Categories for Environment
TQM in Academic Environment Essay
Total Quality Management was originally a concept coined in the late 1800s and early 1900s. This concept sought continuous improvement in performance, laying a lot of emphasis on the customers. A lot of organizations and military institutes started implementing the principles and integrating them within their entirety. Very soon, people started debating on the effective use and implementation of TQM within academic circles.
Irrespective of resistance by some circles, certain academic sectors integrated TQM and were surprisingly successful. Students, specializing in their respective fields were the focus of attention.
It was decided that transformation will not take place through movements emphasizing greater specialization, grades, and standards of performance accountability or through training students to fit into existing academic environments. Rather, a change that would produce improvement not only the fundamental changes with which we manage and design our educational systems but also how we design them, keeping in view the needs of our clients/constituents.
The paper focuses and throws light on the nature of total quality management.
How it found way into the academic circles and its coherence as far as inculcating leaders in the society is concerned. It delves into the nature of change asked for and essential rethinking that follows post realization that TQM caters to the needs of the society and organizations at large.
This involves budging out of the rules established, encouraging complex mental models, thinking out of the box, working on processes that improve grades rather than the grades themselves, eliminating prejudices with respective to normal and special cases, improving interaction between the departments, working towards a shared vision, increased commitment on the part of faculty and teachers, overcoming resistance to change and being adaptive.
TQM in Academic Environment
TQM or Total Quality Management marks certain philosophies and universally acknowledged notions to achieve organizational effectiveness. This is in essence an attempt to go beyond customer satisfaction and to ensure good will throughout the industry. Japanese firms have held their integrity and superiority over other firms for the past two decades, thanks to their successful implementation of total quality management. Today, TQM is considered as a key tool in ensuring that efficiency of the organization is sustained. It has been implemented, across the board in various corporate organizations and has produced desired results.
They are customer driven, keep in perspective all the stake holders involved, inter-departmental communication is an important consideration, cross functional teams are operative, jobs are empowered and performance appraisal and feedback is regularly conducted. Thus, it was essentially through business organizations and militia that TQM entered the academic arena. In this context, we mould our definition of TQM as a means of achieving continuous unimpeded success, making use of certain tools and principles and producing effective leaders in the process.
TQM has time and again proven to be an effective strategy for sustaining and improvising growth and development. Unfortunately, it is yet to bear its fruits in education, in particular primary and secondary education. The state of education in most nations around the globe has by far marked an average only.
There is a lack of purpose, a focus, and most educational institutions in the world are not customer driven; a myriad of departments exist with no focus on cross-departmental interaction; conventional and old forms of imparting education continue being practiced and people outside the academic circles are given little or no regard; the notions are rigid and facts don’t count; excellence is rarely sought and no benchmarks are made. Keeping expectations from such institutes is hogwash. Most surprisingly the belief that these quality programs are expensive is false. The primary, secondary and higher sectors of our academic education will continue struggling unless a proper plan is chalked out to combat all the short comings, these sectors face.
The aim of an educational system and its mission must be coherent with each other. The procedures, policies and tools applied in a department or a division should conform to the mission the academic institute caters to. Standards are set and a common understanding of the system at hand should prevail. Managers follow the aims targeted to devise the system proceedings and ensure that maximum quality is achieved. TQM in essence follows Deming’s 12 principles that were carved keeping the customers in perspective. On an academic scale, they are treated analogously.
We begin by focusing on the major areas that TQM aims to improvise, what factors contribute its successful implementation and what goals are intended to achieve through it. The rules that govern our teachers, administration, students and support systems have been long standing and limit the ability to think and reason. Boundaries that are fenced around these rules are a comfortable resort not because they are easy to be taken care of but also because they stem for universally acknowledged practices.
TQM, on the contrary advocates for the contrary. It aspires for change and thinking beyond the box. It does not believe in the conventional system of adjudging capabilities by marks but directs its focus towards the process that was put into practice to achieve the results. It is not possible to assess how the results changed, how the performance improved, unless the light is shed in the process that was used to produce the change.
Continuous improvement should be sought for and educational systems should be continuously designed and redesigned unless goals stipulated are achieved. TQM, to this effect deliberates a framework that fosters continuous improvement. There is a marked difference between the traditional modes of achieving improvement and those set against TQM. Under TQM, education is dealt as a cafeteria which seeks to satisfy hunger pangs of its customers. Improvement efforts and traditional processes are laid down on a menu card and offered to its customers (educators, institutes, colleges, universities, students, schools, administration) who seek to satiate their hunger pangs. As a result, those customers, who are able to satisfy their hunger walk out content and satisfied while the others stay in, unless their hunger demands are not dealt with.
The rules established, thus have to be pondered over again in all major genres. To this effect, quality principles have to be especially dealt with. Quality in this context means, that a shared vision guides the purpose of education; its is acceptable by everyone; it focuses on collaboration and interaction instead of competition; it realizes that every individual is unique and different in its own right and seeks to optimize the expectations met for each one of them;
grades and other performance indicators are considered as the capability of the system or the process and not the difference between a good and an unsuccessful student; it is devoid of prejudice and bias against students on the basis of their grades; it seeks to nurture the needs of all them and support them in times of distress; practices that berate people for instance ranking of staff, faculty, students are avoided and their morale are boosted and it emphasizes on self evaluation through collaborative evaluation.
The rule rethinking under TQM also seeks to rethink roles allocated in an educational system. The most important of all being the managerial roles, who now have to deal individuals on an individual basis, keeping in perspective the context of the situation. This means having complete control of the environment and forces that work against the nurturing and development of intrinsic motivation (Bryan, n.d.). This fosters an education system in which students actively take part in planning and evaluating their learning process. They are made to realize that they are responsible for their learning and this responsibility only increase as they grow and mature. This is implemented by effective management of the system.
This involves complete understanding of the coherence and co-relation between the various departments of the system. The administration manages their system and the faculty manages their system. Students on the other hand as discussed take control of their lives. This nurtures and builds up an enjoyable environment of learning and development where individuals exercise authority over their roles and seek to improve it continuously. However, care must be taken that this reallocation of roles adheres to the quality standards.
This involves using teams to improve effectiveness of the higher education environment and student learning; quality in education emphasizes managing the processes used to produce the results then the results themselves; it designs a curriculum such that students are able to adapt them in their lives and integrate the parts they are exposed to accordingly; a win-win situation is produced and there is no concept of win-lose; quality in education is managed as a system by educational leaders who seek to understand their role and commit themselves to its strict adherence; it provides freedom, and inculcates novelty across the board.
However implementation of TQM in academic institutes has met with resistance by various circles. The most oft repeated argument against its favor is the belief that it’s a panacea of the 1900s and holds no value in today’s time and era. Many argue that is a fad and like Management by Objectives, its going to be wiped away very soon. For this reason any many others that there are few organizations in the US who have completely embraced the concept of TQM. When it was first introduced many chose to turn a blind eye to it. For those who did successful implement TQM had to bypass a lot of obstacles.
Most notably being the resistance to adapt, mould and change, adamant claims by naysayers who believed that TQM won’t work, lack of trust and unwillingness to train and empower employees. To challenge the deeply embedded academia culture will and is a mountainous task. Limited marketing alternatives and rare cost cutting opportunities have added more fuel to the fire. Most of these institutes are run by political sectors whose demands vary frequently. (“Total Quality”, n.d.) While TQM aims at ridding the society where grades judge capabilities, the society at large remains grade conscious.
Other problems include the lack of coherence between the academic institute’s managerial strata and its academic functions. The two run parallel to each other working towards their own goals. TQM approach, on the contrary requires that the groups work parallel to each other. Excess division over subjects pursued is another obstacle. Cultural beliefs and practices embedded within most of these schools gives way for resistance to change.
Irrespective of these obstacles, TQM has found audience in the literature and the health sector. They have successfully implemented the principles associated with TQM. Not only has this improved the quality standard but reinforced customer trust in these sectors. Students are able to develop a complex model of problems and delve into analytical evaluation of their performance. Their comprehension skills have improved and they have built on their ability to adapt their learning to their life.
This can be achieved by provided instructions that are clear and focused; students should be taught different strategies to remember what they have learnt and apply them accordingly; actions such as head nodding, maintaining consistent eye contact, smiling and being responsive can help develop a student’s interest; continuous desire and urge on the part of principal to seek improvement and meet quality standards; instructional effectiveness is sought for such that no one has issues when it comes to changing the mode of instruction directed and a staff that is involved in learning activities. (Kathleen, n.d.) Leaders in such schools would thus not only look out for ways to change but to manage and embed the change process throughout the institute.
Kathleen, C. (n.d.). Applying Total Quality Management Principles To Secondary Education. Retrieved March Friday, 2008, from file:///C:/Documents%20and%20Settings/M.Sajjad/My%20Documents/originals/research%20work/s035.html
Bryan, R. Cole. (n.d.). TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT AS A TOOL
TO ENHANCE THE QUALITY OF
HIGHER EDUCATION MANAGEMENT IN THE
21ST CENTURY. Retrieved March Friday, 2008, from file:///C:/Documents%20and%20Settings/M.Sajjad/My%20Documents/originals/research%20work/keynote1.htm
Total Quality Management in Higher Education: Is It Working? Why Or Why. (n.d.). : Green wood Publishing group.
Environmental Scan Paper Essay
For any company to survive in the business environment, they must be accustomed toward any situation within the environment because of certain issues, perceptions, chances, and resources. These are such reasons every business must observe any applicable changes, which can occur within the environment and invent from existing policies to adjust toward variations. For any company to succeed the company will need to conquer the trials and tribulations of the constant shifting environment. An environmental scan were conducted for the two following companies Starbucks, and Cocoa Cola.
With the environmental scanning it will increase their chances and distribute their resources in the expectation of the constant changes within the environment. Starbucks was originated in 1971 in Seattle Washington on Pikes Place Market. Starbucks is a specialized whole bean, ground coffee, and tea business/distribution.
Over the course of their years Starbucks until this present day builds relationships with millions of customers in over 17,000 stores all over the world. Starbucks are known in Argentina, Aruba, Australia, Austria, Bahamas, Bahrain, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Chile, China, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Egypt, El Salvador, England, France, Germany, Greece, Guatemala, Hong Kong, Hungary, Indonesia, Ireland, Japan, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Netherlands, Northern Ireland, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Scotland, Singapore, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, Thailand, United Arab Emirates, United States, and Wales.
As it has been read Starbucks are very much known all over the world.
Of course Starbucks just is not about coffee, they are also specialized in more than 30 different blends of coffee both hot and iced. They also make smoothies (for the health conscious), and different variety of teas such as black tea, green tea, calm tea (herbal tea), and passion tea (herbal tea) just to name a few. Starbucks also sells pastries, sandwiches, yogurts parfaits, salads, fruit cups, and oatmeal. Of course they also make (which is what they are known for) the infamous Frappuccino. The internal environment of the Starbucks company is a representation of the general conditions, which affect their aptitude in executing a successful strategy. The internal elements are their growth of strategy (diversified portfolio), brand management, and human resources. The external environment of the Starbucks company are focused on competition, which are within the same business as them, legal and, political changes, opportunities such as environmental concern, and the demographic social issues such as income per household.
Coca Cola one of the major producers, supplier, and vendor of the soft drink industry sells a variety of up to 35,000 different products ranging from their regular soft drinks, to clothing, and collectable toys. Coca Cola sells four of the five top selling soft drink beverages, which are Diet Coke, Sprite, Fanta, and of course, Coca Cola. The Coca Cola company also sell water, juices, and sport drinks. The internal environment for Coca Cola have key attributes, which include competence in the production method, from excellent communication and management skills. For the Coca Cola company to monitor their internal environment, they would need to evaluate the process, which by they can take action on the factors that would cause any kind of inadequacies on the phases of production.
Such things as obesity, scarcity, and quality of water have changed the nonalcoholic beverage business, which include changes with consumer preferences based on health and nutritional research. Because of the research consumer taste and needs have changed and also because of the changes of the law and new regulations the Coca Cola company needed to adopt the additional warning requirements, and additional labeling for the warning requirements. Coco Cola understands that the external environment may affect the business and its revenues. The increases and decreases of the economy, the attitudes from consumers, the principals of the consumers, and the demographics of society have a big impact on Coca Colas revenue. Competitive Advantages and Current Strategies
Starbucks has contributed toward the green movement by informing the public they will only deal with the suppliers that meet the Starbucks standards for sustainable development. Starbucks understands the social influence and how it can ether force a change or contribute toward a change because the company understands that individuals are becoming more concerned with the preservation of the planet earth, which is why Starbucks have teamed up with the “Green Team” to established company wide recycling, reduction of waste, conserving energy, and conserving water programs. Another concern that Starbucks have taking into consideration are the publics growing concern of healthy eating habits. It is imperative for Starbucks to guarantee that their products are not labeled as unhealthy, so they have added more health conscious choices such as salads, smaller portions of pastry, and healthier liquid choices for the health conscious consumer who enjoys the Starbucks environment.
Coca Colas strategy is to target the distinct market groups that are divided by competitive intensity and socioeconomic levels. They have implemented a planned product, pricing, and packaging strategy through certain channels of distributions so they can gain operational efficiency within the company. Coca Cola have used such events as the Super Bowl and the World Series to attract the consumers attention with their commercials. The customer surveys help the Coca Cola company with their marketing strategy and show, which adjustments would need fixing. Such marketing strategies such as phone surveys, social media, mail surveys, e-mail surveys, and text messaging assist the company on further marketing strategies on improving their revenue.
Such things as market leadership, joint ventures, managerial expertise, inventive business solutions, and flexible organizational structure have giving Coca Cola a competitive advantage (Coca-Cola FEMSA, 2010). Coca Cola also provide managerial expertise training programs to improve their abilities, The inquiries for both companies on sugar content in the products have increased. Also there are negative doubts about their recipe of sugar content effecting weight control, pop culture, and society. Over the course of the years Coca Cola have adjusted their recipe because they are using crafty marketing and distributing smaller products so criticism can decrease on their products. To improve further recognition in Latin America the Coca Cola company have had joint ventures with companies in Mexico and Brazil. They also have plans on heightening engineering and supply capacity so they can boost operational effectiveness.
Business Unit. (2010). Retrieved from http://www.femsa.com/en/business/coca_cola_femsa/ Coca Cola . (2012). Retrieved from http://www.thecoca-colacompany.com/citizenship/energy_climate_protection.html Recycling and Reducing waste. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.starbucks.com/responsibility/environment/recycling Goals and Progress . (2012). Retrieved from http://www.starbucks.com/responsibility/global-report/environmental-stewardship
Assessments in a care environment Essay
Although there are many hazards that could be potential risks in the food environment in a hospital, there are a few which have the highest risk of occurring and could then cause the most harm to both the service users and service providers. Whilst preparing and cutting vegetables, there is a risk that someone could cut themselves with a sharp knife or cutting equipment. Although the likelihood of this happening could be quite high when there is a lack of training involved, the severity of the injury or damage to health would be quite low considering many injuries that occur this way would be easily seen to and treated by the first aider or the person in charge.
However, to prevent this risk occurring at all, all staff should be supplied with the appropriate equipment they should use and training so they are aware of how to handle the equipment in the right manor.
A low level of sanitation in a food environment could cause there to be a wider and much quicker spread of bacteria through the food and surfaces which could prove to be harmful, especially in a hospital environment.
Due to health and safety regulations being followed by all caring establishments, the likelihood of this happening would be a 2. However if there weren’t regulations being followed by the hospital and this was to occur then the severity could potentially be a 4/5 as the spread of bacteria in a hospital setting would be made worse when considering the weaker people in the hospital and those whose immune systems wouldn’t be able to fight off bad bacteria as well as other and could get sick or their condition could worsen if they already are sick.
To prevent this all supervisors should ensure legislations, policies and procedures are being followed at all times to ensure maximum sanitation and cleanliness. Due to the wide variety of people consuming the food in the hospital, it would be vital to take into consideration allergies some people may have and to ensure they are not given food that contains or has been made in the same area as the food they are allergic to. Although the likelihood of this happening is just a 3 due to the fact all staff should adhere to procedures and take into consideration peoples allergies anyway, the severity of this if it occurs could be a 4/5 due to the fact allergic reactions could potentially severe and some cases could even lead to death.
To ensure all precautions are taken with these activities and to minimise the risks which could occur from the hazards there are many things that can be done or put into place and thus prevent patients, staff or visitors from harm. Firstly, to prevent somebody cutting themselves while they are preparing food they should be given training before hand to ensure they are aware of how to use the equipment appropriately and make sure they know which piece of equipment is the most appropriate for the type of food they are preparing. Under the Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) policy it states that all employers have duties concerning the provisions and use of PPE at work and should provide safety training to ensure no members of staff come to any harm (hse.gov.uk, 2015).
To prevent the spread of bacteria and ensure the safety of everyone who is to consume the food available, all staff should also be given training on the appropriate ways and places to store food at the right temperatures to ensure the risk of bacteria growth is minimised. Managers of businesses or areas dealing with food have a duty to ensure all food is safe to eat, all harmful or out of date food is removed and unable to be consumed and records should be kept of where the food was bought from to provide evidence if needed. This emphasises the importance of how the Food safety act 1990 should be put into place to ensure the employers and employees stick to their duties to ensure maximum safety for service users.
Also hand sanitiser should be provided and available around the hospital including the kitchen to prevent cross contamination that way (legislation.gov.uk, 2015). Finally, to ensure the safety of patients and minimise the risk of something fatal happening to them, all allergies they have to foods should be recorded down and available to all kitchen staff who will be preparing food. These records should be checked regularly and all food should be prepared on separate work surfaces or chopping boards to reduce the risk of cross contamination and any allergic reactions occurring.
Physical exercise class
Although many form of exercise and physical movement for many patients would be greatly beneficial to their health and wellbeing, it could also prove to provide more harm to health than good if precautions are not taken. Spilt water on the floor where someone may be exercising could prove to be harmful and cause damage to their health if it isn’t seen and cleaned up by someone. Although there is just a likelihood of just 2, the severity could potentially be 3 as an injury to someone in a hospital who could be elderly could be fatal and cause serious damage to their weak bones and skin. To minimise to risk you could put control measures into place including not allowing any food or drink to be consumed in the exercise area and to have a separate room for them to be stored. Too much exercise for some patients could over work them and cause an injury to their health if it is repeated. Exercise can cause a vast increase in both heart rate and blood pressure and could lead to many serious problems if an elderly patient is doing too much.
The likelihood of this causing harm to patients is 1 as both patients and staff should be aware of when too much exercise is being done and if they’re working too hard. However, if this was to occur, the severity would be 5 as weaker elderly patients could suffer from a heart attack or stroke over time if they aren’t being monitored on what exercise they’re doing and the effect it is having on their health. To control this all service providers involved in the physical activities and wellbeing of the patients should know and keep records of any conditions the patients may have which could lead to adverse effects or weaken them.
All patient files should have records of what exercise patients have done to ensure they do enough to stay health but not too much that they cause themselves harm or injury. There should also be multiple members of staff observing exercise sessions to keep an eye on those more likely to over work themselves. If patients are showed how to warm up and down properly then they could injure themselves more then what they would if they warmed up. Also, if the exercise is too harsh and causes patients to have to put a lot of effort in just to complete tasks then the severity should be decreased to allow them better health. This would also help prevent a majority of excess aches and pains that would come from treating their body too harshly.
Because of possible high severity of an incident is water was spilt during an exercise class, precautions should be put into place to minimise this risk and decrease the likelihood of it ever happening and injuring a patient. If drinks are restricted to one particular area or room away from where the exercise is taking place then there would be a decrease in the risk of anything being spilt in certain areas. Also if patients doing the exercise were given regular breaks to have a drink and a rest they would prevent spillages as well as prevent any pains occurring by doing too much exercise. Secondly, the amount of exercise each individual patient is able to do would be subjective on the individual and therefore not all the patients should be forced into doing as much as others may do if they are less capable.
Each patients amount of exercise should be monitored and recorded to ensure they get the right amount but are not getting too much. Also by monitoring them it would be easier to identify if any of the patients are struggling with any of the exercise methods or are in too much pain to carry on. This also applies to the third point made. The patients shouldn’t be doing exercise which is too harsh for them to carry out or if they don’t completely understand what they are doing because they could do it wrong and injure themselves severely. By allowing them to warm up and down before and after they carry out exercises and by showing them how to carry it out appropriately would lower the risk of injury and allow them to enjoy it instead of being in pain.
Visiting hours are the busiest times in a hospital and so could potentially have many hazards involved in allowing people in and out of the hospital without appropriate precautions taken. Poor sanitation from new visitors could potentially be a big problem in a hospital as bacteria will be being bought into the wards and could enhance the spread of infections or diseases. Due to the fact a hospital has a wide variety of patients including elderly and those who have recently had surgery (meaning they may also have open wounds) the spread of bacteria could be hazardous to their health and the healing process of their injuries/wounds. The Likelihood of this happening would be 2 which is significantly low considering the change of law in 1995 which ‘provided specific recommendations to promote improved hand-hygiene practices and reduce transmission of pathogenic microorganisms to patients and personnel in health-care settings’ (Cdn.gov,2014).
However the severity of a lack of sanitation would potentially be a 4/5 as the spread of bacteria and therefore infections and diseases could be harmful to people’s health and if unable to fight it off, it could possibly even shut down some peoples immune systems. To minimise the risks of this there should be hand sanitizer and hand was stations placed all around the hospital with signs so the visitors remember to clean their hands and kill off unwanted bacteria. Security is a vital party of a hospital to ensure the safety of everyone in the building. Without a high level of security around the hospital anyone would have access into and out of the building that may not be authorised. This could mean unwanted visitors may come in and read documents they are unauthorised to, or even confused elderly patients may get out without realising it and end up injuring themselves outside without anyone there to help.
This hazard would have a likelihood of 1 and a severity of a potential 4/5 because, although it is very unlikely to happen in a hospital, if a patient were to get out they could get themselves into all sorts of trouble and not realise the danger of traffic outside causing fatal injuries or maybe even death. CCTV should be in place to monitor people in the hospital and all wards should be locked so only authorised people are able to enter and exit. Damage to property could occur during visiting hours as the hospital will be crowded with a variety of people, patients and staff which could cause some things to be damaged or broken, especially when there are a large number of visitors at one time.
Although this would not directly affect the health of service users or service providers, it is a hazard to the hospital and would cost a lot of money in repairs each year if there are no control measures in place. CCTV would help monitor any damage that would occur and the person behind the damage; however there should also be signs around the hospital reminding visitors to stay orderly and respectful at all times on the wards and around the building.
Due to the fact that so many different people will be entering and leaving the hospital, they could be carrying many different types of bacteria into the hospital which could cause a higher risk of the spread of infection. By providing hand sanitiser and making it widely available around the hospital and wards, all visitors and people who enter the hospital will be able to reduce the amount of bacteria they are bringing in and reduce the risk of infection. There is a hand hygiene policy which should be put into place in the hospital to ensure the safety of patients and visitors. It is well known that hand hygiene is one of the most important factors in preventing the spread of infection and the unwashed hands of all healthcare professionals and visitors is the most important route of cross-infection in the healthcare environment (Ayliffe at al, 2000).
Secondly, there should be an appropriate amount of security in and around the hospital to ensure only authorised people are getting in and out of the building. CCTV cameras should be working and placed all around the building and there should be security systems put in places at all of the entrances and exits to ensure the risk of unwanted visitors or patients getting out is minimised. This would also lower the risk of any property being damaged and if it does occur it would allow the staff to look back over the footage and identify who was at fault for any damages that occur. Although the likelihood of these occurring is predictably low, it would decrease the severity of incidents which occur as it would allow people to be identified and things could be managed before they get out of hand.
Dispensing of medicines
Prescribing and dispensing medicine is a vital role in hospitals to ensure all patients get the medication they need to help them recover, however there could be many possible hazards involved with dispensing medicines that could cause harm to patients and their health. Prescribing patients with the wrong dosage of medication is a possible hazard as it could lead to the patient having an overdose or having serious health problems afterwards. Although the likelihood is low the severity if this does occur is high as the health effects would be very negative and put patients health into a decline. To prevent this all patients records should be checked beforehand to ensure they are being prescribed the right amount, also the medication should be double checked before being handed to the patient to ensure no mistakes have been made. If medication is left on the side it could be consumed by someone who doesn’t need it, by a visitor not knowing what it is or even by a child who mistakes them for sweets.
This could cause great harm as someone who takes them could overdose and it would have negative effects on their health if taken in large quantities, especially to a child. All medication should be locked away in a cupboard or be handled/observed by a nurse or doctor at all times to ensure no one can take them when they don’t need to or accidently. Needles could be a hazard in a hospital if not used correctly or if a nurse slips while holding one. If found left lying around someone could use one and pierce their skin injecting themselves with something they don’t know about, or even risking infection by finding a dirty needle and using that. Also if a nurse slips whilst holding on they could injure themselves or the patient by accidently stabbing the skin. This isn’t very likely to happen as all nurses should be provided the appropriate training on how to handle needles and dangerous equipment so they don’t make a mistake. Also, all needles should be disposed of immediately after use so they cannot be used again and cause cross-contamination.
The severity for all hazards which could occur for dispensing medicines are all high and so to reduce the risk of anything serious happening or anyone being injured, policies and procedures must be put into place to ensure people’s safety in the hospital. All patient records must be checked before they are prescribed with a medicine to ensure they are provided with the right type of medicine and the right dosage. If this is done wrong it could potentially eventually lead to death for an unfortunate patient and so the dispensing of medicines policy should be put into place. The policy states that all medication should be stored, administered and disposed of appropriately to ensure minimum harm and training must be given to staff to make sure they understand how vital and critical their role could be (oxfordshireccg.nhs, 2013).
All medication must be locked away and not left lying around the hospital to ensure only the appropriate staff members who have had training are able to access it and no children or vulnerable people are able to pick it up off the side and take medication which could make them sick. Finally, it is evident that needles are dangerous pieces of equipment if mishandled or in the wrong hands and so the dispensing of medicines policy should be ensured and put into place because of this fact also. All used and unwanted needles should be disposed of immediately instead of being left lying around and all staff should have training before they start in their role to ensure they know how to handle a needle and to make sure they don’t injure themselves or anyone else with one (goshospital, 2015).
Moving patients between wards
Naturally there would be many risks involved with carrying out this activity as there are a lot of precautions that would needed to be adhered to to make it successful. There could also be many complications to consider if you were moving an elderly, weak or disorientated patient. The likelihood of any of the hazards occurring is low due to training the staff have and regulations they follow to ensure safety. Using the appropriate equipment is vital when moving a patient between wards as it would assist to lift and transport the patient without causing any harm to the health of either the patient or the member of staff. If a nurse is moving a patient on their own without a hoist or any help, they could injure their back by not lifting properly or injure the patient if they’re lifted in the wrong way. According to the manual handling regulations 1992 all staff should be provided with PPE and training on how to carry out tasks like these to avoid injuries or harm.
The likelihood of any harm occurring is low if the regulation is followed however the severity could be 3 as the damage it could cause may need special attention. Dropping patients would be a risk if they are heavy or awkward to lift between one place to another. The severity of this if it happens would be quite high depending on the state of the patient, especially if the patient being moved is elderly or fragile, they could easily break a bone or more damage would be caused if they are dropped. Busy corridors during visiting hours could cause complications when moving a patient as it would make it a lot harder. If some of the corridors or lifts are busy you would not be able to move the patient as quickly and efficiently as liked/needed. Also, if there are people milling about the corridors it would be easier for the patient to be knocked over or injured by accident.
The severity of something happening while a patient is being moved between the hospital is on average 2.5 which could be severe in the wrong situations and so staff must be provided with the right equipment and training to prevent the risk of injury or the likelihood of anything happening. Under the personal protective equipment policy it states that all staff members should be provided with the correct equipment to carry out tasks to prevent injury to themselves and the other person involved (hse.gov.uk, 2015). This could include someone like a hoist to prevent injury to the staff members back and to ensure that the patient is being lifted properly.
Although dropping a patient has a low likelihood and may not happen easily, if it does it could be severely fatal to the patient and cause them a lot of injuries. The risk of this happening would also be minimised if the correct equipment was provided to ensure the staff member doesn’t assert strain on their back/ body and it ensure that there is enough power to lift the patient, especially if the member of staff isn’t very strong. Finally to make it easier to move patients it should be done when the hospital isn’t busy so there are no visitors mulling around and getting in the way.
Hse.gov.uk, (2015). Personal Protective Equipment (PPE). [online] Available at: http://www.hse.gov.uk/toolbox/ppe.htm [Accessed 15 Jan. 2015]. Gov.uk, (2015). Food safety – your responsibilities – GOV.UK. [online] Available at: https://www.gov.uk/food-safety-your-responsibilities/food-safety [Accessed 15 Jan. 2015]. Legislation.gov.uk, (2015). Food Safety Act 1990. [online] Available at: http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/1990/16/contents [Accessed 15 Jan. 2015]. Hospital, G. (2015). Sharps: disposal of used sharps – Clinical guidelines – Health professionals – Great Ormond Street Hospital. [online] Gosh.nhs.uk. Available at: http://www.gosh.nhs.uk/health-professionals/clinical-guidelines/sharps-disposal-of-used-sharps/ [Accessed 15 Jan. 2015].
Sexual Harassment in the Work Environment Today Essay
Sexual harassment is perhaps best defined as unwelcome verbal, visual or physical conduct that is of a sexual nature. (“Sexual harassment in,”). According to the EECO website both the claims and monetary rewards associated with sexual have dropped drastically over the past decade. What will you do to learn something new about this?
I will begin by researching reliable web-site for further information on the subject. I will also use both the Kaplan library and my own local library for additional resources.
What will you do to provide the reader and yourself with new information? I will convey to the reader all relevant information to the in both a logical and entertaining fashion. My paper will be interesting as well as factual, and will provide the reader with information which should enhance their knowledge of sexual harassment in the work place.
How will you go about accomplishing this research paper?
I will begin by doing extensive research on the topic of sexual harassment.
I will cluster my ideas and begin to write my paper. What is your plan to get this done? Week one will consist of research gathering and clustering. By week to I will begin to write my paper which should be completed no later than week three. I will have at least two proof readers read my paper before it is submitted .
Sexual harassment in the workplace – know your rights . (n.d.). Retrieved from https://careers.tcu.edu/sg../Sexual_Harassment_in_the_Workplace.pd
Recycling and Plastic Bag Essay
They are also cheap, light, durable, easy to carry and in many cases, free. The most commonly used shopping bag is made of High Density Polyethylene (HDPE). This type is used in the majority of supermarkets and stores. After these bags are used, they often end up in landfills or as litter, roughly only three percent of plastic bags is actually recycled per year (Planet Ark, 2011). The materials used in making plastic bags make them non-biodegradable.
According to the science dictionary, 2011 refers to “these materials cannot be decomposed into environmentally safe waste materials by the action of soil bacteria.
” These harmful substances are toxic and take approximately four hundred years to break down, or in this case photo-degrade; which is how plastics made from (HDPE) break down. Since they are not biodegradable, they remain in the environment and are absorbed in soil or water (Indian Centre for Plastics in the Environment, 2010).
This essay will discuss the various harmful effects of plastic bags, and demonstrate the risks that these bags impose on humans, animals and the environment.
It will also discuss a series of suggested solutions that could help reduce plastic bag usage. Although plastic bags appear to be fragile and light, their negative environmental effect is devastating. Plastic bags may cause large amounts of pollution in every step of their limited life cycle, from the extraction of raw materials, production, transportation, and recycling or disposal.
Plastic bags can be defined as the most damaging form of environmental pollution. They can have a damaging effect on marine animals and wildlife in addition to the aesthetic effects on beaches, parks, and trees. Plastic bags are potentially one of the main causes of death to marine animals (Harbor keepers,2008). Up to one hundred thousand marine animals or more die each year from eating plastic bags which are mistaken for food. This can result in blocking the animal’s intestines and possibly lead to the animal’s death.
Another possible situation is that wildlife, such as birds, can get tangled in plastic bags causing choking and immobility, which may eventually lead to death. (Senior, 2008) and (Citizen Campaign, 2010). In other situations, after plastic bags photo degrade they remain toxic and could be eaten by fish, shellfish or any other marine life and survive this allows the toxins to enter our food chain through bioaccumulation (Puget Soundkeeper Alliance, 2011). As a solution to these types of problems is taking action by educating and increasing the public’s awareness to the harmful affects that a plastic bag impose on our environment.
Applying this would mean to get consumers involved in reducing the number of plastic bags they consume and instead of getting new bags they can simply reuse their old bags (Sea Turtles Conservancy,2011). Another important solution would be using bio degradable bags instead; these types of bags take up a shorter time to degrade and become environmentally safe to both humans and animals. These types of bags are made from natural materials therefore; they are digested if animals swallow them (Biodegradable Plastic Bags,2011). The harmful effects of plastic bags extend to affect human health and social lives.
According to the US CPSC (Consumer Product Safety Commission, 2011) suffocation has been a significant of death among children under the age of one. According to a report presented in 2007 by Clean up Australia, when plastic bags are thrown in the streets they may block the drains and result in flooding during heavy rain. Stagnant water in blocked drains may create a breeding ground for many forms of insects like mosquitoes, which can transmit dangerous diseases such as malaria, dengue fever, and encephalitis (World Health Organisation, 2011).
Reducing, reusing and recycling, in that order, could be the most viable option to decrease the social and health impact of plastic bags. Reducing the number of plastic bags can be applied by imposing a fee such as PlasTax. In 2002 PlasTax was issued in The Republic of Ireland, which is a fee on plastic bags. This new tax resulted in a ninety four percent drop in plastic bag consumption in one year (Convery F, McDonnell S, Ferreira S, 2007). The next step is to reuse, instead of disposing of plastic bags consumers should be encouraged to keep reusing their bags.
The final step is to recycle the plastic bags, many supermarkets such as Tesco and Sainsbury’s give the consumers the option to bring in their old bags for recycling. In conclusion, usages of plastic bags are very limited unlike their infinite damages. They are harmful to health, the environment and wildlife. The solutions to put an end to the problems associated with plastic bags are available, cooperation between governments, shops and individuals is vital to take the necessary actions by reducing, reusing and recycling plastic bags.
Green Washing and Its Effects on Consumer Perspectives Essay
The term green washing denotes the use of false or misleading information concerning green marketing by companies to compel consumers to buy their products on the perception that the company is environmentally friendly. It involves the misleading use of green marketing to endorse a false perception that the company products or policies are environmentally friendly. Green washing has been growing in the recent years mainly due to the increasing demand for green products. Due to increasing concerns about global warming, consumers are increasingly demanding for economically responsible products (Hart, 1997).
Companies that seek to survive have no option but to either provide these products or to fake them. Another reason why green washing is growing is due to the fact that the sales of green oriented products have increased. A study carried out in the United States showed that in 2007, 328 products labelled “environmentally friendly” were launched by major manufacturers. This was a significant increase as in 2002 only 5 products were labelled the same (Bansal & Roth, 2000).
The rise of green products in the market has forced companies to undertake green washing in order to compete effectively.
Another reason why green washing is growing is that the communication of environmental messages is still not controlled by any industrial wide standards. Companies are free to disseminate information about their environmental policies without any restrictions hence they can provide misleading information at will. The final reason why green washing is common is that government action and regulation is still pending. An analysis by HSBC on passed and pending economic stimulus packages of 15 countries reported that over US $3 trillion is intended to stimulate economies for the next ten years (Bazzillier & Vauday, 2009).
A large percentage of this money will support environmental objectives. This situation has resulted in the increase of lobbying which in turn has resulted in a situation whereby companies have to hunt tactical opportunities that do not conform to their messages on environmental friendliness. Ways of Carrying out Green Washing There are several techniques of green washing employed by companies. Although only a few literatures exist on the subject, the basis of identifying these techniques is that proposed by the TerraChoice Environmental Group.
The group did research on the manners with which companies mislead consumers about their environmental friendliness and came up with six ways which they dubbed “the six sins of green washing. ” The first sin is “the sinof hidden trade off”. This involves the attempt by companies to promote a product as green by using only one environmental attribute or an intolerable narrow set of attributes disregarding other more important environmental issues. Although the claims are not false, they portray a “greener” picture of the product which cannot be supported by a full environmental analysis.
The second sin is “the sin of no proof. ” This involves all information disseminated by a company about environmental friendliness but cannot be validated by easily accessible supporting information. According to a study by Bazillier and Vauday (2009), communication of full CSR activities by companies to customers is impossible. As a result, two types of information communicated to consumers exist, hard and soft information. Hard information is that which can be verified by customers but tends to be costly while soft information is that which is readily available to consumers but cannot be verified.
Medical and Environmental Electronic Devices Corporation Essay
Medical and Environmental Electronic devices corporation was founded in 1959. Initially the core business was related to applications in medical device technology. The company started new business of Environmental control applications and achieved its current name in 1964. By 1979, MEED achieved 31% market share in its market area. MEED’s competitors had only 20% and11% shares. MEED has headquarters 21 countries around the world including Westland and Michigan. Integrated Circuit Group was set up MEED to meet its need for the customized circuits as semi-conductor industry is shrinking due to the backward integration of major competitors, redirections and acquisitions.
Hallmarks of MEED culture were ambiguity, freedom, flexibility, risk taking and a supportive attitude towards employees. There was no formal planning in MEED or even firs loosely coordinated companywide plan was undertaken in 1980. Sales were growing at 30% per year for t he last five years, topped $1 billion in 1979. Profits for 1979 were $107 million. Tom Duglass is the manager of MEED since 1977. ICG is experiencing a shortage of human resource and is only providing 5-8% of MEED’s annual demand.
New plant set by ICG is also experiencing problem in startup. The HRD Department headed by Barbara Hamlin is unable to fulfill their duty of providing the human resource which is required for the sound working of ICG. Employee’s profile
Manager, ICG Advanced design
Manager, ICG material
Manager of operations, ICG plant
Director, Human Resource Development and planning
The Jackson Michigan, manufacturing plant, which began operation in July 1979, was still experiencing difficulties in start-up and it was now the beginning of 1980. Barbara Hamlin in HRDP position was in charge for the forecast of the IC Group’s human resource needs, with special attention to professional and managerial personnel and to design and implement programs to meet those needs. MEED designed, manufactured, sold and serviced complex medical and environmental control systems. The labor market was exceedingly tight for exempt employees, especially the highly trained engineers critical too ICG’s work. MEED’s culture was unstructured, informal; make it happen, rapid growth, positive approach towards people. There was no emphasis on formal planning Douglas sought to reorient ICG recruiting toward meeting needs with existing employees and recent college graduates.
Given the MEED culture, it was also unreasonable to except that any one program manager would remain long enough to see one component through its entire life. Materials acquisition function was divided into two groups an operation group that focused on such functions as production purchasing and a strategic group that deal with the commodity managements, IC Group manufacturing and custom projects. In the past a buyer in the operations group could become a supervisor in operations, now a buyer had the additional option of staying with the acquisition but moving to a job in a strategic group The greater attention to manpower planning might have led MEED to locate ICG closer to the major sources of trained engineers, or perhaps even to recast its plan to enter the semiconductor industry. Employee mobility need at MEED also made planning difficult. According to personnel policy, an exempt employee was considered movable after he or she had been in a job for one year. Bosses and subordinates found it difficult to conduct regular performance appraisals; they were supposed to be conducted at least once a year as part of an employee’s salary review.
Medical and Environmental Electronic Devices Corporation was founded in 1959 Sales, growing at more than 30% per year for the last five years, topped $1 billion in 1979; profiles for 1979 were $107 million. The goal was to ensure that by FY1985, 50% of professional hires would be new college graduates. At the beginning of 1980, Ambrose’s group had openings for two out of five supervisory positions, and 13 out of 37 subordinate engineering slots. In 1980, ICG had 623 employees (plus 8 staff personnel), and 106 open positions to be filed. Annual turnover, while not high by industry standards, was running close to 10% among exempt and 20% among non exempts.
The average number of employees for 1979 totaled 24,900 and another were expected to be hired as MEED continued its rapid growth during fiscal 1980. Starting as an idea and a group of 5 people in 1972, ICG had 66 people in 1975, but began its real growth in 1977, reaching 448 employees at the beginning of fiscal year 1980. ICG was only manufacturing 5% to 8% of MEEDS semiconductor needs instead of the 20% planned. It took about 3 years of work at ICG for a college graduate be fully trained, but by working with these colleges to develop programs and by providing equipment and dollar donations, ICG hoped to shorten on-the-job training to 1-1/2 years. A week lost could mean approximately $100,000 lost in profit before taxes for MEED.
The main issue that MEED was facing was that there was an urgent need that there was no formal planning due to which there was a need for the company to make a proper amendments in HRM of the company and to make policies and procedures and implement them effectively as there was a shortage of Human Resource management at all levels at MEED. They were not having specialized engineers and managers in the required numbers is affecting the corporation. There was a significant problem in attracting engineers capable of the state of the art work that ICG technology demanded.
The option of simply hiring in good people now met resistance from those who pointed out that there were no free slots for these people until the growth actually took place. An estimation was made that IC group’s exempt attrition would rise to an average of 15% per year and non exempt to 35% unless the group improved its recruitment, career development, performance, appraisals and promotion practices. ICG would need 241 hires in order to bring the employee total up to the target for the end of FY 1980.
If we look at the exhibits 4 and 5 it could be observed that Barbara is at a very lower level in the hierarchy, and is given vey less authority. If a separate HR department is created with giving all HR responsibilities to the HR department than possibly all most the problems could be solved.
Repositioning of Barbara Hamlin in organizational structure
We think that she should report directly to Dave Bertram, the president of MEED’s to minimize the distortion between them and Barbara can stamp the authority and she will not have to take approvals from group heads. She is the one who have identified the problems in the system so she should be able to exercise authority so she can solve the problems. Having the backing of the president of MEED’s, people will know that she is a credible source of high authority and she should be followed. Once there is clarity in chain of command, then Barbara should concentrate in making of new human resource department which will include recruitment and selection, compensation and appraisal, training and development which is not addressed in the company till now.
Hiring the right people
Problem of ICG can be solved as there is low performance by the managers and engineers are working as managers and company don’t have to hire right workforce and as a result they are performing at the top level. Supply of efficient workforce is also limited; that is also one of the reasons engineers are working as managers. Moreover, it is told in the case study that other companies have made collaborations with universities and they hire their technical staff and engineers automatically after they graduate. It is best for both student and company because student will get job immediately after he graduates and company can get fresh graduates that are fit for the organization. In exhibit 8, it is written “at institutes, we work with real projects”; that means student can get a taste of professional life and projects even when they are students. Good compensation to retain employees
The employment industry of China is very competitive. In order to get best results in the company, company should be able to retain the right employees who are worth it. HR department should make organized and intelligent decision in retaining particular employees. As it is written in the case that giving $1000 a month and working for 20 years has become a standard of industry. Other than that, when an individual leaves the job, he or she gets a 30% pay rise on an average; that means when labor in the market start doing job hopping it will take employees pays up automatically.
Standardize the operating procedure
The first and foremost step that Barbara needs to take is that she should make procedure same for everyone. For e.g. in this case it was written that managers thought HRD is just for training the employees. So, Barbara should start working and should make everything formal including job analysis, job description, training & development and compensation plans. Employees should have awareness of HR department of the company and employees should know clearly that what are they required to do. Once HR department comes in and take steps to make things formal; then company’s environment will also become professional as it is desired by HR department.
Training and development
Company is not very serious about the training of the employees as position of management development is vacant from some time. Training is only given to manufacturing department in the company but it should be also offered to the designing department of the company. Training of design department will lead to more innovative designs and less flaws in the system.
When an employees is leaving the company; he just have to go but one thing that company can do extra is the exit interviews; as company can get a new point of view of the employee about the flaws of the company and how they can be improved. Cause of leaving company should be asked from the employees that also point out significant errors in the company’s operations.
Analysis of exhibits
If we compare FY80, 81 and the current year in association to number of employees (exempt and non exempt) to the departments (advanced design, manufacturing and material) it could be clearly seen that currently there is a decrease in the number of employees in comparison to the year 80 and 81.Currently there are 6 managers in advanced design, 11 in manufacturing and 6 in material, where as in the FY 1980 there were 30 managers and 1981 there were 47. Moreover, in the advanced design there are currently 97 employees with 116 in 1980 and 150 in 1981. In manufacturing currently 322, 1980 there were 564 and in 1981 there were 854.
In the materials currently they have 204 employees in comparison to 1980 where there were 266 and in 1981 there were 425. Overall a decrease in number of employees could be observed. Exhibit 2 talks about the hiring requirements projections. The exhibit depicts the year period. It could be clearly seen that for all the three departments in association to the years there was an increasing trend. Exhibit 3 talks about the financials of 10 years from (1970 to 1979). It could be clearly seen that there was an increase in sales net income and stockholders’ equity of MEED since the 7 year period. Though the sales were not steady but and increasing trend is observed.
Lemurs in Madagascar Assignment Essay
What are Madagascar’s biomes? Discuss the major features of at least one of these biomes. Use the textbook for biome examples. Madagascar is a tropical rainforest, rain forest savanna and grasslands.
The rain forest receives 120 inches of rain at least a year. It has very wet and dense vegetation within the trees. Anywhere from 70 plus percent of animal life lives in the trees. It is filled with lakes, river, swamps and a wide variety of different terrain. There is an overabundance of green plant life that strives on the heavy rains received each year.
The forest floor is full of nutrients which the large tree strive on giving the canopy effects and which houses so much plant and animal life.
2. What changes happening in Madagascar are posing challenges for lemurs? Give details about the sources, time scale, and types of change.
All the time the environment is changing by people moving in and getting more populated. As people come into a new area they may alter a Lemurs normal route or main food supply in the area by cutting down a certain tree such as bamboo.
3. Which types of lemurs are adapting to the changes? Which types of lemurs are not adapting well? Why?
The less vulnerable lemurs are good at adapting to a secondary environment with people. The vulnerable or endangered lemurs are having hard time moving and settling into a new food source or habitat which is causing them to go extinct faster. Ringtail lemurs can adapt and defiantly go to multiple environments.
4. What behavioral and physical traits are being favored in lemurs in the changing Madagascar environment?
People are studying lemurs to find out if you can teach other lemurs certain straight so that can adapt to a new type of environment. Such as eating habitats and what they eat. How the move and migrate from place to place.
5. Why might lemurs not evolve to adapt to the changes in Madagascar?
They may not never adapt due to the constant changes in the environment nonstop. Some lemurs can adapt with evolution over hundreds of year but with humans within a few years they can destroy an entire habitat along with food sources within a year. The constant changes always leave the lemurs on their toes. Constantly roaming from one place to another
6. Which biogeochemical cycles may be altered by anthropogenic activities on Madagascar, and how?
Many things may be altered such as the soils and living organisms by people moving into the new areas in such a rapid rate. What toll does this take on the environments such as global warming and pollutants in that areas now? What do the changes in the smaller spectrum of things do to the overall climate?
“Lemurs in Madagascar: Surviving on an Island of Change.” Films Media Group, 2006. Films On Demand.
The US Environmental Protection Agency Essay
The US Environmental Protection Agency, USEPA or more commonly referred simply as the EPA, is federal agency responsible for the protection of the natural environment for the protection of human health and ecology. It was established under the President Richard Nixon in December 1970 and is currently being headed by Administrator Stephen L. Johnson (EPA, 2008a).
The EPA acts through twelve administrative offices and ten regional offices: the administrative offices are in charge with the development and assessment of policies and regional offices are the serve as the primary executive arm of the agency (EPA, 2008b).
Prior to the establishment of the agency, there was no national structure for addressing environmental concerns, develop legislation and management programs or to implement corrective measures. The EPA implements and monitors compliance to environmental protection statutes it establishes or as passed thorough by federal legislation (EPA, 2008a).
Shortcomings of the agency are viewed not only as a failure of related policies but also an indication of the political will, ethical standards and social concern for the protection of the environment (Heilprin, 2008; Marris, 2007; Morrissey, 2008).
Case in point: when policies are considered to be restrictive to industries, this relegates the ethical cost of violation of EPA regulations, encouraging subterfuge if not blatant opposition to policies.
On the other hand, hesitation on the part of the EPA to implement polices and prosecute offenders diminishes the public’s interests and violates its functional mandates. Moreover, as Pelley (2008) and Sood (2008) have highlighted, the EPA’s mandate is extends far beyond its functions. It is designed to delivery in its fullest extent the intention behind environmental protection legislation and to provide framework standards of environmental and social responsibility.
Environmental Protection Agency (2008a).Available at http://www. epa. gov/ Environmental Protection Agency (2008b). Laws that We Administer. Retrieved July 13, 2008, from http://www. epa. gov/lawsregs/laws/index. html Heilprin, John (2006). Ex-EPA chiefs: Bush neglects environmental problems. USA Today On Deadline, January 18, 2008. Retrieved July 13, 2008, from http://blogs. usatoday. com/ondeadline/2006/01/exepa_chiefs_bu. html Marris, E. (2007). Car emissions are EPA’s problem. Nature, 446(7136):589. Morrissey, Susan R. (2008).
EPA Issues Nanotechnology White Paper Intra-agency group gives overview, identifies research needs for nanotech. Washington, DC: Environmental Protection Agency Pelley, Janet (2008). EPA toxicity risk assessments in crisis. Environmental Science & Technology, March 21, 2008. Retrieved July 13, 2008, from http://pubs. acs. org/subscribe/journals/esthag-w/2008/may/policy/jp_iris. html Sood, Suemedha (2008). EPA Success Masks Problems. The Washington Independent, May 28, 2008. Retrieved July 13, 2008, from http://washingtonindependent. com/view/epa-cases-mask-long
Environment Pollution Essay
As you know, China is well known on its 5000 years history, and it’s also famous for producing poisonous food and the worst environment pollution. Living in a developing country, Chinese develop industry and handicraft industry, and making money as much as they can. Compare with environment pollution, Chinese business man more care about how much money they could make per day. There are millions of factories in China mainland. And thousands of factories are being built right now.
Before factories were built, owner or designer usually choose the factory location which nearby the river or lake.
Locals usually drink and take water from the river or lake. Some rivers even provide water to several cities. Usually, an industry factory could produce poisonous waste water 350 m? /h and exhaust gas or smog 14000m? /h. But each factory could treat poisonous waste water 30m? /h. that means over 300m? /h poisonous waste water cannot be treated and be discharged into river or lake.
In each factory, the equipment for exhaust treatment is required, but the most factories discharge exhaust treatment into air without treatment. Industry community usually is the high incidence area of cancer and oaf. Animals which are living nearby or living in the rivers and lakes, are bigger or with strange appearance. Farmers who are local, usually take water from river or lack for irrigation and raising livestock. Locals get disease on drinking poisonous water, eating poisonous food, and breathing in seriously polluted area.
In China, living healthier become people’s dream and hope. Everybody hopes long live and having a healthy life. Over 70% Chinese are not covered by health insurance, and medical bill is going higher and higher, over 85% locals cannot handle it. People usually stay at home and wait for death when they get disease. Living in polluted area make people more worry about their descendants. People start to move to foreign country for a better environment. Let descendants have a chance to live in a healthier living environment also become their goal.