. As a deduction, burdenyly inferior airs would be conquered. Thus, end the disminority is constructally reform, the use of immutable-low-air ardor capacities in the Air Type cycle makes it a moneycease copy for prognosticateing air remotes when lofty essential-quality liberates befall. Some correction is terminated by using immutable-highair ardor capacities, but the best deductions would be terminated by the use of existent gas appropriateties, as discussed in contrariant of the relations. 6. 5 Incendiarism in a Reciprocating Engine The immutable-compass ardor transslow arrangement at TC in the Otto cycle is an imposture to relinquish the arduousies of copying the multifold arrangementes that conduct assign in the incendiarism hall of the SI engine. These arrangementes, in existentity, conduct assign aggravate a crank inclination p of 30° or elevate encircling TC. Let us revolve miens of these arrangementes and their instrumentation in elevate bisecticular. Normally, the compulverize in the incendiarism hall must feel an air-fuel affinity in the vicinity of the stoichiometric consider for delicious incendiarism. A elevate or cease homogeneous compulverize may be constrained outbehalf the cylinder in a carburetor, by initiative into the inconduct multitudinous, or by throttle-body initiative into a crisiser serving contrariant inconduct multitudinouss. In the event of the carburetor, fuel is drawn into the engine from the carburetor by the low exigency created in a venturi through which the incendiarism air glides. As a deduction, acceptiond air glide principles inferior venturi exigency and heresucceeding acceptiond fuel glide. The fuel regularity thus serves to supply an air-fuel compulverize that sweepings arrest to the stoichiometric affinity for a stroll of air glide objurgates. Multitudinous emblems contrived into the carburetor elevate command the fuel glide for the peculiar gratuitous provisions encountered, such as loose and flying succor. Zenith fuel government is usually attained subjoined a end redundancy air to individualize that all of the fuel is burned. A compulverize subjoined a end redundancy air is projectated a moneyhither compound. The carburetor 232 usually emanations this circumstances in automobiles dumelody regular immutable-acceleobjurgate driving. On the other fruitman, zenith capability is terminated subjoined a end redundancy fuel to countenance that all of the oxygen in the air in the incendiarism hall is reacted. It is a subject of exploiting the liberal capability-conceding strength of the misconstruction compass. A compulverize subjoined a end redundancy fuel is projectated a wealthy compound. The automotive carburetor emanations a wealthy compulverize dumelody succor by supplying extra fuel to the air entemelody the inconduct multitudinous. The equivalence affinity is rarely used to mark the compulverize affinity, whether wealthy or moneyless. The equivalence affinity, , is defined as the affinity of the educeed fuel-air affinity to the stoichiometric fuel-air affinity. Thus > 1 denotes a wealthy compulverize and < 1 denotes a moneyhither compound. In provisions of air-fuel affinity, = (A/F)stoich /(A/F). Homogeneous air-fuel compounds arrest to stoichiometric may smoulder spontaneously (that is, subjoined a endout a iota or other social essential-quality bound) if the compulverize air yields a air projectated the autoincendiarism air. If the compulverize is brought to and held at a air loftyer than the autoincendiarism air, tarrest is a age of retreat precedently self-originated incendiarism or autoincendiarism This end space-betwixt is projectated the incendiarism retreat, or incendiarism lag. The incendiarism retreat depends on the personalitys of the fuel and the equivalence affinity and usually decreases subjoined a end increasing air. In iota-incendiarism engines, epitomizeion affinitys and consequently the airs at the end of epitomizeion are low sufficient that the air-fuel compulverize is smoulderd by the iota obstruct precedently self-originated incendiarism can befall. SI engines are contrived so that a blaze face gain educe easely from the iota obstruct into the unburned compulverize until all of the compulverize has been ignitied. However, as the blaze face journeyes, the air and exigency of the incendiarism gases astern it mollify due to the libeobjurgate of the chemical essential-quality of the fuel. As the face educes, it epitomizees and ardors the unburned compound, rarely termed the end-gas. Incendiarism is spendived as intended when the face easely passes wholly through the end-gas subjoined a endout autoignition. However, if the end-gas autoignites, a pinging or low-pitched probe projectated blast is heard. The relinquishance of blast due to autoincendiarism of the end-gas is a main business on the project epitomizeion affinity of an SI engine. If hot defacements or blood-warmly inherent epitomizeion of the end-gas smoulder it precedently the blaze face does, tarrest is a elevate flying libeobjurgate of chemical essential-quality from the end-gas than dumelody regular incendiarism. Blast is rarely reflection of as an eruptation of the end gas that creates an abrupt pulse and exigency waves that pursuit tail and forth counter the cylinder at lofty accelerate, conceding the accustomed pinging or low-pitched probe associated subjoined a end blast. Knock not solely subjugates engine enterpmount but emanations flying bear and objectionable rattle in the engine. Thus it is grand for a SI engine fuel to feel a lofty autoincendiarism air. It is consequently grand for SI engine fuel to feel a lofty autoincendiarism air. Thus the blast personalitys of commercially succorful fuels boundary the zenith lawful project epitomizeion affinity for SI engines and heresucceeding boundary their best competency. The octane calcuslow is a mete of a gasoline’s strength to relinquish blast. Additives such as tetraethyl repress feel been used in the gone-by to stop engine blast. However, the accumulation of repress in the environment and its discrimination into the stay cycle has 233 deductioned in the phaseout of repress additives. Instead refineries now use mismismisembezzle mingles of hydrocarbons as a commute for repress additives in unleaded fuels. The octane calcuslow of a fuel is meted in a peculiar variable-compression-affinity engine projectated a CFR (Cooperative Fuels Research) engine. The octane rating of a fuel is unshaken by concordantity of its blasting personalitys subjoined a end those of contrariant compounds of isooctane, C8H18, and n-heptane, C7H16. One hundred percent isooctane is defined as having an octane calcuslow of 100 owing it had the loftyest opcomcomposition to blast at the end the rating regularity was bequeathed. On the other fruitman, n-heptane is assigned a consider of 0 on the octane calcuslow flake owing of its very moneycease blast opposition. If a gasoline experienceed in the CFR engine has the concordant blast threswithhold as a mingle of 90% isooctane and 10% n-heptane, the fuel is assigned an octane rating of 90. In incendiarism hall project, the projecter endeavors to counteract divers ingredients to terminate cheerful enterprise. Design revolveations apprehend locating inconduct valves sepaobjurgate from and empty valves bar iota obstructs, to detain end-gas in a proportionately hopeful area of the incendiarism hall and thereby stop hot-surface-inherent autoincendiarism vergeencies. Valves are, of journey, contrived as bulky as feasible to subjugate gathemelody and empty glide restrictions. Elevate than one inconduct and one empty valve per cylinder are now used in some engines to rectify ? engine warm.? In some engines, immodest valves in a uncompletely cylinder are populated for this light. The valves are to-boot contrived to induce swirl and ferment to exalt mixing of fuel and air and to rectify incendiarism ststrength and enduring objurgate. Dirt and fuel government revolveations feel in modern years profoundly governmentd aggravateall engine and incendiarism hall project. Stratified-impeach engines, for educement, endeavor to supply a socially wealthy incendiarism country to coerce peak airs and thus stop NOx constructation. The deductioning incendiarism gases containing unburned fuel then mix subjoined a end enfailure moneyhither compulverize to spendive the incendiarism arrangement, thus eliminating CO and unburned hydrocarbons from the empty. These arrangementes bedroop at inferior airs than in customary incendiarism hall projects and consequently thwart burdeny nitrogen reactions. 6. 6 Representing Reciprocating Engine Perfomance In an antecedent exception, the speculative deduction per bisect seniority of deductioning liquescent of the Otto engine was evaluated for a uncompletely cycle of the engine, using the cyclic spendive of the Pristine Law of Thermodynamics. The deduction emanationd by exigency vehemences acting on a piston can to-boot be evaluated as the spendive of pdV. It is conspicuous consequently that the deduction emanationd dumelody a uncompletely engine cycle is the area enclosed by the cycle arrangement flexions on the exigency-compass diagram. Thus, instead of using the cyclic spendive or evaluating pdV for each arrangement of the cycle, the deduction of a reciprocating engine can be establish by cunning the speculative arrangement flexions on the p? V diagram and graphically integrating them. Such a conspire of exigency versus compass for any reciprocating engine, existent or speculative, is projectated an indicator diagram. 234 In the nineteenth and bestow twentieth centuries a automatic emblem notorious as an engine indicator was used to emanation indicator cards or diagrams to individualize the deduction per cycle for gradual-running fume and gas reciprocating ngines. The indicator card was decided to a cylinder that rotated tail and forth on its axis as the piston oscillated, thus generating a piston aspect (volume) coordinate. At the concordant end a pen stimulaten by a exigency remarkable from the engine cylinder rankd concurrent to the cylinder axis, scribing the p-V diagram aggravate and aggravate on the card. The deduction of lofty acceleobjurgate engines is unalterable evaluated from traces of exigency conquered subjoined a end electronic sensors and displayed on electronic monitors and through digital techniques. The deduction emanationd per cycle (from an indicator card, for entreaty) can be denoteed as an medium exigency ends a compass. Owing the misconstruction compasss of engines are usually notorious, an engine enterpmount parameter notorious as the medium authorityful exigency, MEP, is defined in provisions of the piston misconstruction. The medium authorityful exigency is defined as the consider of the exigency conquered by dividing the net deduction per cylinder per cycle at a abandoned gratuitous circumstances by the piston misconstruction compass: MEP = W/disp [lbf/ft2 | kPa] (6. 8) Thus the MEP is a mete of the authorityfulness of a abandoned misconstruction compass in conceding net deduction. The capability output of an engine subjoined a end selfsimilar cylinders may be denoteed as the deduction of the deduction per cycle and the calcuslow of cycles spendived per bisect end by the engine. Thus if the engine has n cylinders, each executing N selfsimilar thermodynamic cycles per bisect end, and transmiting W deduction size per cylinder, subjoined a end a piston misconstruction, disp, the capability output is abandoned by P = nNW = nN MEP disp [ft-lbf /min | kW] (6. 9) Expressed for the whole engine, the engine misconstruction is DISP = ndisp and the engine deduction is MEP DISP. Heresucceeding the engine capability is: P = N MEPDISP [ft-lbf /min | kW] (6. 10) warrest N, the calcuslow of thermodynamic cycles of a cylinder per bisect end, is the calcuslow of crank-body revolutions per bisect end for a two-stroke-cycle engine and one-half of the revolutions per bisect end for a immodest-stroke-cycle engine. The ingredient of ? for the immodest-stroke-cycle engine arises owing one thermodynamic cycle is spendived each end the crank rotates through two revolutions. EXAMPLE 6. 2 What is the misconstruction of an engine that educes 60 horsecapability at 2500 rpm in a immodest-stroke-cycle engine having an MEP of 120 psi? 235 Solution From Equation (6. 10), the misconstruction of the engine is DISP = P/(N MEP) = (60)(33,000)(12)/[(2500/2)(120)] = 158. 4 in3 Checking size: (HP)(ft-lbf/HP-min)(in/ft)/[(cycles/min)(lbf/in2)] = in3 _____________________________________________________________________ If the deduction is evaluated from an indicator diagram the deduction is projectated implied deduction; the MEP is projectated the implied medium authorityful exigency, IMEP; and the capability is implied capability, IP. Note that the implied deduction and capability, being associated subjoined a end the deduction emanationd by the incendiarism hall gases on the piston, do not recital for gratingal or automatic privationes in the engine, such as piston-cylinder grating or the draw of affecting dissects (relish connecting rods) as they rank through air or lubricating oil. Labyrinth Enterpmount Parameters Another way of evaluating engine enterpmount is to add the engine output body to a emblem notorious as a dynamometer, or labyrinth. The dynamometer metes the torque, T, applied by the engine at a abandoned roundal accelerate. The capability is then adapted from the agreement P = 2rpm T [ft-lbf /min | N-m/min] (6. 11) A uncompounded emblem projectated a prony labyrinth, which was used in the gone-by, demonstrates the concept for the metement of the body torque of engines. Shape 6. 5 parades the prony labyrinth shape in which a unalterable metal bond patent encircling the rotating flywheel of the engine combats the torque infections to it by grating. The deduction of the vehemence meted by a bound flake, w, and the avail arm, d , gives the counter torque. The capability wild is then abandoned by 2(rpm)w d. Modern emblems such as imbisect labyrinths and electrical dynamometers hanker ago replaced the prony labyrinth. The imbisect labyrinth is relish a centrifugal imbisect interrogate subjoined a end no outflow, mounted on low-grating bearings, and stimulaten by the experience engine. As subjoined a end the prony labyrinth, the vehemence claimd to combat deviateing of the labyrinth (pump) housing supplys the torque postulates. This, coincidently subjoined a end acceleobjurgate metement, yields the capability output from Equation (6. 11). The capability wild appears as acceptiond air of the imbisect in the labyrinth and ardor transslow from the labyrinth. Hopeful imbisect is circulated unwillingly through the labyrinth to adhere-to a uniconstruct gratuitous circumstances. The torque meted in this way is projectated the labyrinth torque, BT, and the deductioning capability is projectated the labyrinth capability, BP. To summarize: end implied parameters relevancy to gas vehemences in the cylinder, labyrinth parameters dispense subjoined a end output body vehemences. Thus the labyrinth capability differs from the implied capability in that it recitals for the issue of all of the essential-quality privationes in the engine. The miscellany betwixt the two is referred to as the grating capability, FP. Thus FP = IP ? BP. 236 Grating capability varies subjoined a end engine acceleobjurgate and is arduous to mete immediately. An engine is rarely stimulaten subjoined a endout fuel by a motor-dynamometer to evaluate grating capability. An resource to using grating capability to relevancy labyrinth and implied capability is through the engine automatic competency, m: m = BP/IP [dl] (6. 12) Owing of grating, the labyrinth capability of an engine is regularly cease than the implied capability; heresucceeding the engine automatic competency must be cease than 1. Clearly, automatic efficiencies as arrest to 1 as feasible are desired. The engine implied capability can to-boot be explicit in provisions of torque, through Equation (6. 11). Thus an implied torque, IT, can be defined. Similarly, a labyrinth medium authorityful exigency, BMEP, may be defined that, when multifarious by the engine misconstruction and accelerate, yields the labyrinth capability, resembling to Equation (6. 10). Table 6. 1 summarizes these and other enterpmount parameters and agreements. The blood-warm competency, as for other engines, is a mete of the fuel government of a reciprocating engine. It tells the quantity of capability output that can be terminated for a abandoned objurgate of ardor libeobjurgate from the fuel. The objurgate of essential-quality libeobjurgate is, in deviate, the deduction of the objurgate of fuel glide and the fuel ardomelody consider. Thus, for a abandoned blood-warm competency, capability output can be acceptiond by employing a lofty fuel glide objurgate and/or selecting a fuel subjoined a end a lofty ardor of incendiarism. If the blood-warm competency is evaluated using the labyrinth capability, it is projectated the labyrinth blood-warm competency, BTE. If the evaluation uses the implied capability, it is projectated the implied blood-warm competency, ITE. 237 It is vile custom in the reciprocating engine drift to relevancy engine fuel government in provisions of a parameter projectated the local fuel decline, SFC, resembling to the urge local fuel decline used to depict jet engine enterprise. The local fuel decline is defined as the affinity of the fuel-majority glide objurgate to the capability output. Regular size are pulverizes per horsepower-hour or kilograms per kilowatt-hour. Obviously, cheerful fuel government is implied by low considers of SFC. The SFC is projectated labyrinth local fuel decline, BSFC, if it is defined using labyrinth capability or implied local fuel decline, ISFC, when installed on implied capability. The SFC for a reciprocating engine is resembling to the ardor objurgate for a fume capability settle in that twain are metes of the objurgate of essential-quality granted per bisect of capability output, and in that low considers of twain are delightful. Volumetric Competency The speculative essential-quality liberated dumelody the incendiarism arrangement is the deduction of the seniority of fuel contained in the incendiarism hall and its ardomelody consider if the fuel is wholly reacted. The elevate air that can be packed into the incendiarism hall, the Table 6. 1 Engine Enterpmount Parameters Implied Labyrinth Grating Medium authorityful exigency IMEP BMEP FMEP = IMEP – BMEP m = BMEP / IMEP Capability IP BP FP = IP – BP m = BHP / IHP Torque IT BT FT = IT – BT m = BT / IT Blood-warm competency ITE BTE m = BTE / ITE Local fuel decline ISFC BSFC m = ISFC / BSFC elevate fuel that can be burned subjoined a end it. Thus a mete of the competency of the gathemelody regularity is of grand significance. The compasstric competency, v, is the affinity of the educeed seniority of compulverize in the incendiarism hall to the seniority of compulverize that the misconstruction compass could succeeding a periodwithhold if the compulverize were at ambient (free-air) blindness. Thus the medium seniority-glide objurgate of air through a cylinder is v (disp) aN. Exigency privationes counter inconduct and empty valves, incendiarism-hall colliquation compass, the government of hot cylinder glaciss on compulverize blindness, valve timing, and gas inertia issues all government the compasstric competency. EXAMPLE 6. 3 A six-cylinder, immodest-stroke-cycle SI engine operates at 3000 rpm subjoined a end an implied medium authorityful exigency of five airs using octane fuel subjoined a end an equivalence affinity 238 of 0. 9. The labyrinth torque at this circumstances is 250 lbf? ft. , and the compasstric competency is 85%. Each cylinder has a five inch pierce and 6 inch tickle. Ambient provisions are 14. 7 psia and 40°F. What is the implied horsepower, labyrinth horsepower, and grating horsepower; the automatic competency; the fuel glide objurgate; and the BSFC? Solution The six cylinders feel a whole misconstruction of DISP = 6? 52? 6/4 = 706. 86 in3 Then the implied horsecapability is IP = MEP? DISP? N /[12? 33,000] [lbf /in2][in3][cycles/min]/[in/ft][ft-lbf /HP-min] = (5)(14. 7)(706. 86)(3000/2)/[12? 33,000] = 196. 8 horsecapability The labyrinth horsepower, from Equation (6. 11), is: BP = 2 ? 3000 ? 250 / 33,000 = 142. 8 horsecapability Then the grating capability is the miscellany betwixt the implied and labyrinth capability: FP = 196. 8 ? 142. 8 = 54 horsecapability and the automatic competency is m = 142. 8/196. 8 = 0. 726 The ambient blindness is a = 14. 7 ? 144/ [53. 3 ? 500] = 0. 0794 lbm /ft3 nd the seniority glide objurgate of air to the engine is ma = 0. 85? 0. 0794? 706. 86? (3000/2)/1728 = 41. 4 lbm /min For octane the stoichiometric reaction equation is C8H18 + 12. 5O2 + (12. 5? 3. 76)N2 8CO2 + 9H2O + (12. 5? 3. 76)N2 The fuel-air affinity is then F/A = 0. 9? [(8? 12) + (18? 1)]/[12. 5(32 + 3. 76? 28)] = 0. 0598 lbm-fuel /lbm-air 239 The fuel glide objurgate is mf = ma (F/A) = 41. 4 ? 0. 0598 = 2. 474 lbm /min The labyrinth local fuel decline is BSFC = 60 mf /BHP = 60? 2. 474/142. 8 = 1. 04 lbm /BHP-hr ____________________________________________________________________ 6. Spark-Ignition Engine Enterpmount A regular indicator diagram paradeing inconduct and empty arrangementes, valve actuation, and iota timing for a immodest-stroke-cycle SI engine is paraden in Shape 6. 6. It is emanationive that an mismismisembezzle air-fuel compulverize is granted from a carburetor through an inconduct multitudinous to an inconduct valve, IV, and that the incendiarism gas is effected through an empty valve, EV, into an empty multitudinous. The gathemelody of the air-fuel compulverize rouses subjoined a end the opportunity of the inconduct valve at top A harmonious precedently TC. As the piston sweeps to the equitable, the compulverize is drawn into the cylinder through the IV. The exigency in the cylinder is slightly beneath that in the inconduct multitudinous due to the exigency privationes counter the inconduct valve. In enjoin to use the availum of the compulverize inglide through the valve at the end of the inconduct tickle to rectify the compasstric competency, inconduct valve shutting up is retreated to bestowly subjoined BC at top B. Capability granted from inertia of a flywheel (and the other rotating seniorityes in the engine) stimulates the piston to the left, epitomizeing and rallying the air of the trapped compound. The incendiarism arrangement in a justly gratuitous SI engine is alterable in that the reaction rouses at the iota obstruct and journeyes into the unburned compulverize at a restricted accelerate. Thus the incendiarism arrangement conducts end and cannot be spendived immediately as implied by the speculative cycle. In enjoin for the arrangement to conduct assign as bar to TC as feasible, the iota obstruct is fired at top S. The calcuslow of ranks of crank round precedently TC at which the iota befalls is projectated the incendiarism rank. Advances of 10° to 30° are vile, depending on acceleobjurgate and accuse. The iota rank may be coerceled by emblems that sensation engine acceleobjurgate and inconduct multitudinous exigency. Microprocessors are now used to coerce iota rank and other exercises, installed on approximately immediate engine enterpmount metements. Recalling the slider-crank dissection, we observ that the piston flyingity at top constitution is availarily nothing as the piston modifys vergeency. Consequently no deduction can be emanationd at this top, regardcease of the seniority of the exigency vehemence. Thus, to maximize the deduction output, it is desired to feel the zenith cylinder exigency bedroop at environing 20° subjoined TC. Adjustment of the iota rank (in ranks precedently TC) allows some coerce of the incendiarism arrangement and the timing of peak exigency. For a urban incendiarism continuance, the incendiarism crank-inclination space-betwixt must acception subjoined a end engine accelerate. As a deduction, the incendiarism rank must acception subjoined a end increasing engine acceleobjurgate to 240 adhere-to optimum timing of the peak exigency. Subjoined incendiarism, the piston continues inland deep constitution as the lofty exigency gases enbulky and do deduction on the piston dumelody the capability tickle. As the piston appropinquationes BC, the gases do soon deduction on the piston as its flyingity commsolely appropinquationes nothing. As a deduction, not abundant deduction is obsolete by bestow opportunity of the empty valve precedently BC (at top E) to rouse the blowdown member of the empty arrangement. It is delightful to immolation a soon deduction dumelody the end of the capability tickle in enjoin to subjugate the deduction demanded to aggravateconclude an otherwise-lofty empty tickle cylinder exigency. Inertia of the gas in the cylinder and opcomcomposition to glide through the empty valve opportunity gradual the faint of gas exigency in the cylinder subjoined the valve opens. Thus the gases at top E are at a exigency balancemind the empty multitudinous exigency and, dumelody blowdown, impeach out through the EV at lofty accelerate. Following blowdown, gases fostemelody in the cylinder are then expelled as the piston receipts to TC. They stay balancemind empty multitudinous exigency until reaching TC owing of the glide opcomcomposition of the empty valve. The EV arrests bestowly subjoined TC at top C, terminating the empty arrangement. The age of aggravatelap at TC betwixt the inconduct valve opportunity at top A and empty valve failure at top C in Shape 6. 6 allows elevate end for the inconduct and empty arrangementes at lofty engine accelerates, when environing 10 milliseconds may be succorful for these arrangementes. At low engine acceleobjurgate and at loose tarrest may be some compulverize privation through the empty valve and execute into the inconduct multitudinous dumelody this valve aggravatelap age. The completely empty and gathemelody arrangementes are seen to construct a ? interrogateing loop? that traverses the p-V diagram in a counterclockwise vergeency and consequently 241 denotes deduction input rather than deduction deductionion. The loftyer the empty tickle exigency and the inferior the inconduct tickle exigency, the grander the area of the interrogateing loop and heresucceeding the grander the deduction that must be granted by the capability loop (clockwise) to discharge. Great con-over is consequently hired to valve project and other engine personalitys that government the empty and gathemelody arrangementes. Volumetric competency is a main parameter that indicates the rank of achievement of these efforts. Enterpmount Characteristics A abandoned intellectual Otto-cycle engine emanations a incontrovertible quantity of deduction per cycle. For such a cycle, MEP = W/disp is a immutable. Equating the capability equations (6. 9) and (6. 11) parades that the medium torque is proportional to MEP and dogged of engine engine accelerate. Therefore capability output for the intellectual engine is immediately proportional to the calcuslow of cycles spendived per bisect end, or to engine accelerate. Thus an Otto engine has intellectual torque and capability personalitys, as paraden by the dense lines in Shape 6. 7. The personalitys of existent engines (represented by the dashed lines) verge to be homogeneous in constitution to the intellectual personalitys but permit from accelerate-sentient issues, dissecticularly at low or lofty accelerates. Torque and capability personalitys for a 3. 1 liter V6 engine (ref. 9) are paraden by the dense lines in Shape 6. 8. Note the deformedity of the torque-acceleobjurgate flexion and the expected peaking of the capability flexion at loftyer acceleobjurgate than the torque flexion. Rather than bestow graphical personalitys such as this in their 242 brochures, automobile manufacturers usually bestow solely considers for the zenith capability and torque and the accelerates at which they befall. Engine personalitys such as those paraden in the shape are precious to application engineers seeking a harmonious engine for use in a deduction. 6. 8 The Compression-Ignition or Diesel Cycle The intellectual Diesel cycle differs from the Otto cycle in that incendiarism is at immutable exigency rather than immutable compass. The intellectual cycle, paraden in Shape 6. 9, is commsolely instrumented in a reciprocating engine in which air is epitomizeed subjoined a endout fuel from say 1 to say 2. Subjoined a end a regularly lofty epitomizeion affinity, say 2 is at a air lofty sufficient that fuel gain smoulder spontaneously when sprayed immediately into the air in the incendiarism hall from a lofty-exigency fuel initiative regularity. By coerceling the fuel initiative objurgate and thus the objurgate of chemical essential-quality libeobjurgate in agreement to the objurgate of disquisition of the incendiarism gases subjoined say 2, a immutable243 exigency arrangement or other essential-quality libeobjurgate model may be terminated as in Shape 6. . For educement, if the essential-quality libeobjurgate objurgate is lofty, then exigency may mollify, as from 2 to 3’, and if low may droop to 3’’. Thus immutable-exigency incendiarism made feasible by coerceling the objurgate of fuel initiative into the cyclinder implies the use of a nicety fuel initiative regularity. Instead of injecting fuel into the lofty-air epitomizeed air, the cycle capability be spendived by epitomizeion of an air-fuel compound, subjoined a end incendiarism befallmelody either spontaneously or at a hot defacement in the cylinder bar the end of the epitomizeion arrangement. Inconsistency and unpredictstrength of the rouse of incendiarism in this appropinquation, due to variations in fuel and gratuitous provisions, and to failure of coerce of the objurgate of ardor libeobjurgate subjoined a end the possibility of grave blast, makes the action of such an engine baseless, at the last, and to-boot boundarys the zenith epitomizeion affinity. The Diesel engine consequently usually employs fuel initiative into epitomizeed air rather than carbureted compulverize constructation. In the Air Type cycle disminority of the Diesel cycle, the ardor observation arrangement is at immutable exigency: q23 = cp(T3 ? T2) [Btu/lbm | kJ/kg] (6. 13) nd, as subjoined a end the Otto cycle, the failure arrangement is at immutable compass: q41 = cv(T1 ? T4) [Btu/lbm | kJ/kg] (6. 14) 244 The net deduction and blood-warm competency are then: w = q23 + q41 = cp(T3 ? T2) + cv(T1 ? T4) = cvT1[k(T3/T1 ? T2/T1) + 1 ? T4/T1] [Btu/lbm | kJ/kg] (6. 15) Diesel = w/q23 = 1 + q4-1/q23 = 1 + (cv/cp)(T1 ? T4)/(T3 ? T2) = 1 ? (1/k)(T1/T2)(T4/T1 ? 1)/(T3/T2 ? 1) [dl] (6. 16) The expressions for the net deduction and cycle competency may be explicit in provisions two parameters, the epitomizeion affinity, CR = V1/V2 (as defined antecedent in treating the Otto cycle) and the cutoff affinity, COR = V3/V2. The air affinitys in Equations (6. 15) and (6. 16) may be replaced by these parameters using, for the immutable-exigency arrangement, COR = V3/V2 = T3/T2 and by enlargeing the subjoined identity: T4 /T1 = (T4/T3)(T3/T2)(T2 /T1) = (V3 /V4)k-1(V3/V2)(V1/V2)k-1 = [(V3/V4)(V1/V2)]k-1COR = (COR)k-1COR = CORk warrest the deduction of the compass affinitys was simplified by recognizing that V4 = V1. Thus the nondimensionalized net deduction and Diesel-cycle blood-warm competency are abandoned by w /cvT1 = kCRk-1(COR ? 1) + (1 ? CORk) [dl] (6. 17) and Diesel = 1 ? (1/k)[(CORk ? 1)/(COR ? 1)]/CRk-1 [dl] (6. 8) warrest the cutoff affinity, COR, is the affinity of the compass at the end of incendiarism, V3, to that at the rouse of incendiarism, V2. Thus the cutoff affinity may be reflection of as a mete of the continuance of fuel initiative, subjoined a end loftyer cutoff affinitys selfconcordant to hankerer incendiarism continuances. 245 Diesel-cycle net deduction acceptions subjoined a end twain epitomizeion affinity and cutoff affinity. This is readily seen graphically from Shape 6. 9 in provisions of p-V diagram area. As subjoined a end the Otto cycle, increasing epitomizeion affinity acceptions the Diesel-cycle blood-warm competency. Increasing cutoff affinity, ultimately, decreases blood-warm competency. This may be affinitynalized by observing from the p-V diagram that abundant of the decided ardor granted when initiative is continued is uncommon at increasingly loftyer airs. Another end is that ardor exterior slow in the disquisition arrangement can emanation deduction solely aggravate the fostemelody dissect of the tickle and thus adds cease to net deduction than to ardor postponement. EXAMPLE 6. 4 A Diesel engine has a epitomizeion affinity of 20 and a peak air of 3000K. Using an Air Type cycle dissection, consider the deduction per bisect seniority of air, the blood-warm competency, the incendiarism exigency, and the cutoff affinity. Solution Assuming an ambient air and exigency of 300K and 1 air, the air at the end of the epitomizeion tickle is T2 = (300)(20)1. 4 ? 1 = 994. 3K and the incendiarism exigency is p2 = (1)(20)1. 4 = 66. 3 atm Then the cutoff affinity is V3/V2 = T3/T2 = 3000/994. 3 = 3. 02 The disquisition affinity is adapted as follows: V4 /V3 = (V1/V2)/(V3 /V2) = 20/3. 02 = 6. 62 T4 = T3 (V3 /V4)1. 4 ? 1 = 3000/6. 620. 4 = 1409K w = 1. 005(3000 ? 994. 3) + (1. 005/1. 4)(300 ? 1409) = 1219. 6 kJ/kg qa = 1. 005(3000 ? 994. 3) = 2015. 7 kJ/kg th = w/qa = 1219. /2015. 6 = 0. 605, or 60. 5% _____________________________________________________________________ 246 6. 9 Compamelody Otto-Cycle and Diesel-Cycle Efficiencies A unexcited interrogation at this top is: Which cycle is elevate causative, the Otto cycle or the Diesel cycle? Shape 6. 10 befriends in examining this interrogation. In unconcealed notation, the cycle competency may be written as th = wnet /qin = wnet /(wnet + |qout|) = 1 /(1 + |qout| /wnet) [dl] (6. 19) Compamelody the Otto cycle 1? 2? 3? 4 and the Diesel cycle subjoined a end the concordant epitomizeion affinity 1? 2? 3’? , we see that twain feel the concordant ardor postponement but that the Otto cycle has the loftyer net deduction. Equation (6. 19) then parades that, for the concordant epitomizeion affinity, the Otto cycle has the loftyer competency. It has been observed that Diesel-cycle competency decreases subjoined a end increasing cutoff affinity for a abandoned epitomizeion affinity. Let us inquire the boundary of the Diesel-cycle competency for immutable CR as COR appropinquationes its multiplyiality consider, 1. We may transcribe Equation (6. 18) as Diesel = 1 ? 1 /(kCRk-1) f (COR) warrest f(COR) = (CORk ? 1)/(COR ? 1). Applying L’Hospital’s government, subjoined a end primes 247 esignating contrariantiation subjoined a end regard to COR, to the boundary of f(COR) as COR 1, yields lim f(COR) = lim (CORk ? 1)’/ Lim (COR? 1)’ = lim kCORk ? 1 = k COR1 COR1 COR1 and limDiesel = 1 ? 1 /CRk ? 1 COR1 = Otto Thus the boundary of the Diesel-cycle competency as COR appropinquationes 1 is the Otto cycle competency. Heresucceeding Equation (6. 18) parades that the competency of the Diesel cycle must be cease than or resembling to the Otto-cycle competency if twain engines feel the concordant epitomizeion affinity, the concordant disposal we reached by probation of the p-V diagram. Suppose, ultimately, that the epitomizeion affinitys are not the concordant. Compare the Otto cycle 1? 2’? 3’? 4 subjoined a end the Diesel cycle 1? 2? 3’? 4 having the concordant zenith air in Shape 6. 10. The Otto cycle has a trivialer area, and consequently cease deduction, than the Diesel cycle, but the concordant ardor postponement. Equation (6. 19) demonstrates that the Otto cycle has a inferior blood-warm competency than the Diesel cycle subjoined a end the concordant zenith air. The disposal that must be drawn from the balancemind concordantitys is wholely indisputable. As in most proportionately engineemelody studies, the deduction depends on the foundation ules which were adopted at the rouse of the con-over. The Otto cycle is elevate causative if the epitomizeion affinity is the concordant or grander than that of the competing Diesel cycle. But blast in iota-incendiarism (Otto) engines boundarys their epitomizeion affinitys to environing 12, end Diesel-engine epitomizeion affinitys may yield 20. Thus, subjoined a end these loftyer epitomizeion affinitys, the Air Type Diesel-cycle competency can yield that of the Otto cycle. In custom, Diesel engines verge to feel loftyer efficiencies than SI engines owing of loftyer epitomizeion affinitys. 6. 0 Diesel-Engine Enterpmount In 1897, five years subjoined Rudolph Diesel’s pristine patents and twenty-one years subjoined Otto’s initiative of the iota-incendiarism engine, Diesel’s epitomizeion-incendiarism engine was proven to educe 13. 1 kilowatts of capability subjoined a end an unequalled labyrinth blood-warm competency of 26. 2% (ref. 7). At that end, most fume engines operated at blood-warm efficiencies beneath 10 %; and the best gas engines did not perconstruct abundant melioreprove than the fume machines. Diesel claimed (and was widely believed) to feel plain his engine from the truths expounded by Carnot. He had plain "the affinitynal engine. " Whether his claims were exaggerated or not, Diesel’s eulogy was courteous-mannered-behaved-behaved just. He had plain an engine that operated at unequalled airs and exigencys, had proven his concept of incendiarism of fuel by initiative into the epitomizeed lofty-air air, and had aggravateconclude the constructidable educements of injecting a miscellany of fuels in mismismisembezzle 248 quantitys subjoined a end the formal timing claimd for delicious incendiarism. His is a lovely relation of a effulgent and dedicated engineer (refs. 7, 8). In the Diesel engine, the lofty air airs and exigencys anterior to incendiarism are attributable to the epitomizeion of air unmatched rather than an air-fuel compound. Compression of air unmatched excludes the possibility of autiognition dumelody epitomizeion and makes lofty epitomizeion affinitys feasible. However, owing of the lofty exigencys and airs, Diesel engines must be contrived to be structurally elevate harsh. Therefore, they verge to be heavier than SI engines subjoined a end the concordant labyrinth capability. The essential-quality libeobjurgate arrangement in the Diesel engine is coerceled by the objurgate of initiative of fuel. After a tiny incendiarism lag, the pristine fuel injected into the incendiarism hall autoignites and the deductioning lofty gas air sustains the incendiarism of the stayder of the fuel bias as it enters the incendiarism hall. Thus it is conspicuous that the auspicious fuel personality of lofty autoincendiarism air for an SI engine is an unauspicious personality for a Diesel engine. In the Diesel engine, a low autoincendiarism air and a soon incendiarism retreat are delightful. Blast is feasible in the Diesel engine, but it is due to an wholely contrariant principle than blast in a iota-incendiarism engine. If fuel is smoulderd and burns as flyingly as it is injected, then ease, blast-free incendiarism befalls. If, on the other fruitman, fuel accumulates in the cylinder precedently incendiarism due to a hanker incendiarism lag, an eruptation or detonation befalls, conceding a sonorous Diesel blast. The cetane calcuslow is the parameter that identifies the incendiarism lag personality of a fuel. The cetane consider, relish the octane consider, is unshaken by experienceing in a CFR engine. The incendiarism lag of the experience fuel is compared subjoined a end that of a compulverize of n-cetane, C16H34, and heptamethylnonane, HMN (ref. 0). Cetane, which has cheerful incendiarism qualities, is assigned a consider of 100; and HMN, which has moneycease blast manner, a consider of 15. The cetane calcuslow is then abandoned by the sum of the percentage of n-cetane and 0. 15 ends the percentage of HMN in the blast-similarity compound. A cetane calcuslow of 40 is the multiplyiality undisputed for a Diesel fuel. 6. 11 Superchargers and Turbochargers The significance of the compasstric competency, denoteing the competency of gathemelody of the air-fuel compulverize into the reciprocating-engine cylinders, was discussed antecedent. Clearly, the elevate compulverize seniority in the misconstruction compass, the elevate chemical essential-quality can be liberated and the elevate capability gain be transmited from that compass. Dumelody the Assist Universe War, the automatic supercharger was rarely used subjoined a end SI aircraft engines to acception the capability and actional ceiling of American airplanes. Today supercharging is used subjoined a end twain Diesel engines and SI engines. The supercharger is a epitomizeor that edibles air to the cylinder at lofty exigency so that the as blindness in the cylinder at the rouse of epitomizeion is courteous-mannered-behaved-behaved balancemind the free-air blindness. The piston empty gases are undisputed to enbulky spontaneously to the atmosparrest through the empty multitudinous and tailpipe. The supercharger is usually stimulaten by a environ or ownership retinue from the engine crank body. 249 Shape 6. 11 parades a species of the speculative Otto cycle to adjust automatic supercharging. The supercharger edibles air to the engine cyclinders at exigency p7 in the inconduct arrangement 7 1. The arrangementes 4 5 6 clear most of the incendiarism gas from the cylinder. The most impressive modify in the cycle is that the gathering-empty loop is now traversed counterclockwise, indicating that the cylinder is transmiting net deduction dumelody these arrangementes as courteous-mannered-behaved-behaved as dumelody the epitomizeiondisquisition loop. It should be present, ultimately, that dissect of the cycle implied capability must be used to stimulate the apparent supercharger. The turbosupercharger or turbocharger, for soon, is a supercharger stimulaten by a turbine using the empty gas of the reciprocating engine, as paraden schematically in Shape 6. 12. A cutsepaobjurgate end of a turbocharger is paraden in Shape 6. 3(a). Shape 6. 13(b) bestows a diagram for the turbocharger. Compact turbochargers commsolely acception the labyrinth capability of an engine by 30% or elevate, as paraden in Shape 6. 8, warrest the enterpmount of an engine subjoined a end and subjoined a endout turbocharging is compared. There, a stout acception in peak torque and flattening of the torque-acceleobjurgate flexion due to turbocharging is conspicuous. For a supercharged engine, the labyrinth capability, BP, is the implied capability (as in Shape 6. 11) cease the engine grating capability and the supercharger body capability: BP = DISP IMEP N ? Pm ? FP [ft-lbf /min | kJ/s] (6. 15) 250 warrest Pm is the supercharger-body automatic capability granted by the engine (0 for a turbocharger). The IMEP apprehends the fixed deduction subscription of the empty loop. The empty tail exigency of the reciprocating engine is loftyer subjoined a end a turbocharger than for a naturally aspirated or automaticly supercharged engine owing of the faint in empty gas exigency through the turbine. The engine labyrinth capability acceptions primarily owing of a loftyer IMEP due to the exterior seniority of fuel and air in the cylinder dumelody incendiarism. Intercooling betwixt the epitomizeor and the inconduct multitudinous may be used to elevate acception the cylinder impeach blindness. Turbocharging may acception engine competency, but its chief avail is a stout acception in labyrinth capability. In a turbocharged engine, a wastegate may be claimd to bypass engine empty gas encircling the turbine at lofty engine accelerates. This becomes incontrovertible when the epitomizeor raises the inconduct multitudinous exigency to redundancyively lofty levels, causing engine blast or foreboding constituent mischief. Thirty to forty percent of the empty glide may be bypassed encircling the turbine at zenith acceleobjurgate and accuse (ref. ). 251 252 6. 12 The Automobile Engine and Air Dirt Since the Assist Universe War, interest for environmental dirt has confirmed from counterdissect of the standing quo to memory and militance of social and intersocial drift. Among other bounds, principles of the courteous-mannered-behaved-notorious Los Angeles smog educement were authorized as hydrocarbons (HC) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) in empty effluences from motor transportation reciprocating engines. As a deduction, social and California automobile air dirt boundarys for automobiles feel been normal and toughened. Prior to the Cmoneyhither Air Act of 1990, the U. S. federal empty-gas effluences types boundaryed unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and oxides of nitrogen to 0. 41, 3. 4, and 1. 0 g/mile, regardively. According to relation 12, today it conducts 25 autos to evert as abundant CO and unburned hydrocarbons and 4 to evert as abundant NOx as a uncompletely car in 1960. The relation anticipated that, led by stout California law and other ingredients, forthcoming engine projects should be targeted inland meeting a tailpipe type of 0. 5, 3. 4, 0. 4 g/mile. Indeed, the 1990 Cmoneyhither Air Act (refs. 15,16) definitive these boundarys for the pristine 50,000 miles or five years of action for all itinerant cars constrained subjoined 1995. In observation to the guides on gaseous effluences, the Cmoneyhither Air Act of 1990 adopted the California type for dissecticuslow subject of 0. 08 g/mile for itinerant cars. The types on dissecticulates are dissecticularly arduous for the Diesel engine, owing of its of soot-conceding vergeency. The automobile air dirt educement arises in dissect owing the reactions in the empty regularity are not in chemical makeburden as the gas air faints. Oxides of nitrogen, uninterruptedly constructed in the cylinder at lofty air, do not redeviate to makeburden eagernesss of nitrogen and oxygen in the hopefuling empty deductions. Likewise, CO constructed subjoined a end wealthy compounds or by indeduction of CO2 in the cylinder at lofty air does not reply flyingly to an refluence of air as its air faints in the empty regularity. Their eagernesss may be reflection of as immutable or frozen. Unburned hydrocarbons are constrained not solely by wealthy incendiarism but to-boot by unburned compulverize lurking in crevices (such as betwixt piston and cylinder balancemind the top piston melody), by lubricating oil on cylinder glaciss and the cylinder crisis that absorbs and desorbs hydrocarbons precedently and subjoined incendiarism, and by fleeting gratuitous provisions. Starting in 1963, fixed crankevent balm was used in all new cars to duct fuel-wealthy crankevent gas previously vented to the atmosparrest tail into the engine inconduct regularity. Subjoined in the ? 0s, multitudinous fixes were adopted to acquiesce subjoined a end guide of tailpipe unburned hydrocarbons and CO, including inferiomelody epitomizeion affinitys. In 1973, NOx became federally regulated, and empty gas recirculation (EGR) was populated to subjugate NOx constructation through subjugated incendiarism airs. At the concordant end, HC and CO types were subjugated elevate, repressing to the use of the oxidizing catalytic converter. Initiative of air interrogateed into the tailpipe supplyd decided oxygen to befriend in drift of the oxidation reactions. In 1981, a reducing catalytic converter came into use to subjugate NOx elevate. This emblem does not perconstruct courteous-mannered-behaved-behaved in an oxidizing air. As a deduction, two-quantity catalytic converters were applied, subjoined a end the pristine quantity reducing NOx in a bar-stoichiometric compulverize and the 253 assist oxidizing the combustibles fostemelody in the empty subjoined a end the succor of air introduced betwixt the quantitys. This hopeful air does not the acception NOx burdenyly, owing of the proportionately low air of the empty. The three-way catalytic converter using contrariant outlandish metal catalysts to subjugate all three of the gaseous pollutants was to-boot introduced. The use of catalytic converters to dispense subjoined a end all three pollutants brought environing burdeny concomitant decreases in the three main gaseous pollutants from automobiles. This undisputed fuel-economy-reducing speciess that had been introduced antecedent to meet effluence decrease demands to be excluded or relaxed, repressing to elevate corrections in fuel government. Catalytic converters, ultimately, claim formal coerce of empty gas oxygen to bar-stoichiometric compounds. The on-board computer has made feasible coerce of compulverize affinity and iota timing in counterpart to judge outputs of inconduct multitudinous exigency, empty gas oxygen, engine accelerate, air glide, and unformed blast. The oxygen, or lambda, judge located in the empty pipe upbias of the three-way converter or betwixt the two-quantity converters is very sentient to transition from wealthy to moneyhither empty and allows arrest computer coerce of the compulverize affinity to individualize appropriate action of the catalytic converter. Computer coerce of carburetors or fuel initiative as courteous-mannered-behaved-behaved as other engine exercises has undisputed concomitant correction in fuel government and effluences in modern years. Thus, end effluences feel been drastically subjugated since 1974, according to relation 11 the EPA composite fuel government of the medium U. S. itinerant car has nbestow doubled; although this correction has not conclude from the engine unmatched. Despite the hard-won gains in effluences coerce and fuel government, elevate journey may be expected. EXAMPLE 6. 5 The 1990 NOx effluences type is 0. grams per mile. For an automobile enduring stoichiometric octane subjoined a end a fuel mileage of 30 mpg, what is the zenith tailpipe eagerness of NOx in dissects per pet? Assume that NOx is denoteed by NO2 and that the fuel blindness is 692 kilograms per strong meter. Solution For the stoichiometric incendiarism of octane, C8H18, the air-fuel affinity is 15. 05 and the embankmentcular burden of incendiarism deductions is 28. 6. The decline of octane is mf = (692)(1000)(3. 79? 10-3)/ 30 = 87. 4 g/mile [Note: (kg/m3)(g/kg)(m3/gal)/(mile/gal) = g/mile. The eagerness of NOx is the affinity of the calcuslow of embankments of NOx to embankments of incendiarism gas deductions: embankment Nox /embankment cg = (mNOx /mf)(mf / mcg)(Mcg /MNOx) = (0. 4/87. 4)(28. 6/46)/ (15. 05 + 1) = 0. 0001773 254 or 177. 3 dissects per pet (ppm). _____________________________________________________________________ Bibliography and References 1. Heywood, John B. , Interior Incendiarism Engine Fundamentals. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1988. 2. Ferguson, Colin R. , Interior Incendiarism Engines. New York: Wiley, 1986. 3. Adler, U. , et al. , Automotive Handbook, 2nd ed. Warrendale, Pa. Society of Automotive Engineers. , 1986. 4. Lichty, Lester C. , Interior Incendiarism Engines. New York: McGraw Hill, 1951. 5. Crouse, William H. , Automotive Engine Design. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1970. 6. Obert, Edward, Interior Incendiarism Engines, Disminority and Practice. Scranton, Pa. : Intersocial Textbook Co. , 1944. 7. Grosser, Morton, Diesel: The Man and the Engine. New York: Atheneum, 1978. 8. Nitske, W. Robert, and Wilson, Charles Morrow, Rudolph Diesel: Pioneer of the Age of Power. Norman, Okla. : University of Oklahoma Press, 1965. 9. Demmler, Albert W. Jr. , et al. , ? 989 Technical Highlights of Big-three U. S. Manufacturers,? Automotive Engineering. Vol. 96, No. 10, October 1988, p. 81. 10. Anon. , ? Incendiarism Quality of Diesel Fuels by the Cetane Method,? ASTM D 613-84, 1985 Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Exception 5. 11. Amann, Charles A. , ? The Automotive Iota Incendiarism Engine-A Literal Perspective,? American Society of Automatic Engineers, ICE-Vol. 8, Book No. 100294, 1989. 12. Amann, Charles A. , ? The Automotive Spark-Ignition Engine-A Forthcoming Perspective,? Society of Automotive Engineers Paper 891666, 1989. 13. Amann, Charles A. , ? The Itinerant Car and the Greenhouse Effect,? Society of Automotive Engineers Paper, 1990. 14. Taylor, Charles Fayette, The Interior Incendiarism Engine in Theory and Practice, 2nd ed. , revised. Cambridge, Mass. : MIT Press, 1985. 255 15. Public Law 101-549, ? An Act to Amend the Cmoneyhither Air Act to Supply for Attainment and Maintenance of Health, Protection, Social Air Quality Standards, and Other Purposes,? November 15, 1990. 16. Anon. , ? Provisions? Cmoneyhither Air Amendments,? Congressional Quarterly, November 24, 1990. EXERCISES 6. 1 Conspire dimensioncease piston aspect regularlyst crank inclination for S/2L = 0. , 0. 4, 0. 3, and 0. 2. 6. 2* Conquer expressions for the piston flyingity and succor as a exercise of the crank inclination, immutable bent flyingity, and S/2L affinity. Use a spreadsheet to calcuslow and conspire flyingity and succor regularlyst crank inclination for S/2L = 0. 5, 0. 4, 0. 3, and 0. 2. 6. 3 Individualize the equation for the piston excitement for a scotch link mediums in provisions of crank inclination. Conquer an equation for the piston flyingity for a crank that deviates subjoined a end a abandoned bent flyingity, . 6. 4 Derive an equation for the Otto-engine net deduction by integration of pdV for the Air Type cycle. Compare subjoined a end Equation (6. 6). 6. 5* Use a spreadsheet to calcuslow and conspire cycle competency as a exercise of epitomizeion affinity for the Diesel cycle for cutoff affinitys of 1, 2, and 3. Indentify the Otto-cycle competency on the conspire. Explain and parade graphically from the conspire how a Diesel engine can be elevate causative than an Otto engine. 6. 6 A uncombined-cylinder Air Type Otto engine has a epitomizeion affinity of 8. 5 and a peak air of 3500°F at ambient provisions of 80°F and one air. Individualize the cycle competency, zenith cylinder exigency, and medium authorityful exigency. 6. A six-cylinder engine subjoined a end a epitomizeion affinity of 11 runs at 2800 rpm at 80°F and 14. 7 psia. Each cylinder has a pierce and tickle of three inches and a compasstric competency of 0. 82. Assume an Air Standard, immodest-tickle Otto cycle _______________________ * Exercise considers subjoined a end an asterisk indic