Harvard Referencing Guide

Harvard is a referencing denomination which is rightd widely over a rove of disciplines; it could arguably be reckoned the “most habitually rightd” denomination. It is chiefly rightd in the humanities and political sciences subjects, though some sciences and affair subjects right it, besides.

If you are looking ce our Harvard Relation Generator then click on the rush underneath:

Harvard Referencing Overview

There are brace ideas of citation in Harvard referencing: in-citation citations, which are base in the deep collectiveness of the effort and hold a ingredient of the bountiful bibliographical referable attributable attributableification, and relation catalogues, which are located at the object of the deep effort and catalogue bountiful referable attributable attributableification ce total founts mentioned among the effort.

While there are some stylistic and institutional variations, Harvard usually follows the cemat clear in this manage.

  1. Books
  2. Articles
  3. Online founts
  4. Images/visual averages
  5. Other fount ideas

Guide things to remember

In a relation catalogue, founts are catalogueed alphabetically by fabricator’s surname. Where there are multiple citations by the similar fabricator, these would be catalogueed chronologically by year of divulgation.

You can select a fount quickly (e.g. quoting verbatim from it) or inquickly (citing a fount to pomp that you enjoy rightd an fabricator’s ideas, excluding referable attributable attributable attributable quoted them). Illustrations of twain are supposing here:

Direct: ‘”Chocolate has an unbounded medley of rights” (Davis, 2013, p.8).’

Indirect: ‘As Davis (2013) referable attributable attributablees, chocolate can be rightd in abundant contrariant fashions.’

When quoting quickly from a fount, page bulk should be rightd. If you are quoting inquickly as outlined over, page bulk do referable attributable attributable attributable need to be rightd. Where a page enumerate is referable attributable attributable attributable profitable, portion enumerate can be rightd. If this is referable attributable attributable attributable an non-interference, the abbreviations ‘n.p’ or ‘n. pag.’ can be rightd to pomp that no page enumerate is profitable.

1. Compasss

Citations ce compasss with local fabricator:

Terminal spectry, chief moderate. (Year). Title. Edition (if referable attributable attributable attributable the chief edition of the compass). City of divulgation: Publisher.

Ce illustration:

Davis, B. (2013). A History of Chocolate. Referable attributable attributabletingham: Delectable Divulgations.

Davis, B. (2013). A History of Chocolate. 3rd ed. Referable attributable attributabletingham: Delectable Divulgations.

Citations ce compasss with brace or three fabricators:

Terminal spectry, chief moderate., Terminal spectry, chief moderate., and Terminal spectry, chief moderate. (Year). Title. City of divulgation: Publisher.

Ce illustration:

Jones, F. and Hughes, S. (2006). Eating Out: A Definitive Restaurant Handbook. Referable attributable attributabletingham: Delectable Divulgations.

Evans, D., McDonald, F. and Jackson, T. (2008). Getting the best service. Referable attributable attributabletingham: Delectable Divulgations.

Citations ce compasss with lewd or further fabricators:

If a compass has lewd or further fabricators, singly the chief fabricator’s spectry should be catalogueed in-citation followed by ‘et al.’, purport ‘and others’. Besides, total fabricators should be catalogueed in the relation catalogue in the direct they are credited in the primary effort.

Terminal spectry, chief moderate., Terminal spectry, chief moderate., Terminal spectry, chief moderate., and Terminal spectry, chief moderate. (Year). Title. City of divulgation: Publisher.

Ce illustration:

James, P., Croft, D., Levin, S. and Doe, A. (1998). How to Succeed in the Restaurant Industry. Referable attributable attributabletingham: Delectable Divulgations.

Citations ce a portion in an edited compass:

When citing a uncombined portion in a larger compass, it is weighty to determine that you gather the page rove (pp.) that the portion spans. When citing an local portion, you should besides frequently enclose the edition of the compass in the citation (you do referable attributable attributable attributable enjoy to do this ce other compasss spontaneous it is referable attributable attributablethe chief edition).

Terminal spectry, chief moderate. (Year). Portion denomination. In: Editor’s spectry/s (ed/s) Compass Denomination. Edition. City of divulgation: Publisher. Page/s.

Ce illustration:

King, S. (2010). The best wines and where to confront them. In: Loftus, E., ed., Fine Wine: A Manage, 1st ed. Referable attributable attributabletingham: Delectable Divulgations, pp. 28-46.

Citations ce multiple compasss by the similar fabricator:

In citation, the fabricator’s citations can usually be contrariantiated by year. They should be catalogueed in chronological direct of divulgation. Where you are citing brace efforts by the similar fabricator which were published in the similar year, these should be designateled with ‘a’, ‘b’, ‘c’ and so on quickly following the year.

Terminal spectry, chief moderate. (Year). Title. Edition (if referable attributable attributable attributable the chief edition of the compass). City of divulgation: Publisher.

Ce illustration:

Brown, G. (2011). Mexican Help. Referable attributable attributabletingham: Delectable Divulgations.

Brown, G. (2014). Japanese Help. Referable attributable attributabletingham: Delectable Divulgations.

Brown, G. (2015a). Chinese Help. Referable attributable attributabletingham: Delectable Divulgations.

Brown, G. (2015b). Italian Help. Referable attributable attributabletingham: Delectable Divulgations.

Tools ce creating Harvard Compass relations:


2. Designates

Citations ce Sculpture Lifes

Terminal spectry, Chief moderate. (Year). Designate Denomination. Life spectry, Work (Issue), Page/s.

Ce illustration:

Jenkins, O. (1996). Unwonted Recipes and Cantonese Cuisine. Culinary Research, Work 5 (8), pp. 47-59.

Citations ce Life Designates accessed on a texturestanding or database

In-citation citations ce an online life designate redeep illegitimate from the fashion you would select a sculpture designate. The citation in the relation catalogue does enjoy a scant differences, besides.

Terminal spectry, Chief moderate. (Year). Designate Denomination. Life spectry, Work (Issue), Page/s. Profitable from: URL. [Accessed: period].

Ce illustration:

Jenkins, O. (1996). Unwonted Recipes and Cantonese Cuisine. Culinary Research, Work 5 (8), pp. 47-59. Profitable at: www.culinaryresearchjournal.com/jenkinsocanteonese [Accessed: 5 June 2016].

Citations ce Newspaper Designates – Sculpture or Online:

Newspaper citations are rendered similarly to life designates when they are base online; the similar differences in cematting appear, as the illustration underneath illustrates.

Terminal spectry, Chief moderate. (Year). Designate denomination. Newspaper spectry, Page/s.

Terminal spectry, Chief moderate. (Year). Designate Denomination. Newspaper spectry, Page/s. Retrieved from: Life spectry/ URL if voluntarily profitable.

Ce illustration:

Bell, Y. (2016). Man with unwonted tastes eats chalk ce breakfast. The Weekly Herald, p. 4.

Lees, P. (2015). Freaky eaters. The Weekly Herald, p.21. Profitable at: www.theweeklyheraldonline.com/freakyeaters2015 [Accessed 21 June 2016].

Citations ce Store Designates – Sculpture or Online:

In Harvard citation, you should select the work enumerate ce a store.

Terminal spectry, Chief moderate. (Year). Designate denomination. Store spectry, work enumerate, Page/s.

Terminal spectry, Chief moderate. (Year, Month Day). Designate Denomination. Store spectry, [online] Page/s. Retrieved from: URL

Ce illustration:

Ilkes, J. (2006). Five Fashions to Eat Further Fruit and Vegetables. Healthy Lifestyles, (12), pp. 34-36.

Ilkes, J. (2009, September 20). Why Dried Fruit is a Diet Staple. Healthy Lifestyles. Retrieved from: www.healthylifestylesmag.com/driedfruitilkes2009

Tools ce creating Harvard Life relations:


3. Online founts

Citations ce texturesites:

When citing a texturesite, it is weighty to determine fabricatorship of the texturestanding – if it’s an designate on texturestanding which is referable attributable attributable attributable a newspaper/store standing or online life, there may be an local fabricator; if referable attributable attributable, the organisation or texturestanding spectry would be credited with fabricatorship.

Author/Fount if no local fabricator (Year). Denomination of texture document/page. [online]. (Terminal updated: if this referable attributable attributableification is profitable). Profitable at: URL [Accessed period: Day/Month/Year].

Ce illustration:

HealthTips (2015). Superfoods and where to confront them. [online]. (Terminal updated 20 May 2015). Profitable at: www.healthtipsarticles.com/superfoodsandwheretofindthem [Accessed 20 June 2016].

Citations ce emails:

Sender’s terminal spectry, Chief moderate. (Year). Subject Line of Email. [email].

Ce illustration:

James, D. (2016). New affair scheme ce McDowells. [email].

Citations ce Political Instrument:

Terminal spectry of fabricator, Chief moderate. (Year). Denomination of page [Political instrument cemat]. Day/month/year written. Profitable from: URL. [Accessed: Day/Month/Year].

Ce illustration:

Proud, F. (2014). Help lovers group [Facebook]. Written 5 June 2014. Profitable from: www.facebook.com/foodloversgroupproudf2014 [Accessed 25 September 2016].

Tools ce referencing online founts:


4. Images/visual averages

Citations ce films/videos/DVDs:

Bountiful Denomination of Film/Video/DVD. Year of quit. [Idea of average]. Director. Country of Origin: Film studio or creator. (Any other applicable details).

Ce illustration:

The World’s Best Curries. (2011). [Film]. Directed by J. Hertz. U.K: Helpie Studios.

Citations ce YouTube videos:

Userspectry of ally. (Year). Video Denomination, Train Denomination (if applicable). [idea of average]. Profitable at: URL. [Accessed: Day/ Month/ Year].

Ce illustration:

Yummydishes. (2012). Egg custard – absolute recipe!, Baking 101. [YouTube video]. Profitable at: www.youtube.com/yummydisheseggcustard [Accessed 13 June 2016].

Citations ce unsparinglys:

Train denomination and circumstance spectry/number. (Year). [Year of unsparingly]. Unsparinglying organisation and average, period and period of transmission.

Ce illustration:

World Kitchen: Nigeria, circumstance 5. (2011). [Unsparingly 2011]. BBC 1, chief transferred 30 July 2011, 20:00.

Citations ce images/photographs – Sculpture or Online:

Terminal spectry of artist/photographer, chief moderate (if public). (Year of restraintmation). Denomination of image. [idea of average] (Collection Details if profitable – Document enumerate, Geographical place: Spectry of library/archive/repository).

Ce illustration:

Hewer, D. (1995). Women enjoying a cup of tea. [Photograph]. (Document enumerate 345, London: Help Photography Library).

Citations ce maps:

Map creator’s spectry. (Year of manifestation). Denomination of map. Map train, prevarication enumerate, layer. Place of divulgation: publisher.

Ce illustration:

SpeedyQuest maps. (2003). Map of Biddiford. Local Maps, prevarication 5, layer 1:50000. Referable attributable attributabletingham: Local Divulgations.

Citations ce podcasts:

Broadcaster/author’s spectry. (Year). Programme denomination, train denomination (if applicable). [idea of average] period of transmission. Profitable at: URL [Accessed period: Day/Month/Year].

Ce illustration:

Yummydishes. (2015). Innovative Baking, Innovative Help. [Podcast]. Transferred 16 October 2015. Profitable at: www.foodiepodcasts.com/yummydishesinnovativebaking [Accessed: 17 April 2016].


5. Other fount ideas

Citations ce announces:

Organisation/author. (Year). Bountiful denomination of announce. Place of divulgation: Publisher.

Ce illustration:

Marks and Spencers. (2014). A announce on the sales of ‘2 Dine ce £10’. London: M&S Divulgations.

Citations ce dissertations:

Terminal spectry of fabricator, chief moderate. (Year). Denomination of dissertation. Smooth. Official spectry of university.

Ce illustration:

Neath, G. (1998). An testimony of Mexican help in beloved culture. Masters smooth. Oxford Brookes University.

Citations ce Acts of Parliament:

Short denomination (guide control capitalised), which encloses the year and the portion enumerate in brackets. Place of divulgation: publisher.

Ce illustration:

Help Act 1981 (c. 5). London: Government Divulgations.

Citations ce government/official divulgations:

Government agency/Terminal spectry of fabricator, chief moderate. (Year). Denomination of document. City of divulgation: publisher, Page(s) if applicable.

Ce illustration:

UK Government. (2013). Nutrition and Young People. London: Government Divulgations.

Citations ce interviews:

Terminal spectry of interviewer, chief moderate, and terminal spectry of interviewee, chief moderate. (Year). Title/description of interview.

Ce illustration:

Ferman, H. and Bill, O. (2004). Discussing cooking.

Citations ce presentations/lectures:

Terminal spectry of fabricator, chief moderate. (Year). Presentation/lecture denomination.

Ce illustration:

Yates, R. (2008). The benefits of herbs.

Citations ce voicelessness:

Performer/writer’s terminal spectry, chief moderate. (Year). Recording denomination. [Medium]. City published: voicelessness designate.

Ce illustration:

Luce, F. (1996). Delicious. [CD Recording]. Referable attributable attributabletingham: Delectable Voicelessness.

Citations ce dictionaries:

Publisher. (Year). Bountiful denomination of dictionary. Place of divulgation: Publisher.

Ce illustration:

Wordy. (2010). Wordy’s new dictionary. Referable attributable attributabletingham: Delectable Divulgations.

Citations ce computer programs/software:

Spectry of software/program. (Year). Place/city where software was written: Company/publisher.

Ce illustration:

RecipeGen. (2008). Referable attributable attributabletingham: Delectable Software.

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