Categories for Energy

Fire’s Role in the Ecosystem Essay

Fire’s Role in the Ecosystem Essay

Scientists have studied forests and fires to determine the secret of Nature’s success in attaining this necessary balance. They have learned that a “natural” fire results from a certain fuel condition. Some forest types produce and accumulate fuels faster than others; some decompose fuels more readily than others. However, at some point in time, every forest type has fuel of the right quantity and quality for that forest to be “ready” to burn. In the past, forest fires would benefit the whole forest ecosystem because their frequency and intensity was determined by the system’s natural readiness to burn.

When there is a departure from the natural fire point, the ultimate, inevitable fire will be more severe. Fed by extraordinary amounts of fuel, a fire’s intensity may increase beyond the beneficial point for some parts of the ecosystem. Soils can be overheated and root systems damaged. Living tree crowns, as well as dead needles and branches, may be reduced to ashes.

The Dilemma

Scientists are studying things other than forests and fires – things like population increases, wildlife needs, recreation needs and demands, increased hunting pressures, and a diminishing natural resource base. Obviously, all forest fires cannot be permitted to burn uncontrolled according to the whimsical dictates of lightning strikes or the carelessness of humans. Yet, in attempting to protect these forest values, the powerful role of fire has almost disappeared from the ecosystem it once shaped and created. The inevitable release of natural energy is only postponed-the probability of a devastating wildfire is increased. How, then, can the powerful force of fire be used in a way that cooperates, not conflicts, with nature? No Simple Solution

Periodic natural fires prevent the heavy buildup of fuel which, when ignited, can harm our forests and ecosystems. Controlling fires in accordance with Nature’s scheme must be based on fuel management. There is no general prescription or formula for controlling fuels. Forested sites differ, and objectives range from essentially unmanaged wilderness to intensively managed recreation areas. However, in areas where the forest management objectives require maintaining or reproducing forest or other natural communities nature’s method – fire – is a valuable and effective fuel management tool.

Fire’s natural role in reducing fuels is partly replaced in timber-producing areas by the harvest and removal of wood products. However, slash, resulting from these activities, creates another fuel problem. Better use of harvested wood is one answer – fire is another. Controlled burning of non useable slash further reduces the fuel load and provides nutrients for the plants and animals that inhabit the area. The technical and scientific refinement of ways to use fire as a management tool has been a major subject of forest research. Scientists are focusing on forest fuel chemistry, fire behavior, meteorology, and other fields to best determine when, where, and how excess fuels are to be burned. Only in the last century has fire in the forest been viewed as a monster. We are now beginning to realize that fire is a natural agent essential for maintaining the natural ecosystems of Florida.

Fire is neither all good nor all bad. It is natural. It is powerful. In the proper places, in the right hands, at the right times, fire can be an asset and an ally. To employ fire as a useful friend is much more logical than confronting it as an enemy. Fire is a significant force in the forest environment. Depending upon specific land management objective, plus a host of environmental variables, fire will sometimes be an enemy, at times a friend, and frequently its effects will be mixed between the two extremes. To extend knowledge of fire’s role in Florida forests, this publication has been developed from scientific literature review and observations by experienced personnel. To be most useful, the general principles that follow must be localized to specific environments or management units in that way, in-depth knowledge of fire can be used to enhance productivity of the earth’s ecosystems in all their infinite variety.

One great truth of this environmental age is that it is far better to complement natural systems than to manipulate them for single-purpose gain. It is through recognition of ecological interrelationships that we can best manage natural resources for the public good. Ignorance of ecological interrelationships is no excuse for land management errors. To meet future environmental demands, land managers must build uncommon strength in all three fire activities: prevention, protection, and fire prescribed for ecological benefits. Fire management, in full partnership with other environmental factors, is necessary for quality land management. The Two Faces of Fire

The Monster
Uncontrolled wildfire raging through a forest can have disastrous effects. Healthy trees are reduced to blackened snags; shrubs that provided food and cover for wildfire become ashes; under the intense heat some soil nutrients are vaporized and become airborne in clouds of choking smoke. Ash falls on rooftops, window sills, and darkens clothes drying outdoors in nearby towns. Where people once enjoyed a green, scenic landscape, they see a stark, gray landscape. A forest has been grossly changed; the web of life it encompassed and nurtured has been broken. Here, fire has shown its mastery over the land and has behaved as a monster. The Friend

Think about fire for a moment. If you have warmed your hands in its welcomed heat and enjoyed its friendly light, you know that all fire is not the raging holocaust. Fire, along with air, water, and earth, is a basic environmental factor. We do not judge air as “bad” because of periodic, destructive hurricanes. We are drawn to water rather than avoiding it despite its potential to cause devastating floods. We do not fear the earth though we know that forces beyond our control can cause it to quake and slide.

Fire, no less than air and water, has been a natural directing force in human evolution and the earth we inhabit. History indicates that humans learned to use and control fire. Fire was, perhaps, our first tool. Yet today the acceptance of fire in the forest seems basically contrary to our beliefs in “modern” times. Perhaps we feel we have progressed beyond the need for direct dependence on this natural force. Or maybe we simply do not know and understand it any longer. Lightning

In the Making
“Continued sunny and warm except for isolated afternoon or evening thunderstorms. Thirty percent chance of rain.” This is a familiar midsummer weather forecast in Florida. From over the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico, air  masses directly affect Florida’s weather. Warm air is lifted high into cool, upper air layers. The cooling of this rising air causes its moisture to condense and clouds to form. Moisture droplets form in the upper; cold parts of the clouds. When they reach a certain size, the droplets begin to fall earthward, away from the influence of the cold air back into warm, uplifting currents. The droplets may again vaporize and be lifted even higher into the upper air layers. A repeated cycle of warming, lifting, and cooling causes the buildup of tall columns of billowy clouds. The bases of the clouds may be 3,000 feet above sea level – the tops of the cloud columns develop upward to levels of 60,000 feet. The Ignition Source

Inside the clouds electrical charges build up and separate into positive and negative centers. The upper portion of the cloud becomes positively charged and the lower portion becomes negatively charged. The negative charge near the cloud base induces a positive charge on the ground – a reversal of the fair weather pattern when the ground charge is negative. Potential gradients between positive and negative centers, with some assistance from friction caused by falling water droplets, lead to those large sparks known as lightning discharges. Cloud-to-ground lightning is usually a discharge between the negative lower portion of the cloud and the positive charge on the ground. Most thunderstorms in Florida are accompanied by rain. Lightning fires occur when the lightning bolt strikes outside the area of rainfall or it ignites dry fuels that smolder through the rain shower and begin to burn as the area dries out following the shower.

Energy to Use – or Burn
From a distance, pines and other vegetation look fresh and green. Close inspection reveals that the greenness is a shell enveloping a core of dry needles, twigs, and branches. In the needled or leafy part of the tree, known as the crown, growth occurs at the branch tips, so the youngest, greenest parts are always around the outside edges. Here, photosynthesis occurs. Photosynthesis is the major function of every green plant. It is the process by which light energy from the sun is converted to a form of energy that can be stored and used by the plant. Generally, the conversion is to chemical energy and involves the formation of a series of complex organic compounds. Some of the compounds impart the “piney” odors we enjoy in forests. What we cannot tell from their pleasant aroma is that these compounds are very flammable.

Once stored, the energy can be used in different ways. For example, it can be used by the plant to produce wood or grow more needles in which more energy conversion will take place. It can be used as a source of food by animals that browse the leaves and twigs where the compounds are stored. The energy can also be used to produce seed to germinate and produce another plant. This energy storing process takes place with shrubs and grasses as well as trees; photosynthesis and the energy conversions and transfers that occur are complex, but the result is clear enough: during one growing season in one acre of forest, enough sun energy is converted and stored in plant material to equal the energy reservoir in 300 gallons of gasoline.

Fire and the Forest
We often regard fire as an agent of destruction, but to Nature, it is an agent of necessary change. Fire changes one form of energy to another. Green plants change light energy to chemical energy, fire changes chemical energy to heat energy. Fire breaks down complex organic molecules to smaller ones – the same thing that occurs when we digest food. The protein in a piece of meat cannot be used directly by the human body to build cells and tissues. We must eat the meat before large protein molecules can be broken down to smaller amino acid molecules, recycled through our bodies, and rebuilt into human tissue. When a fire changes a log to ash, nutrients bound in chemical compounds are released and changed to a form that is more water soluble. In this soluble form, nutrients percolating into the soil are again usable in the growth of other plants. Fire also effects a more visible change.

Ash and nutrients occupy less space than trees and shrubs. By creating openings in forests, fire changes space relationships. Species that remain in these openings may be fire tolerant. Other species that cannot withstand fire are eliminated. Thus, fire changes both the composition and the density of the forest. This change will remain for several years and affect the fuels available during the next burning cycle. Scientists who study plant and animal relationships tell us that forests in this part of the country owe their existence and continued presence to a long history of periodic fires. This association of some tree and shrub species with fire is an example of adaptation. Forests in Florida have existed here for at least 12,000 years.

During that time, thousands of fires occurred annually. Plant species that survived these fires did so because of special features or characteristics they possessed. Plant species lacking these features were eliminated from frequently burned areas; their distribution has been confined to areas where fires are less likely to occur, moist areas such as bays, swamps, and creek bottoms. Fires, like many natural events, are somewhat cyclic. The cycle is governed by conditions such as general climate, topography, soil type, existing vegetation, and other factors. Accordingly, the repeatability of the cycle varies. Before 1900, fire-susceptible areas probably had fires every 3 to 10 years. In areas less likely to burn, the cycle may repeat every 10 to 100 years. Cyclic, recurrent fires of the past 12,000 years were important agents of selection in determining plant species and distribution in Florida. Trees Born of Fire

Special adaptive features have allowed some plants to survive naturally occurring fire. Adult southern pines have a thick bark that insulates the inner, living tissues from fire’s heat. Longleaf pine is so fire resistant that some trees almost always escape fire’s injurious effects. These trees become seed trees for the reforestation of a burned area. Sand pine exhibits yet another adaptation for coping with fire. Sand pine cones remain closed until a fire’s intense heat opens the cone and allows the seeds to fall out.

Seeds of cone-bearing trees that persist in fire-susceptible areas sprout and grow best under conditions created by fire: soil free from litter, an increased nutrient reserve, plus open areas with plenty of sunlight. In contrast, species less adapted to fire, such as oaks, gums, cypress, and cedar do not usually reseed a burned area directly. Seedlings of these species prefer partial shade and plenty of moisture. Generally, they will reestablish only after some other type vegetation is present. The Changing

Natural fires keep Florida’s forests dynamic, diverse, and beautiful. Florida was named by the early explorers because of the abundance of wildflowers in areas kept open by frequent fires. Historically, timber stands were replaced by young trees; sometimes one type of forest was replaced by another. Changes in tree cover occur together with even more encompassing changes – because a forest is more than just trees. A forest displays interdependence, interrelationships, and competition among trees, shrubs, flowers, grasses, big and little animals, soils, microbes, minerals and nutrients in soils, and the air pervading and surrounding all of these. A forest is a complex life system. Each part has a place and a function in its organization – an organization called the forest ecosystem.

Because all parts of the system are interrelated, no one part can change without a widespread effect throughout the entire system. Forest fires affect more than trees. Fire-caused changes in ecosystems result in both stress and relief to plant and animal life – both to individuals and to whole plant and animal communities. Thousands of years of natural fires achieved a dynamic balance between the stresses and relief. The fire-adapted pine forests thrived over vast areas. They provided habitat for hundreds of species of grasses and wildflowers, as well as dozens of animal species. All these species would quickly begin to decline in number and health and eventually disappear completely if fire is excluded. Fire’s Role in the Ecosystem

A Balancing Act
Scientists have studied forests and fires to determine the secret of Nature’s success in attaining this necessary balance. They have learned that a “natural” fire results from a certain fuel condition. Some forest types produce and accumulate fuels faster than others; some decompose fuels more readily than others. However, at some point in time, every forest type has fuel of the right quantity and quality for that forest to be “ready” to burn. In the past, forest fires would benefit the whole forest ecosystem because their frequency and intensity was determined by the system’s natural readiness to burn. When there is a departure from the natural fire point, the ultimate, inevitable fire will be more severe. Fed by extraordinary amounts of fuel, a fire’s intensity may increase beyond the beneficial point for some parts of the ecosystem. Soils can be overheated and root systems damaged. Living tree crowns, as well as dead needles and branches, may be reduced to ashes. The Dilemma

Scientists are studying things other than forests and fires – things like population increases, wildlife needs, recreation needs and demands, increased hunting pressures, and a diminishing natural resource base. Obviously, all forest fires cannot be permitted to burn uncontrolled according to the whimsical dictates of lightning strikes or the carelessness of humans. Yet, in attempting to protect these forest values, the powerful role of fire has almost disappeared from the ecosystem it once shaped and created. The inevitable release of natural energy is only postponed-the probability of a devastating wildfire is increased. How, then, can the powerful force of fire be used in a way that cooperates, not conflicts, with nature? No Simple Solution

Periodic natural fires prevent the heavy buildup of fuel which, when ignited, can harm our forests and ecosystems. Controlling fires in accordance with Nature’s scheme must be based on fuel management. There is no general prescription or formula for controlling fuels. Forested sites differ, and objectives range from essentially unmanaged wilderness to intensively managed recreation areas. However, in areas where the forest management objectives require maintaining or reproducing forest or other natural communities nature’s method – fire – is a valuable and effective fuel management tool.

Fire’s natural role in reducing fuels is partly replaced in timber-producing areas by the harvest and removal of wood products. However, slash, resulting from these activities, creates another fuel problem. Better use of harvested wood is one answer – fire is another. Controlled burning of non useable slash further reduces the fuel load and provides nutrients for the plants and animals that inhabit the area. The technical and scientific refinement of ways to use fire as a management tool has been a major subject of forest research.

Scientists are focusing on forest fuel chemistry, fire behavior, meteorology, and other fields to best determine when, where, and how excess fuels are to be burned. Only in the last century has fire in the forest been viewed as a monster. We are now beginning to realize that fire is a natural agent essential for maintaining the natural ecosystems of Florida. Fire is neither all good nor all bad. It is natural. It is powerful. In the proper places, in the right hands, at the right times, fire can be an asset and an ally. To employ fire as a useful friend is much more logical than confronting it as an enemy.

Question Conservation of Energy Essay

Question Conservation of Energy Essay

Missy Diwater, the former platform diver for the Ringling Brother’s Circus had a kinetic energy of 15 000 J just prior to hitting the bucket of water. If Missy’s mass is 50 kg, then what is her speed? Solution: According to energy conservation, the kinetic energy at the bottom of the dive (15,000J) is equal to her gravitational potential energy before the dive. We can use this fact to find her dive height: PE = mgh h = PE/mg = 15,000J / (50kg)(9. 81m/s? ) 31m (rounded) Her speed can also be found from energy conseration: E(final) = E(initial) 0.

5mv? = mgh v = v[2gh] = v[2(9. 81m/s? )(31m) = 25m/s 2. A 750-kg compact car moving at 100 km/hr has approximately 290 000 Joules of kinetic energy. What is the kinetic energy of the same car if it is moving at 50 km/hr? Solution: KE =v^ 2 (Kinetic Energy = speed ^2 If the speed is reduce by a factor of 2 (as in form 100 km/hr) then the KE will reduce by a factor 4.

Thus,the new KE = 290 000 J / 4 KE = 72 500 J 3.

A cart is loaded with a brick and pulled at constant speed along an inclined plane of an angle of 30o to the height of a seat-top. If the mass of the loaded cart is 3. 0 kg and the inclined distance of the seat top is 0. 45 meters, then what is the potential energy of the loaded cart at the height of the seat-top? Solution : PE = mgh PE = 3 kg x 10 m/s/s x 0. 45m PE = 13. 5 J 4. A 75kg trampoline artist jumps vertically downward from the top of a platform with a speed of 5m/s. How fast is he going as he lands on the trampoline 2m below?

If the trampoline behaves like a spring of spring constant 5. 2E104 N/m, how far does he depress it? Soluiton : a) s = 1/2(u+v)t 2. 0m = 0. 5 * 5m/s * t 2. 0m = 10 * t t = 2. 0m/20 t = 0. 1s b) Hooke’s Law states F=kx x is the displacement of the spring (depression) F = Restoring force k = spring constant Rearrange. x = F/k What is the force upon hitting the trampoline? We have the mass so let’s work out the acceleration. Acceleration = velocity/time Acceleration = 5/0. 1 = 50m/s^2 F=ma F = 75*50 = 3750N Substitute into Hooke’s Law x = 3750/(5. 2*10^4N-m) = 0. 072m of depression

Alternative Energy Essay

Alternative Energy Essay

Alternative Energy whether used for transportation or utilities such as generating electricity for home or business is a very significant subject going on right now because of the benefits it would provide for us, such as environmental, economic, job security and energy security.

I believe alternative energy would be beneficial to our society, especially if it is used in transport; there is many other better, leaner and reusable energy sources out there, for example fuel for vehicles pollutes the air and yet can be changed by using a more natural source that doesn’t create as much pollution if not any If we were to experiment more with the usage of natural elements, without mentioning that it would be cheaper for all of us in the long run.

Evidence Despoiling nature to get at the tiny trickle of oil we have left won’t make any significant difference in what we pay at the pump – not now and not ever. And it won’t make our country any less dependent on foreign fuel.

Our thirst for oil is bad for national security, bad for our economy and bad for the environment, America needs to say no to pumping up Big Oil’s profits and yes to forging a new clean energy economy.” -“Build the Clean Energy Economy,” www.nrdc.org ?(accessed Feb. 25, 2009). The nation is finally realizing that the solutions to these twin crises are linked.

That is because nearly everything that is good for the environment – and practically everything that is good in the fight against global warming – is a job. We can power America through this recession by repowering America with clean energy. We can create millions of jobs that will make our people wealthier and the Earth healthier. (Jones, 2008) The U.S. renewable energy resource base is vast and practically untapped. Available wind energy resources in 12 Midwestern and Rocky Mountain states equal about 2.5 times the entire electricity production of the United States, Complete elimination of CO2 could occur as early as 2040. Elimination of nuclear power could also occur in that time frame. (Makhijani, 2007) Biofuels can provide a number of environmental advantages over conventional fossil fuels-most notably a reduction in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Since the transportation sector accounts for about a third of total U.S. emissions of carbon dioxide (an abundant GHG), cleaner transportation fuels can play an important role in addressing climate change.

-Environmental Benefits of Biofuels,” www.doe.gov ?(accessed July 8, 2008) Solar power is a prime choice in developing an affordable and feasible global power source that can substitute fossil fuels in all the world’s climate zones. The solar radiation reaching the earth’s surface in one year provides more than 10,000 times the world’s yearly energy needs, with the right product, therefore – offering customers the type of added value they are looking for, coupled with innovative marketing – technologies such as solar electricity should be able to compete with grid power in industrialized countries.- “Solar Generation: Solar Electricity for Over One Billion People and Two Million Jobs by 2020,” www.epia.org, ?Sep. 2006. Counterarguments

It is estimated that there is enough oil and natural gas offshore and in non-wilderness and non-park lands in the United States – but currently ruled off-limits for production by the federal government – to fuel 50 million cars and heat nearly 100 million homes for the next 25 years. -“PuttingAmerica’sEnergyResourcesto Work,” www.exxonmobil.com,?June 2008.

Taking into account the EIA’s [US Energy Information Agency] projected increases in electricity demand, the renewable sector would need to grow 19% per year for 22 years consecutively to meet U.S. demand by the year 2030. Clearly, these targets are overly ambitious and impractical The government cannot create wealth or jobs; all it can do is take from Peter to pay Paul, opening up a job in ‘green industry A’ by eliminating one in ‘fossil fuel industry B. (Murphy, 2008) We want to be very clear: solar cells, wind turbines, and biomass-for-energy plantations can never replace even a small fraction of the highly reliable nuclear, fossil and hydroelectric power stations. Claims to the contrary are popular, but irresponsible. (Patzek, Pimentel, 2005) The use of corn for ethanol has led to major increases in the price of U.S. beef, chicken, pork, eggs, breads, cereals, and milk — a boon to agribusiness and bane to consumers, as global population soars to 8 or 9 billion toward mid-century, and as we burn more grain as fuel, shortages and production costs could cause grain prices to skyrocket, taking food from the mouths of the world’s poorest people. (Pimentel, 2008).

The sun’s energy is too widely dispersed and the land area required to collect it too vast for solar to become a large-scale power source. The sun’s energy is too widely dispersed and the land area required to collect it too vast for solar to become a large-scale power source, he solar problem is that no matter how you design the system it will always be inefficient and capture only a small, uneconomical amount of solar energy. (Leher, 2005) We can come to a conclusion that there are many viable alternate sources of energy that we can and should use to supply our energy needs other than fossil fuels and coal, but if we really want to change the energy we use, we need to make a dramatic change. Even if at a first impression we might think it is more expensive to switch to Alternate energy for transport, imagine how it would be like to have cars that don’t need gas to run, in the long run it would be beneficial not only to our wallets but also to our environment, if we really want a change we should start investing in alternative energy now.

You may also be interested in the following: describe three alternative energy technologies

Energy Conservation Essay

Energy Conservation Essay

Abstract: The gap between supply and demand of energy is continuously increasing despite huge outlay for energy sector since independence. Further the brining of fossil fuel is resulting in greenhouse gases which are detrimental to the environment. The gap between supply and demand of energy can be bridged with the help of energy conservation which may be considered as a new source of energy which is environment friendly. The energy conservation is cost effective with a short payback period and modest investment.

There is a good scope of energy conservation in various sectors, viz industry agriculture, transport and domestic, This paper will give overview of energy conservation in Indian scenario.

Introduction

India today has a vast population of more than 1.20 billions out of which nearly 75% are living in rural areas. Energy and development are inter-related. In order to have sustainable growth rate. It is imperative to have sufficient energy for systematic development in various sectors. Energy sector has received top priority in all Five year pains so far.

During seventh Five Year plans 30% of the plan outlay was allotted to this sector. The installed capacity of electric power has increased from 1362 MW. At the time of independence to a staggering 70,000 MW. Despite such achievements, the gap between demand and supply of electrical energy is increasing every year as power sector is highly capital-intensive. The deficit in installed capacity was nearly 10,000 MW, by the and of eleventh five year plan. It is estimated that in 2011 alone India has lost above 10.0 billion US$ in manufacturing productivity because for power is projected to grow by 7 to 10% per year for the next 10 years.

The working group on power had recommended capacity addition program of 46,645 MWduring the twelveth plan period along with the associated transmission and distribution works at a cost of Rs. 12, 26,000 corer. With this capacity addition there would have been a peak power shortage of 15.3 percent by the end of the 12th plans. The proven reserves of fossil fuel in India are not very large. A major share of scarce foreign currency is earmarked for importing petroleum products. The bill of which is continuously increasing coal reserve likely to be exhausted by the middle or centaury. Thus a bleak scenario awaits India in future unless absolutely new strategies are adopted. In spite of huge plan outlay of energy sector in last 60 years, most of the rural population has not yet been able to reach the threshold of enough energy to meet their basic human needs.

There appears to be something basically wrong in planning. The planners have adopted the western model of centralized energy system without necessary modification to suit Indian condition. In future the energy conservation would assume more significance globally on the basis of the effect of burning fossil fuel on environment, particularly the global warming rather than the depletion of fossil fuel reserves and other consideration. Sector wise energy consumption:Sector Industry Transport Residential Agriculture Others %power consumption 49% 22% 10% 5% 14%

THE SCOPE AND POTENTIAL

The developing countries like India are obliged to maintain a certain growth rate for which energy is a basic ingredient. Failure to meet the energy demand for the basic needs of the economy will cause inflation unemployment and socio economic disorder. The major energy projects are capital-intensive and result in the degradation of the environment and ecology. Energy efficiency and conservation in the past have been neglected on the assumption of continuous availability of fossil fuel. Energy conservation is the strategy of adjusting and optimizing energy using systems and procedures to reduce energy requirements per unit of output without affecting socio-economic development. Energy conservation means going with what is available, while in developed countries 1% increase in G.N.P. needs barely 0.6% increase in energy consumption in whereas in India the corresponding increase in energy consumption is nearly 1.5% 1. Transmission and Distribution Losses India has a complex transmission and distribution network.

The Transmission and distribution (T & D) losses in Indian Power Systems are rather high. According to Central Electricity Authority (CEA) statistics, on all India basis the losses are around 20 percent. According to the estimates of a few other independent agencies, the real T&D losses may be even higher than this figure power systems with those of more developed In order to estimate the cost effectiveness of the various modern techniques available for reduction of T&D losses in the context of Indian environment, it is essential to have an idea regarding the energy losses taking place at the various stages of transmission and distribution of power as well as a further break—up of the line losses and transformation losses. The T&D losses can be divided in to two parts, namely. Extra-high voltage (EHV) /High Voltage (HV) transmission and low voltage distribution. Out of total 15% T&D losses targeted to be achieved. 2. Long Term Conservation Objectives of Energy

4. To take steps to prevent inefficient use of energy in future projects, buildings, products, processes etc. in every sector of energy use.

3. Areas of Energy Conservation

The main areas where conservation was possible are as follows:1. Improvement in power factor would result in reduction in actual maximum demand on the system. 2. Improvement in plant load factor results in optimum utilization of plant capacity and increasing production. 3.80% of the industrial electricity consumption is accounted for by induction motors which are mostly used for pumping and compressor application, etc. 4. Various furnaces, electrolysis baths and vessels operating at higher temperature are found to have inadequate insulation. Higher surface temperature means loss of electrical form of energy by radiation. This can easily be prevented by applying proper insulation to limit the surface temperature rise above ambient up to 200C.

New Concerpts in Energy Conservation

Energy Conservation offers a practical means of achieving development goals. It enhances the international competitiveness of industry in world markets by reducing the cost of production. It optimizes the use of capital resources by diverting lesser amounts in conservation investments as against huge capital investment in power sector. It helps environment in the short run by reducing pollution and in the long run by reducing the scope of global climatic changes.

Energy conservation is a decentralized issue and largely depends on the individual unlike decisions of energy supply which are highly centralized. The housewife, the car driver, the boiler operator in industry and every other individual who consumes energy in some form or other is requiring participating in energy saving measures. In order to have energy efficiency strategies really effective some conceptual changes are imperative. • Conservation must be recognized as a new source of Energy- “a benign and clean source”

1. To bring attitudinal changes in all energy users so that they strive for maximum energy efficiency in all products, projects, buildings, processes, domestic and commercial use, agricultural and transport use in consistent with economic considerations. 2. Take necessary steps to discipline those who fail to fall in line with the above changes. 3. To adopt policies which make energy conservation easy and attractive for being adopted by all energy users.

End use management of energy demand should not be met by increased supply only. Energy efficiency is the most cost effective way to bridge the gap between supply and demand. In the past the energy planning was based on continuous supply of fossil fuel. What matters to a consumer of energy is not energy per so but the services it provides cooking. Lighting, motive power etc. thus the true indicator of development is not the magnitude of per capita energy consumption, but the level of energy services provided.

A stage has reached when developing countries need not to look at energy consumption per capita as a sign of development and growth. The economics of major power projects ignore the time value of money. The gestation period of the project is ignored. Thus the projects which yield physical benefits after many years are treated at par with projects that yield immediate benefits. Thus no attention is paid to when the returns are obtained.

subsidies, liberalization of licenses and loans at concessional terms. It is in this context that Industrial Development Bank of India (IDBI) has introduced to schemes, with a sharp focus on energy conservation objectives in industries. These schemes are (a) Energy Audit Subsidy Scheme, and (b) Equipment Finance for Energy Conservation Scheme. These Schemes which were initially in operation for a period of 2 years have been extended up to the end of the twelvth Five Year Plan. . a) Energy Audit Subsidy Schemes

ENERGY AUDIT AND FINANCIAL INCENTIVES 1) Energy Audit The Energy Audit is an accounting tool, an analytical device to detect energy waste.. One series of entries consists of amounts of energy which were consumed during the month in the form of electricity, gas, fuel, oil, steam: and the second series lists how the energy was used: how much for lighting, air conditioning, heating, production processes and other activities.

Energy Audit, therefore, is a crucial tool for energy management because it indicates the scope for conservation by identifying the waste areas. Nearly 20-30 percent savings on energy can, at a conservative estimate, be easily achieved by any industry, if energy conservation measured identified by energy surveys are adopted. Moreover, at least 10 percent savings are possible simply by following good housekeeping practices which require no investment whatsoever. Even when a conservation measure demands investment, it is generally always paid back in less than two years. 2) Financial Incentives

Assistance would be available under this scheme for preliminary as well as for detailed energy audit. The charges of the approved consultancy agency for carrying out the energy audit would be partly subsidized by IDBI which will bear 50% of the cost, the balance to be borne by the applicant company. For preliminary audit, the amount of subsidy available under this scheme per undertaking/company would be limited to Rs. 10,000 or 0.01 percent of gross fixed assets of the undertaking/company whichever is less. The limit of assistance for detailed energy audit would be Rs. 1.00 lakh or 0.05% of the gross fixed assets of the undertaking/company whichever is lower. Assets value shall be exclusive of revaluation reserves. b) Equipment Finance For Energy Scheme conservation

For the purposes of EFEC scheme, equipment shall include plant machinery, miscellaneous fixed assets erection and installation charges, technical know-how fees for designs and drawings. Assistance under the scheme would be available only for installation of equipment for effecting energy conservation in the existing plants/processes and not for expansion or diversification of production capacities, even though, the same may also result in energy conservation.

Assistance under the scheme would be in the form of term loan. APPROACHESAND CHALLENGES Approaches The various approaches of energy conservation may be divided into (i) short-term measures (ii) mediumterm measures and (iii) long-term measures. All the short-term as well as medium term measures for the energy intensive sectors may be taken up immediately so that their benefits can be realized during 12th plan itself. Further, the programmes for long-

Recognizing the importance of energy conservation projects by the Government and the financial institutions in terms of concessions/reliefs income-tax, excise duties, customs duties, sales tax, term measures should also be initiated simultaneously during the 12th plan hey include:

1) Software components

These include: (a) Promotion, motivation education, dissemination of information, data bank and creation of national Energy Conservation centre (b) Promotion of R&D in technologies, equipment etc. (c) Promotion of studies on policies, economics of energy use, demand management, various types of survey etc. (d) Developments of standards. (e) Rectification programmes. They include:2) Hardware Components The following are included under this category. A. Energy efficient projects in all the sectors including co-generation. B. Demonstration projects-Models of efficient appliances, demonstration centres etc.

Energy may not be very cooperative as there is an information gap in these areas. The creation of a database and its scientific analysis is the backbone of any future planning and decision making. There are certain challenges in effective implementation of energy efficiency programmes. Some of them are given below: • • • • Technological Economics Motivation and Awareness Institutional and Legislation . STRATEGIES AND ACHIEVEMENTS In sixth Five Year Plan (1980-84) for the first time the significance of energy efficiency and conservation was realized. In the Seventh Five Year Plant document too the Planning Commission identified energy conservation and efficiency as thrust areas based on the recommendations of the inter Ministerial working Group (IMWG) (1983) on energy conservation.

The Eleventh Year Plan document has also emphasized the implementation of rectification programmes for agricultural pump sets for achieving energy efficiency in the agricultural sector. Even though the Eleventh Five Year Plan realized the opportunity, potential and need for energy conservation it did not incorporate any concrete programmes, policies and budgetary provision in this regard. The working Group on Energy conservation has recommended a comprehensive scheme for twelvth Five Year Plan period. This includes awareness programmes, training, development, research, energy audit, energy efficiency measures in various sectors, providing subsidies to implementing agencies and covering other aspects as well. The status of energy conservation in various sectors is as follows: 1. Agricultural Sector

C. Technology import/up-gradation-Acquisition of state-of-art technology through foreign collaborations. D. Strengthening of Transmission and Distribution systems of various State Electricity Boards to reduce the system losses to 15% range. E. Development of infrastructure such as improvement of transport systems, communication systems, electrification of railways etc. 2. Stages of Energy Efficiency

The different types of activities of energy efficiency could be put into four distinct categories. The first two types given below concern existing plants and equipment and latter two to new ones:• • • • Soft or managerial Solutions Modest Investment New Technology of Production Technological Break through Challenges One important factor in achieving energy efficiency and conservation target is the response of the and-user. As often, the behavior of many end-users of

The farmers in the country have installed about 18 million pumps operated by diesel/electricity. These roughly consume 30 billion kWh of electricity and 6 billion litres of diesel. It is necessary to provide the much needed irrigation to the crops but, unfortunately, the pumping systems adopted have remained inefficient and the consumption of electricity and diesel has been 50 to 100 percent more than what it should be.

Regarding petroleum products, India produces hardly 60% of the required crude oil indigenously, importing more than Rs. 15,000 crores worth of crude oil and petroleum products to meet the current demand. The excessively wasteful consumption of energy in the agricultural sector has to stop both for conserving energy per se and reducing the irrigation cost for the farmers. There has been an increase in the absolute consumption of energy in agricultural sector. The electricity consumption has grown at the rate of 14.4% per annum whereas the oil consumption has increased at the rate of 10.1% per annum.

2. Transport Sector

of light bulb known as E-lamp (electronic light) has been introduced recently in USA. This lamp is supposed to consume 75 percent less electricity than conventional incandescent lamp. Its lifetime is between 15,000 to 20,000 hours. The E-lamp has made its bid to become the “Compact Disc” of residential lighting, but events during the next few years may determine whether it will become a household word. 4) Industrial Sector

The sector uses, nearly thirty two percent of the commercial energy. This sector is second only to industrial sector. Further, this sector is heavily dependent on petroleum products. Import of petroleum is nearly 35 percent of total expenditure on imports in India. Its consumption is increasing at an annual rate of 6 to 8 percent. Automobiles thus offer one of the most promising areas for major savings. There are tow modes of transport which are most common, viz. rail and road. Unlike the railway, the road sector is not wholly in the organized sector and hence its database is rather weak.

The road transport has increased very fast during last decade or so. One approach to achieve energy conservation is to shift a part of the traffic from road to rail. It is imperative to develop research and development activities in the direction of improving the fuel efficiency of vehicles and developing alternate energy sources. According to the report of Advisory Board on Energy the conservation potential in transport sector is nearly 20% which can be achieved by an investment of Rs. 890 crores. Conservation measures would yield an annual savings of Rs. 765 crores and avoid an investment of Rs. 432 crores for creating additional energy capacity. A series of measures including operation control, upgrading driver’s skills training programmes to create fuel conservation consciousness and proper use of clutches, reduction of body weight, speed restrictions and improved over hauling practices has been recommended.

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Seaborne Energy Business 2030 Essay

Seaborne Energy Business 2030 Essay

BP (2012) stated that in 2011 global oil consumption has increased 0. 7 per cent to reach 88 million BOPD. Despite the fact that the consumption is not picturing a significant amount of growth, according to UNCTAD (2012), in the same period crude oil load capacity reached 1. 8 billion tons and has an account for approximately one third of the total world seaborne trade. Meanwhile, global consumption of coal has increased significantly in the same period. As BP (2012) mentioned in the BP Statistical Review of World Energy June 2012, coal has grew by 5.

per cent, which is the only fossil fuel that increased above the average and the fastest growing energy outside renewable energy. Coal trade across countries are also illustrated remarkable growth. Between year 1999 and 2011 in tonne mile unit coal trade has risen 67 per cent to a number of 2196 tonne miles (UNCTAD, 2012). Furthermore, another energy source that has a very promising prospect to the world seaborne trade is LNG. LNG is the third sources of energy most consumed globally, after oil and coal.

This type of nergy has shown a considerable escalation in the last 10 years. Since 2000, LNG consumption has grown by over 30 per cent (BP, 2012).

Likewise, from 1999 to 2011, LNG seaborne trade has escalated way more significant, which reach the number of 258 per cent (UNCTAD, 2012). Lastly, the other prospectus energy that possibly able to provide sustainability to the world energy and could play a greater role in the future is non fossil fuel energy especially renewable energy. Currently, this type of energy has an account of 2. per cent of world energy consumption, which has risen from 0. 7 per cent in 2001 (BP, 2012). In present time, the contribution of this energy may not be very significant to world seaborne energy trade but with the steady growth and declining of oil reserves as the main sources of energy, renewable energy is reckoned to contribute more in the future and it might affected to the world seaborne energy trade. With all the facts aforementioned, it is important to generate a projection on how the energy consumption and production proportion is distributed in the future.

Since seaborne transport business is a derives demand, it is essential to predict the development of the commodity, in this case is energy, in order to have a general picture of the energy seaborne transport business in the future. It is therefore, this essay will examine the development of this issue, which will focus on crude oil, coal, LNG, and renewable energy transport business especially in the year of 2030. 2. GLOBAL ENERGY DEMAND PROJECTION 2030 Demand of energy production that leads to energy transportation is mainly affected by the amount of its consumption.

According to BP (2012) energy consumption driven by two main aspects that are population and income (GDP). In the year 2030, world population is projected to grow by 1. 4 billion, which is 0. 9 per cent per annum. Growth of GDP are also display a similar trends. Driven by low and medium income economies, the growth in the next 20 years is projected to accelerate reach the number of 3. 7 per cent, raising from 3. 2 per cent in the 1990-2010 period. However, increase in population and GDP growth is not necessarily surge the primary energy consumption.

As expressed in BP Energy Outlook 2030 (BP, 2012), primary energy consumption growth from 2010 to 2030, which dominated by the supply of crude oil production, is decelerated to 1. 6 per cent compared to 2. 0 per cent between 1990 and 2010. The main factor to this is major decline of world crude oil reserves by that year. Another factor that has emerged this situation is global improvement of energy efficiency, especially for OECD countries that shifting the utilisation of oil to renewable for road transportation and change from coal to the same type energy in power generation.

Despite the deceleration, primary energy still has a substantial account to the entire world energy consumption. The proportion of primary energy consumption and world primary energy shares between 2010 and 2030 show in the graph below. As presented in figure 1, the majority of total global energy consumption still contributed by the primary energy, which consist of crude oil, coal, and LNG. In 2030, these three main energy commodities are project to be consumed over 12billion TOE (tonne of oil equivalent) globally, which approximately 70 per cent of total energy consumed.

Moreover, from the graph it can be seen the development of each form of energy illustrating a different tendency. Crude oil as the most consumable energy in the last 20 years is not display a significant development. Decline in its reserves cause the crude oil no longer provide sustainability to global consumer. However, the amount of oil consumed in 2030 is reasonably immense and still provide a great contribution to the global consumer with a little less than 30 per cent (figure 2).

On the other hand, the development of the other two primary energies is considerably high. Gas particularly, is predicted to grow steadily in the next 20 years and become the fastest growing fuel fossils. As can be seen in the figure 2, gas supply share to the world’s energy consumption will reach over 20 per cent by 2030. The gas supply to the global energy consumer will be represented by grow fasting LNG supply, which reach the number of 4. 5 per cent per annum faster than total gas supply (2. 1 per cent).

Meanwhile, growth of global coal consumption is displaying a steady trend up until 2030 (figure 1). The coal consumption projected to increase until around 2020 but start to decline afterwards with China as the main consumer of this energy end their rapid consumption. Nevertheless, by 2030 coal overtake oil on the world primary energy share (figure 2). Moreover, the consumption of non fossil fuel energy in 2030 is projected to grow massively (34 per cent) and will have a much larger proportion to the global energy consumption as can be seen in both figures.

Non fossil fuel, renewable in particular will be very important by that year as immense needs of sustainable power for electricity and transport fuel will emerge the development of this type of energy. 3. CRUDE OIL SEABORNE TRADE Aforementioned, the growth of crude oil demand will not have a significant improvement, which reflected on the consumption growth that only 0. 6 per cent annually between 2010 and 2030 (BP, 2012). This situation gives a serious impact to the crude oil tanker business.

Grossman et al (2006) expressed the perspective of crude oil tanker business in 2030 is shaded by the uncertainty. The high amount of oil price, declining reserves of crude oil and limitation in production capacity could affect the world crude oil trade. However, in spite of many uncertainties here and there, there are still some good trends concerning this business. One of the upsides is increase in transported distances, which will have several benefits especially for large size tanker vessel.

As declining of mature oil field reserves that have relatively close distance to the major importing countries and geopolitical problems on pipeline developments, the dependence of the importers to major producers in Africa and Middle East is extremely high. Grossman et al (2006) added in Maritime Trade and Transport Logistic Strategy 2030, the crude oil exports share of Middle East countries will raise to over 60 per cent, which means the tanker trade from there to major exporters will have the same trends.

Figure 3 below, present the crude oil trade flows in 2030 carry by tanker vessel. It can be seen that major importing countries especially in the Asia region have a massive dependence on crude oil trade from Middle East. China for instance, is projected to import the oil from Middle East for approximately 5. 9 million BPD (IEEJ, 2006), increase over 50 per cent from 2011 (EIA, 2012). The main factor of this is decline of China oil production to only 2 million BPD. Trends on decline in production capacity also occurred on other East Asia countries.

Accumulatively, other East Asian countries outside China and Japan only produced oil slightly over 2 million BPD, which forced them to import more, especially from Middle East region that reach 10. 6 million BPD. Meanwhile, Japan and India that traditionally are net importers of oil is predicted to import oil from Middle East for 3. 6 and 6. 6 million BPD, respectively. In total, Asian region projected to import almost 30 million BPD from Middle East Region in 2030. One of the effects of this situation is increment of crude oil tanker traffic around Strait of Malacca and Singapore.

As shown in the Figure 4, the number of VLCC passing this strait will increase up to 8646 almost doubled from 2010 and oil traded through this area reach 24. 7 million BPD, which on one hand is good for country’s income but on the other hand it will cause a reasonably intense congestion. Furthermore, US and Western Europe as the major market stakeholders for oil also depends on crude oil transportation. US particularly, despite they still produce considerably large amount of oil, they still have to import it from Middle East, Africa and Latin America because their production capacity is no longer fulfil the domestic market.

Total oil trade from those three regions reach slightly over 10 million BPD, which is still below their domestic production rate. Whilst, for Western European market, the dependence on seaborne oil trade from other region is not as a high as both US or Asian countries since they still have pipeline distribution from Eastern Europe, Russia especially. Furthermore, in the long term scenario, as production capacity will reach the peak number in this period, increment of the production rate is no longer able to satisfy the demand.

As a result, based on US Energy Information and National Resources Canada (2010) world crude oil price is predicted to climb up to average of $101 per barrel, which affected adversely to the existence of crude oil tanker market. Large size crude oil tanker especially, will suffered a greater impact than the small ones, since they purposely built in order to serve the large crude oil market. 4. WORLD COAL TRADE Coal is the commodity that plays a substantial role worldwide with the utilisation in almost every important sector of industry.

World Coal Institute (2011) stated that in the present time steam coal utilised in power generation, which has the 39 per cent proportion of the world’s electricity utilisation, whilst coking coal are mainly utilised for iron and steel production. According to IEA (2011) prior to 2030 the coal consumption will increase as much as 53 per cent and the apportionment mostly about 85 per cent will be contributed from China and India. It is predicted that even before 2015, China’s import will outweigh their exports, whilst India is traditionally a net importer of Coal.

Meanwhile in the producers point of view, Australia which represents 25 per cent of global trade will raise their production up to 30 per cent by 2030, which means if China and India will depends on seaborne transportations from producer like this country or other producers such as Indonesia, Colombia and South Africa. As a consequence of long distance of transportation and concerning the high cost of transport because of that, the coal trade worldwide is divided into two different regions of operation that are the Atlantic and the Pacific.

The Atlantic route serving the European market such as UK, Germany and Spain, whilst the Pacific consists of countries like China and India. The 2030 complete coal trade route is presented in the figure 7 below. Increment of global coal consumption and wide range of coal trade transported by seaborne transportation affect the amount of cargo carried by ships to serve the market. DNV (2009) estimated that in that year the number of Capesize coal bulk carriers load would reach 7000 ships increase from 4700 shiploads in 2006.

Additionally, significant increase in number of shipload consequently force the port authority to develop their infrastructure in order to for the ship to maintain the economy of scale of their operation. Therefore, the authority should invested large amount of money to develop their infrastructure. EXAMPLE. Even though it is important in raise the port capacity, not every country concern about this aspect. Australia, for instance, despite coal trade has an account of 23 per cent of total export and worth over A$ 52 billion a year, the government would not make an investment on that.

They insisted the state government or the company should cover that responsibility. 5. DEVELOPMENT OF LNG TRADE According to Bull (2012) world LNG trade in the year 2030 is forecasted to reach a significant amount compared to the current condition with the demand over 880 bcm by the end of that year. The growth of this commodity influenced by huge development on the gas field globally that were forced by country’s economic growth, which requires to improve energy structure and sustainability (He, 2005).

As BP explained in 2012 Statistical Review, natural gas has abundant reserves worldwide, therefore the utilisation of this type of energy specifically in the liquid form or LNG is expected to bring a better energy structure to the industry. Middle East still the major exporters supplemented by Asia Pacific countries lead by Indonesia and Australia (Bull, 2012). Qatar will expand their production through the years and is projected to be the LNG export hub in the region.

In addition, Iran also has the potential to be the leading country of LNG exporter but the current sanction applied to the oil trade and high tension in the Strait of Hormuz will potentially lead to other seaborne trade sanction in that area and prohibit them to trade globally. Moreover, the development on new facilities in Indonesia and myriad in Australia could generate this region to be the world leading exporter with the capacity forecasted to reach 238 bcm. In the import perspective, European and East Asian countries such as Japan and Korea still a primary market.

In Europe, countries like Spain, UK, and France still top producers, whilst Sweden, Poland, and the Netherland expected to join the market. Total demand forecast of this region is predicted to reach up to 300 bcm. Meanwhile, Eastern Asia has a total demand of 330 bcm by the end of this period with Japan and Korea will remain the largest LNG consumer. China is following them with the high growth rate of demand. Aforementioned, by the end of this period total LNG trade will reach the number of 880 bcm, which is a very large number compared with the 2011 condition that only 310 bcm.

Export will mostly contributed from Qatar and Australia, whilst large-scale demand will be from Asian Countries and new developed LNG importer such as Sweden and Poland. The complete of LNG trade flows 2030 presented in figure 5 below. With high forecast of LNG trade in the future and according to DIW (2009) as they presented in the Figure 5, the trade is very likely involving countries from different regions with a long distance of trade, therefore the requirements for LNG fleet is inevitable.

Emirates247 (2008) projected the number of LNG tanker fleet will reach 700 ships that year and Bull (2012) predict in more optimistic approach with the projection approximately 900 number of ships. This figure 6 below presented the development of LNG fleet from 2011 to 2030 according to Bull’s projection. With that high number and steady growth through the years, it is very unlikely to scrap this type of ship and it is very potential to make the investment on this ship regarding high demand of LNG in the future. 6. SEABORNE BIOFUEL BUSINESS PROSPECTS 7. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION

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The Effects of High Gas Prices Essay

The Effects of High Gas Prices Essay

Gas is an important productive resource in the world. Driving cars, heating buildings, producing electricity, people all need gas. Therefore, gas is directly related to people’s normal life and the global economy.

Recently, due to the fights between Israel and the Hezbollah guerrilla, the Middle East political and economic situation has been deteriorating, which has led to the continuous hikes of gas prices. Since gas plays an important role in our economy, people should understand that the high gas price does not only mean people need to pay more for driving their cars, but it also leads the pervasive inflation, the change of people’s consumption habits, and more seriously, the recession of the global economy.

First of all, the rising prices of gas, a critical input in almost all production processes, will trigger the price hikes of most consumer and industry products: the inflation. For example, after the gas price increases, the costs of transportations also increase. Raw materials need to be transported into factories before they become final products; all final products need to be transported to retail stores where consumers can buy them.

Therefore, the increasing costs of transportation will directly be added in the prices of consumer products. Moreover, the high gas prices generally are led by the high crude oil prices, and the crude oil is the raw material of most important chemical products such as nylon and synthetic polymers, which are inputs of most industry products. Consequently, the hike of the crude oil price also leads the rises of the industry product prices. The pervasive inflation is inevitable.

Influenced by the inflation caused by the high gas prices, people’s consumption habits will gradually change. With the rising gas prices, people will reduce the times of long-distance travel by driving their cars, and they will more rely on public transportation systems such as the metro and the bus to commute between their working sites and their homes. If the hikes of gas prices continue, people will stop buying luxurious and gas-consuming Sport Utilities Vehicles: a type of passenger vehicle which combines the load-hauling and versatility of a pickup truck with the passenger-carrying space of a van or station wagon, and they will even buy more compact and economical cars to retire their SUVs already owned. Moreover, facing more expensive hydro bills at homes, people will change their electrical appliances to more energy-efficient ones and renew their insulation of their house to keep their house warm in the winter. More dramatically, people will opt to live in urban areas which are near their working places to reduce their commute distances to save gas.

The most serious impact of high gas prices is the global recession, which was proved by the history in 1970s. The hikes of gas prices will lead chain effects and vicious economic cycles. First, the high gas prices will lead the pervasive inflation in the global economy. Facing the continuous rising prices of consumer products, people will consume less and demand high salaries. However, due to the rising prices of raw materials and worker’s salaries, entrepreneurs will reduce their production capacities and even layoff their employees. With more people unemployed, demands will decrease even more, so will the supplies. Finally, the global economy will step down unhealthy cycles. The political and economic situation in the world will become turbulent. This is what exactly happened in 1970s after OPEC increased the crude oil price artificially.

In general, the skyrocketing of gas prices is not an isolated event. It will directly influence people’s normal life and global economy in ways of inducing inflation, altering people’s consumption habits, and making the global economy slipping into deep recession. For the interests of human beings, the international communities should immediately intervene in the conflict between Israel and the Hezbollah guerrilla and force them to reach a peace treaty. The peace of Middle East will eventually lead the cool down of gas prices.

Fruits As Battery Essay

Fruits As Battery Essay

Additional information
Batteries are devices that store chemical energy and convert it to electrical energy. Consisting of one or more voltaic cells, batteries come in various sizes and forms and are integrated into most electronic and portable devices.

Electrical current is the flow of electrons (movement) of an electrical charge and is measured using an ammeter. Solid conductive metals contain large population of free electrons, which are bound to the metal lattice and move around randomly due to thermal energy. When two terminals of a voltage source (battery) are connected via a metal wire, the free electrons of the conductor drift toward the positive terminal, making them the electrical current carrier within the conductor.

Required materials
Citrus fruits, such as lemons, limes, grapefruits, or oranges. Copper nail, approximately 2 inches in length
Galvanized (zinc) nail, about 2 inches in length
Small colored or opaque light bulb with a 2 inch lead, such as a holiday LED light. Note that there needs to be enough wire to connect to the nails.

Electrical tape or Crocodile (aka: gator) clip (optional)

Micro Ammeter – a measuring instrument used to measure the electric current in a circuit, can be found at your local Radio Shack store. (optional)

Estimated Experiment Time
About 5 to 10 minutes

Step-By-Step Procedure
1. Prepare your fruit for the experiment by squeezing it on all sides with your hands. Make sure not to squeeze too tightly and break the skin! The idea is to soften the fruit enough so that the juice inside are flowing. 2. Insert your nails into the fruit, approximately 2 inches apart from one another. The ends (sharp tips) of the nails should be in the center of the fruit, but not touching one another. Be careful not to pierce the nails through the opposite end of the fruit. 3. Remove the insulation around the bulb wires (the leads) so you can expose the wire underneath. You need to remove enough insulation so you can wrap the exposed wire around the nails. 4. Take one of the exposed wires and wrap it around the galvanized (zinc) nail. If the wire keeps slipping off, use some electrical tape or gator clips to keep it attached. 5. Wrap the other end of the wire around the copper nail.

6. When the second wire is attached to the copper nail, your bulb will light up!

Note
The size of the light bulb will affect how brightly it’s lit. LED lights require the least amount of energy to light and thus are the best candidates for this experiment.

If you have a Micro Ammeter, you can use it to compare the effectiveness of various fruits in relation to electrical current. If using a Micro Ammeter, follow these steps: 1. Connect one of the Micro Ammeter’s terminals to the copper nail and attach with a Crocodile clip. 2. Connect the other Micro Ammeter’s terminal to the galvanized plate and attach with a Crocodile clip. Try using different kinds of fruits and measure the differences between them. You may want to consider tomatoes (yes, they ARE fruit) as they have one of the highest pH levels of fruits, making them perfect for this experiment.

Observation
Do you think another kind of fruit would work with this experiment? How about a vegetable? Which fruit has the best conductivity? Do you think moving the nails further apart will change the current? Do you think your fruit will continue to power the light bulb after a few hours? How about a few days? Do you think the size of the fruit would effect the voltage?

Result
The zinc nail is an active metal, which reacts with the acid in the fruit. The active ingredient in the fruit are positively charged ions. A transfer of electrons takes place between the zinc nail and the acid from the fruit. The nails act as poles for the battery, one positive and one negative. Electrons travel from the positive pole to the negative pole via the light bulb wire (the conductor), generating enough electricity to light the bulb.

Finding The Energy Given Off From Various Fuels Essay

Finding The Energy Given Off From Various Fuels Essay

Research Question:

> Which of these fuels (ethanol, methanol and butanol) releases the most kinetic energy per ringitt?

Hypothesis:

> Ethanol will release the most kinetic energy per ringitt because it has an average amount of CH compounds (

Materials:

> Spirit burner with ethanol 3 aluminum cans

> Spirit burner with methanol Logger Pro

> Spirit burner with butanol Insulated container

> Matches Ring Stand

> Graduated Cylinder 150mL of water

Procedure:

1. Pour 50mL of water into the first aluminum can

2. Place the can 7cm above the ground on the ring stand

3. Place the Logger Pro inside of the can

4. Light the spirit burner of the fuel under the can.

5. Close the container around the ring stand and the spirit burner

6. Stir the Water inside of the can constantly.

7. Record the temperature of the water for 3 minutes.

8. Repeat the steps for each type of fuel.

9. Find the number of kilojoules released by each of the fuels

10. Find the amount of kilojoules of each fuel when there is 1 liter of that fuel.

11. Divide the amount of kilojoules/litre by the cost/litre of each fuel.

12. Choose the fuel with the most kilojoules released per litre.

Data Collection and Processing:

Ethanol:

Measuring the Mass of Ethanol

Time Alcohol Container Was Burnt

Mass of Alcohol Container (g)

Before Burning

160.2

After Burning

158.9

Measuring Temp. of Ethanol

Time

Temp of Fuel (�C)

Before Bunrning

24.6

After Burning

93.8

Methanol:

Measuring the Mass of Methanol

Time Alcohol Container Was Burnt

Mass of Alcohol Container (g)

Before Burning

191.4

After Burning

190.1

Measuring Temp. of Methanol

Time

Temp of Fuel (�C)

Before Bunrning

25

After Burning

60.8

Butanol:

Mass of Alcohol Container (g):

Methanol:

Ethanol:

Butanol:

Before burning

191.4

160.2

190.8

After burning

190.1

158.9

190.5

Temp of fuel C

Methanol:

Ethanol:

Butanol:

Before burning

25

24.6

23.8

After burning

60.8

93.8

44.8

Finding the Energy Released by The Fuels (Q = m x C x ?T)

Step 1: Finding the ?T (change in temperature)

> ?T= ending temperature – starting temperature

Step 2: Finding the Heat Capacity of Water (C )

> Heat capacity of water = 4.18 J/g

Step 3: Find the mass of water

> Each can had 50mL of water

> 1mL = 1 g

> Each can had 50 g of water

Energy released by Ethanol:

Q= 50 x 4.18 x 69.2

Q= 14.5 kilojoules

Energy Released by Methanol

Q= 50 x 4.18 J/g x 35.8

Q= 7.5 kilojoules

Energy Released by Butanol:

Q= 50 x 4.18 J/g x 21

Q= 4.4 kilojoules

Energy Released by ethanol per ringitt:

Kilojoules/litre = 11153.8

Energy Released by Methanol per ringitt:

Kilojoules/litre = 5769.2

Energy Released by Butanol per ringitt:

Kilojoules/litre = 14666.7

Physics of Volleyball Essay

Physics of Volleyball Essay

Physics is the study of energy and how it is transferred from one particle to another. There is certainly a lot of energy transferred between objects and players in the sport of volleyball. A few of the concepts of physics that take place during volleyball include gravity, displacement, velocity, acceleration, projectile motion, and force. These concepts are displayed throughout the different positions on the court. There are three main aspects of volleyball that include physics, the first one being displacement.

This happens when a player moves to their position on the court and when the ball moves from side to side.

Displacement is relative to all positions on the court of volleyball because all six players should be evenly spaced on their respective side. Each player on the court is assigned one of the six positions. Even though they’re only assigned one position, they move and adjust to the play according to their teammates and the direction of the ball.

Secondly, velocity is the speed of the player and ball.

Velocity is commonly expressed as the change in displacement in a given time. One of these areas where velocity is found in volleyball would be when a player spikes the ball. With the proper velocity, the ball will hit the floor without a defender being able to react quickly enough to the attack. Thirdly, there is gravity, If there was no gravity the ball would not come down nor would the players. Gravity is essential to volleyball because without gravity the players would not be able to stay on the ground and enjoy the game.

Also, the ball would float away from the people participating in the game. There are two major concepts of physics for serving, velocity and acceleration. As the ball’s velocity increases its distance also becomes greater. Since the ball is in constant acceleration, the velocity increases by the same amount of time. With the proper velocity, the ball will hit the floor without a defender being able to react quickly enough to the attack. Acceleration goes hand-in-hand with velocity. Acceleration is defined as the rate at which velocity changes.

The ball, along with players on the court, both have acceleration. There are times in a volleyball game when the ball has constant acceleration, when the ball is served. When the ball is hit by a player for a spike, the rate at which it reaches is maximum velocity is the acceleration. In order to determine when to hit the ball, you need to calculate the trajectory, speed, and placement of the set. When approaching the ball, the body has kinetic energy and this energy turns into potential energy.

This allows the player to jump higher. Since potential energy is the product of the mass of the player, gravity, and the height of the jump, the height is what determines how much potential energy will be attained. When the player hits the ball, it puts as much momentum into it as possible, the shorter amount of time the hand is in contact with the ball, the greater the momentum. Physics affects every aspect of the sport of volleyball from hitting, defense and serving.

Without the concepts of physics that take place during volleyball include gravity, displacement, velocity, acceleration, and force, there would not be the sport. Understanding the physics behind the game can make someone a better player because they can learn how the game works and react to it accordingly.