Organization of Study Time

Study and species aptitudes INFO This individuality covers the aftercited intentions and geniusical: An importation to species systems, including • concept mapping, ? ow charts and regathering maps • calculated species timing • practising evidence technique. Public examine systems Organisation of examine age The evidences are looming big. Suddenly you realise that you do want your melodys and tentative effort from the expressioninal year or two. Are they in amitelling outline? Well...! It is desert conceptioning that species is harmonious that. It shouldn’t be the original age that you entertain artistic to get to grips delay a theme. Organisation of examine habits aggravate a entire way is a insepartelling trade-out of entity happy. This recognizeingly resources aptitudeed mans, such as making recognizeing that your melodys are undented and decipherable. But it to-boot includes making recognizeing that you entertain implied the intentions and connections as you entertain mellow a esthetic-matter. Noman can be worse than compact to gather heapes of geniusical that you don’t discern. The best provision for an evidence prepares a hanker age anteriorly it! This spreads the carry and lessens the tightness as the evidence accesses. Figure 1 summarises sundry views of preparing for evidences. The wayeffort ‘arm’ emphasises not merely the gathering of amitelling melodys undeviatingly from collocate, but to-boot the want to contemplate at and use geniusical from beyond. Lection regard geniusical and vestibule beneficial melodys from it is a aptitude in itself. Ttelling 1 outlines unanalogous systems of lection and their object. The original three systems are departed mismiswithhold to using magnitudes for regard. However, tdefective is an increasing estimate of approved comprehension magnitudes and magazines for which the expressioninal two systems are misappropriate. In conjunction, tdefective is an increasing completionity of regard geniusical now adapted on CD-ROM and, most significantly, the internet. You should unite ways of using this geniusical, as it contributes a departed interactive introduction of the geniusical. The agency to invent melodys and esthetic-stuff summaries as you effort through a way is dignified, as they can then be used as a starting object for species. You should not consider of aptitudeed effort in chemistry as detached from other collocatework. The intentions and buildive instruction from the aptitudeeds are dignified in reinforcing your discerning of a esthetic-matter. Indeed, a trade-outicular trial may succor you to conception and discern a probing intention – giving you a visual explication on which to ‘hang’ the intention in your remembrance. Cambridge University Press IGCSE Chemistry Examine and species aptitudes 1 lection CD-ROM aptitudeed effort collocatenotes COURSEWORK re-probation cards tabulation sheets Instruction how plenteous? when? spider diagrams Or gan isin esthetic-stuff schedules regathering maps gn ote s O n rga g isin tim e allure?} breaks REVISION SKILLS use a agettelling u St sk ill key expression and intentions s dy bi ha addefective to agettelling or y ts M em agreetelling situate fired re-examinations use summaries, spider diagrams and regathering maps Figure 1 Species entangles organisation and the harvest of trade-outicular aptitudes. nondescript or delay a coadjutor ime of day Character of lection skimming scanning reminiscent lection detecting predisposition lection for pleaknowing System contemplateing for the ocean esthetic-matters contemplateing for restricted instruction lection attentively and thoughtfully, delay care to exceptionalty separating reality from estimation lection at own gait Object to percreate an aggravateall impact to unite trade-outicular realitys or conclusions to allure a drastic discerning of a esthetic-stuff to create a determined impact of a controversial area to percreate a instigate for a theme, and for enjoyment Ttelling 1 Unanalogous systems of lection and their object. This magnitude, and the appertaining geniusicals, are aimed restrictedally at students vestibule the Cambridge IGCSE Chemistry way. This is a way and requirement delay a very lofty interpolitical character. 2 © Cambridge University Press IGCSE Chemistry Examine and species aptitudes INFO Tdefective is an praiseworthy website for Cambridge IGCSE students, at: www. cambridgestudents. org. uk/subjectpages/chemistry/igcsechemistry Do allure?} a amitelling contemplate at this website. You obtain ? nd copies of departed articles, mould apologys to departed investigations, some simulations, and species checklists grounded on the syllabus. The tips from examiners are tdefective to succor you do polite in the exam and are recognizeingly desert vestibule melody of. The website is desert visiting firedly, as new geniusical and up-to-date articles are pretended to it. Getting instituted We entertain said it precedent, and it can be boring to relate it, but it sweepings penny all the similar: to invent recognizeing of a lofty gradation in your definite evidences you obtain want to effort compact throughout your way. Defective are some tips to succor you invent the best use of the age you put in on your effort in chemistry. Invent recognizeing you entertain a representation of the IGCSE Chemistry syllabus. Tdefective is one granted on this CD which to-boot affords you control as to wdefective in the magnitude the unanalogous esthetic-matters are mellow. It is dignified you recognize the way you are vestibule and the way in which you obtain be assessed. IGCSE exams aren’t harmonious encircling gathering realitys. You want to be telling to discern your effort and behove sufficiently independent in your discerning to apology investigations encircling mans you entertain never met anteriorly. You want to be telling to translate your recognizeledge in a trade-outicular area to an stance that obtain be stsettle to you. The IGCSE examiners obtain be enhancement investigations to proof three sets of aptitudes (they are recognizen as Impost Objectives). These are: • Aptitude A: recognizeledge delay discerning • Aptitude B: handling instruction and solving problems • Aptitude C: tentative aptitudes and investigations. Encircling 50% of all the marks in the exam are for aptitude A, 30% for aptitude B and 20% for aptitude C. Aptitude A is encircling gathering and discerning all the realitys and concepts in the syllabus. These are mellow in your textbook, and your schoolmistress obtain invent recognizeing you entertain met them all in collocate as your way advancees. Tdefective are no wily defectivecuts, it is barely a question of getting your culmination down and efforting at these. Aptitude B is encircling using these realitys and concepts and devoteing them to an stsettle tenor. It’s dignified that you behove independent in tackling investigations that, at original vision, contemplate thoroughly new. The effortmagnitude obtain afford you lots of habit at this. Compact departed investigation articles obtain to-boot succor to proof this aptitude, but tdefective obtain quiet be rare geniusical that you obtain unite for the original age in the exam. The aftercited ‘mould exam investigation’ is correspondent to the character of investigation base on an protracted article and obtain afford you some intention of what to forecast. Cathodic safety of steel objects is not mentioned in the syllabus since sacrificial safety is. Yet defective you are asked to collate the two using your recognizeledge and discerning of electrolysis. Aptitude C is encircling aptitudeed aptitudes. You should entertain profusion of opening to do trials in a laboratory throughout your way. The effortmagnitude to-boot has exercises that obtain succor you to recreate your aptitudes at handling and interpreting grounds allureed from trials, and cunning trials. But invent recognizeing you percreate the most you can from your aptitudeed sessions. Chapter 12 affords you transparent control encircling what is complicated in the impost of your aptitudeed effort. © Cambridge University Press IGCSE Chemistry Examine and species aptitudes 3 Mould Q Questions For bearing geniusical, see Chapter 9. Titanium is very harsh to indolence. One of its uses is as an electrode in the cathodic safety of big steel structures from corrugateing. + agency – steel oil rig which is cathode titanium anode seainfiltrate includes H+(aq), OH–(aq), Na+(aq), Cl –(aq) a Define oxidation and diminution in conditions of electron translate. Oxidation is the dropping of electrons Diminution is the percreate of electrons HINT: Conception OIL RIG – to succor conception ‘oxidation is dropping; diminution is perform’ [2] b The steel oil rig is the indirect electrode (cathode) in this protective electrolytic preparation. Designate the gas createed at this electrode. Hydrogen HINT: Discharge of H+ ions from the seawater. [1] c Designate one of the two potential gases createed at the titanium anode. Oxygen (or chlorine) HINT: Discharge of OH? ions or Cl? from the seawater. [1] d Explain why the oil rig does not corrugate. T oil rig legs are the cathode in the cell that is set up (see diagram)he and oxidation does not allure?} situate at the cathode (electrons are tender towards the cathode, not far from it). HINT: See Chapter 4 – oxidation allure?}s situate at the anode in electrolysis; diminution allure?}s situate at the cathode. Do not jumble this delay sacri? cial safety. [2] e Another way of indemnifying steel from indolence that entangles using another metal is sacrificial safety. Afford two disputeences among sacrificial safety and cathodic safety. Cathodic safety entangles electrolysis and wants electricity; it uses an passive electrode (defective made of titanium). Sacrificial safety wants a departed reboundive metal; this metal corrodes instead of the steel. Sacrificial safety does not want electricity. f What is the designate of the system of corrugate safety that uses zinc? Galvanisation [2] [1] 4 © Cambridge University Press IGCSE Chemistry Examine and species aptitudes Keeping up advance During the way you obtain be affordn effort to do. Try to effort steadily through all the indispensable geniusical throughout your way. It is unquestionably dignified that you binder up delay this. Don’t set out to invent society up-hill for yourself. Do invent recognizeing that you discern each ingredient of effort you do. Research exhibitions that we unite it plenteous easier to gather and conception mans if we discern them. If tdefective is someman you don’t discern, invent recognizeing you do everyman you can to put this suitable nearest far. Alcoincidently regularly efforting through a esthetic-stuff delay a coadjutor obtain succor. Use your school library or the internet. Be attentive of the internet, though, as sundry chemistry sites are written for other ways in unanalogous enumerateries. These can use unanalogous accesses and it is up-hill to devote the explanations you see. Ask your schoolmistress for a (short) schedule of relitelling sites you can go to firedly. Strategies of examine Your examine sessions should use a medley of techniques to aid your discerning and gathering of the geniusical. Barely lection aggravate your melodys is not a trade-outicularly fertile diplomacy. Try to summarise esthetic-matters as you decipher, then defectiveen the tabulation down to a set of key expression. Having gathert these, try to rebuild melodys on the esthetic-matter. Your gathering and discerning can to-boot be checked and open by apologying investigations from departed evidence articles. Binder the prolixity of age allure?}n to apology investigations in regathering when proofing yourself. Tdefective is no object in preparing aggravate-elaborate apologys to defective investigations. An dignified view of discerning a esthetic-stuff is to ‘see the connections’ among the intentions complicated. Establishing these links invents it so plenteous easier to conception the exceptionaltys of a esthetic-matter. Pictorial systems of connection intentions can be very beneficial for this. INFO The systems adapted include: • • • • ?ow charts concept maps Venn diagrams regathering maps. The signification of all these systems is that they power us to class out the geniusical into key intentions, and then to fir the links among them. It is beneficial to drag up the diagrams for yourself. Conception that your ‘maps’ may polite dispute from other people’s. Comparing melodys delay others, or well-balanced draging them up contemporaneously as a class, can to-boot be very beneficial. Sharing intentions and comparing maps succors you to consider mans through. As you use these systems, you obtain lay-open influential aptitude in draging them up. Progress charts are direct in their access and effort down from a deep intention by a succession of subdivisions. They are beneficial for emphasising the unanalogous characters of chemical esthetic, for stance (see stances of charts in Chapters 2 and 3 in the textbook). Concept maps and regathering maps are trade-outicularly beneficial for succoring you to see the progress of intentions. In a concept map (Figure 2), the interconnection intention is written cpromote the connecting arrow. © Cambridge University Press IGCSE Chemistry Examine and species aptitudes 5 a combustion neutralisation dregs body redox are characters of a catalyst speeds up a chemical reboundion can be written down as a signal or genius equation signal n tio equa sym bo equa l tion stance: zinc + oxygen > zinc oxide 2Zn + O2 > 2ZnO these are components this is a junction this resources this resources 2 molecules of zinc 1 molecule of oxygen is the manner that independent ions rafter at the cathode during is the percreate of ELECTROLYSIS translatered during ELECTRONS is the dropping of is the repugnant manner to is the manner that indirect ions rafter at the anode during manner used to cite metals in the BLAST FURNACE REDUCTION REDOX OXIDATION is a exceptional create of is the repugnant manner to is the disunion of is the conjunction of COMBUSTION OXYGEN component removed from metal ores by carbon in Figure 2 a Spider diagrams, and b concept maps entangle organising intentions and their connections. reboundions in which esthetics rebound delay Venn diagrams are beneficial for exhibitioning wdefective unanalogous categories aggravatelap. For stance, the unanalogous ways in which we categorise reboundions can product in aggravatelaps. Figure 3 exhibitions this. It to-boot exhibitions how the expression ‘redox reboundion’ covers a broad settle of reboundions. 6 © Cambridge University Press IGCSE Chemistry Examine and species aptitudes NEUTRALISATION animated + base/alkali > salt + infiltrate ONLY PRECIPITATION createing an insoluble strong by a chemical reboundion sodium thiosulfate + hydrochloric animated REDOX Body Disminority to components Electrolysis Displacement Figure 3 A Venn diagram exhibitioning sundry characters of reboundion. Can you consider of stances to ? ll each boundlessness? (One has been effectd for you. ) Figure 4 exhibitions a regathering map covering views of the rank of molecules and molecules. This trade-outicular map covers a broad settle of intentions – radiating from the convenient intention that stuff is made up of very diminutive trade-outicles (atoms or molecules, holding on the esthetic entity talked encircling). The interconnections of intentions are emphasised. Putting the map on article succors you to class out your intentions! Tdefective are palpably aggravatelaps among unanalogous esthetic-matters. Tdefective are sundry ingredients of recollection-mapping software adapted (one was sed to build Figure 4) and you can unite these on the internet. However, it is dignified not to get aggravate-complicated in the manneres of a trade-outicular IT package. In sundry ways the dignified man encircling ‘mind-mapping’ is that it can be accomplished alcoincidently perchance, and regularly, barely on a ingredient of ‘rough’ article. Sketching unanalogous ‘regathering maps’ on unanalogous esthetic-matters is a way of contemplateing at the theme from unanalogous angles to aid the remembrance. The ocean object is the considering that is effectd conjuncture building the ‘map’. © Cambridge University Press IGCSE Chemistry Examine and species aptitudes 7 escribes the states of stuff and the change-of-settle of trade-outicles in these states the trade-outicles in stuff are tender all the age ion init de f unanalogous esthetics include unanalogous characters of trade-outicles, e. g. molecules, ions or molecules Kinetic plea all stuff is made up of very diminutive trade-outicles the loftyer the weather, the loftyer the mediocre ardor of the trade-outicles Diffusion does not allure?} situate in strongs heavier trade-outicles instigate departed sloth than lighter trade-outicles at the similar weather plenteous slower in liquids than gases regularly ardor affordn out sundry characters, e. g. body and disminority usually not liberally discretional ATOMS AND MOLECULES new chemical esthetics createed Chemical reboundions e. g. soft or dissolving Tangible changes Dalton’s intention liberally discretional, e. g. by compobelieving or capricious no new chemical esthetics made Atomic plea molecules of unanalogous components can combine to invent the molecules of a junction a unblemished component includes merely molecules delay the similar estimate of protons in the core molecules of an component are each affordn their own genius molecules are the diminutiveest trade-outicles that allure?} trade-out in a chemical reboundion the molecules of the unanalogous components dispute in extent Figure 4 A regathering map on ‘atoms and molecules’. © Cambridge University Press IGCSE Chemistry Examine and species aptitudes (isotopes) (nucleus) (nutransparent reboundions) (balanced equations) tangible properties hold on how the molecules are linked contemporaneously (atoms can be subdivided) everyman is made from encircling 100 components, each made up of unanalogous molecules everyman is made of invisibly diminutive molecules, linked contemporaneously in unanalogous models everyman can be made from a few esthetics thoroughly in unanalogous ways structures test the similar as the completion heap of their trade-outs the completion completionity of stuff stays the similar (by heap) during chemical changes ascend of stuff stays the similar (by molecule enumerate) during chemical changes chemical combinations of esthetics entertain unanalogous properties conspicuous objects may be made of big estimates of very diminutive inconspicuous trade-outicles esthetics entertain tangible properties magnifiers and microscopes regularly exhibition that objects are made of diminutiveer trade-outs diminutive trade-outs can be put contemporaneously in unanalogous ways to invent unanalogous mans infiltrate evaporates into the air all geniusicals after from somewdefective and must go somewdefective PROPERTIES OF SUBSTANCES COMMON ELEMENTS ATOMS ARE INVISIBLY SMALL CONSERVATION OF MATTER KEY Scientific intentions Departed public notions Storylines Figure 5 The unanalogous ‘storylines’ rearwards the maps twig into each other. Figure 5 exhibitions how unanalogous ‘storylines’ can be linked contemporaneously. This character of diagram can succor you see the aggravateall model of a individuality of the way you are vestibule and prepare to see the ‘connections’ among intentions. The departed connections, or associations, you can invent among intentions, the departed likely you are to discern and conception them. When a trade-outicular trade-out of a way, or a trade-outicular esthetic-matter, is artistic it can be beneficial to effect a diagrammatic tabulation. This succors reinpower the linked intentions conjuncture they are quiet cool in your recollection. The charts can contribute a beneficial ‘checklist’ when it afters to species. The present three charts (Figure 6a,b,c) exhibition how trade-outs of a way can be summarised. Figure 6a summarises a bulky trade of the geniusical mellow in Chapters 2 and 3, and Figures 6b and 6c progress into each other and exhibition how plenteous of chemistry lay-opens from a inducement of the Earth’s resources. This ‘map’ of chemistry contributes a tenor for your studies. © Cambridge University Press IGCSE Chemistry Examine and species aptitudes 9 a SOLIDS LIQUIDS GASES CHEMISTRY SECTION ONE PARTICLES ATOMS MOLECULES IONS ATOMIC STRUCTURE proton estimate Z – heap estimate A PROTONS ELECTRONS ORBITS (2,8,8) PROTONS +NEUTRONS NEUTRONS = A–Z p + 1 n o 1 e – EQUATIONS and CALCULATIONS Balancing Mr from Ar + % Quantities from equations Solids and gases Formulae from % Grounds Magnitude FORMULAE 1 1840 CHEMICAL BONDS FORMING IONS Metals promote electrons Non-metals percreate electrons GROUP 1 THE ALKALI METALS Reaction delay Infiltrate Storage Variation down class Density m. p. IONIC COVALENT SHARING ELECTRONS GROUP 7 THE HALOGENS Reaction delay muscular Displacement Colour Variation down class m. . TRANSITION METALS Coloured junctions Catalysts Lofty m. p. s NOBLE GASES No reboundions Coloured lights METALS NON-METALS PHYSICAL PROPERTIES Malletelling Conductors Strong Lofty m. p. Shiny Alloys BURNING IN AIR and OXYGEN PHYSICAL PROPERTIES Brittle Poor conductors Low m. p. Dull REACTIVITY OF METALS BASIC OXIDES ACIDIC OXIDES Figure 6 a, b, c Progress charts can exhibition very transparently the links among unanalogous areas of chemistry and succor contribute an aggravateall model to a way. 10 © Cambridge University Press IGCSE Chemistry Examine and species aptitudes b CHEMISTRY SECTION TWO ALKALIS Basic Oxides + Infiltrate CHEMICAL REACTIONS ACIDS Acidic Oxides + Infiltrate REACTIVITY SERIES OF METALS AIR NEUTRALISATION H + +OH – H2O BONDS BREAK and FORM WATER ACID POTASSIUM SODIUM 14 pH WEAK WEAK STRONG pH STRONG NEW SUBSTANCES 8 6 1 Rapid Rapid BANG! ENERGY CHANGE CALCIUM © Cambridge University Press IGCSE Chemistry MAGNESIUM Alcoincidently Quick Rapid WATER pH7 SALT ALUMINIUM ZINC SULFATE Sulfuric Animated CHLORIDE Hydrochloric Animated NITRATE Nitric Animated Slow Rebound delay Steam Slow IRON ENDOTHERMIC Ardor used and allure?}n in EXOTHERMIC Ardor effectd and affordn out COPPER No Very Slow REVERSIBLE REACTIONS Can go twain ways SILVER No GOLD No N2 + 3H2 2NH3 DISPLACEMENT REACTIONS RATE(Speed) OF REACTION Reactions happen when trade-outicles stamp. BUT they must stamp compact abundance. Departed collisions or compacter collisions = Faster reboundion. Departed reboundive metals dissituate Less reboundive metals from their junctions. BIG DIFFERENCE = FAST REACTION TEMPERATURE ALL REACTIONS Better Temp Faster Particles Harder Collisions Faster Reaction Faster Reaction Departed Collisions Departed Particles Departed Conc REACTIONS WITH SOLUTIONS REACTIONS WITH SOLIDS Diminutive Pieces Departed Surface Departed Collisions Faster Reaction CONCENTRATION SURFACE AREA CATALYST SOME REACTIONS Catalyst not used up. Less ardor wanted Departed collisions surpass Examine and species aptitudes ENZYMES Exceptional Biological Catalysts in Living mans. 11 c 12 BAUXITE ROCK Ccorrugate HEMATITE REDUCTION MALACHITE BLAST FURNACE ELECTROLYSIS OF MOLTEN OXIDE ALUMINIUM IRON LIME O2 STEEL CHEMISTRY SECTION THREE THE EARTH RAW MATERIALS N2 AIR O2 CO2 WATER H2O Photobody Breaman IGNEOUS LIMESTONE HE AT © Cambridge University Press IGCSE Chemistry S U N SEDIMENTARY BLAST FURNACE + PURIFICATION BY ELECTROLYSIS Decay ering Erosion eat W amusement Deposi an nta tio Tr Ceme tion n PLANTS Compobelieving Heat Presknowing COPPER ANIMALS Death MAGMA METAMORPHIC M elti n g HALITE RockSalt NITRIC ACID LIME CEMENT GLASS SLAKED LIME CO2 O2 FOSSIL FUELS NITRATES IN SOIL NATURAL GAS AMMONIUM NITRATE N2 ELECTROLYSIS OF SOLUTION HABER PROCESS AMMONIA NITRIC ACID FERTILISER COAL PETROLEUM COKE HYDROGEN Fuel CHLORINE Infiltrate Treatment SODIUM HYDROXIDE Soap. BLEACH FUEL +or ELECTRICITY FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION ALKENES GAS PETROL NAPHTHA KEROSINE DIESEL LUBRICATING OIL FUEL OIL BITUMEN CRACKING PLASTICS Study and species aptitudes The explainer – expression are dignified Chemistry can be said to entertain a diction of its own. As for the other comprehensions, tdefective are exceptional conditions that want to be implied and conceptioned – an ‘atom’ is not the similar man as an ‘ion’ or a ‘molecule’. Tdefective are to-boot some expression that entertain a unanalogous slant on their signification in chemistry. For stance, aphorism that ethanol is ‘volatile’ does not average that it is encircling to ‘freak out’, barely that it evaporates liberally. Throughout the textbook, you obtain unite expression that entertain been loftylighted in red intrepid character. It would be beneficial to invent a melody of these and invent recognizeing that you are transparent encircling their signification. A explainer of these dignified chemical conditions is to-boot granted at the end of the magnitude. The similar explainer is to-boot granted on this CD. If your original diction is not English – and perchance well-balanced if it is – it would be beneficial to binder your own ‘chemical vocabulary’ magnitude to succor you to gather and discern the conditions used in this theme. This should succor you to discern investigations transparently and not get tied up in confusing ‘waffle’ in your apologys. © Cambridge University Press IGCSE Chemistry Examine and species aptitudes 13