Decision Support for Best Practices Lessons Learned

Decision aid for best manners: Lessons literary on bridging the gap unformed tuition and applied pratice. Today, totalone is beholding at best manners for enlargeing a recognizedity or making the punish dainty in acquiring recognizedity components. If the punish best manners are applied, they acceleration to escape beggarly gists and reform character, succeeding a whileer, or twain. However, judgment and primeing an aggravatelookpend best manner is not recognizedly an indulgent pursue. In most conditions control, cosmicalized on investigate perceiveledge, is aggravatelooking; repeatedly the best manner is too new, peaceful inferior consider, or the legitimate perceiveledges do not fit the user's tenor. This designation fames on a program that tries to bridge the gap unformed arduous tentative tuition and trained scarcitys for powerful practitioners in primeing aggravatelookpend best manners. ********** Multifarious program directors would concur that using duration-tested "Best Practices" can acceleration to escape beggarly gists and growth the character of a recognizedity, convert bud succeeding a whileer, or twain. For occurrence, in a limited critique at the 2004 Conference on the Wages of Software-Intensive Systems, 48 appropriate recognizeditys and software directors aided the use of Best Practices. However, the harmonious critique implicated that it is unmanagecogent to furnish such Best Practices. The critique verified the subjoinedcited reasons for this gist: * Best manners repeatedly do not halt (i. e. , they own not been publicly instrumented), * People do not perceive of a established best manner, or * Best manners are not easily barefaced (i. e. , thither is no accessible fix to behold for best manners). The terminal apex paires a aggravate open consider by the Delphi Group in which aggravate than 65 percent of the interviewees concurd that judgment the punish nformation to do their job is unmanagecogent (Delphi, 2002). Excite tuition conducted by the U. S. Department of Defense (DoD) concluded that barriers for the adoption of best manners moderate: * the bankruptcy of segregation criteria unformed manners amid succeeding a whileer-constrained programs, * the bankruptcy of selfreliance in the recognize of such manners by the program offices, and * the weakness to fame manners to the lavishs and upshots programs were oppositeness. In epitome, recognizing cheerful manners and disseminating them to the accomplishanceforce seems to be a key upshot. To oration these upshots the DoD Wages Best Practices Clearinghouse (BPCh) program, bailed by distinct offices of the DoD (DS, ARA, National Advice Infraedifice [NII], and Defense Procurement ; Wages Policy [DPAP]), was trained in 2003 (Dangle, Dwinnell, Hickok ; Turner, 2005). The Fraunhofer Center for Experimental Software Engineering, Maryland (FC-MD) was chosen to encapacious the judicious "proof of concept" for a recognizedity to instrument, evaluate, and disseminate Best Practices. In collaboration subappended a while other forms amid the DoD and perseverance (including Northrop Grumman IT, the Computer Sciences Corporation [CSC], and the Systems and Software Consortium [SSCI]), a protosign recognizedity has been built and convoyed. It is ordinaryly operated and hosted by the Defense Wages University (DAU). THE VISION FOR APPLYING BEST PRACTICES The DoD prospect for the BPCh manageership is to amount aggravate than recognized a catalogue of Best Practices. It is to amount an integrated set of orderes, appliances, and instrument which get strengthen advice seekers to demonstrebuke emerging or ell-proven manners that own been applianceed and proven efficacious. Practices in the BPCh minister as an advice riches to people looking for ideas on how to reform character and behove aggravate efficacious in their job. Clearly, the prospect of the BPCh is not to imagine another "facts burial-place," but to encapacious an advice-sharing netperformance encircling the BPCh condition which get disturb relationships unformed people amid DoD and too maintain-apartnerships unformed DoD and perseverance manageers. The subjoinedcited signs of questions exemplify action issues: * "I recognized heard encircling firm condition testing. Whither can I furnish out if it's conducive or recognized hype? " * "They've recognized limitedened my testing catalogue by 30 percent. Are thither any manners that can acceleration me ameliorebuke wield that peel of catalogue compression? " * "I failure to add inspections to my character order. Is it value the succeeding a whileer and if so, what's a cheerful primitive plod? Is thither someone I can adjunction in condition of any unmanageableies? * "I've charmed aggravate an wages program recognized precedently Exact Design Critique (CDR). What manners should I behold for in my contractors? " * "I'm in attack of defining a trailing consummationion as maintain-akeep-adisunite of the constant education program for character reformments. What are state-of-the-art or emerging manners that should be orationed? " The BPCh has been contrived subappended a while the inferiorstanding that a separebuke manner can nincessantly be a "silver bullet" for each and total plan/program. This is owing some manners may mebelieve be conducive or salubrious in established tenors while decrepit to amount the long-ford upshots in others. For issue, manners that are enactedly assured for capacious, sidearm exact plans may be too heavyweight for speedy prototyping or Web collision bud. Practices that accomplishance courteous-behaved-behaved when the bud team is located in the harmonious capability may not recognizedly flake courteous-behaved-behaved when the team is orderly opposing the dominion. Clearly, thither halts no one "best" reply. Practices that are best for one user legislation not be best for the present. Therefore, the BPCh appliance rejoins to user queries subappended a while a catalogue of manners rebuked by how courteous-behaved-behaved they fit the plan characteristics of the user making the question. The introduceed segregation is compiled using the perceiveledge other users own had applianceing the manner in a harmonious tenor. High-character declaration encircling a manner is self-possessed and fameed subappended a while any assured caveats, so that advice seekers own a investigate premise for making up their own minds attached their scarcitys. APPLYING TECHNOLOGY TO DELIVER BEST PRACTICES To encapacious the BPCh appliance, we applied FC-MD's EMPEROR way (Experience Government Gateway using Tentative Results as Organizational Resources). This way fabricates use of all peels of adapted evidential facts from tuition and perseverance, irritates and bundles it, and scatters it through a Web-naturalized Attainments Base. The EMPEROR is cosmicalized on the perceiveledge factory way, enlargeed by Basili, Caldiera, and Rombach (1994), which has been consummationfully occupied to facilitate organizational tuition at NASA (Basili, et al. 1995), DaimlerChrysler (Schneider & Schwinn, 2001), and elsewhither in North America, Europe, and Australia (Koennecker, Jeffery, & Low, 2000; Mendonca, Seaman, Basili, & Kim, 2001). An perceiveledge factory amounts a way to irritate upshots cosmicalized on trained perceiveledge, and bundle what is literary into an Attainments Corrupt for new users of the form to furnish and use. Gone the users of the BPCh succeed from a broad abnormity of forms and programs, any Attainments Corrupt get own unmanageableies in orationing all user scarcitys. To ease this gist, EMPEROR is demandd to: (a) amount openness to users, so that they can inferiorstand the dissection order and the sources of perceiveledge and fabricate up their own minds; (b) rebuke the "trustability" of each of the used sources, so that users can justice the range of selfreliance they own in the advice amountd; and (c) amount a uncombined-mindedness and ripeness indicator of the manner advice charmed as a entire, that is, to accomplish a self-rating cosmicalized on how ample and what character declaration can be proffered. DATA STRUCTURE OF A BPCH PRACTICE These sections portray how these demandments are applianceed in the condition of the BPCh. In the BPCh, each manner has one associated Manner Record, containing advice encircling the manner and what is adapted in the Clearinghouse, and cipher to multifarious Declaration Profiles, each of which contains a epitome of a separebuke form's perceiveledge using the manner. A Manner Chronicles consists of: 1. A Manner Component arrest, which contains advice such as the manner designate, a limited title, and the uncombined-mindedness and ripeness indicator for the perceiveledge bundle. . A Manner Epitome arrest, which synthesizes all adapted declaration facts and portrays practiccogent collision tenors for the manner cosmicalized on a set of characterizing attributes. This maintain-akeep-adisunite of the manner chronicles thereby tolerates divergent users (i. e. , forms) to fabricate use of the manner. An Declaration Profile contains an issue or fame of some sign of program that has used this manner, how they applied it, and what upshots were obtained. Each Declaration Profile contains the harmonious set of tenor and upshot arenas as the Manner Epitome arrest, exclude that the advice chroniclesed in each arena get portray mebelieve what has been observed in the attached tenor of the maintain-apurpose constituent of declaration. In observation, the facts edifice of an Declaration Profile contains a arena for instrumenting its sect of the trustability. TRUSTABILITY OF A SINGLE SOURCE OF EVIDENCE A 20-apex flake rebukes the trustability of each Declaration Profile. A rating of l indicates an anecdotal or loose perceiveledge; a rating of 20 indicates that the upshots of useing the manner are arduously measured and substantiated. Points are cosmicalized on the subjoinedcited filthy product: * how the manner was applied, ranging from a separebuke convoy consider to use on multiple legitimate plans; * how the upshots were measured, ranging from an educated suspect to a arduous extent program; * how the declaration was fameed, ranging from an loose anecdote to a peerreviewed publication; and who fameed the declaration, ranging from a second-hand fame to someone promptly implicated on the team. Aggravate advice on the rating flake can be set on the BPCh page of the Wages Association Connection of DAU (https://acc. dau. mil/bpch). MATURITY OF A PRACTICE RECORD A 4-apex flake is used to rebuke each Manner Chronicles to straightway notify the user of how ample, and what sign of, advice is perceiven encircling the manner. As demandd by EMPEROR, this flake focuses on the character of the aggravateall accumulated advice that is adapted for a manner (i. e. the synthesized and bundled advice in the Manner Record). Naturalized on the adapted advice we portray the manner ripeness as: * No condition assigned/Initial entry: A new Manner Chronicles is judiciously entered into the BPCh when it is nominated by our handys and/or user communities. Typically at this duration, mebelieve some of the arenas in the Manner Component arrest are occupied in and no Declaration Profiles are adapted. * Bronze condition/Awareness raised: As promptly as any declaration behoves adapted (i. e. , an Declaration Profile has been linked to the Manner Record), the condition is set to Bronze Level. For users, the Bronze Plane condition indicates that the manner has been nominated by our handys and user communities, and ordinary a antecedent inhibit for applicability. * Silver condition/Evaluation accomplished: When a equal set of Declaration Profiles is adapted, the BPCh handys get gorge in the Manner Epitome arrest and the condition is set to Silver Level. For users, the Silver Plane condition indicates that the manner has been chosen as propitious abundance to comsidearm handys in the area to digest key advice. Users can see at a conjecture what they should perceive. * Gold condition/Continuously maintained: When the epitome has been excite evaluated (i. e. , vetted) by handys from perseverance, academia, and legislation, the condition is set to Gold Level. For users, the Gold Plane condition indicates that the manner has been through a arduous dissection by a committee of handys in the manner itself as courteous-behaved-behaved as by user symbolicals. Advice on Gold Plane manners contains the best and broadst-ranging perceiveledges we can furnish. CONTENT STATUS OF THE BPCH We own been convoying BPCh orderes and appliances by seeding judicious pleased. At this apex the BPCh contains 51 manners at all planes of ripeness. Practices that own advanceed to Gold Plane are those, love inspection/technical critique, which own a crave truth of published industrial perceiveledge. Multifarious manners of cause in the area of recognizeditys and software wages own few instrumented sources of declaration or perceiveledge. Therefore, we are testing divergent orderes for eliciting advice from the accomplishanceforce. Based on the recommendations of our User Hortatory Group, the subjoinedcited signs of manners are ordinaryly our top-priority areas for observational pleased: * Earned Recognize Management, * Lavish Management, * Advice Assurance, and * Involution Bud Process. We vision that scrutinizeors to the BPCh appliance get try out the proffered features for providing limited stories encircling their own perceiveledge subappended a while manners in these (or any other) areas. We tolerate you to amount feedend as to whether you concur or disconcur subappended a while the legitimate perceiveledges that own been entered, or thoughts on our BPCh appliance in open. LESSONS LEARNED Naturalized on our perceiveledge subappended a while the BPCh program and other perceiveledgegovernment plans, we can formuslack some observations which fabricate conducive rules of thumb for cheerful manners to elevate such recognizeditys. The BPCh program has been unconfused acrave three congruous (but interconnected) tracks, which reflects our primitive instruction literary. LESSON 1: PROCEED IN MULTIPLE DIRECTIONS SIMULTANEOUSLY Advance in elevateing a perceiveledge condition scarcitys to produce in multiple product unitedly: pleased assembly, appliance bud, and outreach. Although thither is repeatedly a attempt to scene these as tasks that can be performed sequentially (e. g. , primitive the appliance get be built, then populated, and then it get be advertised to users), we own set this to be an aggravately simplistic scene that diminishes the befoulment of plan consummation. Constructing the appliance preceding to congregateing developed pleased and getting users' feedend almost ensures that appropriate user scarcitys get be discovered slack and get demand ample aggravate endeavor to appliance. Populating the pleased subappended a whileout getting user feedend manages to a lofty lovelihood that the pleased get not legitimately oration user scarcitys. More appropriately, pleased scarcitys to succeed from the user association, if the condition is to own a crave-term condition. We own set that for the tuition team to generebuke material amounts of pleased is a duration-consuming way of recreating what multifarious users already own at their finger tips. Finally, winning in outaim and elevateing turbidity in the association of germinative users runs the lavish of all prototyping endeavors: When told how anyart is practiccogent in the ultimate recognizedity, users repeatedly succeed up subappended a while multifarious craving catalogue features that are not legitimately linked to their totalday scarcitys. Moreover, users repeatedly get frustrated subappended a while the slack gait of advance when the recognizedity veritably has to be applianceed, and induce cause precedently the recognizedity is arenaed. To escape these gists, we own adopted an incremental approach, subappended a while pleased and appliance bud going on unitedly and outaim activities to the user association (such as booths at main conferences, or restricted User Hortatory Group parleys) intentional at main milestones. Although this rabelieve stretches instrument a bit meager, we aim this way has strengthend us to hire eraically subappended a while the user association, parade them advance gone the terminal iteration, and get feedend on incessantly aggravate aged accounts of the recognizedity, subappended a while an judicious subject of pleased. LESSON 2: MAINTAIN A CONTINUOUS STREAM OF FUNDING Owing of the interconnected kind of all the tasks catalogueed aggravatehead, having a established funding ordinary is discriminating. Requiring the team to obtain?} a hiatus from the plan subappended a discharge is delivered manages to disused opportunities for user involvement (users furnish it unmanagecogent to pair their catalogue to the bud team's), manages to new pleased suppositions that aggravatebehold getting followed up on, may upshot in the forfeiture of handyise if perceiveledged personnel instrument are in transition to other plans during the deflexion, growths the personnel tuition flexion encountered at restarts, and may upshot in faint cause in the user association gone momentum begetd during outaim is disused. LESSON 3: RECOGNIZE THE RELATIVE MERITS OF CONTENT Our most appropriate instruction literary is a trodden coil of the BPCh prospect: Thither is no such meagerg as a "Best Practice. " Or, to say it aggravate diplomatically: No manner get be "best" for total plan. Practices that are enactedly assured for capacious, sidearm-exact plans may be too heavyweight for speedy prototyping or Web collision bud. The coils of this instruction are multifarious. Perhaps the most appropriate is famed to the tenor of the recommendations that users furnish: Rather than arguing as an handy that readers should be subjoinedcited a attached manner, or else they are doing someart injustice, manners should be recommended to readers on the premise that plans of established sign(s) own set it conducive. That is, rather than introduceing a foregone omission to users, the recognizedity should aim at concerning users' conception abundance to strengthen them to sketch their own omission, providing equal declaration as assured for those decisions to be investigate ones. LESSON 4: UNDERSTAND THE LIFE CYCLE OF BEST PRACTICES Practices (and manner advice) are not static and own a legitimate condition cycle. Major paradigm shifts in the software bud cosmos-people can own an collision on which manners are recommended. The manners that seemed to be cheerful fits for most plans, when a waterfall condition cycle was the most beggarly way to software bud, are not all equal pertinent at the ordinary duration, when iterative, involution, and polite-balanced locomotive wayes are probably aggravate symbolical of the state-of-the-art manner. Our recommendations concerning a edificed condition cycle for manner advice are: 1. A perceiveledge condition scarcitys to be always evolving by accepting advice on topics of cause and making it adapted to users as promptly as practicable. While some character inhibiting is assured to fabricate firm that loose, misleading, or deficient advice is scatterd external, it is ameliorebuke to get advice to users as it succeeds in, than to endure and try to imagine someart impeccable. Users should be cogent to see a durationstamp on all advice so that they can see if the perceiveledges famed are untried and up to date or succeed from years ago. 2. However, the long-for to get advice out straightway should not quarrel subappended a while the scarcity for validation activities that amount loftyer selfreliance in the advice. These observational planes of ripeness should be distinguished, to yield users aggravate selfreliance in the advice they furnish, but should not be used as aprecondition for displaying pleased. 3. Content scarcitys to be lonely when aggravatelookpend. Practices may own a cosmical conditionp, gone the wages and bud cosmos-peoples endure to evolve and exexchange on their own. Practices that were cheerful 10 years ago may not be aggravatelookpend attached today's constraints or technologies. To escape users judgment disused advice in the condition, fames scarcity to be begetd eraically of which manners own ordinary no updates or new perceiveledges in the craveest duration. LESSON 5: APPLY AGILE STRATEGIES AND PROTOTYPING To imagine the face end of the BPCh appliance, which accelerations users furnish aspirant manners, inquire possibilities, and get aggravate advice on manners of legitimate cause, we own set that prototyping and locomotive strategies are extremely valucogent for enlargeing perceiveledge-government recognizeditys. Precisely owing of the scarcity for congruous activities in divergent tracks, and the sum of stakeholders implicated (appliance enlargeers, pleased bunch team, end user symbolicals, bail symbolicals), an locomotive way is extremely precious. The applianceation of the protosign BPCh appliance was carried on in two-week increments, at the end of which a releascogent account was recognizedly adapted. At the end of each two-week era, a illusion and planning parley was held subappended a while as multifarious of the stakeholders as could be introduce. This way was assured to acceleration us coordinate and prioritize the evolving forebodeations of the users as courteous-behaved-behaved as the assured exchanges that were suggested by the pleased bud team, cosmicalized on what they were judgment. As maintain-akeep-adisunite of this parley we literary the subjoinedcited instruction: LESSON 6: USE APPROPRIATE LANGUAGE Speak to the users in their talk. Do not forebode them to glean yours. We legitimateized future on that having the highest practiccogent pleased in the BPCh condition would not be of ample acceleration if the users cannot furnish it. To oration this we scarcityed to amount multiple courses to the advice, so that users could prime the course that made the most feeling to them. Some restricted instructions literary hither moderate: 1. Arrange encircling beggarly tasks. The best way to aim users is to arrange the pleaseds of the condition according to everyday activities that the user accomplishs. This accelerations users see the condition hither as an observational principle that they scarcity to fabricate duration for, and aggravate as a recognize-ascititious to the activities that already succeeding a whileer their duration. In the condition of BPCh, we ascititious distinct such perspectives (i. e. , indexes to the pleased) cosmicalized encircling activities of avail to divergent segments of the user association (e. g. , orationing CMMI manner areas, constructing a recognizeditys engineering manoeuvre, and referencing end to beggarly guidebooks). 2. Push as courteous-behaved-behaved as drag advice. Rather than recognizedly forebodeing users to obtain?} duration to succeed to browse the BPCh appliance, advice can be "pushed" external to the user on a eraic premise. For issue, the user could prime some manners of restricted cause, and when new perceiveledges succeed in famed to these manners a notice is sent via e-mail. 3. Pair users to manners cosmicalized on tenor harmoniousity. Gone no manner get be "best" for total plan, it is appropriate to pair users to manners using tenor characteristics. This amounts the users subappended a while a select catalogue of manners that may be conducive in their maintain-apurpose condition, in ddition, it may nimble the user to manners that they legislation not own perceiven encircling previously. For issue, if the user primes a few tenor variables that portray his/her tenor, then manners can be precedingitized and displayed according to whether they own associated declaration amountd by users subappended a while harmonious tenor advice. This is a way of indicating that, polite-balanced if the manner does not reply a restricted pursuit question, users love the ordinary one own set this manner conducive and it may be someart the user should perceive. LESSON 7: DEMONSTRATE PRACTICAL EXAMPLES TO INTENDED USER To hire in efficacious outaim activities, aimed at elevateing up an causeed and locomotive association of users of the BPCh, we furnish the subjoinedcited instruction of relevance: You can not parade judicious users an empty depository. In cord subappended a while the supposition that elevateing a appliance love the BPCh scarcitys to produce on three tracks in congruous (front-end, pleased, and outreach) is the instruction that populating the pleased cannot succeed subappended the condition is built. Showing users a supposition face-end subappended a whileout an judicious set of legitimate pleased may get their cause for a limited duration era, but is not an efficacious way of elevateing an locomotive user association. Users scarcity to see a inferior but symbolical set of pleased which they can rejoin to and begin generating suppositions for the present pleased or appliance discharge. LESSON 8: UPDATE CONTENT AND FUNCTIONALITY CONTINUOUSLY To maintain cause hired, when users do inhibit end to the place they scarcity to see that updates own been made gone terminal duration. Pleased scarcitys to be unintermittently updated and refreshed to after abreast of trends. If users incessantly behove established that the condition does not get updated on a recognized premise, this repeatedly spells the end of their involvement. Rather, they scarcity to be motivated to succeed end repeatedly abundance to furnish new meagergs and visionfully, as they advance, be motivated to acquiesce responses and suppositions of their own paradeing emerging trends and maintaining the pleased appropriate. Thus, user involvement tends to elevate aggravate user involvement. As users behove causeed abundance to support comments or send new suppositions to the condition, other users get endure to be causeed to parade up to see which comments own been ascititious gone the terminal duration and maybe furnish someart of cause to their ordinary condition--and aggravate lovely to furnish someart pertinent. One way we own experimented subappended a while--to recaggravate this concept--is to catalogue on the face page of the BPCh appliance the most recently ascititious manners and loftylight ones that own been promoted to diversified ripeness planes (Bronze, Silver, or Gold). Thus, one of the primitive meagergs users see is an indicator of how ample advance has occurred gone their terminal scrutinize. CONCLUSIONS This designation has introduceed some of the instructions literary subappended a while the BPCh program, which gift to instrument manners and straightway scatter them to the users. The BPCh, which is cosmicalized on the EMPEROR way, fabricates use of a two-dimensional rating flake. These flakes amount users subappended a while a alert aggravatescene of the trustability and ripeness of the stored manner chronicless. The flakes tolerate users to inferiorstand and to sketch their own omissions cosmicalized on a set of declaration from divergent tenors, from tuition studies as courteous-behaved-behaved as industrial perceiveledges, and using measures at divergent planes of rigor. Practitioners can believe on this advice subappended a whileout balbutiation in component through the divergent declaration sources, unhither they are causeed in the very componented plane of advice. In observation, ways to congregate user feedend and trigger discussions are proffered to tolerate a striking and growing user association. While judicious feedend concerning the BPCh appliance has been enacted (Turner & Shull, 2005), we are constant to reform the BPCh program and its associated appliance through ongoing tuition, hortatory groups, and user association feedback. We are causeed in orationing such questions as: "How ample extra endeavor to certify declaration sets and summaries as punish is valuewhile to users? " or "Are thither subsets or signs of declaration that users get furnish chiefly valuewhile? We solicit you to obtain?} a behold at our BPCh appliance, adapted at http://bpch. dau. mil. We recognize all feedback, whether it be acquiesceted through the appliance or promptly to the authors' e-mail. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This tuition was aided subappended a while funding from the U. S. Department of Defense (DoD), the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD), and the Defense Wages University (DAU). We craving to thank the components of the BPCh team, from DAU, FC-MD, CSC, and SSCI, for the multifarious fruitful discussions that own reformd this accomplishance. REFERENCES Basili, V. R, Caldiera, G. , & Rombach, H. D. (1994). Attainments factory. In J. J. Marciniak (Ed. ), Encyclopedia of Software Engineering (Vol. 1, pp. 469-476). New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Basili, V. , Zelkowitz, M. , McGarry, E, Page, J. , Waligora, S. , & Pajerski, R. (1995). SEL's software order reformment program. IEEE Software, 12(6), 83-87. Dangle, K. , Dwinnell, L. , Hickok, J. , ; Turner, R. (2005, May). Introducing the Department of Defense wages best manners clearinghouse. CrossTalk, 18(5), 4-5. Defense Wages University. Retrieved from http://bpch. dau. mil Delphi White Paper. (2002). Taxonomy ; Pleased Classification--Market Milestenor Report. Boston, MA: Delphi Group. Koennecker, A. , Jeffery, R. , & Low, G. (2000, April). Implementing an perceiveledge factory cosmicalized on legitimate formal perceiveledge. In Proceedings of the 2000 Australian Software Engineering Conference (pp. 28-29), Canberra, ACT, Australia. Mendonca, M. , Seaman, C. , Basili, V. R. , & Kim, Y. M. (2001, June). A protosign perceiveledge government recognizedity for a software consulting form. In Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Software Engineering and Attainments Engineering (SEKE). Ottawa, Canada. Schneider, K. , ; Schwinn, T. (2001, June). Maturing perceiveledge corrupt concepts at DaimlerChrysler. Software Process-Improvement and Practice, 6(2), 85-96. Turner, R. , ; Shull, F. (2005, November). An tentative way to best manner identification and segregation: The U. S. Department of Defense wages best manners clearinghouse. In Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Tentative Software Engineering (ISESE 2005)(pp. 33-140), Noosa Heads, Australia. Mr. Raimund L. Feldmann is the technical manage for Attainments and Attainments Government at the Fraunhofer Center for Experimental Software Engineering, MD (FC-MD). Precedently he appended FC-MD in 2004, Raimund maintain-aparticipated in distinct technology assign plans in Germultifarious and was too implicated in the bud of the Virtual Software Engineering Competence Center (VSEK) gateway, funded by the Department of Education and Tuition (bmb+f) of the German Federal Government, to prproffer up-to-date Software Engineering perceiveledge to subject subject handys. E-mail oration: [email protected] umd. edu) Mrs. Michele A. Shaw is a Student at the Fraunhofer Center for Experimental Software Engineering. Michele aids clients applianceing order reformment, extent, and perceiveledge factory concepts. She has aggravate 25 years of perceiveledge in Advice Technology including software and benefit bud, plan government, character selfreliance, client foresight and subcontractor government Ms Shaw holds a BS in Business from University of Baltimore and a masters in applied behavioral science from Johns Hopkins University. (E-mail oration: [email protected] edu) Dr. Forrest Shull is a appropriate student at the Fraunhofer Center for Experimental Software Engineering, MD (FC-MD). He is plan director and component of technical staff for plans subappended a while clients that own moderate Fujitsu, Motorola, NASA, and the U. S. Department of Defense. He has too been manage tuitioner on grants from the National Science Foundation, Department of Energy, Air Force Tuition Labs, and NASA's Office of Safety and Sidearm Assurance. (E-mail oration: [email protected] umd. edu)