ABSTRACT Kedai runcit or frequent treasures bear been a rule component of our housing fortune view forforeternally gone there were housing fortunes. These mom-and-pop performances bear been selling to their enstagnation residents fortrite essentials such as groceries, new result, poultry, toiletries, etc. Their unexcited charge and end removal bear made them favorite disprevalent residents of the housing fortunes in which they are located. Lately, though, their favoriteity has been on the delaydraw due to rivalry from wholesale negotiates or hypermarkets which can extend the similar items cheaper and conveniently lower one roof.
Local and foreign-bred hypermarkets such as Giants, Tesco and Carrefour bear been invading our towns, big and narrow, leaving the unwritten frequent treasures rival for their duty. Muddy of these narrow-scale individually-owned treasures bear gone endd their performances permanently or moved them a tiny elevate extreme of town, far from the hypernegotiate catchment. Harmonious how solemn is the application of these hypermarkets on the performance of the frequent treasures has so far not been abundantly summond in Malaysia although muddy studies bear been carried out elsewhere.
Thus, this article presents a consider that has been carried out by the authors to summon how solemn the application is in Johor Bahru. A pattern of three hypermarkets was separated for this consider. Using GIS, we spatially illusioned the annual changes in the hebetude of frequent treasure indulges issued by the persomal example floating the catchment of each hypermarket, three years anteriorly as courteous as three years forthcoming the inaugural conclusion of the hypermarket. So using GIS, we corroborated the delaydraw in the calculate of frequent treasures floating the enstagnation housing fortunes delay the residing addresses of the surveyed customers of the hypermarkets.
The results obtained confirmed that the performance of hypermarkets does assist to the delaydraw in the calculate of frequent treasures and the station of the delaydraw decreases radially ostensible from the location of the hypermarkets. The confrontings from this consider propose that some rethinking needs to be executed environing the system in which hypernegotiate indulges, or frequent treasure indulges for that stuff, are issued. Equable our prevalent prudence of allowing a assured percentage of new housing harvest to be set privately for treasurelots may so need to be reviewed.
Keywords: Hypermarkets, frequent treasures, GIS spatial partition 1. INTRODUCTION Kedai runcit or a frequent treasure is any treasure that sells groceries and other daily items promptly to its customers in narrow division (Osman, 1988). Normally, frequent treasures are owned by living-souls or shared by distinct living-souls and extend scant calculate of items and division. In Malaysia one can confront frequent treasures in almost forintegral housing fortunes and villages and they normally bear a scant cathment area.
A hypermarket, in opposition, is a big-scale vend treasury that extends a abnormity of pi and services all conveniently lower one roof (Duncan, Hollander and Savitt, 1983). A hypernegotiate commands a ample catchment area and it is normally owned by big companies who bear muddy branches of the hypermarkets in muddy places. Disprevalent the more-favorite obligations of hypernegotiate uncounted in Malaysia are the persomally-owned Giant Hypermarkets, and foreign-owned Tesco Hypermarkets and Carrefour Hypermarkets.
Like in any novel state, hypermarkets in Malaysia bear been expanding their performance to as the require of prevalent offspring for description, unoccupied-time, issue abnormity and desire performance hours (Malaysian Ninth Plan, 2006). However, there are forforeternally growing institution on the privative applications of hypermarkets on the duty of nearby vicinity frequent treasures (Johor Structure Scheme 2002-2020, 2005). This is befriended by Bennison & Davies (1980) and Seiders & Tigert (2000) whose consider concluded that a hypernegotiate did bear a privative application on the enlargement of narrow frequent treasures in the area.
In pique of the similar institution in Malaysia, there bear been no consider to summon the spatial space of the application. Thus, a consider was set up by the authors to summon the spatial space of the application and so to confront out the factors that tempt customers to hypermakets, leaving their vicinity frequent treasures struggling for duty. 2. OBJECTIVES The extrinsic of the consider was to spatially summon the application of a hypernegotiate on the performance of the enstagnation frequent treasures.
In classify to consummate the extrinsics the forthcoming tasks needed to be carried out: 1) identifying the adequate patterns of hypermarkets; 2) identifying the negotiate catchment of the hypermarkets; 3) assemblage of grounds pertaining to the calculate of duty indulges issued to frequent treasure operators floating the catchment areas three years anteriorly as courteous as three years forthcoming the performance of the hypermarkets; 4) identifying factors that wave the decisions by the customers to treasure at these hypermarkets.
The system used to persuade the consider is discussed in details in the forthcoming negativeion. 3. METHOD The principal plod of the consider was to prefer a calculate of hypermarkets as units of partition. Disprevalent the criteria captured into subsidy in choosing the hypermarkets were: 1) the year they were opened for duty to fix that the separated hypermarkets bear been uncounted for at last three years; 2) the removals floating each other to escape balancelapping of the negotiate catchments; and 3) the types of pi sold at the hypermarkets so that they contest those sold at the vicinity frequent treasures.
Of the whole of environing ten hypermarkets in the City of Johor Bahru, three hypermarkets met these criteria and were separated for the consider. The three hypermarkets were from a persomallygrown hypernegotiate obligation disclosed as Giant Hypernegotiate that are located in Southern City (in Johor Bahru City Centre), in Plentong and in Skudai (10km extreme of Johor Bahru) (Refer Figure 1. 0). These three hypermarkets served a calculate of residential areas, disclosed in Malaysia as taman perumahan or housing fortunes, located floating 0 – 20km enstagnation them.
The proximate plod was the division of questionaire sets to 200 customers per hypernegotiate (100 during weekday and 100 during weekend) containing questions institutioning their abode addresses and the reasons for choosing to treasure at the hypermarkets. Their abode addresses were then inputted into the city scheme in GIS format to dertermine the space of each hypermarket’s cathment area. One way to value the application of a hypernegotiate on the vicinity frequent treasures is to in-effect reckon the calculate of frequent treasures that are in duty distinct years anteriorly and forthcoming the hypernegotiate is in performance.
This is arduous to persuade gone the monitoring would charm as desire as the calculate of years that we are ardent in investigating. One way to despatch the manner is to in-effect consider the history of the calculate of annual duty indulges issued to frequent treasures and usurp that each frequent treasure that holds such indulge is in-effect uncounted a frequent treasure. On this account, the calculate of duty indulges issued to frequent treasures floating three years anteriorly and forthcoming a hypernegotiate was in performance were obtained from the persomal example (Johor Bahru Tengah Municipal Council).
The locations of the duty ground of these indulges were then plotted on the city map and then rasterised into a 50m grid format to confer a hebetude of frequent treasure indulges per fifty clear meters for each of the three years anteriorly and forthcoming the performance of the hypermarkets. The changes in the frequent treasure hebetude were then used to illustrate the application of the hypermatkets on the duty of the frequent treasures. 2. Application on Neighbourhood Frequent Shops
If most of the customers that patronize these hypermarkets behind from the enstagnation housing fortunes as illustrative previously, what is the application on the frequent treasures floating those housing fortunes? The last application would be slowing down of duty for these vicinity frequent treasures occasion the worst application would be stagnation down of duty. Occasion duty slowdown can be summond, this consider simply looked at the stagnation down of duty by tracking the calculate of frequent treasure indulges issued annualy by the persomal example.
Since the application normally materializes a few years forthcoming the space of a hypermarket, history of indulges three years anteriorly and forthcoming the space of the hypernegotiate were inventoried. Changes in the calculate of frequent treasures were summond by considering the changes in the hebetude of frequent treasure indulges for forintegral 50m2 area enstagnation each hypermarket. This is executed spatially in GIS by rasterising the 50m2 area into grids and varying the pretense of the grids according to the calculate of indulges floating the grids for each feature year. Figures 5. 0 – 7. illusion the annual changes in the hebetude of indulges floating the grids for all the three hypermarkets thoughtful. In unconcealed, the figures illusion the decreasing bear in the densities of frequent treasures equable anteriorly the space of these hypermarkets negative for the Plentong Giant Hypermarket. The decreasing calculate of frequent treasures enstagnation the Southern City Hypernegotiate (Figure 5. 0) could be attributed to rivalry disprevalent themselves and the performance of another hypernegotiate obligation at the very structure impeded by the Giant Hypernegotiate anteriorly it took balance the performance.
Meanoccasion the decreasing calculate of frequent treasures enstagnation the Skudai Hypernegotiate (Figure 7. 0) could be attributed to the space of another Giant Hypernegotiate harmonious 4km far the year anteriorly the Skudai Hypernegotiate opened, aloof from rivalry disprevalent themselves. The calculate of frequent treasures enstagnation the Plentong Hypernegotiate (Figure 6. 0) on the other influence was on the acception antecedent to the space of the hypermarket. Investigation inspired that this was due to the space of distinct new housing fortunes in the area which normally, as the occurrence is in Malaysia, behind delay a calculate of treasurelots.