Contribution of Fishing Industry Towards Poverty Reduction in Zanzibar

THE UNIVERSIRY OF DODOMA COLLEGE OF HUMANITIES AND SOCIAL SCIENCES SCHOOL OF ECONOMICS AND BUSINESS STUDIES DEPERTMENT OF ECONOMICS AND STATISTICS RESEARCH - PROPOSAL. TOPIC: The aid of fishing toil towards deficiency diminution in Zanzibar. SUPERVISOR: CANDIDATE: MR. BONGOLE, A J MUSSA, HANIFU T/UDOM/2010/03536 Teffectual of Contents THE UNIVERSIRY OF DODOMA1 COLLEGE OF HUMANITIES AND SOCIAL SCIENCES1 SCHOOL OF ECONOMICS AND BUSINESS STUDIES1 DEPERTMENT OF ECONOMICS AND STATISTICS1 LIST OF ABBREVIATION3 CHAPTER ONE4 OVERVIEW OF THE STUDY4 1. 0 Introduction4 1. 1 Enhancement Counsel to the height4 1. 2Statement of the height. 5 1. 3. Significant of the con-over5 1. 4 Scope of the con-over5 1. 5Objective of the discovery5 1. 5. 1General objectives. 5 1. 5. 2Specific objectives5 1. 6 . Conjecture of the con-over6 CHAPTER TWO7 LITERATURE REVIEW. 7 2. 0. INTRODUCTION7 2. 1 Definition of fishing7 2. 1 Enhancement of fishing Industry7 2. 2 Fishing in Zanzibar’s rule7 2. 3 POVERTY REDUCTION8 . 4 Definition of deficiency8 2. 4. 0: Augmentation and deficiency8 CHAPTER THREE9 3. 0: METHODOLOGY9 3. 1 AREA OF THE STUDY10 3. 2 TARGETED POPULLATION10 3. 3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY AND TYPE OF INVESTIGATION10 3. 4 DATA COLLECTION. 10 3. 5 SAMPLING DESIGN10 3. 6 QUESTIONNAIRE SURVEY11 3. 7 THE INTERVIEW SURVEY11 3. 8 DATA ANALYSIS11 3. 9 CONTRIBUTION OF THE STUDY11 MODEL OF THE STUDY11 BIBLIOGRAPHY12 QUESTIONNARES13 LIST OF ABBREVIATION BOT - Bank of Tanzania DD - Insist FDZ -Fisheries Function of Zanzibar GDP - Gross Domiciliary Product GOZ - Synod of Zanzibar MOFEA - Ministry of Finance and Economic Affairs SMEs - Insignificant and Medium Enterprises TZS - Tanzania Shillings UK - United Kingdom URT - United Recommon of Tanzania USD - United States Dollars ZIPA - Zanzibar Cannonade Promotion Authority ZIP -Zanzibar Cannonade Policy ZNZ - Zanzibar ZPRP - Zanzibar Deficiency Diminution Plan CHAPTER ONE OVERVIEW OF THE STUDY 1. 0 Introduction This paragraph hides the contextual enhancement of the height stating explicitly how the height follow encircling/historical crop and what is entity executed so far on lore reexamine , stating explicitly the proposition of the height, common and inequiteffectual discovery objectives, common and inequiteffectual discovery questions. 1. 1 Enhancement Counsel to the height Zanzibar’s fishing is approximately exhaustively artisanal and is swinged in the unprofix inspires adesire the coast. The undiminished fishing certaintys are encircling 4,000 clear kilometers for Unguja and 2,720 clear kilometers for Pemba. Much of this area has coral reefs and a abnormity of flora and fauna making the chaffer-out supposititious for fishing. Indeed, tnear is an prodigious germinative for extensiond shape of marine products, through offshore and profound-sea fishing including regularitying, for twain domiciliary and ship-produce dispenses(ZIP). The Zanzibar Deficiency Diminution Plan (ZPRP 2002) stipulates that augmentation in the agricultural sector is sharp due to its pro-fix dogmatical contact on deficiency diminution. Based on this end percolate, uninterruptedly augmentation in farming is provoked, most penniless fellow-creatures in this sector conciliate avail culminating into deficiency diminution. The fishing sub-sector has a relatively inferior aid in ship-produce collated to other ship-produces such as cloves, deceptive chattels and other ship-produces. Statistics appearance that from 2000 to 2004 ship-produces of fish amounted to USD 0. 53pet statementing for 0. 7%of aggregate ship-produces amounting to USD 67. 5 pet. (ZPRP 2002) However, the dispense germinative is yet to be amplely exploited consequently of a fish seizees , not after a suitablenessstanding the certainty that Zanzibar is encircled by sea. Generally, fishing activities in Zanzibar are snug on onshore. According to the Agricultural Policy(2000),the sea discuss for unprofix sea fishing after a suitableness low fish render is stagnation of chief to dissipation ampler vessels to subordinatecapture in profix sea fishing, indicating that fishing is not patent clear (some of fishermen do not use fishing vessels but use isolated tools for transmitted fish such as spears sticks, knives, insignificant nets and inadequate performancemans). Fish funds embrace insignificant pelagic, coral reef fish, lobsters, octopus and ample pelagic etc The fishing territorial area is made of encircling 4,000sq. kms for Unguja or 59. 5% and 2,720sq. kms for Pemba statementing for 40. 5% of aggregate. Statistics for fish seize show a fluctuating keep betwixt 1992 and 1997,precedently attaining a uniform increasing footfootpath from 1998 towards 2002. However the true shape is quiescent low and does not subscribe significantly in Zanzibar fish ship-produces opposing haughty germinativeity. Distribution of fish seizees by environss communicate that vulgarly fashioneffectual Unguja environs is indispenseffectual in fish shape spent 2001, outpacing North environs which dominated precedently. Exports (ship-produce hues) was the haughtyest in 2003 consequently of the sea products such as sea shells and sea cucumber from the vocation fellow-creatures. The Zanzibar Deficiency Diminution Plan(ZPRP Jan 2002)) 1. 2Statement of the height. Zanzibar, having two islands indicately Unguja and Pemba located in the Indian sea enjoy varieties of fish. The islands are liberal by sea, having two ports in Unguja and Pemba making it easier to ship-produce fish products, these certaintyor facilities are bringing for developing fishing toil. According to Tanzania Reprolific and Child Sanity Survey(1999) encircling 35. 8% of subordinate five upshot are reprieved of which 12. 2% are severely reprieved. For Pemba 46. 25% of subordinate five upshot are reprieved, suitableness for ungula it is 27. 5% . The post wheedles for a con-aggravate to substantiate how the fishing toil can be betterd (e. g. by warranting mislavish technology and true dispenses) to get rid of malnutrition, subjugate deficiency, extension ship-produce pay, extension tax fruits and extension trade opportunities. 1. 3. Significant of the con-aggravate The opinion of this discovery conciliate succor the solicitous authorities to consummate their duties that is by neat the fishing toil in dispose to subjugate deficiency and exertion their professions and responsibilities towards controlling the vulgar height which is deficiency. Further spent the con-aggravate conciliate glean counsel from incongruous founts and use the opinions to prompt the authorities solicitous encircling the fishing toil and how it conciliate subscribe towards diminution deficiency. 1. 4 Scope of the con-aggravate The con-aggravate conciliate capture encircling 2 weeks in February and conciliate hide Zanzibar as a plight con-aggravate which conciliate be the inclusion of Unguja as it analyses the aid of fishing toil towards deficiency diminution in Zanzibar. 1. 5Objective of the discovery 1. 5. 1General objectives. To appreciate the quantity of fishing toil on deficiency diminution in the con-aggravate area 1. 5. Inequiteffectual objectives The con-aggravate conciliate endeavor to exhaustive the forthcoming: To evaluate the germinativeity of fishing in Zanzibar rule To warrant heights and opportunities in fishing toil and its dispenseing in the con-aggravate area To assess the applicability of fishing toil towards the diminution of deficiency in the con-aggravate area 1. 6 . Conjecture of the con-aggravate The forthcoming conciliate be examinationed in dispose to assess the hardness of twain aggravateall and inequiteffectual objectives. Does the fishing toil brings to the deficiency diminution? That is: Null conjecture (HO): Fisheries growth is the determinant for deficiency diminution. Alternative Conjecture (Hi): fisheries growth is not a determinant of deficiency diminution. CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW. 2. 0. INTRODUCTION This con-aggravate comprises lore reexamine encircling the aid of fishing toil towards the deficiency diminution in Zanzibar. These resurveys embrace bulks, journals, catechism and details from the Ministry of Farming and Fisheries Department. This paragraph is divided into two ability. The primeval chaffer-out chaffers after a suitableness Fishing Toil and the coopereprove chaffer-out is a reexamine in Deficiency Reduction. 2. 1 Definition of fishing From the encyclopedia (Britanica) ; - Fishing involves the vindication of supports and other precious media from bodies of inspire. Fishing involves the nobility of all marine products. - Fishery; is harvesting of as a chaffereffectual deed or the colony or occasion of chaffereffectual fishing. 2. 1 Enhancement of fishing Toil (FDZ) Synod of Zanzibar’s involvement in fishing activities afloat divers years ago but consequently of wide media, few fishers and primeval wealth, fisheries activities were not considered bringing. Before 1964 cast, tnear was a solitary fishing confirmation subordinate treatment of the Greeks, which was full after a suitableness supervision of all fishing activities in Zanzibar. After the 1964 Revolution, the Synod of Zanzibar nationalized the confirmation as substantiateed it as common deed full after a suitableness the once of monitoring fishing activities and neat afloat provisions of the fisher folk. In 1974,the Revolutionary Synod of Zanzibar formed the Function of Fisheries, subordinate the Ministry of Agriculture, Livefund and Environment. Besides other functions, and key once of the function was directed to direct and presentize fishery activities. In dispose to presentize fishing, the function of Fisheries substantiateed sundry centres for coordinating, simplifying and promoting fishing activities. 2. 2 Fishing in Zanzibar’s rule Unguja and Pemba are encircled by copious marine media, the fellow-creatures of Zanzibar economize marine products for support and as a fount of proceeds, after a suitableness fish entity unordered the most bringing media and socio-economic activities of the fellow-creatures in Zanzibar rule. Fishing has been swinged in the islands spent the dawn of mankind and quiescent continues to be an bringing coastal breath. Fishing supplys trade for men and women and approximately all age groups. Fishing breath employs an mean of 25% of the population as artisanal fishers and statement for an mean of 4. 5% of GDP. According to the present axioms supposing by Ministry of Agriculture, Livefund and Environment( Function of Fisheries and Marine Media - Zanzibar),tnear has been gradational inferior in the GDP statemented from fishing sector. In 2004 GDP for fish had extensiond to 5% and it kept on increasing in 2005 penetrateing 5. 9% but from tnear it went on decreasing in the year 2006 penetrateing 4. 9%. So in my con-aggravate i conciliate try to observe for the discuss of decreasing in this fishing toil and try to observe at which ways the synod conjecture to do to better it and succor the fellow-creatures of Zanzibar that is subjugate the deficiency. 2. 3 POVERTY REDUCTION Precedently getting to the concept of Deficiency Reduction, the aim of Deficiency should be subordinatestood. 2. 4 Definition of deficiency According to the World’s encyclopaedia 9:652:3a Poverty is the case that is said to exist when fellow-creatures stagnation the instrument to compensate their basic deficiencys which are requiplight for fife. According to Gerald M. Meir and James E. Rauch in the bulk Indispenseffectual Issues in Economic Crop (seventh edition) ; Deficiency is solicitous after a suitableness the arbitrary gauge of support of a chaffer-out of the company. According to Michael Todaro and Stephen Smith in their bulk Economic Crop ; Deficiency is the sum of fellow-creatures who are unqualified to bid ample media to compensate basic deficiencys. it’s a aggregate sum support underneathneath a bounded reserve raze of true infollow - an interdiplomatic deficiency continuity. Most vulgar contrivanceions wheedle for the sum of solitarys support in deficiency to stir aggravate the vulgar decade but this outfollow depends on two certaintyors; - the reprove of economic augmentation - the raze of media dedicated to deficiency programs and the property of those programs. 2. 4. 0: Augmentation and deficiency Rapid augmentation is bad for the penniless consequently they would be bypassed by the structural changes of present augmentation. I conciliate try to observe how the common expenditures required for the diminution of deficiency would demise the diminution in the reprove of augmentation. The penniless keep to lavish joined infollow on betterd alimentation, advice for upshot, growths in housing provisions and other expenditures that distinctly at deficiency razes personate cannonades rather than expenditure. Reasons why policies focused towards reducing deficiency razes deficiency not to bring in sinferior reprove of augmentation ; i. affectd deficiency creates provisions in which the penniless enjoy no access to praise, are unqualified to finance their upshot’s advice and the absence of visible or monetary cannonade opportunities. ii. The low proceedss and the low raze of support for the penniless which are manifested in penniless sanity, alimentation and advice can inferior their economic productivity and bring to the sinferior growing rule. iii. Raising the infollow razes of the penniless conciliate provoke an aggravateall extension in the insist for discreetly effected indispensableness products affect support and drapery since the copious keep to lavish on profuseness chattels. iv. A diminution of heap deficiency can provoke sanityy economic disquisition by acting as a mighty esthetic and psychical spur to affectd common chaffer-outicipation in the crop regularity. CHAPTER THREE . 0: METHODOLOGY. The systemology that conciliate be applied in my con-aggravate has been separated in dispose to procure counsel and entice misentrys encircling the aid of fishing toil towards deficiency diminution and the choice measures which should be capturen in dispose to invent strong that they modify to this height. 3. 1 AREA OF THE STUDY The con-aggravate conciliate be swinged at mkokotoni fishing plight in Zanzibar and the Function of fisheries, wnear fishermen and officers of fisheries were concerned. 3. 2 TARGETED POPULLATION The targeted populations are officials from the Function of Fisheries and the fishermen. As it is not indulgent to chaffer after a suitableness each solitary in the function and all the fishermen suited in Zanzibar, a discovery used sampling system that is primal chance to get true respondents and in reducing sampling errors. A exemplification of 10 to 20 fishermen conciliate be enticen from the population. 3. 3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY AND TYPE OF INVESTIGATION The sea mind of this con-aggravate Is to succeed an apprehension into the vulgar aid of fishing toil towards deficiency diminution in Zanzibar. For the over discuss, this discovery conciliate capture an exploratory entrance. According Sekaran (2002:123) an exploratory con-aggravate is subordinatecharmed when not greatly is known encircling the post at performanceman, or when no counsel is suited on how homogeneous heights or discovery issues enjoy been solved in the spent. The aim conciliate be to shape irreverence after a suitableness the issues, and to shape a profosubordinate subordinatestanding encircling the question and to follow out after a suitableness the postulatory measures which should be capturen to modify to this height of fishing toil. 3. 4 DATA COLLECTION. For the mind of this discovery, and in dispose to exhaustive the objectives axioms conciliate be gleaned and conciliate use twain momentous and cooperateary axioms. The cooperateary axioms conciliate subscribe toward the shape of enhancement counsel, deficiencyed by twain the discoveryer in dispose to uplift constructively the contrivance and the reader to enclose spent thoroughly the examine issue. Momentous axioms conciliate be gleaned in two ways. Firstly, a questionnaire examine conciliate be swinged after a suitableness discoveryer visiting the area. Secondly, consultations conciliate be besides carried out after a suitableness I conciliate go to the fishermen and scrutiny them encircling how tnear performance has subscribed towards diminution of deficiency. 3. 5 SAMPLING DESIGN Ideally I wanted to con-aggravate the undiminished population of fishermen. However, it conciliate be impracticeffectual and unfeasible to do this and consequently I must fix for a exemplification. According to Kothari C. R, exemplification is a duty of elements capturen from a population, which is considered to be personateative of the population. In dispose to glean momentous axioms the questionnaires examine technique conciliate be used. For the mind of this con-aggravate I conciliate use twain primal chance presumption sampling and purposive chance sampling. Subordinate primal chance sampling each of the fisherman fix in the area visited conciliate be effectual to supply after a suitableness counsel on how he/she subscribe to diminution of deficiency. Also subordinate purposive chance sampling I conciliate be binding of contrast some criteria on whom to consultation. 3. 6 QUESTIONNAIRE SURVEY In dispose to exhaustive my sight of this con-aggravate and get appropriate counsel encircling this height I conciliate use twain reserved and notorious ended questions. Subordinate the reserved ended questions I conciliate niggardly the room search and conciliate prefer unordered the urban responses. This conciliate eneffectual me to dissect my axioms easier spent the responses conciliate be easier to collate. Besides the notorious ended questions conciliate eneffectual me to get new ideas and varieties of counsel encircling the height. 3. 7 THE INTERVIEW SURVEY The technique of personal consultationing is subordinatecharmed in dispose to penetrate the objectives spent it is the most plastic and prolific system of despatch, strengthend evolution, and besides supposing after a suitableness: “The expertness of powerful the argument end to the question outlined when arguments are unproductive though it has the disadvantages of entity very expensive occasion consuming and can begin bias through desires of the respondent to delight the consultationer. 3. 8 DATA ANALYSIS After gleaning the axioms from the room I conciliate use Microsoft abound and Statistical Packages for Social Sciences (SPSS). These systems conciliate eneffectual me to entice a strong misentry of what I conciliate invent in the room in appurtenancy to the objectives I enjoy put impertinent. 3. 9 CONTRIBUTION OF THE STUDY As it is the minds of this con-aggravate that it succors to summon the aid of fishing toil towards deficiency diminution. When I exhaustive this discovery I conciliate add an bringing appreciate on the academic chaffer-out. Besides the mind of this con-aggravate is to eneffectual me subordinatestand on how I can swing discovery on incongruous plights. MODEL OF THE STUDY In my con-aggravate as the promotive discovery tnear is the deficiency of using a mould to est the consequence of the discovery, near the multiple retreat mould conciliate be used for the examination of my discovery. The mould of my con-aggravate conciliate be as follows: Y =? 0 + ? 1X1 + ? 2X2 + ? 3X3 + ? 4X4 + µ Where; Y – stands for Infollow X1 - stands for advice raze X2 – stands for technological raze X3 – stands for age of the fisherman X4 – stands for financial support X5 – stands for extraction dimension µ - stands for Error tidings as Y stands for subject varieffectual that is it depends on the changes of its explanatory capriciouss. Insubject capriciouss can be explained as follows; Education raze- that is if the advice raze of fisheries is haughty we rely-on to enjoy spent infollow and if its low rely-on low proceeds. Technological raze - that is the use of spent deceased technology brings to extension in proceeds. Age- as how ages brings to extension in proceeds, that as ages goes up or down brings to extension in proceeds. Financial support- that is how the synod financially assists this sector as assisted spent we rely-on for spent proceeds. Extraction dimension - Extraction dimension of a respondent was one varieffectual (consistent capricious) proposed to swing chaffer-outicipation conclusion. The spent sum of extraction members an solitary had the spent probeffectual to chaffer-outicipate in fishing. This is consequently he conciliate enjoy a drudge fount. BIBLIOGRAPHY Gerald M. Meier,et al, “ Indispenseffectual issues in Economic Development” “seventh edition” Humphrey P. B. et al,. Zanzibar: The challenges of globalization and Deficiency diminution Jiddawi N, M. (1997) : Fisheries fund Assessment in the Traditional Fisheries sector. Kothari C. (2004) “Research Methodology: systems and techniques” New Age interdiplomatic (P) scant, New Delhi. Michael P. T,et al, “Economic Development” Mkenda, A. 2001 “Fishery Media and well-being in Rural Zanzibar” World’s encyclopaedia (Britanica) QUESTIONNARES 1. What is your indicate?........................................................................ Sex; manful ( ) womanish( ) AGE: 18 – 25| | 26 – 37| | 37 – 57| | Over 57| | MARITAL STATUS: Single| | Married| | Divorced| | Widowed| | Others| | 2. What is your raze of advice? | Raze of advice| Tick (v)| A| Momentous raze | | B| Resultant raze| | C| Deceased raze| | D| University raze| | E| None| | 3. How divers upshot do u enjoy?........................................... Are they chaffer-outicipate after a suitableness you in fishing. Yes ( ) No ( ) 4. For how desire enjoy you been afloat in fishing?.......................................... …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 5. How do you see the crop of fishing? Put ( v ) wnear appliceffectual Increasing/developing? ( ) decline? ( ) Or you’re not strong? ( ) Specify your answer……………………………………………………………………………………………. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 6. Are you fishing barely near or you are permutation? If permutation, why?.................................................................................................. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. . Which tools are you using for fishing? i). Deceased tools ( ) ii). Traditional tools ( ) if others specify………………………………………………………………………………………………… 8. Are you the possessor of the tools you are using? Yes ( ) / No ( ) 9. Is tnear any other activities you are doing in vindictiveness of fishing? Yes( ) / No ( ) If yes tick (v) wnear appliceffectual i. Farming| | ii. Hunting| | iii. Livefund guardianship| | iv. Others| | If others, specify……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 10. Do you enjoy the dispense for your fishes? Yes( ) / No ( ) Tick (v) wnear appliceffectual Internationally| | Nationally | | 11. How greatly capital do you get for solitary fishing? ......................... 12. Do you man this performance of fishing is reducing the annoyance of vitality? Yes ( ) / No ( ) How, ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 13. Why do you believe fishing has been decreasing in these presently years? …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. THE UNIVERSITY OF DODOMA PROPOSAL The aid of fishing toil towards deficiency diminution in Zanzibar. BY Mussa, Hanifu