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British and American English in Hk Essay

British and American English in Hk Essay

Hong Kong was a colony of British in the past. Under a British education system, the English we learnt in school are supposed to be British English. But nowadays, more and more Hong Kong people start to use American English in their daily conversions. Some people think that using both British and American English may prove bad influences to English learning. Another group of people claim that it is good to familiar with the usage of both British and American English.

Noah Webster

Before we investigate on this case, we should first know what actually American English is and how can we recognize it. In 19th century, Noah Webster created The American Dictionary of the English Language. At that time, most of the schools in America had a bad learning environment with poor underpaid staff, no desks, and unsatisfactory textbooks that came from British. As a teacher in America, he wanted to improve the situation and advocated that American should learn from American textbooks.

He wrote textbooks for the students and even created the American English system. The American Dictionary he created was integrated by new words, spellings and pronunciations. This the reason why the latter gave a separate identity to American English.

Differences between British and American English:

In order to distinguish British English and American English from each other, we can focus on the spellings, pronunciations, grammars and usage in vocabularies.

Differences in Vocabulary

Some words used in British and American are totally different. Focus on vocabularies used is the easiest way to know which kind of English the people are using. Here are some common examples.

British English American English

pants trousers
crisp chips
chips French fries
fizzy drink soda
lift elevator
film movie
pavement sidewalk

Popular American entertainment in HK

Although we learnt British English in school, we can easily get touch in some American entertainments in Hong Kong. American entertainments are everywhere, TV shows, films, songs, games etc. With no doubt, the English used in those entertainments is American English. This is reason why we learn many American English in our daily life.

Henry VIII as a King, Evaluation Essay

Henry VIII as a King, Evaluation Essay

To an extent Henry VIII achieved his aims as King between 1509-1515. Whilst he achieved aims such as to have glory in battle such as with France to earn prestige and therefore establish greater power within the European countries, he did fail in some aspects with most set aim as king. An example of this is his inability to produce a male heir to the throne which arguably was one of his prime aims as king. One of Henry’s main aims as king was to be a different leader in terms of his style from that of his father; he wanted to be a more warlike leader who was more dominant across Europe and also to be a generally more popular king.

We know that this would have been one of Henry’s main aims as in the first year of his reign he executed Empson and Dudley. These two people were corrupt and unfair leaders and were very unpopular within England; they were very much associated with Henry’s father.

By Henry executing them publically in 1510, by way of a big public ceremony illustrated two things to the people; firstly that he is a perhaps fairer king and that their desires were what were to shape his decisions and secondly that he would be a completely different, more popular and significant leader on a larger scale, so within Europe, by having more of a dominant presence, this is shown through the bold and trademarking execution.

Henry succeeded in this aim, he indeed did become a more popular leader by taking the interests of his people very seriously, and he even built a strong army to protect everyone from frequent civil wars so making England more of a unity in itself and therefore a stronger nation. Also Henry, in an attempt of gaining the popularity from the nobility, cuts back on bonds and recognizes to please them as well as letting the nobles into his private life more and inviting them to private events of his, this in turn would’ve made them feel more important and involved with the king’s affairs, and so again has a stronger force which is more connected and contrasts to his fathers. On the other hand, it could be said that Henry didn’t need to be as precise and organised as his Father was, because Henry was left with all the money and financial stability his Father had spent his career accumulating and so he had the time and money to go to war or spend leniently rather than saving and building up money. Henry VIII aims appear to emulate more his forefather Henry V’s aims instead by being a great warrior king and so achieving honour through War.

Through conquest he intends to extend his supremacy over the lands of rivals. Henry V owned more French land in his reign than the king of France did himself, this could have been the ownership Henry VIII also desired, this brought about Henry VIII first War with France. In credit to Henry, I think he was very brave in choosing to go to war With France in 1513, because despite his father’s council being very experienced people who he should listen to, he chooses not to, following their titles as ‘ministers of peace’ they tried very hard to persuade Henry to keep peace with France. Given that he was newly king at this point I think it shows a lot of courage to foresee the opinions of the experienced council to pursue your own ambition even if faced with potential big consequences if he were to lose battle.

Henry was victorious in his first battle and so he would’ve appeared a bold leader. Henry did earn a great deal of prestige in not only going to War with France and winning it, but actually leading his troops in 1513 into the battle of the spurs personally which in itself brings about great honour. Impressively at the same time, the French allies, the Scottish, invaded England and so came about the battle of Flodden, again England won this too and although Henry had little personally to do with this war because it was Surrey who won it, Henry as king still took credit and so as the unity of England, it had won its first 2 wars. As well as this he achieved his aim in cementing a good relationship with the Nobles by using their armies. However in 1514 he was almost forced to sign a peace treaty because financially England was desperate for money as henry in only one year had spent all his inherited money (estimated at about £960000).

This shows his somewhat lack of organisation as a king and more his ruthlessness and desperation for war. Another factor detracting from the prestige of this war is that Henry was used by Ferdinand and left by him at the last stage before the battle, so showing dishonour by Ferdinand towards him. In aims such as securing the Tudor dynasty Henry didn’t really succeed. Although he did make attempts such as marrying Catherine of Aragon in order for her to give Birth to a male Heir it didn’t work. Unfortunately as king this was one of his most important aims, we know this because he married Catherine the same year he was king and so it was obviously of key importance to produce an heir. This having failed, as it did, Henry did still try and secure the dynasty, by taking actions such as marrying his sister to the French King, Louis, he was creating the possibility of a Tudor dynasty on the French throne.

Henry even wanted an annulment from Catherine because he believed it was her who couldn’t give him a son, he went to great lengths and disrupted his very important relationship with the Pope just to get an annulment and I think this shows how important it was to him to have a male heir as king. However, as far as fulfilling this aim early on in his reign goes he didn’t manage to do this, still he was dedicated in trying to do it. Henry knew that it was very important to have a secure and good relationship with the Pope; he understood that he was a very influential figure with a lot of power over the people and so for unity within his country, he would have aimed to have an important relationship with the Pope. Examples of Henry’s efforts to appease the Pope would be after the Battle of the Spurs, the pope wants Henry to make peace with France, even though Henry is reluctant to do so, he does because he understands the importance of having a good relationship with the Pope.

It is only when Henry starts to have problems with the notion of shared power between himself and the king, tension starts as a lot of their roles cross over causing friction by occasional conflicting views. As a result Henry achieves senior power which is what he wants but he then compromises his relationship with the Pope for this. So only for a short while Henry did succeed in his aim of having a strong relationship with the Pope. Clearly in the way Henry behaved and ruled as a king, it is evident that Henry wanted to be different, rule in a different way and allocate his time differently than to how other kings before him may have. Presented with being king at the age of 18 he chose to be a king known for doing everything in excess, living lavishly, playing sport for example tilting and generally enjoying himself seemingly far more than his worn down father had done. Henry wanted to be the ‘renaissance king’ and in terms of this aim, it is one Henry definitely achieved by his new ideas and new style of kingship, he had a huge interest in the arts and music too which shows him to be a more cultural king.

Historians say that he didn’t want to worry himself with the daily burdens of government and administration instead he would put others in charge to do this for him. Whether this style of leadership is right or effective it is still a new approach and perhaps a refreshing one to England at this time as when he came to throne he was very much liked by England and most importantly the nobles. As much as Henry spent a lot of his money in warfare, he too seemingly had interest in the wealth of the English crown in order for it to have dominance over Europe, at the beginning of his reign England was not as powerful as Spain and France and this was a lot down to the lesser financial position England were in. By taking actions such as selling land acquired in war to the nobles he not only is making money but is also becoming more ‘liked’ with the nobles.

On the other hand it is decisions like this which I think weren’t very strategic, if Henry was so determined on going to war and making an impact on Europe, it would’ve seemed more proper to devote new land for the army or war related things such as weaponry manufacturing or housing for the army, this would’ve strengthened the English army and therefore brought about more global respect. I think Henry to a greater degree achieved most of his aims as king well given his young age and personal interests that he had. He did become a renaissance king and in doing this he also gained popularity, he was a very different King to his father as he was more warlike which was his intention as well as securing personal relationships with the nobles, however he didn’t produce a male heir and his control with the money his father spent a career building up I think wasn’t spent very efficiently for the benefit of the whole country.

Malham Field UK Essay

Malham Field UK Essay

Malham field is very vast piece of land situated the northern eastern of the England. It lies within the Yorkshire part of England. The region has wide variations of geographical features which contribute to the attractiveness of the region as centre of tourism attraction. The region has therefore been a region of great importance in the development of geographical learning and other linked course such as agricultures, tourism as well as fishing. (Raistrick, 1972) The geology The Malham field is a region famous of geological activities.

One of the most famous geological activities in the sites lies with the presence of limestone features of their own uniqueness. The place is well known because of the wide variety of features, however, the site has is deeply significant in geological work through the understanding of limestone. Generally, Malham is speculated to be a region of useful limestone minerals. The region has been of unique shape which is attributed to the endowment of limestone. The presence of the limestone of the nature of KARST in this portion of land has led to the spectacular landscape.

(O’Connor 1964): Due to the nature of limestone present, the region experiences underground drainage more often rather than surface drainage and run offs. Therefore, like in many other areas where KARST occurs, the underground drainage forms a main feature in the region. The presence of limestone in region makes it possible in the formation of different geographical feature. These physical geographical features formed in the region depend on the chemical properties of calcium carbonate. The rocks are readily dissolved by rainwater.

As result of this kind of rock the cover the land, the reactions of the rock with rainwater leads to the formation of sinkholes. Usually, sinkholes which are salient features in the regions occur with surface water disappearing underground hence leaving behind dry valleys and stream less. The nature of the rock in the area also prevents ease formation of the soils. The rock has very high rate of dissolving which renders the processes of soils formation quite impossible. While soils are not easily formed on soluble rocks, then the place has vast lands with bare rocks.

In addition to bare rocks, other common salient features in the regions includes crags and pavements Figure 1 The figure above shows the presence of several feature found in the region. Bare rock s and other features are clearly indicated. Scree slopes and crags are shown in the figure with varying ways. This figure was retrieve from http://www. malhamdale. com/geology. htm on 21 February, 2009 Landforms and soils The part of Malham has several features which are formed through different activities.

There are two major activities which are involved in the formation of the various landforms in the region. Perhaps, there are three most distinct ways in which these features are attained. One of these is the glaciations process which is believed to have taken place during the era of ice ages. The place of Malham is said to have been covered with glaciers at about 15000 years ago. The sheet of ice that covered Malham glaciated leading to scoured and modified KARST landscape. This made the place to come to be referred to as GLACIOKARST landscape.

The process led to the formation of limestone pavement with exposed rocks to the element of the environment. (Burek et al,1998) The figure 2 below shows an example of limestone pavement. Retrieved from http://www. malhamdale. com/cove. htm on 21 February, 2009 The figure above shows a Malham cove which is said to be an inspiration to numerous art and literature work. The Malham cove is a huge shaped cliff formed of limestone rock. The top of the cove is covered by classical limestone pavement.

The high of the vertical face of the cliff is 260 feet. The cove is deeply eroded at the top. (Muir 1991) The other kind of features and landscapes can result through erosion and solution processes. Generally, these processes are likely to create feature of tourism attraction such as the Gordale Scar. This is a huge gorge that existed since the ice ages in which water melted forming a cavern that gradually collapsed resulting to waterfall and a gorge (Sweeting, 1972) Vegetation and drainage The Malham part has mostly underground drainage system.

This is because the rock allows the formation of such systems more easily than any other drainage systems. Most of the rivers in this region remain as dry river bed due to percolation of the surface water from the surface. Most rivers become surface drainage systems only with heavy rainfall. Despite that the region has several underground water systems; the Malham tarn is salient feature within the region. While most of the drainage systems are naturally salty, the Malham Tarn system has been very significant in the provision of freshwater.

The Malham tarn lake draws off its contents to the small stream of Malham water. This system of the Malham water enters to the limestone where it disappears at water sinks. The system continues with its course by adopting the common way of underground channel before it reappears at the Airehead Springs in the southern part of Malham. (Smith and Atkinson, 1977) Figure 3 Malham Tarn lake drainage system This is the famous largest freshwater lake in the United Kingdom Climate The region of Malham experiences four climatic seasons in a year.

However, there has been some change in the recent times which is not only being experienced in this region but is a matter that is causing an alarm allover the world. The Malham region is being affected by the global warming process which is taking place in whole world. The winter season is portrayed to have the extreme of temperature increase, implying that there is the least frost and ground air at such a time. During the summer period, the amount of rainfall is more or less that received during the winter time. However, there has a tendency of drier summers and wetter winters in the past few decades. (Manley, 1979)