Introduction to International Environmental Law Critical Essay

2/11/2013 M28CLS: Interpolitic Environmental Law Lecture 1: Introduction Dr Francis Boateng Agyenim [email protected] edu. gh or dean. [email protected] edu. gh Tel: +233 (0) 302 200 622 Introduction • • • • Planned Module Outcome Exoteric tidingsinologies Toll and requirements Influential primary sense of • origin, • defilement, • environmental sustainpower Monday, February 11, 2013 Break: 15minutes fracture at 9. 30am 30 minutes fracture at 12. 30pm 15 minutes fracture at 3. 00pm 2 Planned Module Outcome 1. 2. 3. 4. Review the interpolitic law touching to environmental trustworthyguard and defilement curb. Detail the encounter of point interdiplomatic, regional and bi-national sessions touching to peculiar aspects of environment trustworthyguard and defilement curb. Appreciate the roles of interpolitic and intergovernmental agencies, hortatory bodies and non -governmental organisations in formulating, implementing and enforcing peculiar environmental trustworthyguard. Interpret and importantly evaluate key origins and theories of interpolitic environmental law. 1 2/11/2013 Career Structure Lecturer Topic No 1 FA 2 FA Introduction : Influential Fundamentals Concepts of Environmental Issues Introduction and truth of Interpolitic Environmental Law 3 FA Interpolitic laws touching to environmental trustworthyguard and defilement curb 4 FA 5 FA 6 FA 7 FA 8 FA 9 FA 10 Monday, February 11, 2013 4 Pre-eminence Environmental Areas • • • • • • • Curbing Global Warming Creating Clean Origin Coming Reviving the globe’s seas Defending Endangered Wildhistory and Wildplaces Protecting our heartiness by checkmateing defilement Ensure arrest and adequate imsunder Fostering sustainable communities Some exoteric tidingsinology Consonance - An bargain underneathneath interpolitic law – manages to Protocols Protocol - A exact bargain natant narrates or nations e. . Kyoto Protocol, Montreal Protocol. Forms premise for national/regional policies. Device - a career of renewal adopted and pursued by an sundericular, collection, synod, magistrate, gregarious aspect, etc. e. g. a nation's irrelevant device. Skillful-treatment - a hanker tidings contrivance, process, or rotation of cabal or stratagems for achieving device objectives e. g. A impressioneting skillful-treatment is a process that can remit an construction to congregate its (frequently scant) suppliess on the principal opportunities to extension sales and perfect a sustainable competitive utility. Respring – An estimated sum of fuel that has to be easily explored or evaluated. Reserve – Proven sum of fuel that is exoteric to halt in a assumeed location. Carbon Footprint - The aggregate etendency of inexperiencedhouse gases performed to immediately and inimmediately origin cosmical activities, usually patent clear in equipollent tons of carbon dioxide (CO2). Monday, February 11, 2013 6 2 2/11/2013 Toll and Requirements Dates Attendance Final Impression Required throughout the module Sat February 16th, 2013 Assignment 1: Result Date Particular Written Assignment Submission Date Friday, 15th March, 2013 Project 2: Result Date Sat February 16th, 2013 Student assignment Essay Hand-in Date Friday 15th March 201 (ending at 7. 00pm) 30% Aggregate 0% 100% Pass requirements: • Pass impression is 40% • Each rudiment must be at lowest 35% ? 7 Monday, February 11, 2013 Review of some influential primary concepts connected to Global Warming and Clean Origin Coming • Origin items • Origin springs & uses • Carbon ardor (CO2 speechs from fossil fuels) - Fuel chemistry - Carbon speechs per item of delivered origin • Calorific Treasure • Sustainpower and Environmental Skillful-treatment Classification Monday, February 11, 2013 8 Origin items and authority of heap • Origin – – – – – – Basic Item of Energy, J = 1 N. m Basic Item of Power, W = J/s Convenient estimation appraise, Wh (1W for an hour) Commmerely used electrical origin appraise, 1 kWh = 3. 6MJ 1 Tonne oil equipollent (toe) = 41,868 MJ 1 Tonne coal equipollent (tce) = 29,307. 6 MJ • kWh – A sole 1-bar electric history for 1 hour – One 100W incandescent active bulb for 10 hours 9 Monday, February 11, 2013 3 2/11/2013 Prefixes (multiples of 10) of origin items Prefix Symbol Factor (x10) µ 10-6 Microns (used in attribute of micrometers) – thrivelength of perceptible active m 10-3 Milliampere – received run from a sole photovoltaic cell K 103 Killowatthour – item of lamina of electricity to a residential customer Mega- M 106 Megawatt – Maximum authority output of the widest ommercial twine turbines Giga- G 109 Gigawatt – appraise of a the annual output from a illustrative fossil-fuel-powered electric authority contrivancet Tera- T 1012 Terawatt – appraise of the aggregate rebuked magnitude of all authority contrivancets in the globe Peta- P 1015 Petajoule – Appraise of all the origin used by the railroads in the US in 1 year Exa- E 1018 Exajoule – appraise of all the origin used by an integral 10 dominion in 1 year. MicroMilliKilo- Example of where it is frequently used Origin Sources Fossil Fuels • Fossil fuel – Coal – Oil – Regular gas • Emerging – Shale oil – Tar sands • Important Uses – Electricity era – Extension ardoring and subsidence – Conveyance Fossil fuel accounts for encircling 86% of all origin formation • In impecunious countries notwithstanding, biofuels such as thicket command origin formation. Monday, February 11, 2013 11 BP, 2006 Statistical Review Coal: Origin pleased, Important Experience • Origin pleased is appamending in tidingss of origin dullness defined as the etendency of origin per item heap or measure profitable. • • • • • Coal 27 tonne Bulk dullness = 600 kg/m3 Measure = 45m3 Origin pleased (calorific treasure) = 36 MJ/kg • How divers kWh? = 270,000 kWh • Scant to fixed encounters (cannot be combusted immediately in inparty arson engines) - Electricity era - Industrial encounters Small lamina private encounters (cooking, extension ardoring) Monday, February 11, 2013 12 4 2/11/2013 Non Usual Fossil Sources • Oil Shade - Lashed of coalition of fossil constitutional stuff and sedimentary cast • Tar sands - Lashed of coalition of sand and very-greatly lentous hydrocarbon tar • Synthetic gas and vulgar fuel products from coal - Transformation of usual coal into substitutes for conveyance and extension ardoring Oil and gas • Flexible in experience and in tidingss of arson - Conveyance - Fixed encounters 13 Monday, February 11, 2013 Origin pleased of fossil fuels • • • • Gasoline 50 litre tank Gasoline dullness = 0. 74 kg/litre Origin pleased (calorific treasure) = 46 MJ/kg • How divers kWh? = 473 kWh • • • • • Coal 27 tonne Bulk dullness = 600 kg/m3 Measure = 45m3 Origin pleased (calorific treasure) = 36 MJ/kg • How divers kWh? = 270,000 kWh Note: 1 kWh equals one 100W incandescent active bulb for 10 hours 14 Monday, February 11, 2013 Nuclear Origin • • • • • • Fission – Splitting of center of one weighty scrap ending in two or equalize nuclei Fusion – Joining contemporaneously of two active nuclei into a wider one. Origin disengaged during fission/fusion reactions is infections to started fluent Commonest use is in electricity formation from fission of Uranium scrap, U-235 Estimated to patent clear into the 22nd era installed on U-235 Lofty origin dullness Monday, February 11, 2013 15 5 2/11/2013 Coal vrs Nuclear 1 kg of undefiled coal (no impurities and dampness pleased) achieve disengage 32. 8MJ/kg 1 : 1 kg of undefiled U-235 (85% encounter submissive fission) achieve disengage 200MeV/scrap (0. 85) = 4. 36 x 1032 eV ? 69. 8 TJ 2 favorite 16 Monday, February 11, 2013 Issues delay Nuclear Origin • • • • • Skillful-treatment of radioactive substances during age of nuclear origin (Chernobyl Nuclear Authority Stock in Ukraine on the 26th of April 1986 quiet scum radioactive and there is a 30 disqualification kilometre zone). Radiation risks during nativity, contrivancet agency and consume skillful-treatment, Retail use and interruption of proliferation (Atomic bombs Hiroshima and Nagasaki Deaths in August, 1945) Exoteric cognizance (impecunious arrestty annals; Partial meltdown, Fukushima nuclear authority contrivancet embarrassment forthcoming earthquake (March, 2011) Require Monday, February 11, 2013 17 Sustainable fruit and renewable origin • Origin trustworthyguard - arrest give, true infrastructure • Economic welfare - economic fruit, affordable origin prices • Environmental trustworthyguard - Carbon desuetude, plant and imsunder use Monday, February 11, 2013 18 6 2/11/2013 COMMON RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES Photovoltaics Biomass/Biofuel Solar Thermal Hydroauthority Rush Geothermal Twine Thrive Ardor Interrogate Fuel cell Sustainable Conveyance Fabric Teachableness Monday, February 11, 2013 19 Issues delay Renewables: Solar Photovoltaic • Higher achievement cells/modules • Advanced manufacturing techniques • Efficient origin storage Solar Thermal • Low require lofty achievement storage for worthiest carry impressionets • Advanced reflector scheme and ardor transmit fluents Monday, February 11, 2013 20 Wind, thrive and rush origin Improved achievement: • Advanced rotor scheme • Integration into halting authority grid Intelligent and low require curb • Electricity storage Fabric origin teachableness • Fabric classifications integration teachableness • Computerised fabric origin optimisation models • Passive fabric clime curb Monday, February 11, 2013 21 7 2/11/2013 Fuel cell & Sustainable conveyance • Relipower of fuel cells for fabric and electricity encounters • Low-clime fuel-cell use in rapture • Research into materials • Origin storage - history and require • Utility contacts • Vehicle require • Recharging locations Monday, February 11, 2013 22 Biofuel (Bioheap and Biogas) • Utilisation of residues Origin crops • New biofuels Geothermal and Ardor Interrogate Low clime geothermal for • trodden use and • account spring ardor interrogate • Retrofitting (Existing fabrics) Monday, February 11, 2013 23 Fossil origin v. renewable origin 1. V. Gasoline 1 tank unmeasured (50 litre Tank) PV ? ~5m2 PV dress liberal for 1 year in the UK V. 2. Coal 1 deal carry = 100,000 kWh electricity at ~37% alteration teachableness Rossendale Twine Farm - Lancashire ? 1 wide twine turbine delay generating magnitude of 2. 5MW vulgar for 6 days 24 8 2/11/2013 Carbon Pleased of Coal • Coal is the loftyest emitter of Carbon of all the fossil fuels 1 tonne coal contains ~ 900 kg Carbon Arson • equation C + O2 = CO2 • mols 1 +1 =1 • mol wt 12+ 32 = 44 • kg 12+ 32 = 44 • kg 1 + 2. 67 = 3. 67 Thus 1 kg C requires 32/12 = 2. 67kg oxygen and ends 44/12 = 3. 67 kg CO2 • 1 tonne coal (900 kg) = 3. 67 x 900kg CO2 =3303 kg CO2 Atomic weights: O = 16 C = 12 N = 14 H=1 S = 32 25 Arson of Methane CH 4 ? 2(O2 ? (79 / 21) N 2 ) ? CO2 ? 2 H 2O ? (2 ? 79 / 21) N 2 16 kg 2 ? 32kg 2 ? 3. 76 ? 28kg 44kg 36kg 7. 52 ? 28kg 16 kg 274. 56 kg Air (O2 ? N 2 ) ? 44kg 36kg 210. 56kg Thus 1 kg methane : • Requires 17. 16 kg air for perfect arson and Produces 18. 16 kg of consume gases including 2. 75kg CO2 Monday, February 11, 2013 26 Peculiar CO2 Emissions • Carbon – CV = 32. 8 MJ/kg (net = bulk gone no impart! ) – 1 kg ends 3. 67 kg CO2 – Peculiar speech = 112 gm/MJ = 403 gm/kWh • Methane – CVbulk = 55. 58 MJ/kg – 1 kg ends 2. 75 kg CO2 – Peculiar speech = 49 gm/MJ = 178 gm/kWhbulk Monday, February 11, 2013 27 9 2/11/2013 Coal and Regular Gas compared (premise 1 kg) Coal Air required 11. 45 kg 17. 16 kg CO2 performed 3. 67 kg 2. 75 kg Ardor disengage (CVgross) 32. 8 MJ 55. 58 MJ Peculiar CO2 speech • Methane 403 gm/kWh 178 gm/kWhgross Methane requires equalize air/kg fuel accordingly of the haltence of hydrogen in the atom which burns to end H2O. 28 Monday, February 11, 2013 CO2 speechs from opposed fuels (kg/GJgross) 120 101 94. 6 100 77. 4 80 74 56 60 40 20 0 0 Lignite Hard coal Weighty fuel oil Gas oil Regular gas Hydrogen Monday, February 11, 2013 29 CO2 from electricity Consume ardor 210kW Fuel input 318kWbulk Transmission & Distribution losses = 8kW Authority standing Delivered electricity 100kW Origin (gross) thermal teachableness = 31. 4% Wide sum of low measure ardor consumed Monday, February 11, 2013 30 10 2/11/2013 CO2 speechs from electricity - opposed enerating technologies (gm/kWe. h) Usual steam turbine (lignite eff=34%) Usual steam turbine (coal eff=34%) Clean coal (Gasification CC, eff=46%) Usual gas turbine (eff=42%) Completely cycle gas turbine (CCGT, eff=55%) New CCGT (eff=59%) Bioheap Nuclear Renewables 1100 850-1050 700 500 400-425 350 ? 0 0 31 Monday, February 11, 2013 Gas v. Electricity • Gas classifications… 0. 19 kg/kW-h(gross) • Electricity…0. 537 kg/kW-h • Inexperienced electricity…0 kg/kW-h Monday, February 11, 2013 32 Eg U. K. GHG speechs includes (CO2, CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs and SF6 ) Monday, February 11, 2013 33 11 2/11/2013 U. K. GHG speechs by spring includes (CO2, CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs and SF6 ) Monday, February 11, 2013 34 U. K. GHG speechs includes (CO2, CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs and SF6 ) Monday, February 11, 2013 35 Issues of Interpolitic Sympathy • Primary origin give – Oil, Coal, Regular Gas, Biomass, Renewable, Nuclear – Forecasts • Safeguard of give – Hanker tidings – Short tidings • Environmental Sustainpower – Region diversify – Ozone depletion – Integrated defilement curb – Developing countries Monday, February 11, 2013 Connected Issues • Population bud • Poverty (fuel, acceleration) • Developing economies 36 12 2/11/2013 Trend of origin use and sustainable fruit Pre-industrial era Civilization was authorityed by carbon unavowed springs, chiefly bioheap Industrial exigence and the use of coal Negative goods were persomal at the occasion Steam engines and locomotives Cleaner persistent contrivancets, ardoring of homes Gas Conveyance – Vehicles and succeeding jet authorityed aircraft Oil Cleaner compared to coal But accelerated extrrenewal of fossil fuel increasing CO2 Promised: 1. no speechs of hurtful air pollutants and 2. lofty origin dullness Nuclear Authority Security results Renewable origin Increased population bud Share of benefits from Developing countries Where we are today !! 37 Problems we countenance 1. How to ramify the benefits of origin 2. How to contest delay probable emptiness of non-renewable origin springs and 3. How to checkmate region diversify Motivations and Drivers for Sustainable Fruit Diversity of give Safeguard Sustainpower Monday, February 11, 2013 38 Breakdown of examples we countenance… • Resources and availpower – Finite character of fossil fuels • Environmental defilement from origin formation and use – Carbon unavowed springs that has to reattribute fossil fuels • Uncertainty encircling the coming – Interrelation natant factors favoring origin use – Prediction truthfulness Over-simplistic toll of technology – Optimism in new technologies ramify through use of IT – Underestimates difficulties and existingity • The role of origin to global economics - Vital • Limitation of occasion to perform insufficiencyed diversifys • Proposed solutions and their efficiency – Technology is bounded by tangible laws – Constrained by suppliess and availpower – Drawbacks of new springs usually not exoteric Monday, February 11, 2013 39 13 2/11/2013 The forthcomingmath of Gale Katrina, New Orleans, 2005 Region Change? Is Region Diversify Happening? 20 warmest years on annals (°C peculiarity from 1901–2000 medium) Year Global Land Ocean 1983 0. 2817 0. 3718 0. 2508 1987 0. 2968 0. 2963 0. 2999 1988 0. 3006 0. 4196 0. 2585 1990 0. 3861 0. 5484 0. 3279 1991 0. 3360 0. 4094 0. 3105 1994 0. 2934 0. 3597 0. 2699 1995 0. 4073 0. 6531 0. 3191 1997 0. 4782 0. 5584 0. 4498 1998 0. 5971 0. 8321 0. 5087 1999 0. 4199 0. 6760 0. 3237 2000 0. 3886 0. 5175 0. 3406 2001 0. 5173 0. 7208 0. 4416 2002 0. 5745 0. 8318 0. 4794 2003 0. 5818 0. 7726 0. 5109 2004 0. 5416 0. 7095 0. 4812 2005 0. 6154 0. 9574 0. 4886 2006 0. 5601 0. 8151 0. 4664 2007 0. 5472 0. 9827 0. 3889 2008 0. 4803 0. 7784 0. 3727 2009 0. 5556 0. 7595 0. 4830 The treasures in the table equalizehead are anomalies rom the 1901–2000 global medium of 13. 9°C. For solicitation, the +0. 55°C peculiarity in 2007 adventitious to the 1901–2000 medium of 13. 9°C gives a global middle clime of 14. 45 °C for 2007. The coolest year in the annals was 1911. [ Years 1880–1889 1890–1899 1900–1909 1910–1919 1920–1929 1930–1939 1940–1949 1950–1959 1960–1969 1970–1979 1980–1989 1990–1999 2000–2009 Temp. peculiarity (°C) peculiarity from 1951–1980 medium) ?0. 274 °C ?0. 254 °C ?0. 259 °C ?0. 276 °C ?0. 175 °C ?0. 043 °C 0. 035 °C ?0. 02 °C ?0. 014 °C ?0. 001 °C 0. 176 °C 0. 313 °C 0. 513 °C • Top five warmest years gone 1890 are: 2005, 1998, 2003, 2002, 2006 Analyses (from trees, corals, ice cores and unromantic annalss) illusion that the 2000 2009 is the warmest decade followed by the 1990’s in the patent clear millennium. • STOP PRESS - June 2007 wettest month gone annalss began in 1914. Annual Middle Global Surcountenance Clime Anomalies 1880-2008 Global Plant and Sea Temperatures Climatic Research Item and the UK Met. Office Hadley Centre 14 2/11/2013 The Greenhouse Effect Sunactive enters the Earth's clime, departure through a flake of inexperiencedhouse gases. As it reaches the Earth's demeanor, plant, impart, and biosphere assume the sunlight’s origin. Origin assumeed is sent tail into the clime. Some of the origin passes tail into extension, but greatly of it scum trapped in the clime by the inexperiencedhouse gases, causing the globe to ardor up. Cosmical activities feel extensiond in-effect the energy of inexperiencedhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane, CFCs, HCFCs, nitrous oxide). As a end, a existing warming of the earth surcountenance and clime occurred that susceptibility adversely favor the regular ecosystem. Equalize the patent clear hundred years, the medium climes feel extensiond by 0. 3±0. 68C. Doubling the etendency of carbon dioxide in the clime is mitigated to relinquish a prefer clime extension by 1. 5±4. 58C. If no renewal is enslaved to bring inexperiencedhouse gas speechs, the rebuke of bud of the aver- age climes is mitigated to excel that which occurred in the patent clear 10,000 years [Houghton, 1995] Global requires of extravagant region events (inflation adjusted) • Aggregate economic losses and sum of events feel been incresing equalize the decades • Among the patent clear decade, 72 important events occurred, terminate to 100% extension equalize the 1980-1990 decade. Region Diversify • Region Diversify is not a new result. In the forthcoming 1980s or-laws consonance grew - region diversify was a important global result. Forthcoming from this, synods assured the Intergovernmental Panel on Region Diversify (IPCC) in 1988 to acceleration them underneathstand and set-up some interpolitic consonance on the character of the example. 15 2/11/2013 Is the conjoin delay CO2 and other GHG’s aged? • The Inter-governmental Panel on Region Diversify in its most new-fangled relation narrated: 'the equalize of attraction suggests a plain cosmical bias on the region classification. ' Contributors to Global Warming Greenhouse gas Source/Application CO2 All arson processes Global warming immanent (GWP) referring-to to CO2 Methane (CH4) Oil/Gas give Agriculture Landfill Nitrous oxide (N2O) Agriculture Arson (IC engines) Chemical industry Perfluorcarbons (PFC) Manufacturing 6,500 to 9,200 Hydrofluorcarbons (HFC) Refrigerants Propellants 140 to 11,700 Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) Electrical switchgear 1 21 310 23,900 Increased radiant CO2 levels as appamending in the clime and in ice cores. The etendency of net carbon extension in the clime compared to carbon speechs from persistent fossil fuels. 16 2/11/2013 New-fangled trends in appamending radiant CO2 energys Projected CO2 Emissions Ozone depleting chemicals Substances that assist to ozone depletion and region: • Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), • Halons (CCl4), • Hydrochlorofluorocarbons HCFCs) Substances that assist to region diversify but not ozone depletion: •Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) • Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) 17 2/11/2013 Emissions from Common Industrial Fuels Monday, February 11, 2013 53 Lecture 2 Truth of Interpolitic Environmental Law 18 2/11/2013 Truth of Interpolitic Environmental Affairs Most interpolitic environmental initiatives feel occurred gone 1960, forthcoming the emergence of the new-fangled environmental veer-of-fix in the West There were culm attempts at regional and global coagency for the environment dating as far tail as the deceased 1800's, for-the-most-sunder emanating from Western Europe and North America. These attempts mirrored private environmental device fruits and were frequently restless delay wildhistory stabilisation. Interpolitic Efforts pre-1960 • 1872: Swiss move interpolitic ministry to shield roving birds • 1900: Principal exact bargain: Session for the Keeping of Animals, Birds and Fish in Africa, verified in London by European colonial authoritys delay the fixed to shield African recreation type, especially to season ship-produce of ivory to bring cutting hunting urgency on African elephant • 1900: European narrates emblem consonance to regudeceased conveyance of toxic substances on Rhine River 1909: Canada-US Boundary Waters Consonance • 1911: North Pacific Fur Seal Ministry assured by USA, Canada, USSR and Japan to regudeceased fruit of seals in North Pacific • 1918: US-Canada Roving Bird Consonance Act, schemeed to shield bird type–esp. impartfowl--that seasonally migrebuke natant the two nations Forthcoming Interpolitic Efforts, cont’d • 1931: Principal attempts to regudeceased retail whaling, led (in 1946) to Interpolitic Session for the Decision of Whaling and service of Interpolitic Whaling Commission, a persistent wcavity legitimate for negotiating & elucidation device re- the fruit and keeping of whales. 1940: Session on Character Safeguard and Wildhistory Stabilisation in the Western Hemisphere • 1946: Founding of the United Nations and Globe Bank, which would play regulative roles in interpolitic environmental coagency (World Bank, UNIMO, FAO, UNDP, WHO, UNEP & UNESCO) • 1954: Interpolitic Session for the Interruption of Defilement of the Sea by Oil, success of 28 years of negotiations by European and N. A. nations • 1958: Interpolitic Marioccasion Consultative Construction (UN-IMCO) assured delay sunder for negotiating interpolitic bargains on sea defilement 19 2/11/2013 Interpolitic Efforts (1960-1972) Context: Extension in interpolitic environmental attempts mirrored stir in New-fangled Environmental Change-of-fix in west • Cumulative environmental goods of Post-war howl (industrialization, welfare, consumerism) • Affluence = main sympathy equalize “tendency of history” • New environmental science: e. g. , Rachel Carson “Silent Spring” published in 15 countries, 1962 • Growing suppliess coverage of environmental events e. g. 1954 London “Killer Smog”, 1959 Mercury poisoning in Minimata Bay, 1967 Torrey Canyon oil diffuse in the English Channel • Stir of Vietnam, accommodating hues & counter-culture protests opposing condition quo Globalization of communication; extensiond voucher of similarity natant nations: Apollo 11 “Earth-rise” photo in 1969 Efforts 1960-72 , cont’d. • Creation of principal embossed and really interpolitic environmental NGO’s (e. g. , Greenpeace, WWF, etc. ) • Emergence of principal “Green” gregarious sunderies in New Zealand, Western Europe and Australia • Natant 1970 and 1972: 14 industrialized nations assured environmental ministries and passed emblemificant environmental parliament (Environment Canada, Clean Imsunder Act, Clean Air Act, etc. ) • But, dwarf proficiency in LDC’s or Communist Bloc 1971: RAMSAR Session on Wetlands of Interpolitic Importance • 1972: UNESCO-sponsored Session for the Safeguard of Globe Cultural and Regular Heritage. • 1972: Oslo Session for the Interruption of Marine Defilement by Dumping from Ships and Aircraft. • 1972: US-Can Great Lakes Imsunder Tendency Bargain U. N. Stockholm Conference on the Cosmical Environment (1972) UN Exoteric Assembly unravelling to assemblage interpolitic convocation “... to arrange a framework for wide importance delayin the UN of the examples of the cosmical environment in dispose to standpoint the observation of synods and exoteric estimation on the mportance and urgency of this question” • Preparatory era commandd by Western, industrialized countries • Soviet bloc boycotted attempt accordingly of ideological differences and unconnected gregarious conflicts • LDCs encouraged to join-in, but remained skeptical: feared environmental initiatives susceptibility get in way of economic fruit priorities • LDCs achieveing to prevent, but merely if fruit causes were not compromised and the West assisted them delay finances and technology to endue in environmental trustworthyguard. As-well disapproved delay West’s fixation on insufficiency for LDC population curb. 0 2/11/2013 Stockholm, cont’d 114 nations, 1200 delegates (2 heads of narrate)–wide by UN standards. Greatly suppliess coverage and 500 NGO’s join-ind in correlative “Environmental Forum”. Outcomes… • Stockholm Statement of the UN Conference on the Cosmical Environment: 26 origins, planned as a origin for coming fruits in interpolitic environmental coagency – assured basic origins of interpolitic environmental law. • Renewal Contrivance for the Cosmical Environment: 109 recommendations for govt and inter-govt. renewal on results ranging from type onservation, jungles and radiant and marine defilement, to fruit device, cosmical settlements, and technology transmit. • Assured United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) and Environment Fund • Exact voucher of Additionality Principle: monied North should pay for some or all of adventitious requires of environmental initiatives in developing south • Emergence of environmental accommodating collection veer-of-fix as a emblemificant interpolitic stakeholder Natant Stockholm & Rio (1972-1992) Patent clear Western Nations: • Greatly proficiency delay private parliament and programs had been made in the deceased 1960s/forthcoming 1970's. The benefits of these attempts were nature felt by the deceased 1970s, delay improvements in imsunder & air tendency, reductions in toxins enjoy manage & DDT, and extensions in shielded areas. Lesser Patent clear Nations: • Environmental stipulations diminished cuttingly: refined defilement & squaller, deforestation, contaminate erosion, impart-born sicknesss. In rancor of resistance at Stockholm, divers LDCs began to tally by establishing environmental ministries & associated laws (from 11 nations in 1972 to 102 in 1980). As well-mannered, divers moved afore delay distasteful population contrivancening (e. g. India, China). Soviet Bloc: Environmental examples worsened: air & imsunder defilement, nuclear stain, environmental heartiness & sickness. • Had boycotted Stockholm and made scant proficiency forthcomingward (economic bud remained the pre-eminence). Civic activism & counsel remained suppressed until the descend of Communism in deceased 1980's Natant Stockholm and Rio, cont’d • 1972: London Session for the Interruption of Marine Defilement by Dumping of Wastes (toxic & nuclear consume dumping at sea). • 1973: Interpolitic Session for the Interruption of Defilement from Ships (MARPOL). • 1973: Session on the Interpolitic Commerce of Endangered Type (CITES). 1974: Paris & Helsinki Conventions to shield marine environments of the North and Baltic Seas. • 1974/84: 1st & 2nd UN Population Conferences. • 1979: Session on Long-Range, Transboundary Air Defilement (LRTAP). Canada, US & Europe bargain to discourse sympathys encircling eager rain; principal important interpolitic attempt to regudeceased air defilement. • 1980: IUCN/WWF/UNEP Globe Stabilisation Strategy. promoted stabilisation contrivancening in LDCs. 21 2/11/2013 Cont’d… • 1982: UN Conference on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS). 200 mile territorial jurisdictions assured, etc. • 1982: IWC retail whaling moratorium. 1987: Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Flake • 1988: Intergovernmental Panel on Region Diversify formed by UNEP & WMO • 1989: Basel Session on the Curb of Trans-boundary Movements of Exposed Wastes • 1991: Canada-US Air Tendency Bargain to bring SO2 speechs that producer eager rain • 1991: Protocol on Environmental Safeguard of Antarctica: moratorium on inanimate and connected exploration and fruit for 50 years • European Union: Broad proficiency on regional, interpolitic environmental coagency pertaining to toxics, imsunder tendency, consume skillful-treatment, air defilement, wildhistory trustworthyguard and uproar defilement Rio Summit: UN Conference on Environment & Fruit (1992) Context: • “Rio Summit” insufficiencys to be seen in active of the accelerated resurgence of environmental sympathy in the 1980s. New, threatening environmental examples emerging and ending suppliess coverage: * Three Mile Isplant nuclear mishap (1979) * Bhopal Union Carbide chemical property (1984) * Ozone cavity equalize Antarctica discovered (1985) * Chernobyl nuclear property (1986) * Cutting drought/famine in Africa (mid-80s) * Caribbean gale David (1988) * Cutting floods in Bangladesh (1988) * Assassination of activist Chico Mendes (1989? ) Occasion magazine (1988): “Earth: Planet of the Year” * Exxon Valdez oil diffuse in Alaska (1989) Effect: • Annals bud in environmental NGO company • Huge origin for Inexperienced sunderies in Europe & Australia • Growing urgency on synods to act Rio Summit, cont’d. • 1985-87:World Ministry on Environment & Development: UN distinctive ministry lashed of elder officials tasked by UN Exoteric Assembly to evaluate narrate of the global environment and fruit. Findings published in Our Common Coming (1987). Document had terrible contact accordingly: * Timing coincided delay lofty environmental sympathy Credibility and pragmatism of the authors Our Common Coming made received “sustainable fruit: fruit which coalesces the insufficiencys of the offer delayout compromising the power of coming eras to coalesce their own insufficiencys”. • UN Exoteric Assembly following sponsored UN Conference on Environment and Fruit to discourse divers of the results amending in Our Common Future. • The “Rio Summit” was principal-ever “World Summit” and was unequalled in lamina: * Largest convocation of globe manageers ever: 178 nations; 118 heads of narrate * 1,400 NGOs offer in correlative “Global Forum” delay 18,000 sundericipants 22 /11/2013 Key Outcomes of Rio Summit • Rio Declaration: narratement of key origins on environment & fruit • Agenda 21: inferential catalogue of recommendations • Proposition of Jungle Principles: imparted down account of jungle session • Biodiversity Convention: weakened by United States. • Region Diversify Convention: Pre-cursor to Kyoto Protocol • Global Environment Facility (GEF): finance enduements in environmental trustworthyguard in LDCs • UN Ministry on Sustainable Development: Arrange followup to Rio Proficiency Gone Rio… • 1993: North American Ministry for Environmental Cooperation: NAFTA sundery bargain 1994: 3rd Interpolitic Population Conference, Cairo. • 1997: Interpolitic bargain to bring the formation, storage and use of plant mines. • 1997: Kyoto Protocol on the Reduction of Greenhouse Gases. • 1998: Rotterdam Session on Prior Informed Acquiesce for commerce in exposed chemicals and pesticides • 2000: Ozone Annex to 1991 Canada-US Air Tendency Agreement, smogcausing speechs (NO-x) • 2001: Cartegena Biosecurity Protocol on Genetically Modified Organisms (Biodiversity Convention) • 2001: UN-Stockholm Session on Persistent Constitutional Pollutants (DDT, PCBs, dioxin) UN Globe Summit for Sustainable Development: Rio + 10, Johannesburg, 2002 • Follow-up to 1992 Earth Summit • Event held in the reanimate of 9-11 and in the tenor of a directwing, unilateracatalogue US synod delay dwarf cause in the environmental agenda and dwarf origin for UN initiatives • Summit lofty on grammar and platitudes, low on real accomplishments • Discussions standpointed equalize on convocation peculiar fruit rather than environmental objectives • Constructive promise of private-exoteric sector sundernerships, etc. • Goals assured to extension peoples’ arrival to sanitation, arrest drinking impart, etc. 23 2/11/2013 UN Globe Summit for Sustainable Development: Rio + 10, Johannesburg, 2002 • Follow-up to 1992 Earth Summit • Event held in the reanimate of 9-11 and in the tenor of a directwing, unilateracatalogue US synod delay dwarf cause in the environmental agenda and dwarf origin for UN initiatives • Summit lofty on grammar and platitudes, low on real accomplishments • Discussions standpointed equalize on convocation peculiar fruit rather than environmental objectives • Constructive promise of private-exoteric sector sundernerships, etc. • Goals assured to extension peoples’ arrival to sanitation, arrest drinking impart, etc. UN Globe Summit for Sustainable Development: Rio + 10, Johannesburg, 2002 • Follow-up to 1992 Earth Summit • Event held in the reanimate of 9-11 and in the tenor of a directwing, unilateracatalogue US synod delay dwarf cause in the environmental agenda and dwarf origin for UN initiatives • Summit lofty on grammar and platitudes, low on real accomplishments • Discussions standpointed equalize on convocation peculiar fruit rather than environmental objectives • Constructive promise of private-exoteric sector sundernerships, etc. • Goals assured to extension peoples’ arrival to sanitation, arrest drinking impart, etc. New-fangled Proficiency (or Not! ) (2002 +) Region diversify has emerged as primary global environmental result • Yet, proficiency on this and other interpolitic environmental challenges has been confused, delay important gains delayin the European Union; but virtually none in the Americas • 9/11 & US-led “War on Terrorism”, completely delay an ideological hostility to synod decision and multilateralism, has underneathmined proficiency on region diversify, etc. • Emerging economies of China, India and Brazil ostentatious a greatly main gregarious language and bias on the globe grade but, for the most sunder so far, feel not made environmental sympathys a pre-eminence Momentum appears now to be mutation anew in a inexperienced troddenion as George W. Bush fades from the show, Barack Obama ascends, and attraction of global warming mounts 24 2/11/2013 New-fangled Proficiency (or Not! ) (2002 +) • Region diversify has emerged as primary global environmental result • Yet, proficiency on this and other interpolitic environmental challenges has been confused, delay important gains delayin the European Union; but virtually none in the Americas • 9/11 & US-led “War on Terrorism”, completely delay an ideological hostility to synod decision and multilateralism, has underneathmined proficiency on region diversify, etc. Emerging economies of China, India and Brazil ostentatious a greatly main gregarious language and bias on the globe grade but, for the most sunder so far, feel not made environmental sympathys a pre-eminence • Momentum appears now to be mutation anew in a inexperienced troddenion as George W. Bush fades from the show, Barack Obama ascends, and attraction of global warming mounts New-fangled Proficiency (or Not! ) (2002 +) • Region diversify has emerged as primary global environmental result • Yet, proficiency on this and other interpolitic environmental challenges has been confused, delay important gains delayin the European Union; but virtually none in the Americas 9/11 & US-led “War on Terrorism”, completely delay an ideological hostility to synod decision and multilateralism, has underneathmined proficiency on region diversify, etc. • Emerging economies of China, India and Brazil ostentatious a greatly main gregarious language and bias on the globe grade but, for the most sunder so far, feel not made environmental sympathys a pre-eminence • Momentum appears now to be mutation anew in a inexperienced troddenion as George W. Bush fades from the show, Barack Obama ascends, and attraction of global warming mounts Interpolitic Environmental Law 25 2/11/2013 Definition and Purpose International Environmental Law pause of a coalition of treaties, decisions and protocols that regudeceased the interrenewal of cosmicality and regular environment. Essentially, it deals delay: a) defilement curb b) b) respring skillful-treatment The debadge is to bring the contact of cosmical immateriality on the regular environment delayin nations and past. Sources of the Law • • • • a) Treaties b) Protocols c) Conventions d) Interpolitic Courts and Tribunals Principles of Interpolitic Environmental Law • a) 1972 Stockholm Statement on the Cosmical Environment. (Principle 21 concept of “Good eighborliness”) • b) “All citizens feel a direct to a fitting and heartinessy environment” • c) The “polluter pays” origin. • d) The “duty to inform and consult” other narrates 26 2/11/2013 Principles of Interpolitic Environmental Law (Continued.. ) • e) Duty to do Environmental Contact tolls. • f) The “precautionary origin” • g) 1982 UN Session for Character origin of sustainable fruit. • h) Origin of “Intergenerational equity” Limitations to Interpolitic Environmental Law • IEL is considered to be “soft law”. This mediums bargains and origins are mediumt to nfluence nations to reference assured concepts. • This as-well mediums these origins are not enforceable on their own in a national seek. • Countries must acquiesce to nature sued in the principal attribute. They cannot be solid to do what it is not achieveing to do. Overcoming the Limitations • Derancor the seasonations countries do emblem up to treaties and protocols. They do so due to: a) Moral or politic obligations. b) Urgency from other emblematories. c) Exoteric urgency from their societies. d) Strategic and economic benefits 27 2/11/2013 Famous Environmental Events and Agreements • • • • • • a) 1972 Stockholm statement. b) 1982 UN session on the Law of the Sea c) 1987 Montreal Protocol on the Ozone Flake c) 1992 UN Session on Region Diversify d) 1992 Rio Statement e) 1997 Kyoto Protocol f) 2009 Copenhagen Summit on Region Diversify What the coming holds forthcoming Copenhagen • Kyoto Protocol Summary • In the Copenhagen Summit it was agreed by twain patent clear and developing nations to cut their inexperiencedhouse gas speechs, although this was not a unmeasured consonance. • November 2010 Cancun Summit • South Africa 2011 • Korea 2012 Examples of coming proposals and