AGRICULTURE AND MAN PRT2008 (KUMP 45) GOOD AGRICULTURE PRACTICES (GAP) IN MALAYSIA PROF . ZAHARAH ABDUL RAHMAN GROUP MEMBERS • • • • • NORAFIZZA BT MAHAT NUR AMIRA HANIM BT AZMAN CHAN WEE ANN LIEW HUI QING JIVITHA THANARAJAN 169797 168494 169638 168358 161812 INTRODUCTION • The term Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) can refer to any collection of specific methods, which when applied to agriculture, produce results that are in harmony with the values of the proponents of those practices. • There are numerous competing definitions of what methods constitute “Good Agricultural Practices”, so whether a practice can be onsidered “good” will depend on the standards you are applying. • Lets us look at one particular definition of “Good Agricultural Practices” as defined by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations • Description of the UN FAO GAPs : i) Good Agricultural Practices are a collection of principles to apply for on-farm production and post-production processes, resulting in safe and healthy food and non-food agricultural products, while taking into account economical, social and environmental sustainability. ii) GAPs may be applied to a wide range of farming systems and at different scales.
They are applied through sustainable agricultural methods, such as integrated pest management, integrated fertilizer management and conservation agriculture. • GOOD AGRICULTURE PRACTICES IN MALAYSIA 1. Animal health ? Prevent the spread of disease onto the farm • Animals that are identified of their disease status can only be allowed to be brought onto the farm. • Cattle transport on and off the farm that do not carry any disease have to be ensured. • The farm must have secure boundaries/fencing. • If possible, limit access of people and wildlife into the farm. Have a flea control programme for the livestock. • Only use clean equipment from the right and reliable source. ? Use only prescribed chemicals and veterinary medicines for farm usage • Use chemicals according to instructions with appropriate dosages and observe suitable withholding periods. • Only use prescribed veterinary medicines by veterinarians and observe specified withholding periods. • Store chemicals and veterinary medicines securely and dispose of them properly. ? Train people appropriately • Have procedures in check for detecting and handling sick animals and veterinary chemicals. Make sure all people are undergo sufficient training to carry out their tasks correctly. • Choose reliable sources for advice. 2. Milking hygiene ? Ensure milking procedures do not injure cows or contaminate the produced milk • Ensure suitable udder preparation for milking. • Ensure consistency in application of milking techniques. • Isolate milk from sick or treated animals. • Ensure milking equipment is correctly installed and maintained. • Ensure enough supply of clean water ? Ensure milking is carried out under hygienic conditions • Ensure housing environment is clean at all times. Ensure milking area is kept clean. • Ensure the milkers follow basic hygiene rules. 3. Animal feeding and water ? Ensure animal feed and water are of high level of quality • Keeping animals healthy with high quality feed. • Prevent water supplies and animal feed materials from chemical contamination. • Avoid chemical contamination due to farming practices. ? Control storage conditions of feed • No microbiological or toxin contamination or undesirable use of prohibited feed ingredients or veterinary preparations. • Keeping animals healthy with good quality feed. 4. Animal welfare Animals are free from thirst, hunger and malnutrition • Provide enough feed (forage and/or fodder) and water daily. • Control stocking rates and/or supplementary feeding to ensure sufficient water, feed and fodder supply. • Protect animals from toxic plants and other harmful substances. • Provide water supplies of good quality that are regularly inspected and maintained. ? Animals are free from pain, injury and disease • Have an effective herd health management programme in place and inspect animals regularly. • Protect against imbalance. • Lactating animals should be milked regularly. Avoid using procedures and practices that cause unnecessary pain to the animals. 5. Environment ? Have a correct waste management system. • Ensure wastes are stored to reduce the risk of environmental pollution to the lowest level. • Manage grassland to prevent effluent runoff by spreading farm manures appropriate with local condition. ? Ensure dairy farming practices do not have an adverse impact on the local environment • Use chemicals (fertilizers, agricultural and veterinary chemicals, pesticides, etc) appropriately to avoid contamination of the local environment. Ensure overall appearance of the dairying operation is appropriate for a facility in which high quality food is produced 6. Integrated Pest Management (IPM) ?Takes into account the ecological factors and plant biology to minimize pest population to a minimum level without causing economic loss. • Biological Control Pest control refers to the use of natural enemies that can influence growth, breeding and control of the pest population at a balance level. • Cultural Control Cultural control is an agronomic practice used by farmers to increase their production.
The followings are examples of cultural practices : a. Adopt and practice field hygiene, including in the surrounding areas, such as weeding and disposal of agricultural wastes (collect and destroy rotten fruits and diseased plant parts) b. Use of disease free planting materials c. Soil treatment like liming d. Pruning of pest infected plant parts e. Crop rotation f. Ploughing g. Use of resistant varieties h. Water management i. Selection of suitable sites j. Use of organic fertilizers to improve soil structure and soil • Chemical Control 1.
Chemical control covers the use of the following chemicals: i. Pesticides ii. Biopesticides like azadirachtin and Bacillus thuringiensis 2. Chemical attractants like i. Pheromones ii. Protein bait 3. The use of chemicals must be based on the following factors: i. Chemicals are used only when the pest population had reached or exceeded the economic threshold value ii. Do not use broad spectrum pesticides iii. If pesticides are to be used, the usage shall be minimum and environmentally friendly iv. The use of pesticides should be the last alternative for pest control
Examples of Integrated Pest Management i. Pest Control for Bananas (Moko disease and Panama wilt) a. Use of disease free plantlets sourced through tissue culture and treatment of the planting materials if not sourced by tissue culture b. Monitoring and destruction of diseased plants c. Crop rotation and follow d. Farm equipments should be treated and free from pests before use e. Good drainage f. Prevention by spraying benomyl • Control of Tungro (Penyakit Merah Virus) of Paddy a. Inspection of disease and vectors b. Planting of resistant varieties c. Simultaneous planting d.
Eliminate source of disease and alternative hosts e. Good drainage and land preparation f. Use certified paddy seeds g. Use of pesticides to control vector (Nephotettix virescens) when there is an outbreak of the disease h. Implement the recommended fertilizer programme 7. Site Management The farm should have a Crop-Soil Suitability Map, for the following purposes:a. To ensure only crops which are suitable are planted in the farm. b. To identify the types of soil limitations and to make suggestions on their remedial actions for optimum crop production c. To obtain high and quality yield, e. g. ased on topography and agroclimatic zone, mango is suitable for planting in the States of Kedah, Perlis and Melaka. • Factors taken into consideration for evaluating CropSoil Suitability are: a. Depth of soil b. Depth to acid sulphate layer c. Drainage d. Nutrient content e. Thickness of organic horizon f. Salinity g. Slope h. Soil texture/structure i. Stoniness Land Management: Terrace Example of A Corporation Which Practices GAP Example of A Corporation Which Practices GAP • Sime Darby Plantation possess a strong commitment to sustainable development as shown through its plantation business. Sime Darby Plantation is one member of the Roundtable for Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO) and has adopted the best of industrial techniques into its daily operations. • Sime Darby Plantation acts as an industry leader in Good Agricultural Practices (GAP). • The good agriculture practices implemented by Sime Darby are as follows :i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii. viii. Land management Water management Zero burning replanting technique Integrated pest management Palm oil mill effluent treatment system High conservation value forest in the estates Biodiversity Quality assurance THANK YOU ??????
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